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  • Presentation: 2017-11-22 13:15 Alan Turing, Linköping
    Keskisärkkä, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Towards Semantically Enabled Complex Event Processing2017Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Semantic Web provides a framework for semantically annotating data on the web, and the Resource Description Framework (RDF) supports the integration of structured data represented in heterogeneous formats. Traditionally, the Semantic Web has focused primarily on more or less static data, but information on the web today is becoming increasingly dynamic. RDF Stream Processing (RSP) systems address this issue by adding support for streaming data and continuous query processing. To some extent, RSP systems can be used to perform complex event processing (CEP), where meaningful high-level events are generated based on low-level events from multiple sources; however, there are several challenges with respect to using RSP in this context. Event models designed to represent static event information lack several features required for CEP, and are typically not well suited for stream reasoning. The dynamic nature of streaming data also greatly complicates the development and validation of RSP queries. Therefore, reusing queries that have been prepared ahead of time is important to be able to support real-time decision-making. Additionally, there are limitations in existing RSP implementations in terms of both scalability and expressiveness, where some features required in CEP are not supported by any of the current systems. The goal of this thesis work has been to address some of these challenges and the main contributions of the thesis are: (1) an event model ontology targeted at supporting CEP; (2) a model for representing parameterized RSP queries as reusable templates; and (3) an architecture that allows RSP systems to be integrated for use in CEP. The proposed event model tackles issues specifically related to event modeling in CEP that have not been sufficiently covered by other event models, includes support for event encapsulation and event payloads, and can easily be extended to fit specific use-cases. The model for representing RSP query templates was designed as an extension to SPIN, a vocabulary that supports modeling of SPARQL queries as RDF. The extended model supports the current version of the RSP Query Language (RSP-QL) developed by the RDF Stream Processing Community Group, along with some of the most popular RSP query languages. Finally, the proposed architecture views RSP queries as individual event processing agents in a more general CEP framework. Additional event processing components can be integrated to provide support for operations that are not supported in RSP, or to provide more efficient processing for specific tasks. We demonstrate the architecture in implementations for scenarios related to traffic-incident monitoring, criminal-activity monitoring, and electronic healthcare monitoring.

  • Presentation: 2017-12-04 13:15 Ada Lovelace, B-huset, Linköping
    Wokiyi, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Non-linear inverse geothermal problems2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The inverse geothermal problem consist of estimating the temperature distribution below the earth’s surface using temperature and heat-flux measurements on the earth’s surface. The problem is important since temperature governs a variety of the geological processes including formation of magmas, minerals, fosil fuels and also deformation of rocks. Mathematical this problem is formulated as a Cauchy problem for an non-linear elliptic equation and since the thermal properties of the rocks depend strongly on the temperature, the problem is non-linear. This problem is ill-posed in the sense that it does not satisfy atleast one of Hadamard’s definition of well-posedness.

    We formulated the problem as an ill-posed non-linear operator equation which is defined in terms of solving a well-posed boundary problem. We demonstrate existence of a unique solution to this well-posed problem and give stability estimates in appropriate function spaces. We show that the operator equation is well-defined in appropriate function spaces.

    Since the problem is ill-posed, regularization is needed to stabilize computations. We demostrate that Tikhonov regularization can be implemented efficiently for solving the operator equation. The algorithm is based on having a code for solving a well- posed problem related to the operator equation. In this study we demostrate that the algorithm works efficiently for 2D calculations but can also be modified to work for 3D calculations.

    List of papers
    1. An efficient regularization method for a large scale ill-posed geothermal problem
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An efficient regularization method for a large scale ill-posed geothermal problem
    2017 (English)In: Computers & Geosciences, ISSN 0098-3004, E-ISSN 1873-7803, Vol. 105, 1-9 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The inverse geothermal problem consists of estimating the temperature distribution below the earth's surface using measurements on the surface. The problem is important since temperature governs a variety of geologic processes, including the generation of magmas and the deformation style of rocks. Since the thermal properties of rocks depend strongly on temperature the problem is non-linear.

    The problem is formulated as an ill-posed operator equation, where the righthand side is the heat-flux at the surface level. Since the problem is ill-posed regularization is needed. In this study we demonstrate that Tikhonov regularization can be implemented efficiently for solving the operator equation. The algorithm is based on having a code for solving a well-posed problem related to the above mentioned operator. The algorithm is designed in such a way that it can deal with both 2D and 3D calculations.

