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  • Presentation: 2019-04-25 13:15 TEMCAS, T-huset, Linköping
    Crusoe, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Why is it so challenging to cultivate open government data?: Understanding impediments from an ecosystem perspective2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: This compilation licentiate thesis focuses on open government data (OGD). The thesis is based on three papers. OGD is a system that is organized when publishers collect and share data with users, who can unrestrictedly reuse the data. In my research, I have explored why it can be challenging to cultivate OGD. Cultivation is human activities that change, encourage, or guide human organizations towards a higher purpose by changing, introducing, managing, or removing conditions. Here, the higher purpose is OGD to realize believed benefits. Thus, OGD cultivation is an attempt to stimulate actors into organizing as OGD.

    Problem and Purpose: OGD is believed to lead to several benefits. However, the worldwide OGD movement has slowed down, and researchers have noted a lack of use. Publishers and users are experiencing a set of different impediments that are challenging to solve. In previous research, there is a need for more knowledge about what can impede the OGD organization, cause non-valuable organizing, or even collapse the organization. At the same time, there is a lack of knowledge about how impediments shape the organization of OGD. This gap can make it hard to solve and overcome the impediments experienced by publishers and users. The sought-after knowledge can bring some understanding of the current situation of OGD. In this research, I have viewed the organization of OGD as an ecosystem. The purpose of this thesis is to draw lessons about why it can be challenging to cultivate OGD ecosystems by understanding OGD impediments from an ecosystem perspective.

    Research Design: I set out to explore OGD through qualitative research from 2016 to 2018. My research started with a pilot case study that led to three studies. The studies are each reported in a paper and the papers form the base of this thesis. The first paper aims to stimulate the conceptually oriented discussion about actors’ roles in OGD by developing a framework that was tested on a Swedish public agency. The second paper has the purpose of expanding the scope surrounding impediments and was based in a review and systematization of previous research about OGD impediments. The third paper presents an exploration of impediments experienced by publishers, users, and cultivators in the Swedish national OGD ecosystem to identify faults. From the three papers, lessons were drawn in turn and together, that are presented in this thesis.

    Findings: Cultivators when cultivating OGD ecosystems are facing towering challenges. The following three main challenges are identified in this thesis: (1) to cultivate a system that can manage stability by itself without constant involvement, (2) to cultivate a system that is capable of evolving towards a “greater good” by itself, and (3) to have an up-to-date precise vocabulary for a self-evolving system that enables inter-subjective understand for coordinating problem-solving.

    Contribution: The theoretical contribution of this thesis is that OGD ecosystems can be viewed as a public utility. Moreover, I recommend that researchers approach the organizing of OGD as the cultivation of evolution, rather than the construction of a structure; to consider the stability of the system in growth, value, and participation; and to be cautious with how they label and describe OGD actors. For actors that are cultivating OGD, I recommend that they guide the OGD actors to help them organize; view OGD cultivation as the management of evolution (growth) towards a purpose; and view cultivation as a collaborative effort where they can supply ideas, technologies, practices, and expertise.

    List of papers
    1. Investigating open government data barriers: A literature review and conceptualization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigating open government data barriers: A literature review and conceptualization
    2018 (English)In: Electronic Government: EGOV 2018 / [ed] Parycek P., Springer Verlag , 2018, p. 169-183Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    When focusing on open government data (OGD) publishing and related barriers, there are several complexities present. Largely, current research is focused on publishing and usage of OGD; and we argue that there are a need to investigate and to systematise OGD barrier research in order to understand and outline an expanded scope of the phenomenon. We expand by clarifying barriers linked to the release decision and the data’s organisational context. To investigate the OGD barriers, we conduct a systematic literature review, identifying 34 articles as a point of departure for our analysis. From these articles we create, present and discuss illustrations on historical development, barrier types, and different research focuses on OGD. When analysing the articles, we identify a focus on technical, organisational, and legal barrier types, while studies on open data usage and systems are less frequent. Our analysis also identifies some possible open data research barriers. In the article we also relate barriers to an expanded OGD process (Suitability, Release, Publish, Use, and Evaluation), identifying 46 barriers with possible linkages. The results is an expanded scope and a conceptual illustration of OGD barriers. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2018.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer Verlag, 2018
    Series
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 11020
    Keywords
    Barriers, Challenges, Impediments, Literature review, Myths, OGD, Open data, Open government data, Process, Risks, Government data processing, Processing, Literature reviews, Open datum, Reviews
    National Category
    Information Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151311 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-98690-6_15 (DOI)2-s2.0-85052893750 (Scopus ID)978-3-319-98689-0 (ISBN)978-3-319-98690-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    EGOV 2018, Electronic Government
    Available from: 2018-09-17 Created: 2018-09-17 Last updated: 2019-04-02
  • Presentation: 2019-04-26 09:00 Linden, Linköping
    Anskär, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Primärvårdscentrum, Vårdcentralen Mantorp.
    Time flies in primary care: a study on time utilisation and perceived psychosocial work environment2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Time utilisation among primary care professionals has been affected by structural changes and reorganisation performed in Swedish primary care over several decades. The work situation is complex with a heavy administrative work load. The overall aim with this thesis was to describe time utilisation among staff in Swedish primary care and to investigate associations with perceived psychosocial work environment and legitimacy of work tasks.

