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  • Presentation: 2016-12-06 10:15 Täppan, TP2, Norrköping
    Khoshniyat, Fahimeh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khoshniyat, Fahimeh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optimization-Based Methods for Revising Train Timetables with Focus on Robustness2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increase in the use of railway transport, ensuring robustness in railway timetables has never been this important. In a dense railway timetable even a small disturbance can propagate easily and a_ect trains' arrival and departure times. In a robust timetable small delays are absorbed and knock-on e_ects are prevented e_ectively. The aim of this thesis is to study how optimization tools can support the generation of robust railway tra_c timetables. We address two Train Timetabling Problems (TTP) and for both problems we apply Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) to solve them from network management perspectives. The _rst problem is how robustness in a given timetable can be assessed and ensured. To tackle this problem, a headway-based method is introduced. The proposed method is implemented in real timetables and evaluated from performance perspectives. Furthermore, the impact of the proposed method on capacity utilization, heterogeneity and the speed of trains, is monitored. Results show that the proposed method can improve robustness without imposing major changes in timetables. The second problem addressed in the thesis is how robustness can be assessed and maintained in a given timetable when allocating additional tra_c and maintenance slots. Di_erent insertion strategies are studied and their consequences on capacity utilization and on the properties of the timetables are analyzed. Two di_erent insertion strategies are considered: i) simultaneous and ii) stepwise insertion. The results show that inserting the additional trains simultaneously usually results in generating more optimal solutions. However, solving this type of problem is computationally challenging. We also observed that the existing robustness metrics cannot capture the essential properties of having more robust timetables. Therefore we proposed measuring Channel Width, Chan- nel Width Forward, Channel Width Behind and Track Switching.

    Furthermore, the experimental analysis of the applied MILP model shows that some cases are computationally hard to solve and there is a need to decrease the computation time. Hence several valid inequalities are developed and their e_ects on the computation time are analyzed.

    This thesis contains three papers which are appended. The results of this thesis are of special interests for railway tra_c planners and it would support their working process. However, railway tra_c operators and passengers also bene_t from this study.

    List of papers
    1. Robustness Improvements in a Train Timetable with Travel Time Dependent Minimum Headways
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robustness Improvements in a Train Timetable with Travel Time Dependent Minimum Headways
    2015 (English)Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a railway network with dense traffic, trains’ scheduled arrival and departure times arehighly dependent on each other and even a small delay easily propagates to subsequenttrains using the same infrastructure resources. In the current paper a given timetable is comparedto a modified timetable, where the assigned minimum time slot in the traffic for aservice is linearly increasing with the service’s travel time. The underlying assumption isthat trains lose precision as they travel longer and catching a fixed-size time slot is easier atthe beginning of the journey. Real world observations confirm this assumption as well. Theaim of this study is to verify the improvement in the robustness of those timetables that aremodified with respect to the idea of travel time dependent reserved time slots for the arrivaltimes of trains and to compare the results with the initial timetables. Numerical experimentsare conducted on a selected double track segment of the Swedish Southern mainline. Fourtimetable case studies are considered for the experiments: off-peak hours and peak hoursin 2011 and 2014, respectively. Each timetable is tested for various disturbance scenarios.Several performance measures are used to evaluate delay propagation in the timetables, includingdeviations from the initial timetable, total delays, total number of delayed trains atdestinations, number of punctual trains with 5 minutes arrival delay tolerance at destinationsand number of violations in trains’ overtaking orders. Results show that the modifiedtimetables outperform the initial ones for small disturbances.