    Numerical results, for 2D domains, show that the algorithm works well and the inverse problem can be solved accurately with a realistic noise level in the surface data.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    National Category
    Earth and Related Environmental Sciences Mathematics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139052 (URN)10.1016/j.cageo.2017.04.010 (DOI)000404697000001 ()
    Available from: 2017-06-29 Created: 2017-06-29 Last updated: 2017-11-16Bibliographically approved
  • Presentation: 2017-12-07 13:00 ACAS, A-huset, Linköping
    Nilsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    How requirements development could support design of effective and resource-efficient offerings2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    What a company offers its customers has to fulfil several different needs, desires, constraints, which can originate from multiple different sources that affect the offering throughout its life cycle. All these criteria have to come together and be translated into statements that can support the designer’s understanding of the offering’s purpose. This translation is done through a requirements development process to provide a controlled process to define statements that describe what the offering is supposed to fulfil.

    This research provides insights on key challenges and success factors in requirements development to support the design of effective and resource-efficient offerings. Namely, it identifies crucial sources and aspects to be considered, and a requirements development process demonstrating how to overcome identified challenges. By getting the requirements right from the beginning, sub-optimisation and unnecessary time and risks can be avoided. The consideration of accurate sources and aspects is considered to be one of the most important factors for the successful design of offerings. It is also in the earliest phases of design, that is to say requirements development, where one has the greatest possibility to affect the environmental impact of the offering. What is missing, however, is sufficient and appropriate support in industry on how to do so.

    The gap between the three areas of effectiveness and resource efficiency, design of integrated offerings, and requirements development has been investigated. Results are based on findings in the literature and in industry, identified primarily by qualitative studies. In the research, 15 different companies have been included through a number of interviews and discussions.

    Key sources and aspects to consider in the requirements development process are identified along with challenges, and success factors that can be utilised to overcome the identified challenges. This research’s final results include an adapted requirements development process that considers the earlier-mentioned sources and aspect, challenges, and success factors. Such a requirements development process should support the design of effective and resource-efficient offerings.

    List of papers
    1. A Literature Review to Understand the Requirements Specification’s Role when Developing Integrated Product Service Offerings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Literature Review to Understand the Requirements Specification’s Role when Developing Integrated Product Service Offerings
    2016 (English)In: Product-Service Systems across Life Cycle / [ed] Sergio Cavalieri, Elisabetta Ceretti, Tullio Tolio, Giuditta Pezzotta, Elsevier, 2016, Vol. 47, 150-155 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper's objective is to analyze, based on a literature review, how existing IPSO design methods support and manage requirements when developing an IPSO. Issues analyzed are e.g. which types of aspects existing methods should consider, such as environmental issues and demands from stakeholders and customers. Another issue is what types of stakeholders are involved in the process. There is also an interest in finding out which of these methods are used in the industry. The goal is that the results will provide insight into how the requirements specification is used when developing an IPSO in theory, and in what way this insight will contribute to future studies on how companies currently derive and manage requirements when developing an IPSO.