    Methods: A multicentre, descriptive, cross-sectional study design was used including all staff categories in primary care i.e. registered nurses, primary care physicians, care administrators, nurse assistants and allied professionals (physiotherapists, occupational therapists, psychologists, counsellors, dieticians and chiropodists) at eleven primary care centres located in southeast Sweden. The data collection consisted of a questionnaire including a subjective estimate of workload, the Bern Illegitimate Tasks Scale (BITS) and the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire (COPSOQ). Also, a time study was performed, where the participants reported their work time based on three main categories; direct patient work tasks, indirect patient work tasks and other work tasks, each with a number of subcategories. The participants reported time spent on different work tasks, day by day during two separate weeks. Response rates were 75% for the questionnaire and 79% for the time study.

    Results: In paper I the time study revealed that health professionals at the primary care centres spent 37% of their work time with direct patient work tasks. All professions estimated a higher proportion of time spent directly with patients than they reported in the time study. Physicians scored highest on the psychosocial scales of quantitative demands, stress and role conflicts. The proportion of administrative work tasks was associated with role conflicts, the more administration the more role conflicts. Findings in paper II were that more than a quarter of physicians scored above the cut-off value for BITS regarding unnecessary work tasks, which was significantly more than the proportion observed in all other professions in the survey. Across all staff groups, a perception of having to perform illegitimate work tasks was associated with experiencing negative psychosocial work environment and with high proportion of administrative-related work tasks.

    Conclusions: Swedish primary care staff spend a limited proportion of their work time directly with patients and primary care physicians perceive the psychosocial work environment in negative terms to a greater extent than all other staff members. Allocation of work tasks has an influence on the perceived psychosocial work environment. The perception of having a large number of illegitimate work tasks affects the psychosocial work environment negatively, which might influence the perception the staff have of their professional roles. Perception of high proportion of unreasonable work tasks is associated with a high proportion of non-patient-related administration.

    This thesis illuminates the importance of decision makers thoroughly considering the distribution and allocation of non-patient related work tasks among staff in primary care, in order to achieve efficient use of personnel resources and favourable working conditions. Hopefully, the results of this study will contribute to further development of primary care so that medical competence will benefit patients as much as possible.

    List of papers
    1. Time utilization and perceived psychosocial work environment among staff in Swedish primary care settings
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time utilization and perceived psychosocial work environment among staff in Swedish primary care settings
    2018 (English)In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 18, article id 166Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Over the past decades, reorganizations and structural changes in Swedish primary care have affected time utilization among health care professionals. Consequently, increases in administrative tasks have substantially reduced the time available for face-to-face consultations. This study examined how work-time was utilized and the association between work time utilization and the perceived psychosocial work environment in Swedish primary care settings. Methods: This descriptive, multicentre, cross-sectional study was performed in 2014-2015. Data collection began with questionnaire. In the first section, respondents were asked to estimate how their workload was distributed between patients (direct and indirect patient work) and other work tasks. The questionnaire also comprised the Copenhagen Psychosocial Questionnaire, which assessed the psychosocial work environment. Next a time study was conducted where the participants reported their work-time based on three main categories: direct patient-related work, indirect patient-related work, and other work tasks. Each main category had a number of subcategories. The participants recorded the time spent (minutes) on each work task per hour, every day, for two separate weeks. Eleven primary care centres located in southeast Sweden participated. All professionals were asked to participate (n = 441), including registered nurses, primary care physicians, care administrators, nurse assistants, and allied professionals. Response rates were 75% and 79% for the questionnaires and the time study, respectively. Results: All health professionals allocated between 30.9% - 37.2% of their work-time to each main category: direct patient work, indirect patient work, and other work. All professionals estimated a higher proportion of time spent in direct patient work than they reported in the time study. Physicians scored highest on the psychosocial scales of quantitative demands, stress, and role conflicts. Among allied professionals, the proportion of work-time spent on administrative tasks was associated with more role conflicts. Younger staff perceived more adverse working conditions than older staff. Conclusions: This study indicated that Swedish primary care staff spent a limited proportion of their work time directly with patients. PCPs seemed to perceive their work environment in negative terms to a greater extent than other staff members. This study showed that work task allocations influenced the perceived psychosocial work environment.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BIOMED CENTRAL LTD, 2018
    Keywords
    Work-time allocation; Primary care; Occupational health; Organization and administration; Stress
    National Category
    Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147117 (URN)10.1186/s12913-018-2948-6 (DOI)000426855700008 ()29514637 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden; Sodertorn University Sweden

    Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2019-04-18
  • Presentation: 2019-04-29 09:00 K3, Norrköping
    Holstein, Jane
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Cultural Competence for Health Professionals: Instrument Development2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, both global migration in general and specifically migration to Sweden have increased. This development compels the need for delivering healthcare to the increasingly diverse populations in Sweden. To support health professionals, for instance occupational therapists, in developing their professional knowledge in encounters with foreign-born clients a self-rating instrument measuring cultural competence is developed. This may contribute to the development of suitable services for foreignborn clients and improve person-centered interventions for these clients.

    The general aim of this thesis was to develop an instrument for health professionals by examining psychometric properties and utility of the Swedish version of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument (CCAI-S) among occupational therapists. The specific aim of study I was to evaluate the content validity and utility of the Swedish version of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument (CCAI-S) among occupational therapists. The study had a descriptive and explorative design. Nineteen occupational therapists participated, divided into four focus groups. Qualitative content analysis was used to examine the content validity and utility of the CCAI-S. The specific aim of study II was to examine the clinical relevance, construct validity and reliability of the Swedish version of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument (CCAI-S) among Swedish occupational therapists. The study had a cross-sectional design. A web-based questionnaire was e-mailed to a randomised sample of 428 occupational therapists to investigate the construct validity, reliability and utility of the CCAI-S. Factor analysis was performed as well as descriptive statistics.

    The findings from study I revealed high content validity for all 24 items. However, six items needed reformulations and exemplifications. Regarding utility, the results showed strong support for CCAI-S. The category ‘Interactions with clients’ showed that the CCAI-S could be utilised individually for the health professional and create a higher awareness of cultural questions in practice. The category ‘Workplace and its organisational support’ displayed potential for use in different workplaces regarding CCAI-S and indicated the importance of organisational support for health professionals in the development of cultural competence. The findings from study II regarding construct validity generated a three-factor model with the labels ‘Openness and awareness’, ‘Workplace support’ and ‘Interaction skills’. All three factors showed high factor loadings and contained 12 of the 24 original items. The Cronbach’s Alpha showed high support for the three-factor model. Concerning utility, the participants reported that all 24 items had high clinical relevance.

    In conclusion, the findings from the two studies indicated good measurement properties and high clinical relevance for the CCAI-S. This may sup-port the utilisation of CCAI-S in the Swedish context for health professionals, for instance occupational therapists. The results of the instrument development show that the upcoming published version of the CCAI-S can be a valuable self-assessment tool for health professionals who strive to improve in person-centred communication in encounters with foreign-born clients. CCAI-S can also be of support for the organisation to serve as a guide for what to focus on to develop cultural competence within the staff. Altogether this presumably influence the effectiveness of the healthcare and enhance the evidence of interventions for foreign-born clients. To develop an instrument is an iterative process requiring several evaluations and tests in various settings and populations. Therefore further psychometric testing and utility studies on the CCAI-S is crucial.

    List of papers
    1. Validity and utility of the Swedish version of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Validity and utility of the Swedish version of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument
    2019 (English)In: British Journal of Occupational Therapy, ISSN 0308-0226, E-ISSN 1477-6006Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Global migration as well as migration to Sweden has increased during the last few decades. A self-rating instrument that measures cultural competence could support occupational therapists' professional knowledge when they encounterclients from different cultural backgrounds. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the content validity and utility of the Swedish version of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument among occupational therapists. Nineteen occupational therapists participated in four focus groups.

    Method: Qualitative analysis was used to evaluate content validity and utility.

    Results: The results revealed that all 24 items of the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument were valid, even though six of the items were in need of reformulations and exemplifications. The category Interactions with clients showed that the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument – Swedish version could be utilised individually to raise awareness on cultural issues inpractice. The category Workplace and its organisational support showed that the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument – Swedish version had potential for use in different workplaces, and indicated the importance of organisational support in the development of communications and cultural competence.

    Conclusion: The evaluation indicated positive content validity for the Cultural Competence Assessment Instrument – Swedish version, and that it had the potential to be utilised in the Swedish context.

    Keywords
    Instrument development, occupational therapy, qualitative research, ethnicity, cultural competence
    National Category
    Occupational Therapy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156137 (URN)10.1177/0308022619825813 (DOI)
    Available from: 2019-04-05 Created: 2019-04-05 Last updated: 2019-04-05