    Keyword
    Robustness, Railway Timetable, Ex-post measures, Delay propagation, Performance measures
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117042 (URN)
    Conference
    6th International Conference on Railway Operations Modelling and Analysis - RailTokyo2015, Tokyo, March 23-26, 2015
    Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-04-13 Last updated: 2016-12-01
  • Presentation: 2016-12-09 10:15 Visionen, B-huset, Linköping
    Nyqvist, Hanna E.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nyqvist, Hanna E.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On Pose Estimation in Room-Scaled Environments2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pose (position and orientation) tracking in room-scaled environments is an enabling technique for many applications. Today, virtual reality (vr) and augmented reality (ar) are two examples of such applications, receiving high interest both from the public and the research community. Accurate pose tracking of the vr or ar equipment, often a camera or a headset, or of different body parts is crucial to trick the human brain and make the virtual experience realistic. Pose tracking in room-scaled environments is also needed for reference tracking and metrology. This thesis focuses on an application to metrology. In this application, photometric models of a photo studio are needed to perform realistic scene reconstruction and image synthesis. Pose tracking of a dedicated sensor enables creation of these photometric models. The demands on the tracking system used in this application is high. It must be able to provide sub-centimeter and sub-degree accuracy and at same time be easy to move and install in new photo studios.

    The focus of this thesis is to investigate and develop methods for a pose tracking system that satisfies the requirements of the intended metrology application. The Bayesian filtering framework is suggested because of its firm theoretical foundation in informatics and because it enables straightforward fusion of measurements from several sensors. Sensor fusion is in this thesis seen as a way to exploit complementary characteristics of different sensors to increase tracking accuracy and robustness. Four different types of measurements are considered; inertialmeasurements, images from a camera, range (time-of-flight) measurements from ultra wide band (uwb) radio signals, and range and velocity measurements from echoes of transmitted acoustic signals.

    A simulation study and a study of the Cramér-Rao lower filtering bound (crlb) show that an inertial-camera system has the potential to reach the required tracking accuracy. It is however assumed that known fiducial markers, that can be detected and recognized in images, are deployed in the environment. The study shows that many markers are required. This makes the solution more of a stationary solution and the mobility requirement is not fulfilled. A simultaneous localization and mapping (slam) solution, where naturally occurring features are used instead of known markers, are suggested solve this problem. Evaluation using real data shows that the provided inertial-camera slam filter suffers from drift but that support from uwb range measurements eliminates this drift. The slam solution is then only dependent on knowing the position of very few stationary uwb transmitters compared to a large number of known fiducial markers. As a last step, to increase the accuracy of the slam filter, it is investigated if and how range measurements can be complemented with velocity measurement obtained as a result of the Doppler effect. Especially, focus is put on analyzing the correlation between the range and velocity measurements and the implications this correlation has for filtering. The investigation is done in a theoretical study of reflected known signals (compare with radar and sonar) where the crlb is used as an analyzing tool. The theory is validated on real data from acoustic echoes in an indoor environment.