    The literature review started out with the analysis of 201 papers, yielding 22 papers within the area of working with requirements for an IPSO. These papers were reviewed and summarized with the above issues and interests in mind. Findings are that when deriving requirements, existing IPSO design methods are lacking in regard to a holistic life cycle and system perspective of the offering. Few of the methods consider both requirements regarding the environmental impact of the offering and demands from all involved stakeholders, normally only the customer. Furthermore, few studies have ended with a clear work process regarding how to initially find the requirements to analyze them and later interpret them as actual metrics. There are also no signs that existing methodology is used in the industry's day-to-day work.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2016
    Series
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271 ; 47
    Keyword
    Product Service System (PSS), Integrated Product Service Engineering (IPSE), Engineering design
    National Category
    Other Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130972 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.03.225 (DOI)000387505100026 ()
    Conference
    8th CIRP IPSS CONFERENCE, Product-Service Systems across Life Cycle, Bergamo, Italy, June 20-21, 2016
    Projects
    Mistra REES
    Funder
    Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
    Available from: 2016-09-01 Created: 2016-09-01 Last updated: 2017-11-15Bibliographically approved
    2. Integrating Requirements Engineering for Different Domains in System Development: Lessons Learnt from Industrial SME Cases
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating Requirements Engineering for Different Domains in System Development: Lessons Learnt from Industrial SME Cases
    2017 (English)In: Procedia CIRP: 9th CIRP IPSS Conference: Circular Perspectives on PSS / [ed] Tim C. McAloone, Daniela C.A. Pigosso, Niels Henrik Mortensen and Yoshiki Shimomura, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 64, 351-356 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a trending transition for companies from offering products to solutions in order to fulfill better customer needs and to reduce environmental impact by e.g. dematerialization. This solution-based development has an associated integration of intelligent devices that contributes to increasing system complexity. The ability of systems engineering processes, methods and tools to cope with these developments is a critical factor for manufacturing companies today. Still, in many cases it is hard to find adequately trained people and sufficiently integrated development tools for complex solutions, especially in the case of small and medium sized enterprises. Often, the tangible (hardware) part of the solution is primarily developed and the intangible parts (software and services) are added on top. However, key for a successful development is to adapt and integrate all parts according to the requirements set for the solution. Thus, it is essential how requirements are worked with during systems engineering and how they influence the development of the tangible and intangible parts of the solution. The objective of this paper is to study the approach of different industrial use cases for requirements engineering in system development. The aim is to identify how practices from domains like mechanical engineering, software or service engineering can be adapted for an integrated requirements engineering for complex systems, like product-service systems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Series
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271
    Keyword
    Systems Engineering; Requirements Engineering; Product-Service Systems; Industrial Case Study
    National Category
    Other Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138351 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2017.03.013 (DOI)000414528200060 ()
    Conference
    9th CIRP IPSS Conference: Circular Perspectives on PSS, June 19-21, 2017, Copenhagen, Denmark
    Note

    Funding agencies:This work has been funded by the European Commission through the project PSYMBIOSYS: Product-Service sYMBIOtic SYStems (No. 636804) and by Mistra (The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research) through the Mistra REES (Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions) program. The authors wish to acknowledge the funding bodies and all the project partners for their contribution.

    Available from: 2017-06-13 Created: 2017-06-13 Last updated: 2017-11-20
  • Presentation: 2017-12-15 10:15 A35, A-huset, Linköping
    Busse, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Solid Mechanics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aspects of Crack Growth in Single-Crystal Nickel-Base Superalloys2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This Licentiate of Engineering thesis is a product of the results generated in the research project KME-702, which comprises modelling, microstructure investigations and material testing of cast nickel-base superalloys.

    The main objective of this work is to model the fatigue crack propagation behaviour in single-crystal nickel-base superalloys. To achieve this, the influence of the crystal orientations on the cracking behaviour is assessed. The results show that the crystal orientation is strongly affecting the material response and must be accounted for. Furthermore, a linear elastic crack driving force parameter suitable for describing crystallographic cracking has been developed. This parameter is based on resolved anisotropic stress intensity factors and is able to predict the correct crystallographic cracking plane after a transition from a Mode I crack. Finally, a method to account for inelastic deformations in a linear elastic fracture mechanics context was investigated. A residual stress field is extracted from an uncracked finite-element model with a perfectly plastic material model and superimposed on the stress field from the cracked model with a linear elastic material model to account for the inelastic deformations during the determination of the crack driving force. The modelling work is validated by material testing on two different specimen geometries at different temperatures.

    This Licentiate of Engineering thesis consists of two parts, where Part I gives an introduction and background to the research area, while Part II consists of three papers.