    List of papers
    1. A High-Performance Tracking System based on Camera and IMU
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A High-Performance Tracking System based on Camera and IMU
    2013 (English)In: 16th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION), 2013, IEEE , 2013, 2065-2072 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider an indoor tracking system consisting of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a camera that detects markers in the environment. There are many camera based tracking systems described in literature and available commercially, and a few of them also has support from IMU. These are based on the best-effort principle, where the performance varies depending on the situation. In contrast to this, we start with a specification of the system performance, and the design isbased on an information theoretic approach, where specific user scenarios are defined. Precise models for the camera and IMU are derived for a fusion filter, and the theoretical Cramér-Rao lower bound and the Kalman filter performance are evaluated. In this study, we focus on examining the camera quality versus the marker density needed to get at least a one mm and one degree accuracy in tracking performance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2013
    Keyword
    Tracking, IMU, Vision, Indoor, Landmarks, Cameras, Lenses, Earth, Accuracy, Optical sensors, Noise, Optical imaging
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96751 (URN)000341370000274 ()9786058631113 (Print) (ISBN)9781479902842 (online) (ISBN)9786058631113 (CD) (ISBN)
    Conference
    2013 16th International Conference on Information Fusion, Istanbul, Turkey, July 9-12, 2013
    Projects
    VPS
    Funder
    Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
    Available from: 2013-08-26 Created: 2013-08-26 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Pose Estimation Using Monocular Vision and Inertial Sensors Aided with Ultra Wide Band
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pose Estimation Using Monocular Vision and Inertial Sensors Aided with Ultra Wide Band
    2015 (English)In: International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN), 2015, IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for global pose estimation using inertial sensors, monocular vision, and ultra wide band (UWB) sensors. It is demonstrated that the complementary characteristics of these sensors can be exploited to provide improved global pose estimates, without requiring the introduction of any visible infrastructure, such as fiducial markers. Instead, natural landmarks are jointly estimated with the pose of the platform using a simultaneous localization and mapping framework, supported by a small number of easy-to-hide UWB beacons with known positions. The method is evaluated with data from a controlled indoor experiment with high precision ground truth. The results show the benefit of the suggested sensor combination and suggest directions for further work.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2015
    Keyword
    inertial sensor (IMU), ultra wide band (UWB), monocular camera, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM)
    National Category
    Signal Processing Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122140 (URN)10.1109/IPIN.2015.7346940 (DOI)000379160900049 ()9781467384025 (online) (ISBN)9781467384018 (USB) (ISBN)
    Conference
    Sixth International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation, Banff, October 13-16, 2015
    Projects
    Virtual Photo Studio (VPS)
    Funder
    Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , IIS11-0081Swedish Research CouncilSecurity Link
    Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved
    3. On Joint Range and Velocity Estimation in Detection and Ranging Sensors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Joint Range and Velocity Estimation in Detection and Ranging Sensors
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, 1674-1681 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radar and sonar provide information of both range and radial velocity to unknown objects. This is accomplished by emitting a signal waveform and computing the round trip time and Doppler shift. Estimation of the round trip time and Doppler shift is usually done separately without considering the couplings between these two object related quantities. The purpose of this contribution is to first model the amplitude, time shift and time scale of the returned signal in terms of the object related states range and velocity, and analyse the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the joint range and velocity estimation problem. One of the conclusions is that there is negative correlation between range and velocity. The maximum likelihood (ML) cost function also confirms this strong negative correlation. For target tracking applications, the use of the correct covariance matrix for the measurement vector gives a significant gain in information, compared to using the variance of range and velocity assuming independence. In other words, the knowledge of the correlation tells the tracking filter that a too large range measurement comes most likely with a too small velocity measurement, and vice versa. Experiments with sound pulses reflected in a wall indoors confirm the main conclusion of negative correlation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
    Keyword
    Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB), time scale, Doppler shift, time shift, time delay, tracking
    National Category
    Control Engineering Signal Processing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130476 (URN)9780996452748 (online) (ISBN)9781509020126 (PoD) (ISBN)
    Conference
    19th International Conference on Information Fusion, Heidelberg, Germany, July 5-8, 2016
    Projects
    Virtual Photo Studio (VPS)Scalable Kalman Filters
    Funder
    Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , IIS11-0081Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2016-08-09 Created: 2016-08-09 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved
  • Presentation: 2016-12-12 13:15 Visionen, B-huset, Linköping
    Karlsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aspects of Massive MIMO2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Next generation cellular wireless technology faces tough demands: increasing the throughput and reliability without consuming more resources, be it spectrum or energy. Massive mimo (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) has proven, both in theory and practice, that it is up for the challenge. Massive mimo can offer uniformly good service to many users using low-end hardware, simultaneously, without increasing the radiated power compared to contemporary system. In Massive mimo, the base stations are equipped with hundreds of antennas. This abundance of antennas brings many new, interesting aspects compared to single-user mimo and multi-user mimo. Some issues of older technologies are nonexistent in massive mimo, while new issues in need of solutions arise. This thesis considers two aspects, and how these aspects differ in a massive mimo context: physical layer security and transmission of system information. First, it is shown that a jammer with a large number of antennas can outperform a traditional, single-antenna jammer in degrading the legitimate link. The excess of antennas gives the jammer opportunity to find and exploit structure in signals to improve its jamming capability. Second, for transmission of system information, the vast number of antennas prove useful even when the base station does not have any channel state information, because of the increased availability of space-time coding. We show how transmission without channel state information can be done in massive mimo by using a fixed precoding matrix to reduce the pilot overhead and simultaneously apply space-time block coding to use the excess of antennas for spatial diversity.

  • Presentation: 2016-12-16 09:00 Schrödinger, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Carlsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Forens Centre NFC, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Forens Centre NFC, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Synthesis and spectroscopic characterization of emerging synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The application of different analytical techniques is fundamental in forensic drug analysis. In the wake of the occurrence of large numbers of new psychoactive substances possessing similar chemical structures as already known ones, focus has been placed on applied criteria for their univocal identification. These criteria vary, obviously, depending on the applied technique and analytical approach. However, when two or more substances are proven to have similar analytical properties, these criteria no longer apply, which imply that complementary techniques have to be used in their differentiation.

    This work describes the synthesis of some structural analogues to synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones based on the evolving patterns in the illicit drug market. Six synthetic cannabinoids and six synthetic cathinones were synthesized, that, at the time for this study, were not as yet found in drug seizures. Further, a selection of their spectroscopic data is compared to those of already existing analogues; mainly isomers and homologues. The applied techniques were mass spectrometry (MS), Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR, gas phase) spectroscopy and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In total, 59 different compounds were analyzed with the  selected techniques.

    The results from comparison of spectroscopic data showed that isomeric substances may in some cases be difficult to unambiguously identify based only on their GC-MS EI spectra. On the other hand, GC-FTIR demonstrated more distinguishable spectra. The spectra for the homologous compounds showed however, that the GC-FTIR technique was less successful compared to GC-MS. Also a pronounced fragmentation pattern for some of the cathinones was found.

    In conclusion, this thesis highlights the importance of using complementary techniques for the univocal identification of synthetic cannabinoids and cathinones. By increasing the number of analogues investigated, the more may be learnt about the capabilities of different techniques for structural differentiations, and thereby providing important identification criteria leading to trustworthy forensic evidence.

    List of papers
    1. Prediction of designer drugs: synthesis and spectroscopic analysis of synthetic cannabinoid analogues of 1H-indol-3-yl(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl) methanone and 1H-indol-3-yl(adamantan-1-yl)methanone
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prediction of designer drugs: synthesis and spectroscopic analysis of synthetic cannabinoid analogues of 1H-indol-3-yl(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl) methanone and 1H-indol-3-yl(adamantan-1-yl)methanone
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Drug Testing and Analysis, ISSN 1942-7603, E-ISSN 1942-7611, Vol. 8, no 10, 1015-1029 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, emergence patterns of synthetic cannabinoids were utilized in an attempt to predict those that may appear on the drug market in the future. Based on this information, two base structures of the synthetic cannabinoid analogues - (1H-indol-3-yl (2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropyl) methanone and 1H-indol-3-yl(adamantan-1-yl)methanone) - together with three substituents butyl, 4-fluorobutyl and ethyl tetrahydropyran - were selected for synthesis. This resulted in a total of six synthetic cannabinoid analogues that to the authors knowledge have not yet appeared on the drug market. Spectroscopic data, including nuclearmagnetic resonance (NMR), mass spectrometry (MS), and Fourier transforminfrared (FTIR) spectroscopy (solid and gas phase), are presented for the synthesized analogues and some additional related cannabinoids. In this context, the suitability of the employed techniques for the identification of unknowns is discussed and the use of GC-FTIR as a secondary complementary technique to GC-MS is addressed. Examples of compounds that are difficult to differentiate by their mass spectra, but can be distinguished based upon their gas phase FTIR spectra are presented. Conversely, structural homologueswhere mass spectra aremore powerful than gas phase FTIR spectra for unambiguous assignments are also exemplified. This work further emphasizes that a combination of several techniques is the key to success in structural elucidations. Copyright (C) 2015 John Wiley amp; Sons, Ltd.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016
    Keyword
    drug analysis; proactive; synthetic cannabinoids; synthesis; mass spectrometry
    National Category
    Pharmaceutical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132473 (URN)10.1002/dta.1904 (DOI)000384806400003 ()26526273 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Contingencies Agency (MSB)