    List of papers
    1. A FINITE ELEMENT STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CRYSTAL ORIENTATION AND MISALIGNMENT ON THE CRACK DRIVING FORCE IN A SINGLE-CRYSTAL SUPERALLOY
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A FINITE ELEMENT STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CRYSTAL ORIENTATION AND MISALIGNMENT ON THE CRACK DRIVING FORCE IN A SINGLE-CRYSTAL SUPERALLOY
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE ASME TURBO EXPO: TURBINE TECHNICAL CONFERENCE AND EXPOSITION, 2016, VOL 7A, AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS , 2016, no UNSP V07AT28A002Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The elastic and plastic anisotropy of the single-crystal materials bring many difficulties in terms of modeling, evaluation and prediction of fatigue crack growth. In this paper a single-crystal material model has been adopted to a finite element-environment, which is paired with a crack growth tool. All simulations are performed in a three-dimensional context. This methodology makes it possible to analyze complex finite element-models, which are more application-near than traditional two-dimensional models. The influence of the crystal orientation, as well as the influence of misalignments of the crystal orientation due to the casting process are investigated. It is shown that both the crystal orientation and the misalignment from the ideal crystal orientation are important for the crack driving force. The realistic maximum limit of 10 degrees misalignment is considered. It can be seen that crack growth behavior is highly influenced by the misalignment. This knowledge is of great interest for the industry in order to evaluate the crack growth in single-crystal components more accurately.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER SOC MECHANICAL ENGINEERS, 2016
    National Category
    Applied Mechanics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132570 (URN)10.1115/GT2016-56305 (DOI)000385461600011 ()978-0-7918-4983-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ASME Turbo Expo: Turbine Technical Conference and Exposition
    Available from: 2016-11-14 Created: 2016-11-14 Last updated: 2017-11-20
    2. Three-Dimensional LEFM Prediction of Fatigue Crack Propagation in a Gas Turbine Disk Material at Component Near Conditions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Three-Dimensional LEFM Prediction of Fatigue Crack Propagation in a Gas Turbine Disk Material at Component Near Conditions
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Journal of engineering for gas turbines and power, ISSN 0742-4795, E-ISSN 1528-8919, Vol. 138, no 4, 042506Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, the possibility to use linear elastic fracture mechanics (LEFM), with and without a superimposed residual stress field, to predict fatigue crack propagation in the gas turbine disk material Inconel 718 has been studied. A temperature of 400 degrees C and applied strain ranges corresponding to component near conditions have been considered. A three-dimensional crack propagation software was used for determining the stress intensity factors (SIFs) along the crack path. In the first approach, a linear elastic material behavior was used when analyzing the material response. The second approach extracts the residual stresses from an uncracked model with perfectly plastic material behavior after one loading cycle. As a benchmark, the investigated methods are compared to experimental tests, where the cyclic lifetimes were calculated by an integration of Paris law. When comparing the results, it can be concluded that the investigated approaches give good results, at least for longer cracks, even though plastic flow was taking place in the specimen. The pure linear elastic simulation overestimates the crack growth for all crack lengths and gives conservative results over all considered crack lengths. Noteworthy with this work is that the 3D-crack propagation could be predicted with the two considered methods in an LEFM context, although plastic flow was present in the specimens during the experiments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ASME, 2016
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126240 (URN)10.1115/1.4031526 (DOI)000371125800020 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB through Research Consortium of Materials Technology for Thermal Energy Processes [KME-702]; Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2017-11-20
  • Presentation: 2017-12-15 13:00 Schrödinger, E324, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Løtvedt, Pia Katrine
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Domestication and early experiences in chickens: Behavior, stress and gene expression2017Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of animal species have undergone domestication, the process of becoming adapted to living in captivity and in proximity to humans. Common for these species is that they have all developed certain traits, including changes to coat color, body size and level of fearfulness. This has been termed the domestic phenotype. Among these traits is also an attenuation of the response to stress, both behaviorally and physiologically. Thus, release of glucocorticoids such as cortisol or corticosterone is lower in domesticated species. However, the underlying mechanism for this is not yet well understood. In this thesis, we have investigated genetic mechanisms for the attenuation of the physiological stress response in ancestral chickens, the Red Junglefowl, and domesticated chickens, the White Leghorn.

    We found a number of genes that differed in expression between the two breeds in several tissues involved in the stress response. Among the most interesting findings were lower expression of genes involved in production and secretion of ACTH in the pituitary, and in the production of glucocorticoids in the adrenal glands, in the domesticated White Leghorns. We also found higher expression of the glucocorticoid receptor in White Leghorns, indicating that they may have a more efficient negative feedback of the physiological stress response.

    We then investigated the transcriptome of the chicken pituitary more closely, and we discovered that a number of genes highly involved in several important physiological axes showed differential expression between the ancestral and the domesticated breed. Among these were genes involved in the stress response, the reproductive system, and in metabolism and growth. As these traits are modified in domesticated species, our results suggest that changes to gene expression in the pituitary may be an important underlying factor of the domestic phenotype.

    A separate aim of this thesis was to investigate effects of hatching time in chickens on their subsequent phenotype. Time of hatching constitutes an early experience that may differ between individuals, and we therefore hypothesized that differences in hatching time would affect chickens later in life. While a number of studies have been performed on hatching time and post-hatch growth, very little work has been done on effects on behavior. We found that the time of hatching had sex-specific effects. Hatching times in females were negatively correlated with body weight, whereas in males, behaviors such as reaction to novelty and spatial learning were affected.

    As time of hatching is governed by various hormones, including thyroid hormone and corticosterone, we suggest that changes to the levels of these hormones could affect both hatching time and post-hatch phenotypes. Understanding these mechanisms better would be beneficial in terms of production, where batch homogeneity is important, in research on early experiences and the potential for maternal programming, and in evolutionary questions on trade-off between different life strategies.

    List of papers
    1. Chicken domestication changes expression of stress-related genes in brain, pituitary and adrenals.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chicken domestication changes expression of stress-related genes in brain, pituitary and adrenals.
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Neurobiology of stress, ISSN 2352-2895, Vol. 7, 113-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl. Gene expression was measured both at baseline and after 45 min of restraint stress. Most of the changes in gene expression related to stress were similar to mammals, with an upregulation of genes such as FKBP5, C-FOS and EGR1 in hippocampus and hypothalamus and StAR, MC2R and TH in adrenal glands. We also found a decrease in the expression of CRHR1 in the pituitary of chickens after stress, which could be involved in negative feedback regulation of the stress response. Furthermore, we observed a downregulation of EGR1 and C-FOS in the pituitary following stress, which could be a potential link between stress and its effects on reproduction and growth in chickens. We also found changes in the expression of important genes between breeds such as GR in the hypothalamus, POMC and PC1 in the pituitary and CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 in the adrenal glands. These results suggest that the domesticated White Leghorn may have a higher capacity for negative feedback of the HPA axis, a lower capacity for synthesis of ACTH in the pituitary and a reduced synthesis rate of corticosterone in the adrenal glands compared to Red Junglefowl. All of these findings could explain the attenuated stress response in the domesticated birds.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2017
    Keyword
    Animal domestication, Chicken, Gene expression, Glucocorticoid receptor, HPA axis, Stress response
    National Category
    Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143054 (URN)10.1016/j.ynstr.2017.08.002 (DOI)28879214 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2017-11-17
    2. Effects of Hatching Time on Behavior and Weight Development of Chickens
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Hatching Time on Behavior and Weight Development of Chickens
    2014 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 7, e103040- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The length of the embryonic period varies both among and within species and can affect the individual phenotype in many ways, both physiologically and behaviorally. In chickens, the hatch window may last 24-48 hours (up to 10% of the incubation time), and studies have shown that incubation length may affect post-hatch growth and physiology. However, little is known about effects on behavior. We therefore investigated how behavior variation correlates with hatching time in the early life of chickens. We also measured egg weight and egg weight loss in relation to hatching time, as well as post-hatch growth. For females, there was a negative correlation between hatch time and body weight from day 4 and throughout the experiment. For males, such a correlation was only observed when testing all hatched males up until day 10. The birds were exposed to a number of behavioral tests, and a principal components analysis was performed on the variables, resulting in four components. For the largest component, termed "Passivity, a tendency of a difference was found between early and middle male hatchers. Furthermore, a significant difference between early and middle male hatchers was found in the second component, termed "Response to novelty. In a spatial learning test, late hatchers tended to learn slower. The behavior of females was not significantly affected by hatching time in any of these tests. This study is among the first to demonstrate a link between time of hatching and early behavior in a precocial species like the chicken, and may help shedding light on the evolutionary trade-offs between incubation length and post-hatch traits. The results may also be relevant from a perspective of stress coping and therefore also for animal welfare and productivity in the chicken industry. The mechanisms linking hatching time with post-hatch phenotype remain to be investigated.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Public Library of Science, 2014
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111296 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0103040 (DOI)000341354800055 ()25058654 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council; Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning (Formas); European Research Council

    Available from: 2014-10-14 Created: 2014-10-14 Last updated: 2017-11-17