    Available from: 2016-11-13 Created: 2016-11-12 Last updated: 2016-11-24
  • Presentation: 2016-12-20 10:15 Visionen, hus B, Linköping
    Cheng, Hei Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cheng, Hei Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aspects of Power Allocation in Massive MIMO2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The past decades have seen a rapid growth of mobile data trac, both in terms of connected devices and data rate. To satisfy the ever growing data trac demand in wireless communication systems, the current cellular systems have to be redesigned to increase both spectral eciency and energy eciency. Massive MIMO (Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) is one solution that satisfy both requirements. In massive MIMO systems, hundreds of antennas are employed at the base station to provide service to many users at the same time and frequency. This enables the system to serve the users with uniformly good quality of service simultaneously, with low-cost hardware and without using extra bandwidth and energy. To achieve this, proper resource allocation is needed. Among the available resources, transmit power is one of the most important degree of freedom to control the spectral eciency and energy eciency. Due to the use of excessive number of antennas and low-end hardware at the base station, new aspects of power allocation compared to current systems arises. In the rst part of the thesis, a new uplink power allocation schemes that based on long term channel statistics is proposed. Since quality of the channel estimates is crucial in massive MIMO, in addition to data power allocation, joint power allocation that includes the pilot power as additional variable should be considered. Therefore a new framework for power allocation that matches practical systems is developed, as the methods developed in the literature cannot be applied directly to massive MIMO systems. Simulation results conrm the advantages brought by the the proposed new framework. In the second part of the thesis, we investigate the eects of using low-end ampliers at the base stations. The non-linear behavior of power consumption in these ampliers changes the power consumption model at the base station, thereby changes the power allocation. Two dierent scenarios are investigated and both results show that a certain number of antennas can be turned o in low load scenarios.

    List of papers
    1. MIMO Capacity under Power Amplifiers Consumed Power and Per-Antenna Radiated Power Constraints
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>MIMO Capacity under Power Amplifiers Consumed Power and Per-Antenna Radiated Power Constraints
    2014 (English)In: 2014 IEEE 15th International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2014, 179-183 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the capacity of the multiple-input-multiple-output channel taking into account the consumed power in the power amplifiers. The mutual information is optimized with a limitation of total consumed power and per-antenna radiated power for a fixed channel with full channel state information at both the transmitter and receiver. The capacity is thus obtained by optimizing the input distribution to maximize the mutual information. Since the optimization problem is non-convex, direct computation of the capacity suffers from high computational complexity. Hence upper and lower bounds on the capacity are given as benchmarks for different ad-hoc schemes. An efficient suboptimal algorithm is also presented. Numerical results show that the suboptimal algorithm performs close to the capacity.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2014
    Series
    , IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications, ISSN 2325-3789
    Keyword
    MIMO capacity; power amplifier; consumed power constraint; per-antenna power constraint
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114602 (URN)10.1109/SPAWC.2014.6941397 (DOI)000348859000037 ()9781479949038 (online) (ISBN)9781479939121 (USB) (ISBN)9781479949021 (PoD) (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE 15th International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances in Wireless Communications (SPAWC),June 22-25, Toronto, Canada
    Available from: 2015-02-26 Created: 2015-02-26 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
    2. Massive MIMO at Night: On the Operation of Massive MIMO in Low Traffic Scenarios
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Massive MIMO at Night: On the Operation of Massive MIMO in Low Traffic Scenarios
    2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), IEEE , 2015, 1697-1702 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For both maximum ratio transmission (MRT) and zero forcing (ZF) precoding schemes and given any specific rate requirement the optimal transmit power, number of antennas to be used, number of users to be served and number of pilots spent on channel training are found with the objective to minimize the total consumed power at the base station. The optimization problem is solved by finding closed form expressions of the optimal transmit power and then search over the remaining discrete variables. The analysis consists of two parts, the first part investigates the situation when only power consumed in the RF amplifiers is considered. The second part includes both the power consumed in the RF amplifiers and in other transceiver circuits. In the former case having all antennas active while reducing the transmit power is optimal. Adaptive scheme to switch off some of the antennas at the base stations is found to be optimal in the latter case.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2015
    Series
    , IEEE International Conference on Communications, ISSN 1550-3607 (Print), 1938-1883 (online)
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127290 (URN)10.1109/ICC.2015.7248569 (DOI)000371708101150 ()9781467364324 (online) (ISBN)9781467364317 (USB) (ISBN)9781467364300 (PoD) (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 8-12 June, London, UK
    Available from: 2016-04-20 Created: 2016-04-19 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved