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  • Pessa, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Functionality-Independent Style-Based Procedural Building Generation2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In computer graphics it is often necessary to construct a large number of objectsof specific types, such as buildings. One approach is to create the models procedurally,an approach that often renders function and appearance tightly coupled.

    This thesis explores an alternate solution to this problem. We propose a systemfor procedural building generation based on the separation of function andstyle. We show our approach to separating appearance from functionality, wethen describe our implementation of the system and finally we create a demonstrationof its potential.

    Our approach offers a large amount of control while allowing for a separationbetween design of functionality and design of style. The approach could intheory allow for reuse of large databases of models and simplify the creation ofprocedural generation engines

  • Löv, Ulrica
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Ingripande mot misskött förvaltning av hyreshus, m.m: En analys och redovisning av Hyresgästutredningens framtagna överväganden och förslag2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hyresrätten är en viktig del för svensk ekonomi och sysselsättning. Boendeformen gör det enklare för personer att flytta mellan orter, utan att först behöva köpa en ny bostad och sälja sin gamla. För att se över möjligheterna att främja hyresrätten beslutade regeringen den 30 juli 2015 att tillsätta en särskild utredare med uppgift att bland annat analysera området ”ingripande mot misskött förvaltning av hyreshus, m.m” samt analysera vilka konsekvensersom upphävandet av förvärvslagen år 2010 har medfört. Utredningen fick namnet Hyresgästutredningen.

    Hyresgästutredningen har i sin utredning kommit till slutsatsen att det föreligger problem avseende ingripande mot misskött förvaltning av hyreshus, m.m. För att komma till rätta med de problem som föreligger är det viktigt att åtgärder vidtas och därför har utredningen framtagit ett antal förslag och överväganden. Utredningen har bland annat föreslagit att det krävs klarare bestämmelser avseende åtgärdsföreläggande i hyreslagen, att ingripandeformen förvaltningsåläggande i bostadsförvaltningslagen ska ersättas av förvaltningsföreläggande, att kommuner ska bli skyldiga att tillhandhålla en förteckning över godvilliga tvångsförvaltare, att när det sker ett ägarbyte under pågående tvångsförvaltning ska den ursprungliga ägaren ansvara över att betala förvaltarens arvode fram till dagen för ägarövergången, att det krävs tydligare bestämmelser avseende förvaltares utgifter samt att det krävs ytterligare insatser för att hitta godvilliga tvångsförvaltare. Vidare har utredningen konstaterat att det inte föreligger skäl för att införa en ny förvärvslag eller för att införa möjligheten till tvångsförsäljning av hyresfastigheter som står under särskild förvaltning.

    Hyresgästutredningens framtagna förslag är huvudsakligen bra, men förslagen behöver bearbetas ytterligare innan de eventuellt blir lagstadgade. Det hade således varit önskvärt att utredningen antingen hade haft längre tid på sig eller att utredningen hade uppdelats i två skilda utredningar. Utredningens förslag att inte införa en ny förvärvslag är ett adekvat förslag, men inom sin tid bör en ny förvärvslag införas. Det är positivt att utredningen vill klargöra att det inte krävs hinder eller men i nyttjanderätten vid åtgärdsföreläggande när hyresvärden brister i sin underhållsskyldighet. Utredningens förslag att förvaltningsåläggande ersätts av förvaltningsföreläggande är ett bra förslag, men behöver utvecklas mer innan det införs i lagen. Att kommunen ska upprätta en förteckning över förvaltare är ett bra förslag, men det krävs ytterligare åtgärder för att få fler förvaltare. Om fastigheten övergår till ny ägare under pågående förvaltning bör de båda parterna vara solidariskt betalningsansvariga gentemot förvaltare. Det är ett bra förslag att förvaltare ska medges ersättning för nödvändiga utgifter ur fastighetens avkastning. Utredningen har dragit slutsatsen att alternativet tvångsförsäljning under pågående förvaltning inte bör införas, vilket är en positiv slutsats.

  • Nilsson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    De upphandlingsrättsliga regelverkens betydelse för SME-företagens deltagande i offentliga upphandlingar: ESPD-systemet och andra bestämmelser av betydelse för SME-företagens deltagande i offentliga upphandlingar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med de upphandlingsrättsliga regelverken anses i synnerhet kunna uppnås genom att bättre förutsättningar för SME-företag att delta i offentliga upphandlingar skapas. Bestämmelserna avseende ESPD-systemet, skyldigheten för upphandlande myndighet att motivera varför ett kontrakt inte ska delas upp, högsta tillåtna takbelopp för krav på leverantörs årsomsättning och dialog mellan upphandlande myndighet och leverantörer har omnämnts som sådana som särskilt kan bidra till att bättre förutsättningar för SME-företagen skapas.

    ESPD-systemet påstås kunna minska administrativa hinder för SME-företag. De hinder som oftast uppfattas av SME-företag består av att offentliga upphandlingar upplevs vara komplicerade och omfattande. ESPD-systemet förväntas bidra till förenkling för SME-företag och minska tröskeln för att delta i offentliga upphandlingar. Systemet är organiserat i två steg. Det första steget innebär att leverantören lämnar ett preliminärt intygande i ett ESPD-formulär om att denne uppfyller upphandlingens ställda krav och att någon uteslutningsgrund inte är aktuell. I det andra steget genomför den upphandlande myndigheten en kontroll av den lämnade egenförsäkran.

    Att dela upp ett kontrakt i mindre delar och att inte sätta allt för långtgående krav på leverantörens årsomsättning har ansetts innebära att de materiella hindren minskar för SME-företagen. Mindre kontrakt anses vara lättare att hantera för SME-företag och krav på årsomsättningen bör inte sättas för högt med tanke på att SME-företag generellt har en lägre omsättning gentemot ett stort företag. Bestämmelserna som möjliggör dialog mellan upphandlande myndighet och leverantörer har ansetts skapa en grund för ökad kunskap hos bägge parter vilket kan bidra till affärsmässiga hinder för SME-företag minskar, bestående bland annat av att komplexa upphandlingsdokument inte tas fram.

    ESPD-systemet har i dagsläget betydelsen att det skapar ett alternativ för hur leverantörer kan delta i offentliga upphandlingar. Det leder dock inte till ett ökat deltagande av SME-företag eftersom det, trots föresatserna, inte bidrar till minskad administrativ börda. Att dela upp ett kontrakt i mindre delar, sätta ett lägre omsättningskrav och föra dialog kan däremot skapa bättre förutsättningar för SME-företag i offentliga upphandlingar. Dessa bestämmelser tycks således bidra till ett ökat deltagande av SME-företag. Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att de upphandlingsrättsliga regelverken ger goda förutsättningar för SME-företagen att delta i offentliga upphandlingar. Det är dock inte regelverket i sig som får betydelse eller bidrar till ett ökat deltagande av SME-företagen, utan tillämpningen av regelverket.

  • Blomdahl, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Produktingripanden på finansmarknaden: Leder begränsningar och förbud till ett stärkt investerarskydd för ickeprofessionella kunder?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    På finansmarknaden finns det flera olika typer finansiella instrument och utbudet ökar stadigt. Utvecklingen har lett till att det har blivit svårare för icke-professionella kunder att utvärdera riskerna med instrumenten. Vissa finansiella instrument som finns på marknaden är så kallade finansiella derivatinstrument, vars värde beror på en underliggande tillgångs värdeutveckling. En ny reglering om produktgodkännande av finansiella instrument introducerades genom Europaparlamentets och rådets direktiv 2014/65/EU. Processen för produktgodkännande är reglerad i 8 kap. 13 § lag (2007:528) om värdepappersmarknaden. Regleringen innebär att, värdepappersinstitut måste ha en välordnad process för godkännande av egenproducerade finansiella instrument innan marknadsföring eller distribution till kund får ske.

    I och med Europaparlamentets och rådets direktiv 2014/65/EU och Europaparlamentets och rådets förordning (EU) nr 600/2014, har nationella behöriga myndigheter och Esma erhållit befogenhet att utföra produktingripanden. Syftet med produktingripanden är att skydda ickeprofessionella kunder från produkter på finansmarknaden som är riskfyllda och har svårbedömda egenskaper. Esma har nyligen publicerat ett åtgärdsförslag avseende begränsningar av marknadsföring, distribution och försäljning av contracts for difference samt ett förbud av marknadsföring, distribution och försäljning av binära optioner till ickeprofessionella kunder.

    I uppsatsen visas att produktingripanden är ett verktyg som kan komma att gynna både nationella behöriga myndigheter och Esma i tillsynsarbetet, i syfte att stärka investerarskyddet för icke-professionella kunder. Samarbetet mellan Esma och nationella behöriga myndigheter bör även utvecklas för att genomdriva framtida åtgärdsförslag. Åtgärdsförslag bör främst vara antagna av Esma för att därefter antas av nationella behöriga myndigheter inom EU. Genom ett sådant tillvägagångssätt kan harmoniseringsarbetet, avseende regleringen av kapitalmarknaden i EU, fortsätta på ett ändamålsenligt sätt. I uppsatsen visas även att Esma:s nuvarande åtgärdsförslag, angående begränsningar och förbud av marknadsföring, distribution och försäljning av contracts for difference och binära optioner, är ett välgrundat förslag med beaktande av de risker som icke-professionella kunder utsätts för vid handel av dessa riskfyllda finansiella derivatinstrument.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-18 13:00 Rosensalen, Jönköping
    Thörne, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Läkare, lärande och interaktion i hälso-och sjukvårdspraktiker2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The level of complexity within healthcare services is continually increasing. These services are put under pressure by changing demographics and associated illness profiles, the influence of globalization, and the introduction of new technologies. Physicians are expected to perform and develop their daily work in cooperation with other healthcare professionals and in association with increasing levels of patient involvement. In such a changing and challenging healthcare environment, more knowledge is needed about how learning takes place and how learning can be facilitated and developed in the daily provision of healthcare services.

    Aim: The overarching aim of this dissertation is to deepen our knowledge and understanding of the pedagogic processes and the learning that takes place in healthcare practices, with particular focus on physicians’ learning.

    Methods: The research methodology employed in this dissertation includes interviews and field studies that used an interactive research approach. Authentic healthcare practices, including physicians, other care providers, patients, clinical tools in use, and the spatial arrangements within which the healthcare practices were performed were studied. The data that was collected was analyzed from a practice-theory perspective, thus allowing the researcher to identify and describe several dimensions of learning and interaction in healthcare practices.

    Results: The pedagogic processes that were identified in the physicians’ and the other healthcare practitioners’ daily work with their patients can be described as read-guide-learning support. The pedagogic dimension of this work was not immediately revealed nor was it overtly articulated. The physicians dynamically, by themselves, taught and supported the junior physicians and other healthcare providers’ learning. The physicians’ mobility in a variety of healthcare contexts was of relevance to the learning that took place. By viewing specific healthcare contexts as performing health care practices during the study, a rounds work emerged which included both (i) co-produced learning rounds and (ii) operative rounds which gave rise to limited learning. The interaction between arrangements in healthcare practices, ‘practice architectures’, and the performance of the healthcare practices actually limited the junior physicians’ learning.

    Implications of the study: A proper understanding of the learning that takes place during the daily work in the provision of healthcare – by revealing and examining the pedagogic dimensions of the work that is done – can contribute to the development of learning and learning support mechanisms. Co-produced learning healthcare practices, where each participant’s needs and contributions are taken into account, have direct implications for professional development initiatives and learning, for patient involvement in their healthcare arrangements, and for interprofessional and inter-disciplinary cooperation. Such practices also provide responsible leaders and decision-makers with the opportunity to tie in healthcare quality assurance work with the daily work that is performed by healthcare practitioners in the field. 

    List of papers
    1. Pedagogical processes in health care: an exploratory study of pedagogic work with patients and next of kin
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pedagogical processes in health care: an exploratory study of pedagogic work with patients and next of kin
    2009 (English)In: Education for Health, ISSN 1357-6283, E-ISSN 1469-5804, Vol. 22, no 3, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Care and education have much in common, and work in the healthcare sector is closely associated with learning and teaching. It is felt that many in the healthcare and medical services are not aware of their pedagogic skills and how they can be developed. FRAME OF REFERENCE: Belonging to a community of practice means that you share perspectives, methods and language. OBJECTIVE: The aim is to describe the pedagogical discourse by identifying pedagogical processes and studying the staffs awareness of such processes or situations in which a pedagogical approach would be useful in their work with patients and next of kin. METHOD: A qualitative study based on individual and group interviews. The analysis is directed by grounded theory. RESULTS: The pedagogical processes varied in length and quality. Most were unplanned and were usually embedded in treatment. The pedagogical process is linear (planning, goal setting, teaching and evaluating) in an educational setting but we found that the beginning and end can be unclear and the goals can be vague or non-existent. The pedagogical process is best described using the concepts Read, Guide and Provide learning support. DISCUSSION: The pedagogical discourse in healthcare is almost silent. Data indicate that at the collective level there is very little support for professional development of pedagogical ability. Tacit knowledge may therefore remain silent even though it may be possible to formulate and describe it. CONCLUSIONS: There is a strong need to focus on the pedagogical parts of the work and to encourage and support the development of professional pedagogical knowledge.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Carfax Publishing, 2009
    National Category
    Pedagogy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-56867 (URN)
    Available from: 2010-06-08 Created: 2010-06-08 Last updated: 2018-04-20
    2. The Dynamics of Physicians’ Learning and Support of Others’ Learning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Dynamics of Physicians’ Learning and Support of Others’ Learning
    2014 (English)In: Professions & Professionalism, ISSN 1893-1049, E-ISSN 1893-1049, Vol. 4, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Learning has been defined as a condition for improving the quality of healthcare practice. The focus of this paper is on physicians’ learning and their support of others’ learning in the context of Swedish healthcare. Data were generated through individual and focus group interviews and analyzed from a socio-material practice theory perspective. During their workday, physicians dynamically alternated between their own learning and their support of others’ learning in individual patient processes. Learning and learning support were interconnected with the versatile mobility of physicians across different contexts and their participation in multiple communities of collaboration and through tensions between responsibilities in healthcare. The findings illustrate how learning enactments are framed by the existing “practice architectures.” We argue that productive reflection on dimensions of learning enactments in practice can enhance physicians’ professional learning and improve professional practice.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Högskolan Oslo och Akershus, 2014
    Keyword
    professional practice; physicians; learning; workplace learning; practice theory; interprofessional learning
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences Social Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105998 (URN)10.7577/pp.605 (DOI)
    Available from: 2014-04-16 Created: 2014-04-16 Last updated: 2018-04-20Bibliographically approved
    3. Co-Producing Interprofessional Round Work: Designing Spaces for Patient Partnership
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Co-Producing Interprofessional Round Work: Designing Spaces for Patient Partnership
    2017 (English)In: Quality Management in Health Care, ISSN 1063-8628, E-ISSN 1550-5154, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 70-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Within wide-ranging quality improvement agendas, patient involvement in health care is widely accepted as crucial. Ward rounds that include patients active participation are growing as an approach to involve patients, ensure safety, and improve quality. An emerging approach to studying quality improvement is to focus on "clinical microsystems," where patients, professionals, and information systems interact. This provides an opportunity to study ward rounds more deeply. A new model of conducting ward rounds implemented through quality improvement work was studied, using the theory of practice architectures as an analytical tool. Practice architecture focuses on the cultural-discursive, social-political, and material-economic conditions that shape what people do in their work. Practice architecture is a sociomaterial theoretical perspective that has the potential to change how we understand relationships between practice, learning, and change. In this study, we examine howchanges in practices are accomplished. The results show that practice architecture formed co-productive learning rounds, a possible model integrating quality improvement in daily work. This emerged in the interplay between patients through their " double participation" (as people and as information on screens), and groups of professionals in a ward round room. However, social interplay had to be renegotiated in order to accomplish the goals of all ward rounds.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2017
    Keyword
    clinical microsystem; co-production; practice architectures; sociomaterial practice theory; quality improvement; ward round; workplace learning
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137402 (URN)10.1097/QMH.0000000000000133 (DOI)000399390400003 ()28375953 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2018-04-20
  • Sundström Wallström, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Oscarson, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Arbetslivet och arbetsplatsotrygghet: Individuella erfarenheter av det nya arbetslivet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under de senaste decennierna har arbetslivet förändrats med bland annat en minskning av fasta anställningar och en ökning av andra typer av anställningsformer. Tidigare forskning speglar vad som kallas det nya arbetslivet, vilket karaktäriseras av högre arbetsmarknadskonkurrens, krav på ökad flexibilitet och ökad kompentens. Detta väckte intresse för denna uppsats, med målsättning att belysa hur yrkesverksamma individer, utan fasta anställningar upplever det nya arbetslivet.

    Uppsatsen låter individen ta en central roll, genom en kvalitativ ansats med tio samtalsintervjuer, som därefter har analyserats tematiskt. Analysen visar att möjligheten att påverka och att kunna planera tid är viktiga faktorer för individen, men även att ledarskap och organisationens stabilitet har betydelse.

  • Klindt, Mads Peter
    et al.
    Aalborg University, Denmark.
    Costa, Daniella
    University of Aveiro, Portugal.
    Dopheide, Emile
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Glad, Wiktoria
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Tikkanen, Tarja
    University of Stavanger, Norway.
    Measuring University-Society Collaboration: Recommendations for University of Aveiro2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document is a strategic project report for the University of Aveiro (UA) that addresses the university’s ambition of institutionalizing and measuring collaboration with society. In recent years, responding to developments in Portugal’s higher education policy UA has developed institutional data in order to support performance monitoring, strategic planning and decision-making. The university is well equipped with performance indicators as regards research and education. But how can UA assess the work that faculty and students are doing within the broader regional community and how can impact of collaboration be measured? Based on research literature, the report discusses the prospects and pitfalls of measuring universities’ third mission. The report then compares how four other European universities manage university-society collaboration including how they measure impact. The report finalizes by presenting a number of recommendations for UA.

  • Bustad, Siri Dam
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Kollegialt lärande: en analys av begreppet och hur det används i några svenska kommuners utbildningsförvaltningar2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats tar utgångspunkt i begreppet kollegialt lärande som de senaste åren har blivit ett välbekant inslag i svenska skolor. Studien riktar sig mot att undersöka hur kollegialt lärande beskrivs, initieras och används på huvudmannanivå i några svenska kommuner. Den akademiska litteratur som behandlar kollegialt lärande är begränsad. Med den utgångspunkten tar litteraturdelen form av en begreppsanalys. Begreppet kollegialt lärande är ingen vetenskaplig term och kan sägas vara ett paraplybegrepp för olika former av lärande och kunskapsutveckling i skolan. Begreppet myntades i samband med ett regeringsuppdrag till Skolverket i början 2010-talet om att utveckla underlag för undervisningsutvecklande insatser till skolorna för att vända den neråtgående resultattrenden bland svenska ungdomar i PISA- undersökningarna. Undersökningen i denna uppsats följer en kvalitativ forskningsansats och utförs som en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. De data som ligger till grund för analysen är dokument från de valda kommunernas hemsidor och som sökts fram genom begreppet kollegialt lärande. Resultatet av undersökningen visar stora variationer i förhållande till både hur begreppet kollegialt lärande beskrivs och hur det förekommer på huvudmannanivå i de olika kommunerna. Gemensamt för de olika huvudmännen förefaller vara föreställningen om att lärarnas kompetens kan höjas genom kollegialt lärande och att detta kan stärka elevernas måluppfyllelse.

     

  • Public defence: 2018-05-25 13:00 Key 1, Hus Key, Linköping
    Daugaard, Solveig
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Collaborating with Gertrude Stein: Media ecologies, reception, poetics2018Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The reception of the American avant-garde poet, playwright, art collector and salon hostess Gertrude Stein (1874-1946) has to a wide extent taken place in an aesthetic context prior to her work’s academic and hermeneutic canonization. This thesis is in part a mapping of this transmedia reception as it is played out in a North American context in the period from her death and until today, and in part an account of Stein’s particular collaborative poetics, through which her work invites such a reception. Furthermore, the thesis maintains that we in a contemporary context are experien­cing a still increasing receptivity towards Stein’s oeuvre, that seems more relevant today than ever before.  

    These circumstances, the thesis illuminates and discusses via a media theoretical framework, where Stein’s own work, as well as its aesthetic reception is considered as embedded in a complex media ecology. Media ecology is here conceived as a de­centralized, networked approach to aesthetic phenomena, which is able to contain many types of agents and materialities. The media ecology of an artwork is thus po­tentially made up by the entire network of processes, agents and materials that are relevant to its production, distribution and consumption and influences the subject positions available to the individual agents.

    Through Stein’s aesthetic reception it is possible to catch sight of important compo­nents that are active in the media ecology but often neglected or considered subor­dinated to text-internal features. These include the material interface of the medium in question, the aestheticized persona of the artist and infrastructures such as the salon, which affect how and to whom the work and its meanings are distributed. The thesis also traces a number of parallels between the media situation of Stein in the beginning of the 20th century and the digital media situation at the verge of the 21st that suggest both explanations for and implications of her increasing contemporary relevance.

  • Guan, Na N.
    et al.
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sharma, Nimish
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hallén‐Grufman, Katarina
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Jager, Edwin W. H.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Sensor and Actuator Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svennersten, Karl
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Section of Urology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden / Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    The role of ATP signalling in response to mechanical stimulation studied in T24 cells using new microphysiological tools2018In: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine (Print), ISSN 1582-1838, E-ISSN 1582-4934, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 2319-2328Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to store urine and initiate voiding is a valued characteristic of the human urinary bladder. To maintain this feature, it is necessary that the bladder can sense when it is full and when it is time to void. The bladder has a specialized epithelium called urothelium that is believed to be important for its sensory function. It has been suggested that autocrine ATP signalling contributes to this sensory function of the urothelium. There is well‐established evidence that ATP is released via vesicular exocytosis as well as by pannexin hemichannels upon mechanical stimulation. However, there are still many details that need elucidation and therefore there is a need for the development of new tools to further explore this fascinating field. In this work, we use new microphysiological systems to study mechanostimulation at a cellular level: a mechanostimulation microchip and a silicone‐based cell stretcher. Using these tools, we show that ATP is released upon cell stretching and that extracellular ATP contributes to a major part of Ca2+ signalling induced by stretching in T24 cells. These results contribute to the increasing body of evidence for ATP signalling as an important component for the sensory function of urothelial cells. This encourages the development of drugs targeting P2 receptors to relieve suffering from overactive bladder disorder and incontinence.

  • Erlingsson, Gissur Ó
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hessling, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hur regleras kommunala bolags möjligheter att sponsra?2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ibland uppmärksammas att kommunala bolag sponsrar föreningar och evenemang. Inte sällan är rapporteringen kritisk. Här aktualiseras bland annat vad som är tillåtet, lämpligt och etiskt i relation till sponsringsaktiviteterna. Emellertid är det inte uppenbart vad som gäller: Vad reglerar egentligen kommunala bolags möjligheter att sponsra, och när är det lämpligt för dem att göra det?

    Syftet med föreliggande rapport är tredelat; 1) att identifiera det eller de regelverk kommunala bolag bör förhålla sig till vid sponsringsbeslut, 2) att ge en kvalificerad uppskattning av i vilken utsträckning kommunala bolag förhåller sig till regelverket; och slutligen, att med grund i resultaten från dessa två delstudier, 3) formulera principer avseende hur sponsringsfrågan kan hanteras på ett korrekt och ändamålsenligt sätt lokalt. Målsättningen med detta är att stimulera till en konstruktiv diskussion om reglering och genomförande av sponsring via kommunala bolag.

    Rapportens syften försöker vi uppfylla genom att ta itu med fyra frågeområden:

    • Vilken lagstiftning och vilka principer bör kommuner och deras bolag förhålla sig till när de ska fatta sponsringsbeslut?
    • Har kommunerna i vårt urval policyer och riktlinjer för sponsring?
    • Hur ser faktiska policyer och riktlinjer för sponsring ut, och hur harmonierar dessa med det regelverk som bör reglera möjligheterna att sponsra?
    • I vilken utsträckning sponsrar kommunala bolag och vilka aktörer sponsras?

    Undersökningen utgör en explorativ pilotstudie av sju kommuner som granskas närmare. Studien visar en stor variation avseende på vilken nivå riktlinjer finns och vad dessa innehåller. Någon kommun saknar helt riktlinjer på kommun- och koncernnivå, andra har det bara på koncern- och bolagsnivå; ytterligare några har övergripande riktlinjer för såväl kommunen som de kommunala bolagen. När vi jämför de principer som vi identifierat som reglerande inom området, med vad som faktiskt återfinns i lokala policyer och riktlinjer, är intrycket att dessa inte alltid relaterar till relevanta lagar och principer, och policyer och riktlinjer ser olika ut från kommun till kommun. Detta i sig behöver inte betyda att bolagen bryter mot existerande regelverk. Men risken för regelöverträdelser torde dock minimeras, om relevanta lagar och principer är specificerade i lokala policyer och riktlinjer, liksom att detta gjorts känt ute i organisationerna, i synnerhet bland aktörer som beslutar om sponsring.

    Vi finner vidare att bolag i samtliga kommuner bedriver sponsringsverksamhet, om än i varierande grad. Framförallt rör det sig om sponsring av idrotts- och kulturföreningar, och större evenemang inom kommunen. Inte sällan är elitidrottsföreningar mottagare av sponsring. I de fall där en kommunal sponsringspolicy finns, bedömer vi att denna följs i majoriteten av fallen.

    Att sponsring regelmässigt förekommer i kommunala bolag, och att den – givet vår måttstock – i förekommande fall är svagt reglerad, understryker behovet av kunskapsutveckling. I rapporten växer en bild fram av bolagens sponsringsverksamhet som saknar tydlig ansvars- och beslutsfördelning; och vi noterar sponsring som riktas mot såväl elitidrott som (i enskilda fall) mot enskilda aktiebolag. De två kommuner som saknar kommunala eller koncernspecifika policyer hör dessutom till dem som lägger allra mest pengar inom bolagens respektive sponsringsverksamhet.

    En huvudpoäng är att kommunerna och deras bolag bättre behöver analysera (och externt kommunicera): 1) varför bolagen bedriver sponsringsverksamhet, 2) hur sponsringen ser ut, vilka man väljer att sponsra och vilka motprestationer man får, samt 3) på vilka grunder sponsringen görs i konkreta fall, 4) vem/vilka individer (eller organ) som i slutänden fattar beslut om detta (och med vilket mandat/förankring), och 5) hur sponsringen följs upp och utvärderas. Sammantaget visar våra resultat, och de frågor de ger upphov till, att det finns ett behov av att föra en aktiv diskussion om bolagens sponsringsverksamhet, samt uppmärksamma och sprida goda exempel på hur kommuner hanterat och reglerat frågan lokalt. Att vi funnit kunskapsluckor i flera avseenden, samt viss avvägningsproblematik, pekar på behovet av fördjupad forskning på området.

  • Revenhorn, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Jansén, Pontus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Augmented reality och dess pedagogiska implikationer: en analys baserad på ett sociokulturellt perspektiv2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study has been to partly investigate what the application of Augmented Reality tools could look like within the context of formal classroom didactics and partly to discover how these pedagogical tools can be supported from a sociocultural perspective. The study shows that AR (Augmented reality) can provide an increased production of knowledge and motivation, and also develop a significantly more positive attitude towards the learning process and the teaching material. The technology enhances students’ learning within the Proximal Zone of Development (ZDP) and can act as a scaffolding structure in the learning process. Due to the interactive nature that Augmented reality provides, students are provided with the opportunity to participate actively in their own learning and development

  • Ogenfalk, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Arildsson, Fia
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Läs- och skrivsvårigheter: - med speciell inriktning mot ADHD och dyslexi2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att se hur forskning beskriver och definierar läs- och skrivsvårigheter med särskild inriktning mot barn med ADHD och dyslexi, samt ta reda på vilka pedagogiska insatser som forskningen presenterar för att främja elevers språkutveckling.  Studien baseras på äldre och nyare forskningsstudier kring vårt valda område. Uppsatsen ger en översikt om hur forskningen reder ut begreppen läs- och skrivsvårigheter och ADHD och dyslexi. Det som också med hjälp av forskningen reds ut är vilka pedagogiska insatser som främjar elevers språkutveckling. Sammanfattande visar resultatet att det finns samband mellan läs- och skrivsvårigheter och ADHD och dyslexi, samt samband mellan diagnoserna ADHD och dyslexi. Resultatet pekar också på att de pedagogiska insatserna inte skiljer sig markant, utan är likvärdiga för elever med dessa svårigheter.

  • Holmberg, Kaj
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Prepared Test Instances Extracted from OpenStreetMapData Using Different Network Reductions2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the effect of different reductions when importing networksfrom OpenStreetMap data. We describe the network reductions and report computationaltests for doing the network extraction and reduction. We also show the effect ofthe reductions by solving a few standard optimization problems in the resulting networks.Computational tests show that the reductions have a dramatic effect on thenetwork size and the time needed for solving the optimization problems. In many cases,the reductions are necessary in order to be able to solve the optimization problem inreasonable time. A practical result of this work is a set of networks that will be usedas benchmarks in future research, and are publically available for other researchers.

  • Landell, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    ”Pedagogen ska lära ut en konstform…och som regissör måste jag tänka pedagogiskt”: en studie av teaterlärares arbete med en teaterföreställning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att bidra med ökad förståelse för vad teaterlärares pedagogiska arbete med en teaterföreställning, utifrån ett mediespecifikt lärande, innebär inom kulturskolan. Utifrån syftet har följande frågor ställts: Hur kan teaterlärares arbete med en föreställning beskrivas? Hur kan teaterlärares roll i arbetet med en föreställning beskrivas?

    Ansatsen i studien är inspirerad av etnografi och fältforskning. Två teaterlärare inom kulturskolan följdes i arbetet med en teaterföreställning. Deltagande observation och intervjuer är de huvudsakliga datainsamlingsmetoderna. Vid observationerna fördes fältanteckningar. Intervjuerna spelades in och transkriberades därefter. Analys av datamaterialet gjordes genom att gruppera och sortera materialet i teman.

    Uppsatsen bidrar med en ökad förståelse för vad teaterlärares pedagogiska arbete med en teaterföreställning, utifrån ett mediespecifikt lärande, innebär inom kulturskolan genom att beskriva teaterlärares arbete och roll i det arbetet. I resultatet blir två riktningar tydliga i teaterlärares arbete med en teaterföreställning. Dels en riktning mot lärande och dels en mot skapande. I arbetet med elevers lärande och skapande i föreställningsarbetet är lärarna i sin roll både medskapande och intar en ledarfunktion. Lärarna arbetar i en teaterkonstnärlig tradition och detta genomsyrar det skapande arbetet. En röd tråd i lärarnas arbete med skapande är att driva föreställningsprocessen framåt och att samspela med eleverna. En framträdande roll har arbetet med att driva idéer och skapa helhet, regiarbete och arbete med en föreställnings olika uttryck. I resultatet framstår att arbetet med lärande har fokus på skådespelarpraktik, att det finns drag av både oförutsägbart och planerat lärande och konstnärliga val blir ett sätt att vidga elevers konstnärliga erfarenhet. Teaterlärarnas roll kan beskrivas som medkonstruktör som kännetecknas av att de är både medskapare och ledare i föreställningsarbetet. Rollen som medkonstruktör tar sig i uttryck i en arbetsledarroll med konstnärliga och pedagogiska dimensioner.

  • Larsson, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    Embodied Understanding in Computer Programming: A semiotic analysis of metaphors used in programming2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Language can be seen as a bridge between the way we think and our actions. From a social semiotic, language

    becomes a resource with which collective knowledge can be distributed. The way we talk about an artefact is

    a reflection of our conceptual understanding thereof. Often, we use conceptual metaphors to communicate

    abstract concepts in abstract reasoning domains such as computer science. Conceptual metaphors are formed

    in relation to primary metaphors and are grounded in sensorimotor experience. Primary metaphors can be used

    to analyse how we embody our conceptual understanding of specific concepts. The aims of this study are

    threefold: Firstly, to explore how conceptual metaphors are used by students and teachers while engaging in

    conversations about computer programming; secondly, to analyse the emergent conceptual metaphors to

    identify how teachers and students understand abstract aspects about computer programming and thirdly, to

    identify the sensorimotor experiences that contribute to shaping the conceptual metaphors used by the

    students and the teachers. Two teachers and three students from two different upper-secondary schools

    engaged in informal conversations regarding aspects of computer programming. The conversations were audiorecorded,

    and excerpts were transcribed verbatim and translated into English. The excerpts were analysed by

    adopting a methodological framework based on Grady’s theory of primary metaphor. Results suggest that

    teachers and students have a multi-faceted conceptual understanding of computer science that involves

    concepts such as spatial relations, similarities between objects and computer code. Other emergent aspects

    concerned interpersonal relationships, in relation to customer service and social skills. The findings imply that

    expanding the number of available conceptual metaphors could lead to a more diverse set of didactic tools in

    computer science education, thus increasing overall conceptual understanding.

  • Lyding, Annie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Studieavgifter i högskolan: Betalande tredjelandsstudenters rätt till återbetalning av studieavgift vid undermålig utbildningskvalitet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    För tredjelandsmedborgare är universitets- och högskoleutbildningen i Sverige avgiftsbelagd. En person som vill studera i Sverige betalar först en anmälningsavgift för att kunna bli antagen, och sedan studieavgiften för att få tillträde till utbildningen. Alla högre utbildningar, som leder till en examen, ska hålla hög kvalitet, enligt HL.

    Frågor som uppstår är huruvida en betalande student har rätt till prisavdrag eller hävning till följd av att en utbildning inte håller hög kvalitet, och, om svaret är jakande, följaktligen enligt vilka regler påföljden kan aktualiseras. För att utreda detta har ett antal rättsfall analyserats, där avtalsrättsliga spörsmål uppkommit mellan den offentliga sektorn och privatpersoner. Av dessa prejudikat dras slutsatsen att, trots inslag av myndighetsutövning, förhållanden av övervägande privaträttslig karaktär ska bedömas enligt civilrättsliga regler. I förhållandet mellan en student och en högskola, torde de privaträttsliga inslagen överväga de offentligrättsliga, varför civilrättsliga bestämmelser bör reglera förhållandet. Denna typ av rättsligt förhållande omfattas dock varken av KKöpL, KtjL eller KöpL, varför jag undersökt huruvida analogier från nyss uppräknade lagar kan göras. Att göra analogislut från KtjL på en utbildning torde inte vara främmande, men inte heller optimalt.

    Vidare måste frågan när en utbildning är så bristfällig att det kan anses utgöra fel besvaras. Här har jag utgått bland annat från UKÄ:s granskning och utvärdering av kvalitet på högre utbildningar i Sverige. Bedömning att en utbildning håller ifrågasatt kvalitet bör kunna leda till påföljder för högskolan på grund av kontraktsbrott mot studenten. UKÄ:s bedömning torde dock inte vara den enda grunden för påföljd. Brist i kvaliteten bör även kunna åberopas utan sådan granskning, men bevisbördan ligger hos studenten. De påföljder som blir aktuella är i första hand prisavdrag, och vid väsentliga brister hävning. Avhjälpande torde vara svårt att genomföra i dessa fall.

    Avslutningsvis diskuteras huruvida dagens lagstiftning är tillräcklig eller om ny behövs. Att analogier från exempelvis KtjL kan göras står klart, men det är inte en tillfredsställande lösning i det långa loppet. Med tanke främst på studenternas intresse av att ha en tydlig lagstiftning kring studieavgiften och rättigheterna kring denna, men även högskolans intresse av att erbjuda utbildning av hög kvalitet och vara medvetna om vad som förväntas av dem, torde det mest önskvärda vara ny lagstiftning som reglerar studenternas rättigheter när högskolan inte uppfyller kvalitetskraven.

  • Slavnic, Mateja
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Avtalsprincipen och borgenärernas ställning: I ljuset av traditionsprincipens nuvarande tillämpning och den utsökningsrättsliga presumtionsregeln i 4:18 UB2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Allt sedan traditionsprincipen i början av 1900-talet fick klart fäste i svensk rätt har olika syften angetts för, samt krav uppställts med principen. Syftet torde numera vara stävjandet av borgenärsbedrägliga transaktioner. Vad gäller uppställda krav för erhållandet av borgenärsskydd, synes domstolarna frångått att tillmäta faktisk besittningsövergång och publicitet avgörande betydelse.

    Även om rättsläget kan betecknas som oklart, torde det avgörande numera vara att en överlåtare avskurits från sin rådighet över den överlåtna egendomen i form av avskuren mottagande- och betalningslegitimation eller förhindrats från att fortsatt bruka egendomen.

    Om en övergång till avtalsprincipen skulle kunna vara till för- eller nackdel för borgenärskollektivet är inte entydigt eftersom det går att framhålla argument åt båda håll. I förevarande uppsats framhålls dock att det individualiseringskrav som föreslås uppställas för lösöreöverlåtelser vid en övergång till avtalsprincipen, möjligen skulle kunna föranleda ett ökat antal borgenärsbedrägliga transaktioner. Företagshypotekets ställning som säkerhet skulle vidare vid en övergång till avtalsprincipen kunna påverkas negativt, men däremot torde den gränsöverskridande handel som Sverige bedriver inte beröras i någon nämnvärd utsträckning.

    Uttalanden från representanter för våra nordiska grannländer vad gäller avtalsprincipens tillämpning i deras respektive rättsordningar, bör inte okritiskt godtas som argument för hur en övergång till avtalsprincipen i svensk rätt skulle kunna ta sig uttryck. Däremot föranleder traditionsprincipens redan förändrade innebörd att en eventuell övergång inte nödvändigtvis skulle innebära en omvälvande förändring av rättsläget.

    Det är först vid en övergång till avtalsprincipen som de utmätningsrättsliga  presumtionsreglerna anses kunna bli av betydelse vid tredje mäns äganderättsanspråk grundade på förvärv. Det torde uppställas höga krav på presumtionens brytande och ur den aspekten bör gäldenärens förmögenhet, vid en övergång till avtalsprincipen, inte minska markant till följd av tredjemansanspråk.

  • Dagerstig, Olivia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Svarthandel med hyreskontrakt: – En kritisk analys av de överväganden och förslag avseende åtgärder mot handel med hyreskontrakt som presenteras i SOU 2017:862018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hyresmarknaden är bristfällig och präglas av svarthandel med hyreskontrakt. I ett steg att komma tillrätta med problematiken har regeringen upprättat åtta bedömningar och förslag i SOU 2017:86; ”Hyresmarknad utan svarthandel och otillåten andrahandsuthyrning”, vars syfte är att motverka den svarthandel med hyreskontrakt som förekommer.

     

    Svarthandel med hyreskontrakt har förekommit i flera decennier. Den ökar inte bara i omfattning utan har även spridits till den organiserade brottsligheten. Problemet måste motverkas, att legalisera handeln hade varit att undergräva hyresrättens sociala skyddsnät. I motverkandet bär det allmänna ett stort ansvar, men ansvaret bör även delegeras till exempelvis fastighetsägare. Ett vanligt sätt att sälja hyreskontrakt är att utnyttja bytesregeln för att förklä transaktionen. Bytesregeln bör således revideras. Vidare utnyttjas i vissa fall även familjerättsliga överlåtelseregler för att sälja hyreskontrakt. Det missbruket är dock inte av sådan omfattning att en revidering av lagen kan motiveras. En annan åtgärd som bör införas i motverkandet av svarthandeln är möjligheten för en hyresvärd att kräva hyresrättens förverkande när otillåten ersättning har förekommit. Att införa en civilrättslig sanktion är ett välkommet komplement till de redan befintliga straffrättsliga sanktionerna. Slutligen kan konstateras att säljare och förmedlare till stor del är ansvariga för att svarthandel med hyreskontrakt förekommer. För att motverka möjligheten för dessa rättssubjekt att fortsätta med svarthandeln bör straffsanktionerna höjas. Detta torde ha en effekt på majoriteten av rättssubjekten. Straffrättsliga sanktioner bör införas även för köparen. Att köparen skulle vara en underlägsen part och därmed kunna likställas med ett offer är inte motiverat.

     

    Sammantaget kan konstateras att de åtgärder som föreslagits i utredningen är genomtänkta, omfattande och ingripande. Åtgärderna kommer med stor trolighet uppfylla syftet att motverka svarthandeln på hyresmarknaden. I vilken omfattning det motverkandet kommer ske är ännu att vänta och se, men det är tydligt att regeringen tar problemen på hyresmarknaden på allvar och att de åtgärder som föreslås speglar detta. Ytterligare åtgärder skulle med fördel kunna införas, till exempel en ny myndighet med ansvar för hyresmarknaden och marknadens aktörer samt utökade resurser till polismyndigheten för mer effektiv lagföring av brotten och tydligare informationsspridning till allmänheten för att motverka normaliseringen av brotten. De åtgärder som faktiskt presenterats i utredningen har dock framtagits med hänsyn till bland annat proportionalitetsprincipen och kostnader, men är på det hela taget mycket väl uttänkta.

  • Atakan, Aylin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Erdtman, Edvin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mäkie, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanostructured Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Time evolution of the CO2 hydrogenation to fuels over Cu-Zr-SBA-15 catalysts2018In: Journal of Catalysis, ISSN 0021-9517, E-ISSN 1090-2694, Vol. 362, p. 55-64Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Time evolution of catalytic CO2 hydrogenation to methanol and dimethyl ether (DME) has been investigated in a high-temperature high-pressure reaction chamber where products accumulate over time. The employed catalysts are based on a nano-assembly composed of Cu nanoparticles infiltrated into a Zr doped SiOx mesoporous framework (SBA-15): Cu-Zr-SBA-15. The CO2 conversion was recorded as a function of time by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the molecular activity on the catalyst’s surface was examined by diffuse reflectance in-situ Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS). The experimental results showed that after 14 days a CO2 conversion of 25% to methanol and DME was reached when a DME selective catalyst was used which was also illustrated by thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. With higher Zr content in the catalyst, greater selectivity for methanol and a total 9.5% conversion to methanol and DME was observed, yielding also CO as an additional product. The time evolution profiles indicated that DME is formed directly from methoxy groups in this reaction system. Both DME and methanol selective systems show the thermodynamically highest possible conversion.

  • Andersson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning.
    Halttunen, Timo
    University of Turku, Finland.
    Nistrup, Ulla
    VIA University College, Denmark.
    Quality in Validation of Prior Learning: Experiences from Work with the Nordic Model for Quality in Validation of Prior Learning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Validation has become a central element in educational policies around the world. In the Nordic countries validation has been practiced especially in the vocational education and training sector (VET) for the past 15–20 years.

    This report explores the question of quality in validation, first by introducing the concept in general and secondly in detail by describing the Nordic Model for quality in validation. The

    researchers were testing the Model in VET institutions in a project coordinated by the Nordic Network on Adult Learning (NVL). Find- ings from the interactive research are presented from a sample of three colleges situated in Denmark, Finland and Sweden. The Nor- dic Model can be seen as a structured way to assess the current sit- uation in validation at an institutional level and to identify areas of development. The research does not focus on the quality itself, but on the process of quality work and the process in the cases.

    In conclusion, the work with the cases speaks for the useful- ness of the Nordic Quality Model for validation as a comprehensive structure for developing the validation system in vocational educa- tion and training.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-25 09:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Söderlund Schaller, Anne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center.
    Impact of Pain and Evaluation of Education and Self-Care in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is not unusual for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) to suffer from both tumor and treatment-related pain that is difficult to alleviate despite individualized pharmacological treatment.

    The presence of concomitant various dimensions of pain in patients during the often difficult period following radiotherapy (RT) has not been elucidated. Several aspects concerning the importance of relatives for HNC patients have been addressed. However, little attention has been given to how relatives perceive patients with HNC pain and it is important to further elucidate this sparsely studied topic. Knowledge about health-related quality of life (HR-QoL) in this patient group during early RT is limited and needs to be assessed in relation to diagnosis and treatment. Self-care (SC) refers to what patients do on their own to achieve, maintain, and promote optimal health and may help reduce pain for several pain conditions. The impact of patient education and SC on pain and other common HNC symptoms need further clarification.

    The aims of this thesis were:

    1. to describe experiences and perceptions of pain in patients with HNC shortly after RT
    2. to describe how relatives perceived the patient’s situation, especially concerning pain, and how they experienced their own situation
    3. to identify factors that impact HR-QoL during early RT
    4. to develop effective pain management strategies, maintain activities of daily living, and promote HR-QoL in patients with HNC undergoing RT using patient education and SC instruction.

    In paper I patients with HNC described existential pain – expressed as fear of death, meaninglessness and guilt – already during and shortly after RT. Physical pain, psychological distress and social withdrawal played a significant role. Patients with HNC who were treated with RT should also proactively be offered treatment for the various dimensions of pain.

    In paper II relatives described their mental stress in response to a challenging situation that required their active support to help ease the patient's difficult condition. The interviews with relatives also revealed a lack of personal knowledge and frustration over the inability to participate in patient care, as well as inadequate support from the healthcare system. Early interventions from the healthcare system on behalf of the relatives may be necessary to meet these needs.

    In Paper III regression models revealed that pain intensity and symptoms of depression adversely affected HR-QoL in patients with HNC during early RT. Customized prehabilitation programs aimed at preventing pain and symptoms of depression could help preserve good HR-QoL.

    Paper IV assessed individual patient education and SC initiatives that resulted in a tendency for lower pain intensity during a portion of RT. One way to potentially enhance the benefits of education and SC could be to improve for example patient motivation and self-efficacy, as well as to optimize supportive efforts from caregivers.

    In conclusion, by identifying factors that can impact HR-QoL and evaluating the effect of patient education and SC, this thesis contributes to knowledge on perceived pain and the patient’s situation during and shortly after RT in patients with HNC and their relatives. This thesis points to the need for evaluation and further development of patient education and effective SC strategies for pain in patients with HNC undergoing RT, as well as for development and evaluation of support strategies for patients with pain and their families during and after RT.

    List of papers
    1. Experiences of Pain: A Longitudinal, Qualitative Study of Patients with Head and Neck Cancer Recently Treated with Radiotherapy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of Pain: A Longitudinal, Qualitative Study of Patients with Head and Neck Cancer Recently Treated with Radiotherapy
    2015 (English)In: Pain Management Nursing, ISSN 1524-9042, E-ISSN 1532-8635, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 336-345Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is not unusual for patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) to suffer from both tumor- and treatment-related pain that is difficult to alleviate despite individualized pain management. The aim of this qualitative study was to describe how HNC patients experience pain and how pain influences those who are treated with radiotherapy (RT). Qualitative semistructured interviews were performed 1 and 6 months after patients completed RT. The interviews addressed symptoms, moods, and suffering. The study included 26 patients with HNC who had recently completed RT. The interviews were analyzed using manifest content analysis. The main category was: HNC patients did not report that their severe physical pain influenced their psychological suffering, but it did influence their social lives. Furthermore, four categories were revealed: pain in the head and neck region, overwhelming fatigue, altered mood and preoccupied mind, and decreased participation and changed relationships. Physical pain, psychological distress, and social withdrawal were prominent at both interviews and consequently their situation can be considered as chronic. Remarkably, patients did not express a clear relationship between pain and psychological load. This may imply a biomedical view of pain or may reflect the difficult situation patients were in (i.e., facing a possibly life-threatening cancer). Thus, their situation might require a prioritization and might negatively affect the possibility of identifying the interaction between the different pain dimensions. The biopsychosocial model of chronic pain aims to understand the interaction between pain and psychosocial factors. Interventions aiming to teach patients with HNC how to internalize the biopsychosocial model framework to manage pain could be useful and should be evaluated in future research.

    National Category
    Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115363 (URN)10.1016/j.pmn.2014.08.010 (DOI)000355212500022 ()25532691 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-03-13 Created: 2015-03-13 Last updated: 2018-04-13
    2. How relatives of patients with head and neck cancer experience pain, disease progression and treatment: A qualitative interview study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How relatives of patients with head and neck cancer experience pain, disease progression and treatment: A qualitative interview study
    2014 (English)In: European Journal of Oncology Nursing, ISSN 1462-3889, E-ISSN 1532-2122, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 405-410Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: This study of relatives to patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) treated with radiotherapy describes how the relatives experienced the patients situation, especially with respect to pain, and how the relatives themselves experienced the situation. Methods: Semi-structured interviews of 21 relatives to HNC patients who suffered from pain were conducted, and a qualitative content analysis was performed. Results: The relatives experienced that the patients suffered from physical, psychological, and social pain. A dark picture consisting of lack of participation and knowledge, psychological distress, and lack of support were reported. Thus, a main category: relatives struggle with loved ones pains related to head and neck cancer treatment and with their own demanding situation - was based on the following four categories: inability to relieve and comprehend the physical suffering of the patients; overwhelming emotions were experienced that affect the patients and the relatives themselves; in need of support from the health care service; and altered daily activities and family roles due to illness and treatment. Conclusion: In patients physical, psychological, and social pain were prominent and in relatives psychological distress, lack of knowledge and support were experienced. Thus, to reduce pain and anxiety in patients and relatives, the health care professionals should provide relevant knowledge about pain management. The health care professionals should also provide educational interventions that address the psychological and social factors that impact pain for HNC patients and their relatives. Well-thought supporting care and easily accessible information about practical concerns should be offered to HNC patients and their relatives.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2014
    Keyword
    Head and neck cancer; Relatives; Pain; Qualitative content analysis; Interviews
    National Category
    Sociology Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109583 (URN)10.1016/j.ejon.2014.03.008 (DOI)000339533600010 ()24726013 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2014-08-21 Created: 2014-08-21 Last updated: 2018-04-13
    3. Quality of life during early radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer and pain
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality of life during early radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer and pain
    2017 (English)In: Journal of Pain Research, ISSN 1178-7090, E-ISSN 1178-7090, Vol. 10, p. 1697-1704Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) have a potentially severe diagnosis and often suffer from tumor-related pain as well as from adverse side effects of treatment such as radiotherapy (RT). Knowledge about quality of life (QoL) during early RT in this group is limited and should be assessed in relation to diagnosis and treatment. Purpose: The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to identify potential factors that may influence QoL in patients with HNC during the early stages of RT (no later than two weeks of ongoing RT). We hypothesized that pain intensity, pain interference, catastrophizing, and mood disturbances are associated with QoL during early RT. Patients and methods: In this study, 54 patients (53% of eligible patients) diagnosed with HNC were consecutively recruited from the regular flow to the Pain and Rehabilitation Center at Linkoping University. The patients completed self-reported questionnaires on sociodemo-graphics, pain intensity, pain interference, anxiety, depression, pain catastrophizing, and QoL. Results: The patients in this study scored high for QoL, low for pain intensity, and low for pain interference. The patients reported minor depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms. Regression analyses showed that pain intensity and depressive symptoms negatively influenced QoL. Conclusion: No later than two weeks of RT, pain intensity and depression negatively influenced QoL in patients with HNC. Early screening for pain and depression in a targeted preventive strategy might maintain QoL during the course of the RT for patients with HNC. This assumption needs to be further investigated.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    DOVE MEDICAL PRESS LTD, 2017
    Keyword
    pain; quality of life; head and neck cancer; radiotherapy; cross-sectional study
    National Category
    Physiotherapy
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139653 (URN)10.2147/JPR.S138113 (DOI)000405597700005 ()28761374 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2017-08-16 Created: 2017-08-16 Last updated: 2018-04-13
  • Jakobsson, Anders
    et al.
    Huawei Technologies Sweden AB, Kista 164 94, Sweden.
    Serban (Craciunescu), Adriana
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gong, Shaofang
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Low Noise RC-based Phase Interpolator in 16-nm CMOS2018In: IEEE Transactions on Circuits and Systems - II - Express Briefs, ISSN 1549-7747, E-ISSN 1558-3791Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a passive analog phase interpolator, utilizing a switched RC-network. The proposed circuit eliminates the current sources in a phase interpolator based on constant-slope charging. By eliminating the current source, the noise is significantly reduced due to the reduction in thermal and flicker noise. The phase interpolator has a resolution of 6 bits and is implemented in a 16-nm CMOS process. The maximum differential non-linearity is measured to be 0.1 LSBs at a 192 ps input time delta. The circuit draws 0.2 mW from a 0.8 V supply, and occupies 0.004 mm2.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-14 13:00 Bella Donna, Linköping
    Danielsson, Marita
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Patient Safety - Cultural Perspectives2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Shared values, norms and beliefs of relevance for safety in health care can be described in terms of patient safety culture. This concept overlaps with patient safety climate, but culture represents the deeprooted values, norms and beliefs, whereas climate refers to attitudes and more superficial manifestations of culture. There may be numerous subcultures within an organization, including different professional cultures. In recent years, increased attention has been paid to patient safety culture in Sweden, and the patient safety culture/climate in health care is regularly measured based on the assumption that patient safety culture/climate can influence various patient safety outcomes.

    Aim: The overall aim of the thesis is to contribute to an improved understanding of patient safety culture and subcultures in Swedish health care.

    Design and methods: The thesis is based on four studies applying different methods. Study 1 was a survey that included 23,781 respondents. Data were analysed with quantitative methods, with primarily descriptive results. Studies 2 and 3 were qualitative studies, involving interviews with a total of 28 registered nurses, 24 nurse assistants and 28 physicians. Interview data were analysed using content analysis. Study 4 evaluated an intervention intended to influence patient safety culture and included data from a questionnaire with both fixed and open-ended questions, which was answered by 200 respondents.

    Results: A key result from Study 1 was that professional groups differed in terms of their views and statements about patient safety culture/ climate. Registered nurses and nurse assistants in Study 2 were found to have partially overlapping norms, values and beliefs concerning patient safety, which were identified at individual, interpersonal and organizational level. Study 3 found four categories of values and norms among physicians of potential relevance for patient safety. Predominantly positive perceptions were found in Study 4 concerning the Walk Rounds intervention among frontline staff members, local managers and top-level managers who participated in the intervention. However, there were also reflections on disadvantages and some suggestions for improvement.

    Conclusions: According to the results of the patient safety culture/ climate questionnaire, perceptions about safety culture/climate dimensions contribute more to the rating of overall patient safety than background characteristics (e.g. profession and years of experience). There are differences in the patient safety culture between registered nurses and nurse assistants, which imply that efforts for improved patient safety must be tailored to their respective values, norms and beliefs. Several aspects of physicians’ professional culture may have relevance for patient safety. Expectations of being infallible reduce their willingness to talk about errors they make, thus limiting opportunities for learning from errors. Walk Rounds are perceived to contribute to increased learning concerning patient safety and could potentially have a positive influence on patient safety culture.

    List of papers
    1. Patient safety subcultures among registered nurses and nurse assistants in Swedish hospital care: a qualitative study.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patient safety subcultures among registered nurses and nurse assistants in Swedish hospital care: a qualitative study.
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: BMC nursing, ISSN 1472-6955, Vol. 13, no 1, p. 39-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Patient safety culture emerges from the shared assumptions, values and norms of members of a health care organization, unit, team or other group with regard to practices that directly or indirectly influence patient safety. It has been argued that organizational culture is an amalgamation of many cultures, and that subcultures should be studied to develop a deeper understanding of an organization's culture. The aim of this study was to explore subcultures among registered nurses and nurse assistants in Sweden in terms of their assumptions, values and norms with regard to practices associated with patient safety.

    METHODS: The study employed an exploratory design using a qualitative method, and was conducted at two hospitals in southeast Sweden. Seven focus group interviews and two individual interviews were conducted with registered nurses and seven focus group interviews and one individual interview were conducted with nurse assistants. Manifest content analysis was used for the analysis.

    RESULTS: Seven patient safety culture domains (i.e. categories of assumptions, values and norms) that included practices associated with patient safety were found: responsibility, competence, cooperation, communication, work environment, management and routines. The domains corresponded with three system levels: individual, interpersonal and organizational levels. The seven domains consisted of 16 subcategories that expressed different aspects of the registered nurses and assistants nurses' patient safety culture. Half of these subcategories were shared.

    CONCLUSIONS: Registered nurses and nurse assistants in Sweden differ considerably with regard to patient safety subcultures. The results imply that, in order to improve patient safety culture, efforts must be tailored to both registered nurses' and nurse assistants' patient safety-related assumptions, values and norms. Such efforts must also take into account different system levels. The results of the present study could be useful to facilitate discussions about patient safety within and between different professional groups.

    National Category
    Clinical Medicine Nursing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115378 (URN)10.1186/s12912-014-0039-5 (DOI)25435809 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-03-13 Created: 2015-03-13 Last updated: 2018-04-12
    2. Patient safety walk rounds: views of frontline staff members and managers in Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patient safety walk rounds: views of frontline staff members and managers in Sweden
    2015 (English)In: International Journal of Nursing, ISSN 2373-7662, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 81-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Leadership Walk Rounds (WRs) have been described as a promising intervention to achieve a culture of safety by means of engaging leaders at different levels in patient safety issues. The aim was to investigate WRs carried out in a Swedish county council in terms of advantages, disadvantages and opportunities for improvement, as perceived by the participating frontline staff members, local unit managers and top-level managers.Methods: A cross-sectional study of 19 WRs. Responses from questionnaireswere analysed using qualitative and quantitative methods. Content analysis was used to categorize the findings from open-ended questions regarding advantages, disadvantages and suggestions for improvement.Results: The response rate was 95%. The participants in the WRs were generally very positive about the intervention. They believed that the intervention had several advantages and that WRs could have an impact on patient safety. Few differences between the three personnel categories were found.Conclusions: A WR developed on the basis of descriptions in the literature was perceived to have many advantages according to frontline staff members, local managers and top-level managers who participated in the intervention. WRs are perceived to contribute to increased learning concerning patient safety and to influence the patient safety culture. The overall positive findings are broadly consistent with the predominantly optimistic reports of WRs in the patient safety literature. However, further research is needed to investigate how the potential of the WR can be realized, including evaluationsof the effectiveness of the intervention in terms of various patient safety outcomes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American research institute for policy development, 2015
    Keyword
    Patient safety, walk rounds, patient safety culture, management
    National Category
    Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-135794 (URN)10.15640/ijn.v2n2a10 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-03-22 Created: 2017-03-22 Last updated: 2018-04-12
  • Nordkvist, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Lundqvist, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Hana, Dane
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Ireståhl, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Lundmark, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Utveckling av kabelkanalsopmaskin: Projektarbete vid Holms Industri i Motala2018Student paper other, 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents two concepts for a product that is used for cable excavation. The first concept consists of a brush that is integrated with a collection container and the second concept consists of a brush that is integrated with a digging bucket. A test plan was also created to determine which dimension and material would yield the best results during excavation.

    The main purpose of this project was to increase the product range of Holm's industry in Motala by developing a concept that would minimize the risk of damaging cables during excavation. The product would also fit into the existing product range at Holms. The goal was to present two concepts for a brush that can directly be designed in a CAD program.

    To understand how the brush will operate, a study on existing products on the market was conducted. Then a study on the excavator attachments was made which resulted in OilQuick being a good solution because of its fast-hydraulic attachment. Customer needs were identified through interviews, which gave the impression that a brush that simultaneously collects soil would be a good solution.

    The result of the study was used to write the product specification. The product's many functions were divided into several parts to determine different solutions for each function. Thirteen concepts were prepared and a decision matrix was used as a tool to eliminate the concepts that would not be used. Several iterations of the concept development process were conducted where the results for each iteration were discussed to preserve the purpose of the project.

  • Malacrinò, Antonino
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Campolo, Orlando
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università degli Studi “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy .
    Medina, Raul F
    Department of Entomology, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, USA.
    Palmeri, Vincenzo
    Dipartimento di Agraria, Università degli Studi “Mediterranea” di Reggio Calabria, Reggio Calabria, Italy .
    Instar- and host-associated differentiation of bacterial communities in the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata2018In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 3, article id e0194131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microorganisms are acknowledged for their role in shaping insects' evolution, life history and ecology. Previous studies have shown that microbial communities harbored within insects vary through ontogenetic development and among insects feeding on different host-plant species. In this study, we characterized the bacterial microbiota of the highly polyphagous Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Diptera: Tephritidae), at different instars and when feeding on different host-plant species. Our results show that the bacterial microbiota hosted within the Mediterranean fruit fly differs among instars and host-plant species. Most of the bacteria harbored by the Mediterranean fruit fly belong to the phylum Proteobacteria, including genera of Alphaproteobacteria such as Acetobacter and Gluconobacter; Betaprotobacteria such as Burkholderia and Gammaproteobacteria such as Pseudomonas.

  • Dominguez-Perez, Dany
    et al.
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Campos, Alexandre
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Rodriguez, Armando Alexei
    Hanover Med Sch MHH, Germany.
    Turkina, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ribeiro, Tiago
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Osorio, Hugo
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Vasconcelos, Vitor
    Univ Porto, Portugal; Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Antunes, Agostinho
    Univ Porto, Portugal.
    Proteomic Analyses of the Unexplored Sea Anemone Bunodactis verrucosa2018In: Marine Drugs, ISSN 1660-3397, E-ISSN 1660-3397, Vol. 16, no 2, article id 42Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cnidarian toxic products, particularly peptide toxins, constitute a promising target for biomedicine research. Indeed, cnidarians are considered as the largest phylum of generally toxic animals. However, research on peptides and toxins of sea anemones is still limited. Moreover, most of the toxins from sea anemones have been discovered by classical purification approaches. Recently, high-throughput methodologies have been used for this purpose but in other Phyla. Hence, the present work was focused on the proteomic analyses of whole-body extract from the unexplored sea anemone Bunodactis verrucosa. The proteomic analyses applied were based on two methods: two-dimensional gel electrophoresis combined with MALDI-TOF/TOF and shotgun proteomic approach. In total, 413 proteins were identified, but only eight proteins were identified from gel-based analyses. Such proteins are mainly involved in basal metabolism and biosynthesis of antibiotics as the most relevant pathways. In addition, some putative toxins including metalloproteinases and neurotoxins were also identified. These findings reinforce the significance of the production of antimicrobial compounds and toxins by sea anemones, which play a significant role in defense and feeding. In general, the present study provides the first proteome map of the sea anemone B. verrucosa stablishing a reference for future studies in the discovery of new compounds.

  • Krantz, Kristin (Editor)
    Linköping University, University Library.
    Verksamhetsberättelse Linköpings universitetsbibliotek (LiUB) 20172017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    2017 har varit ett år med en del förändringar. Ny ÖB började vid årsskiftet och en ny avdelningschef på Campus Vallabiblioteket i september. Planering för nya avdelningschefer för Medicinska Bibliotek och Publicerings Infrastruktur har pågått under senare delen av året. Vi har också fått nya ansvariga för Undervisning/kontakbibliotekarieskapet och Forsknings-stöd.

    Studenthus Valla har varit en kristalliseringspunkt för nytt tänkande för hela biblioteket. Under sommaren flyttade vi en stor del av samlingen på Campus Vallabiblioteket till Bokladan för att skapa utrymme för flera studie-/läsplatser och även prova nya typer av studieplatser. Campus Norrköping Bibliotek skickade också en del av samlingen till Bokladan med samma syften. Sedan har det varit utveckling och provning av t.ex. Pop up-bibliotek, Digimaker, On-Call bibliotekarie, och söktorget.

    Årets tema var Visa Värdet, som egentligen är en fortsättning av påbörjat arbete mot systematiskt kvalitetsarbete.

    Ett år med stort engagemang från medarbetare!

  • Moberg, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Riskfördelning mellan personuppgiftsansvarig och personuppgiftsbiträde: -En analys inför ikraftträdandet av GDPR2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    GDPR träder i kraft den 25 maj 2018. Syftet med förordningen är bland annat att säkerställa en hög och likvärdig skyddsnivå för enskilda individers fri- och rättigheter avseende personuppgiftsbehandling. Mot bakgrund av att implementeringen av dataskyddsdirektivet, vilken i skrivande stund fortfarande utgör gällande rätt, inte har levt upp till förväntningarna, synes den europarättsliga lagstiftaren ha avsett att ”strama åt tyglarna” med GDPR. Personuppgiftsansvariga åläggs nya skyldigheter. Vidare föreskriver GDPR att personuppgiftsbiträden kan åläggas skadeståndsskyldighet i samma utsträckning som personuppgiftsansvariga. Härutöver implementeras en ny sanktion: administrativa sanktionsavgifter. Dessutom synes de strängare kraven på biträdesavtalets innehåll medföra ett behov för personuppgiftsansvarig och personuppgiftsbiträde att revidera aktuella biträdesavtal för att säkra överenstämmelse med GDPR.

    Den nya förordningen tycks förorda att personuppgiftsansvarig och personuppgiftsbiträde tillämpar en s.k. riskbaserad strategi. När en risk identifierats, ska denna utvärderas och hanteras på ett i enlighet med GDPR erforderligt vis. Det finns sålunda incitament för personuppgiftsansvarig och personuppgiftsbiträde att vidta risk management-åtgärder i den egna verksamheten, men även i förhållande till en eventuell motpart i ett avtalsförhållande. Förevarande uppsats tillhandahåller förslag på hur den ökade riskexponeringen kan hanteras i enlighet med GDPR och svensk rätt. Uppsatsen behandlar, utöver GDPR i sig, även hur GDPR passar in det svenska rättssystemet i stort och vilka rättsområden som påverkar möjligheten för personuppgiftsansvarig och personuppgiftsbiträde att avvika från GDPR:s riskfördelning.

    Ett första steg mot en lyckad övergång från dataskyddsdirektiv-överenstämmelse till GDPRöverenstämmelse är givetvis att vara införstådd i det nya regelverket. Nästa steg är att identifiera vilka risker som ikraftträdandet av GDPR medför och huruvida en eller flera av dessa risker kan äventyra verksamheten. När förståelse för regelverket och insikt om riskerna har erhållits, bör personuppgiftsansvarig och personuppgiftsbiträde rikta sitt intresse mot risk management, det vill säga vad nyss nämnda aktörer kan göra för att hantera de identifierade riskerna. Önskar personuppgiftsansvarig eller personuppgiftsbiträdebiträde avvika från GDPR:s riskfördelning med en ansvarsfriskrivning, tillhandahåller uppsatsen information om under vilka premisser en ansvarsfriskrivning kan äga giltighet. GDPR:s regelverk är komplext. Av förklarliga skäl saknas det rättspraxis på området. Utan vägledning från EU-domstolen, är det nödvändigt att åtminstone reflektera och försöka dra slutsatser om vad som komma skall. Det finns inget ”rätt svar” på vad framtiden har att utvisa, vilket förvisso känns betryggande för en snart nyexaminerad affärsjurist, som presenterar ämnet. Anpassningen till GDPR fortgår. Under tiden väljer undertecknad att instämma med de sakkunniga som försökt uttala sig om det i uppsatsen behandlade spörsmålet: det återstår att se hur rättspraxis utvecklas.

  • Cheng, Hei Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Optimizing Massive MIMO: Precoder Design and Power Allocation2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The past decades have seen a rapid growth of mobile data traffic,both in terms of connected devices and data rate. To satisfy the evergrowing data traffic demand in wireless communication systems, thecurrent cellular systems have to be redesigned to increase both spectralefficiency and energy efficiency. Massive MIMO(Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output) is one solution that satisfy bothrequirements. In massive MIMO systems, hundreds of antennas areemployed at the base station to provide service to many users at thesame time and frequency. This enables the system to serve the userswith uniformly good quality of service simultaneously, with low-costhardware and without using extra bandwidth and energy. To achievethis, proper resource allocation is needed. Among the availableresources, transmit power beamforming are the most important degrees offreedom to control the spectral efficiency and energy efficiency. Dueto the use of excessive number of antennas and low-end hardware at thebase station, new aspects of power allocation and beamforming compared to currentsystems arises.

    In the first part of the thesis, new uplink power allocation schemes that based on long term channel statistics isproposed. Since quality of the channel estimates is crucial in massive MIMO, in addition to data power allocation, joint power allocationthat includes the pilot power as additional variable should be considered. Therefore a new framework for power allocation thatmatches practical systems is developed, as the methods developed in the literature cannot be applied directly to massive MIMO systems. Simulation results confirm the advantages brought by the the proposed new framework.

    In the second part, we introduces a new approach to solve the joint precoding and power allocation for different objective in downlink scenarios by a combination of random matrix theory and optimization theory. The new approach results in a simplified problem that, though non-convex, obeys a simple separable structure. Simulation results showed that the proposed scheme provides large gains over heuristic solutions when the number of users in the cell is large, which is suitable for applying in massive MIMO systems.

    In the third part we investigate the effects of using low-end amplifiers at the basestations. The non-linear behavior of power consumption in these amplifiers changes the power consumption model at the basestation, thereby changes the power allocation and beamforming design. Different scenarios are investigated and resultsshow that a certain number of antennas can be turned off in some scenarios.

    In the last part we consider the use of non-orthogonal-multiple-access (NOMA) inside massive MIMO systems in practical scenarios where channel state information (CSI) is acquired through pilot signaling. Achievable rate analysis is carried out for different pilot signaling schemes including both uplink and downlink pilots. Numerical results show that when downlink CSI is available at the users, our proposed NOMA scheme outperforms orthogonal schemes. However with more groups of users present in the cell, it is preferable to use multi-user beamforming in stead of NOMA.

    List of papers
    1. Optimal Pilot and Payload Power Control in Single-Cell Massive MIMO Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optimal Pilot and Payload Power Control in Single-Cell Massive MIMO Systems
    2017 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Signal Processing, ISSN 1053-587X, E-ISSN 1941-0476, Vol. 65, no 9, p. 2363-2378Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the jointly optimal pilot and data power allocation in single-cell uplink massive multiple-input-multiple- output systems. Using the spectral efficiency (SE) as performance metric and setting a total energy budget per coherence interval, the power control is formulated as optimization problems for two different objective functions: the weighted minimum SE among the users and the weighted sum SE. A closed form solution for the optimal length of the pilot sequence is derived. The optimal power control policy for the former problem is found by solving a simple equation with a single variable. Utilizing the special structure arising from imperfect channel estimation, a convex reformulation is found to solve the latter problem to global optimality in polynomial time. The gain of the optimal joint power control is theoretically justified, and is proved to be large in the low-SNR regime. Simulation results also show the advantage of optimizing the power control over both pilot and data power, as compared to the cases of using full power and of only optimizing the data powers as done in previous work.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2017
    Keyword
    Massive MIMO; power control; power allocation; convex optimization
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136034 (URN)10.1109/TSP.2016.2641381 (DOI)000395877600013 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|EU [ICT-619086]; ELLIIT; CENIIT

    Available from: 2017-03-27 Created: 2017-03-27 Last updated: 2018-03-14
    2. Massive MIMO at Night: On the Operation of Massive MIMO in Low Traffic Scenarios
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Massive MIMO at Night: On the Operation of Massive MIMO in Low Traffic Scenarios
    2015 (English)In: 2015 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), IEEE , 2015, p. 1697-1702Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For both maximum ratio transmission (MRT) and zero forcing (ZF) precoding schemes and given any specific rate requirement the optimal transmit power, number of antennas to be used, number of users to be served and number of pilots spent on channel training are found with the objective to minimize the total consumed power at the base station. The optimization problem is solved by finding closed form expressions of the optimal transmit power and then search over the remaining discrete variables. The analysis consists of two parts, the first part investigates the situation when only power consumed in the RF amplifiers is considered. The second part includes both the power consumed in the RF amplifiers and in other transceiver circuits. In the former case having all antennas active while reducing the transmit power is optimal. Adaptive scheme to switch off some of the antennas at the base stations is found to be optimal in the latter case.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2015
    Series
    IEEE International Conference on Communications, ISSN 1550-3607, E-ISSN 1938-1883
    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127290 (URN)10.1109/ICC.2015.7248569 (DOI)000371708101150 ()9781467364324 (ISBN)9781467364317 (ISBN)9781467364300 (ISBN)
    Conference
    IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), 8-12 June, London, UK
    Available from: 2016-04-20 Created: 2016-04-19 Last updated: 2018-03-14Bibliographically approved
    3. Performance Analysis of NOMA in Training-Based Multiuser MIMO Systems
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Performance Analysis of NOMA in Training-Based Multiuser MIMO Systems
    2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, ISSN 1536-1276, E-ISSN 1558-2248, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 372-385Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    This paper considers the use of non-orthogonal-multiple-access (NOMA) in multiuser MIMO systems in practical scenarios where channel state information (CSI) is acquired through pilot signaling. A new NOMA scheme that uses shared pilots is proposed. Achievable rate analysis is carried out for different pilot signaling schemes, including both uplink and downlink pilots. The achievable rate performance of the proposed NOMA scheme with shared pilot within each group is compared with the traditional orthogonal access scheme with orthogonal pilots. Our proposed scheme is a generalization of the orthogonal scheme, and can be reduced to the orthogonal scheme when appropriate power allocation parameters are chosen. Numerical results show that when downlink CSI is available at the users, our proposed NOMA scheme outperforms orthogonal schemes. However with more groups of users present in the cell, it is preferable to use multi-user beamforming instead of NOMA.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2018
    Keyword
    Multiuser MIMO; NOMA; channel estimation; training; performance analysis
    National Category
    Telecommunications
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145161 (URN)10.1109/TWC.2017.2767030 (DOI)000422945400028 ()
    Conference
    18th IEEE International Workshop on Signal Processing Advances for Wireless Communications (SPAWC)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council; Linkoping University Center for Industrial Information Technology; ELLIIT

    Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2018-03-14
  • Rydberg, Alexandra
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Rättelseklausuler: De positiva och negativa effekterna av användandet av rättelseklausuler i avtal2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Villkoret nedan kallas rättelseklausul, det är ett begrepp som inte är vida känt, trots att klausulen används i avtal i många branscher. I doktrin är det enbart Calissendorff och Ramberg som skrivit något mer omfattande om ämnet. Klausulen gör det möjligt för den avtalsbrytande parten att rätta sitt avtalsbrott inom en viss tidsfrist och på så sätt undkomma påföljder, som hävning eller skadestånd.

    ”Beställaren kan säga upp avtalet till omedelbart upphörande om Leverantören på ett väsentligt sätt bryter mot avtalets bestämmelser, samt inte vidtar rättelse inom 30 dagar efter skriftligt påpekande från beställaren.”

    Syftet med uppsatsen är att belysa fenomenet rättelseklausul samt försöka ta reda på hur de används, och i vilken utsträckning de bör användas. Som ett steg i detta exemplifieras svårigheterna och problematiken som klausulerna kan ställa till med, men uppsatsen illustrerar också när användandet har ett bakomliggande syfte och används för ett gott och nödvändigt ändamål. För att besvara uppsatsens frågeställning; Bör rättelseklausuler finnas med i avtal? analyseras farorna med användningen av klausulen. Är det möjligt att rätta även grovt vårdslösa eller uppsåtliga avtalsbrott, eller är detta oskäligt? I syfte att besvara uppsatsens frågeställningar är det första steget att utreda gällande rätt inom avtalsrättens område genom att samla in och använda svenska rättskällor. De rättskällor som främst använts är doktrin, rättspraxis och lag, men även vissa förarbeten, skiljedomar och standardavtal behandlas.

    Slutsatsen är att rättelseklausulens främsta fördelar är att kommunikationen mellan parterna ökar samt att den ger den avtalsbrytande parten en andra chans när ett avtalsbrott begåtts i god tro. Rättsfallen och problembakgrunden visar dock på problematiken med svårtolkade formuleringar och obalanserade villkor. Den gemensamma partsviljan stämmer många gånger inte överens med rättelseklausulen. Utgångspunkten bör därmed vara ett avtal utan rättelseklausul och om parterna vill ha med en rättelseklausul bör den vara mycket noggrant formulerad.

  • Cerneckis, Gvidas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Blockkedjeteknologin på finansiella marknader: Kan blockkedjeteknologin effektivisera handeln med finansiella instrument?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Handeln med finansiella instrument har effektiviserats avsevärt under de senaste decennierna tack vare den tekniska utvecklingen och internationaliseringen. Pappersbaserade värdepapper har ersatts av digitala finansiella instrument och investerare kan numera på ett enkelt sätt skapa värdepappersportföljer innehållande komplexa värdepapper från hela världen. En välfungerande och effektiv handel med finansiella instrument förutsätter att förtroendet existerar mellan aktörer på finansiella marknader. Idag säkerställs förtroendet inom finansiella marknader av ett antal olika finansiella intermediärer, vilka ansvarar för olika funktioner såsom clearing, avveckling och kontoföring. Transaktionskedjan avseende finansiella instrument består därmed av flera nivåer och varje enskild transaktion måste genomgå samtliga nivåer. Den finansiella handeln har ökat betydligt i omfattningen och ett betydande antal transaktioner är numera gränsöverskridande. Detta har resulterat i ett tämligen komplext, sammanlänkat och sårbart system, vilket bland annat har synliggjorts under den senaste finanskrisen år 2008.  

     

    Blockkedjeteknologi, vilken är en typ av Distributed Ledger Technology, kan något förenklat ses som en databas eller ett transaktionsregister. Till skillnad från traditionella transaktionsregister, vilka i regel är centraliserade och förvaltas av olika intermediärer, bygger den nya teknologin på ett decentraliserat nätverk av aktörer utan att någon tredje part är ansvarig för verifiering av transaktioner. Blockkedjeteknologin introducerar därmed ett nytt sätt att genomföra transaktioner med digitala tillgångar, genom att förtroendet säkerställs med hjälp av kryptografiska lösningar och ett decentraliserat nätverk. Blockkedjeteknologin anses av många ha en betydande potential att effektivisera transaktionskedjan avseende finansiella instrument genom att exempelvis automatisera förandet av transaktionsregister samt integrera de olika nivåerna inom transaktionskedjan. Tekniken är dock fortfarande i en utvecklingsfas och många olika utmaningar återstår innan tekniken kan komma till användning. I Sverige präglas transaktionskedjan avseende finansiella instrument dessutom av strikta regleringar, varför frågan uppstår om huruvida lösningar baserade på blockkedjetekniken är förenliga med dagens rättsliga ramar.

     

    I denna uppsats diskuteras huruvida och på vilket sätt blockkedjeteknologin skulle kunna effektivisera vissa funktioner inom transaktionskedjan avseende finansiella instrument samt vilka rättsliga frågeställningar som uppstår i samband med tillämpning av den nya tekniken utifrån dagens rättsläge i Sverige. 

  • Levinsson, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Implementation of a Water Flow Sensor Node and Energy Evaluation of 2G Transmission Strategies2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Johansson, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Öyan, Frans
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Digitala spel - rätt eller fel?: Digitala spels påverkan på motivation och lärande i matematikklassrummet2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Game-based learning has become more popular in educational environments in the last few years. In this literature study,we have examined and compiled several studies within the field of using digital games as an educational tool in themathematics classroom. After looking into eight different studies from four different countries, our conclusion is thatgame-based learning may have a positive effect on learning and motivation in the mathematics classroom. However,the research area is still in its early stages and more studies are needed before one can make any conclusions with certainty.

  • Göransson, Albin
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stability and accuracy for difference methods using asynchronous processors2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Söderholm, Marianne
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stream Classification and Solubility of the Dispersion Equation for Piecewise Constant Vorticity2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis concerns the water wave problem corresponding to a piecewise constant vorticity function. There are several results connected to this field. In [1] the authors prove the existence of small-amplitude capillary-gravity water waves in the setting of unidirectional waves, and present an explicit form of the dispersion equation in the case when the vorticity function has two jumps. A two-layer model with constant but different vorticities is studied in [2], while in [3], an analysis of the dispersion equation for a three-layer model is performed. In this thesis we classify all stream solutions to the problem specified above, and then use our classification to prove and analyze the solubility of the dispersion equation for a vorticity function with one jump. We do not require the modeled flows to be unidirectional (that is, we allow underlying counter-currents and internal stagnation).

  • Grumert, Ellen F.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Using Connected Vehicles in Variable Speed Limit Systems:: System Design and Effects2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Motorway traffic management systems are useful for improving the traffic conditions on urban motorways. One of the most common motorway traffic management systems are variable speed limit systems. These systems adapt the speed limits based on the prevailing traffic conditions measured by roadside detectors and recommended or compulsory speed limits are shown on variable message signs installed on gantries over the road.Thesystems consist of three parts; the control algorithm used to determine which speed limit to be displayed, a method for estimating the traffic conditions to be used as input for the control algorithm and the infrastructure for application of the variable speed limits. The goal of the systems is often to increase safety or efficiency.

    Recent development in the field of connected vehicles have opened up for a new type of data source, as the status of a connected vehicle and its surroundings can be communicated at arbitrary locations. Hence, by the use of connected vehicles in variable speed limit systems there is a potential of reducing the amount of roadside equipment. It is even possible to control the connected vehicles towards the current speed limit without the use of variable message signs. This allows for the application of variable speed limits at arbitrary locations.

    The aim of this thesis is to examine how connected vehicles can be used to improve the efficiency of variable speed limit systems. The thesis contribute with new and improved methods using connected vehicles in all three parts of a variable speed limit system. The suggested methods are evaluated by microscopic traffic simulation. The overall conclusion is that the use of connected vehicles in variable speed limit systems can contribute to improvements in traffic efficiency compared to existing systems.

    The six papers included in the thesis can be summarized as follows. First, it is shown that traditional variable speed limit systems can be effective for improving the traffic conditions on the motorway and the results can be comparable to more costly alterations by reconstruction of the infrastructure to increase the capacity. Next, the usefulness of connected vehicles for application and control of the speed limits in an existing variable speed limit system is investigated. It is concluded that the design of the control algorithm and the accuracy of the estimated traffic conditions have a great effect on the final outcome of the system. The design of the control algorithm is then examined by evaluation of a number of control algorithms with respect to safety, efficiency and environmental impacts. The main benefits and drawbacks of the algorithms are highlighted and desirable characteristics to include when designing a control algorithm are identified. In two studies, methods making use of connected vehicles for estimating the traffic conditions are proposed. The results show that connected vehicles are useful for improving the accuracy of the estimated traffic conditions through the inclusion of more detailed information and information at locations where detector measurements are not available. Finally, a variable speed limit system is proposed in which connected vehicles play a central role in the estimation of the traffic conditions, as well as in the control algorithm and for application of the speed limit. The system is shown to be useful for improving traffic efficiency during an incident at an arbitrary location along the controlled road.

    List of papers
    1. Analysis of a cooperative variable speed limitsystem using microscopic traffic simulation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis of a cooperative variable speed limitsystem using microscopic traffic simulation
    2015 (English)In: Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies, ISSN 0968-090X, E-ISSN 1879-2359, Vol. 52, p. 173-186Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Variable speed limit systems where variable message signs are used to show speed limits adjusted to the prevailing road or traffic conditions are installed on motorways in many countries. The objectives of variable speed limit system installations are often to decrease the number of accidents and to increase traffic efficiency. Currently, there is an interest in exploring the potential of cooperative intelligent transport systems including communication between vehicles and/or vehicles and the infrastructure. In this paper, we study the potential benefits of introducing infrastructure to vehicle communication, autonomous vehicle control and individualized speed limits in variable speed limit systems. We do this by proposing a cooperative variable speed limit system as an extension of an existing variable speed limit system. In the proposed system, communication between the infrastructure and the vehicles is used to transmit variable speed limits to upstream vehicles before the variable message signs become visible to the drivers. The system is evaluated by the means of microscopic traffic simulation. Traffic efficiency and environmental effects are considered in the analysis. The results of the study show benefits of the infrastructure to vehicle communication, autonomous vehicle control and individualized speed limits for variable speed limit systems in the form of lower acceleration rates and thereby harmonized traffic flow and reduced exhaust emissions.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    Cooperative systems;Intelligent transport systems;Infrastructure to vehicle communication;Variable speed limit;Microscopic traffic simulation; Emission model
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115013 (URN)10.1016/j.trc.2014.11.004 (DOI)000352252400012 ()
    Available from: 2015-03-06 Created: 2015-03-06 Last updated: 2018-04-10
    2. Traffic State Estimation Using Connected Vehicles and Stationary Detectors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Traffic State Estimation Using Connected Vehicles and Stationary Detectors
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Advanced Transportation, ISSN 0197-6729, E-ISSN 2042-3195, article id UNSP 4106086Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Real-time traffic state estimation is of importance for efficient traffic management. This is especially the case for traffic management systems that require fast detection of changes in the traffic conditions in order to apply an effective control measure. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the traffic state and speed and density, by using connected vehicles combined with stationary detectors. The aim is to allow fast and accurate estimation of changes in the traffic conditions. The proposed method does only require information about the speed and the position of connected vehicles and can make use of sparsely located stationary detectors to limit the dependence on the infrastructure equipment. An evaluation of the proposed method is carried out by microscopic traffic simulation. The traffic state estimated using the proposed method is compared to the true simulated traffic state. Further, the density estimates are compared to density estimates from one detector-based method, one combined method, and one connected-vehicle-based method. The results of the study show that the proposed method is a promising alternative for estimating the traffic state in traffic management applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    WILEY-HINDAWI, 2018
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144890 (URN)10.1155/2018/4106086 (DOI)000423031600001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Transportation Administration (Trafikverket)

    Available from: 2018-02-09 Created: 2018-02-09 Last updated: 2018-04-10
  • Dahlholm, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology.
    Gud fader, hjälten och den heliga andan: En etnografisk studie vid Omris bruk2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte är att skapa förståelse för hur sociala relationer bevaras och förändras över tid där centrum för relationerna utgörs av en gemensam arbetsplats. Studien berör en bruksort i Sverige som har fått det fiktiva namnet Omri. Sociala relationer kopplat till materiella faktorer är ett ämne som uppsatsen berör både inledningsvis och i en avslutande diskussionsdel.Studiens empiriska material är inhämtat genom kvalitativa intervjuer där anställda på Omris bruk har fått berätta sina upplevelser av brukets blomstringstid.Resultatet visar på upplevda klassmotsättningar som utgörs främst av två grupper – arbetarna och tjänstemännen. Analysens fokus är att förklara hur klasskillnaderna en gång i tiden uppkom på Omris bruk och hur de har bevarats med tiden. Avslutningsvis redogör studien för hur en person, genom sina karismatiska egenskaper kunde bryta upp stora delar av traditionella, klassbetingade beteenden och skapa en, som informanterna beskriver det, mer lättsam tillvaro.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-09 09:00 Eken, Linköping
    Gawel, Danuta R.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Identification of genes and regulators that are shared across T cell associated diseases2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) of hundreds of diseases and millions of patients have led to the identification of genes that are associated with more than one disease. The aims of this PhD thesis were to a) identify a group of genes important in multiple diseases (shared disease genes), b) identify shared up-stream disease regulators, and c) determine how the same genes can be involved in the pathogenesis of different diseases. These aims have been tested on CD4+ T cells because they express the T helper cell differentiation pathway, which was the most enriched pathway in analyses of all disease associated genes identified with GWASs.

    Combining information about known gene-gene interactions from the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network with gene expression changes in multiple T cell associated diseases led to the identification of a group of highly interconnected genes that were miss-expressed in many of those diseases – hereafter called ‘shared disease genes’. Those genes were further enriched for inflammatory, metabolic and proliferative pathways, genetic variants identified by all GWASs, as well as mutations in cancer studies and known diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Taken together, these findings supported the relevance of the shared disease genes.

    Identification of the shared upstream disease regulators was addressed in the second project of this PhD thesis. The underlying hypothesis assumed that the determination of the shared upstream disease regulators is possible through a network model showing in which order genes activate each other. For that reason a transcription factor–gene regulatory network (TF-GRN) was created. The TF-GRN was based on the time-series gene expression profiling of the T helper cell type 1 (Th1), and T helper cell type 2 (Th2) differentiation from Native T-cells. Transcription factors (TFs) whose expression changed early during polarization and had many downstream predicted targets (hubs) that were enriched for disease associated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were prioritised as the putative early disease regulators. These analyses identified three transcription factors: GATA3, MAF and MYB. Their predicted targets were validated by ChIP-Seq and siRNA mediated knockdown in primary human T-cells. CD4+ T cells isolated from seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) and multiple sclerosis (MS) patients in their non-symptomatic stages were analysed in order to demonstrate predictive potential of those three TFs. We found that those three TFs were differentially expressed in symptom-free stages of the two diseases, while their TF-GRN{predicted targets were differentially expressed during symptomatic disease stages. Moreover, using RNA-Seq data we identified a disease associated SNP that correlated with differential splicing of GATA3.

    A limitation of the above study is that it concentrated on TFs as main regulators in cells, excluding other potential regulators such as microRNAs. To this end, a microRNA{gene regulatory network (mGRN) of human CD4+ T cell differentiation was constructed. Within this network, we defined regulatory clusters (groups of microRNAs that are regulating groups of mRNAs). One regulatory cluster was differentially expressed in all of the tested diseases, and was highly enriched for GWAS SNPs. Although the microRNA processing machinery was dynamically upregulated during early T-cell activation, the majority of microRNA modules showed specialisation in later time-points.

    In summary this PhD thesis shows the relevance of shared genes and up-stream disease regulators. Putative mechanisms of why shared genes can be involved in pathogenesis of different diseases have also been demonstrated: a) differential gene expression in different diseases; b) alternative transcription factor splicing variants may affect different downstream gene target group; and c) SNPs might cause alternative splicing.

    List of papers
    1. Integrated genomic and prospective clinical studies show the importance of modular pleiotropy for disease susceptibility, diagnosis and treatment
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrated genomic and prospective clinical studies show the importance of modular pleiotropy for disease susceptibility, diagnosis and treatment
    Show others...
    2014 (English)In: Genome Medicine, ISSN 1756-994X, E-ISSN 1756-994X, Vol. 6, no 17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Translational research typically aims to identify and functionally validate individual, disease-specific genes. However, reaching this aim is complicated by the involvement of thousands of genes in common diseases, and that many of those genes are pleiotropic, that is, shared by several diseases. Methods: We integrated genomic meta-analyses with prospective clinical studies to systematically investigate the pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic roles of pleiotropic genes. In a novel approach, we first used pathway analysis of all published genome-wide association studies (GWAS) to find a cell type common to many diseases. Results: The analysis showed over-representation of the T helper cell differentiation pathway, which is expressed in T cells. This led us to focus on expression profiling of CD4(+) T cells from highly diverse inflammatory and malignant diseases. We found that pleiotropic genes were highly interconnected and formed a pleiotropic module, which was enriched for inflammatory, metabolic and proliferative pathways. The general relevance of this module was supported by highly significant enrichment of genetic variants identified by all GWAS and cancer studies, as well as known diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Prospective clinical studies of multiple sclerosis and allergy showed the importance of both pleiotropic and disease specific modules for clinical stratification. Conclusions: In summary, this translational genomics study identified a pleiotropic module, which has key pathogenic, diagnostic and therapeutic roles.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BioMed Central, 2014
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine Basic Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106873 (URN)10.1186/gm534 (DOI)000334631300002 ()
    Available from: 2014-05-28 Created: 2014-05-23 Last updated: 2018-04-10
    2. A validated gene regulatory network and GWAS identifies early regulators of T cell-associated diseases
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A validated gene regulatory network and GWAS identifies early regulators of T cell-associated diseases
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Science Translational Medicine, ISSN 1946-6234, E-ISSN 1946-6242, Vol. 7, no 313, article id 313ra178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Early regulators of disease may increase understanding of disease mechanisms and serve as markers for presymptomatic diagnosis and treatment. However, early regulators are difficult to identify because patients generally present after they are symptomatic. We hypothesized that early regulators of T cell-associated diseases could be found by identifying upstream transcription factors (TFs) in T cell differentiation and by prioritizing hub TFs that were enriched for disease-associated polymorphisms. A gene regulatory network (GRN) was constructed by time series profiling of the transcriptomes and methylomes of human CD4(+) T cells during in vitro differentiation into four helper T cell lineages, in combination with sequence-based TF binding predictions. The TFs GATA3, MAF, and MYB were identified as early regulators and validated by ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) and small interfering RNA knockdowns. Differential mRNA expression of the TFs and their targets in T cell-associated diseases supports their clinical relevance. To directly test if the TFs were altered early in disease, T cells from patients with two T cell-mediated diseases, multiple sclerosis and seasonal allergic rhinitis, were analyzed. Strikingly, the TFs were differentially expressed during asymptomatic stages of both diseases, whereas their targets showed altered expression during symptomatic stages. This analytical strategy to identify early regulators of disease by combining GRNs with genome-wide association studies may be generally applicable for functional and clinical studies of early disease development.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2015
    National Category
    Biological Sciences Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123522 (URN)10.1126/scitranslmed.aad2722 (DOI)000365237400003 ()26560356 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Cancer fund, Swedish Medical Research Council [K2013-61X-22310-01-04, 2012-3168]; Academy of Finland Centre of Excellence in Molecular Systems Immunology and Physiology Research [250114]; Sigrid Juselius Foundation; Generalitat de Catalunya AGAUR [2014-SGR364]; Spanish Association Against Cancer; Spanish Ministry of Health ISCIII FIS [PI12/01528]; RTICC [RD12/0036/0008]

    Available from: 2015-12-22 Created: 2015-12-21 Last updated: 2018-04-10Bibliographically approved
  • Falk, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Usability guided development of a participant database system2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project consisted of the development of a web based participant database system to replace a spreadsheet based one for the project “Vi Ses! Språkvänner i Linköping” and the evaluation of it. The design and implementation was done iteratively using a collection of usability guidelines as well as the results of a set of user tests. User tests were also used for the evaluation of the web database system. The task during the user tests was participant matching and the main measurement taken was task completion time.

    The project resulted in a web database system that could fully replace the spreadsheet database system. The evaluation tests showed that this system was both faster to match participants in as well as less error prone.

  • Furuholm, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Modernisering av ett traditionellt hantverk: utveckling och förenkling av laserskuren intarsia2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor of Fine Arts), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this degree project on laser cut marquetry I investigate two problems: The vacuum pressure forfixing the veneer flat, and a better and more quality-proof method for producing marquetry in thelaser machine.Through theoretical research, comparisons and practical experiments, I have come to the conclusionthat the best solution for vacuum fixation is a custom adaptation of Donek Tools’s vacuumtable.Through my comparative tests I found that the desirable quality of the laser cut marquetry isachieved safest through the lasercarbontechnique.

  • Muhammad, Junaid
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hsiao, Ching-Lien
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Chen, Yen-Ting
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lu, Jun
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Palisaitis, Justinas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Persson, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Effects of N2 Partial Pressure on Growth, Structure, and Optical Properties of GaN Nanorods Deposited by Liquid-Target Reactive Magnetron Sputter Epitaxy2018In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 8, no 4, article id 223Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    GaN nanorods, essentially free from crystal defects and exhibiting very sharp band-edge luminescence, have been grown by reactive direct-current magnetron sputter epitaxy onto Si (111) substrates at a low working pressure of 5 mTorr. Upon diluting the reactive N2 working gas with a small amount of Ar (0.5 mTorr), we observed an increase in the nanorod aspect ratio from 8 to ~35, a decrease in the average diameter from 74 to 35 nm, and a two-fold increase in nanorod density. With further dilution (Ar = 2.5 mTorr), the aspect ratio decreased to 14, while the diameter increased to 60 nm and the nanorod density increased to a maximum of 2.4 × 109 cm−2. Yet, lower N2 partial pressures eventually led to the growth of continuous GaN films. The observed morphological dependence on N2 partial pressure is explained by a change from N-rich to Ga-rich growth conditions, combined with reduced GaN-poisoning of the Ga-target as the N2 gas pressure is reduced. Nanorods grown at 2.5 mTorr N2 partial pressure exhibited a high intensity 4 K photoluminescence neutral donor bound exciton transitions (D0XA) peak at ~3.479 eV with a full-width-at-half-maximum of 1.7 meV. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy corroborated the excellent crystalline quality of the nanorods.

  • Public defence: 2018-05-09 13:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Renhorn, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Divison of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Conformational Changes during Potassium-Channel Gating2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Voltage-gated ion channels have a paramount importance in many physiological processes such as cell-to-cell communication, action potential-propagation, and cell motility. Voltage-gated ion channels are characterized by their ability to sense membrane voltage and to greatly change channel activity in response to small changes in the voltage. The ability to sense voltage resides in the four voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) surrounding the central ion-conducting pore. Membrane depolarization causes the inside of the membrane to become positively charged, electrostatically repelling the positively charged fourth transmembrane segment (S4), or voltage sensor, in the VSD, causing the voltage sensor to move outwards. This motion provides necessary energy to open the pore and allow ion conductivity. Prolonged channel activation leads to alterations in the selectivity filter which cease ion conductivity, in a process called slow inactivation. In this thesis, we investigated the movement of S4 during activation of the channel. We also studied the communication between the four subunits during activation as well as the communication between the pore domain and VSD during slow inactivation.

    We have shown that voltage sensors move approximately 12 Å outwards during activation. The positively charged amino acid residues in S4 create temporary salt bridges with negative counter-charges in the other segments of the VSD as it moves through a membrane. We have also shown that the movement of one of the four voltage sensors can affect the movement of the neighboring voltage sensors. When at least one voltage sensor has moved to an up-position, it stabilizes other voltage sensors in the up-position, increasing the energy required for the voltage sensor to return to the down position.

    We have also shown reciprocal communication between the pore domain and the VSDs. Alterations in the VSD or the interface between the pore and the VSD cause changes in the rate of slow inactivation. Likewise, modifications in the pore domain cause changes to the voltage-sensor movement. This indicates communication between the pore and the VSD during slow inactivation.

    The information from our work could be used to find new approaches when designing channel-modifying drugs for the treatment of diseases caused by increased neuronal excitability, such as chronic pain and epilepsy.

    List of papers
    1. Tracking a complete voltage-sensor cycle with metal-ion bridges
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tracking a complete voltage-sensor cycle with metal-ion bridges
    Show others...
    2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 109, no 22, p. 8552-8557Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Voltage-gated ion channels open and close in response to changes in membrane potential, thereby enabling electrical signaling in excitable cells. The voltage sensitivity is conferred through four voltage-sensor domains (VSDs) where positively charged residues in the fourth transmembrane segment (S4) sense the potential. While an open state is known from the Kv1.2/2.1 X-ray structure, the conformational changes underlying voltage sensing have not been resolved. We present 20 additional interactions in one open and four different closed conformations based on metal-ion bridges between all four segments of the VSD in the voltage-gated Shaker K channel. A subset of the experimental constraints was used to generate Rosetta models of the conformations that were subjected to molecular simulation and tested against the remaining constraints. This achieves a detailed model of intermediate conformations during VSD gating. The results provide molecular insight into the transition, suggesting that S4 slides at least 12 angstrom along its axis to open the channel with a 3(10) helix region present that moves in sequence in S4 in order to occupy the same position in space opposite F290 from open through the three first closed states.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    National Academy of Sciences, 2012
    Keyword
    electrophysiology, inactivation, Xenopus oocytes, voltage clamp, conformational transition
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78812 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1116938109 (DOI)000304881700044 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council||Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation||Swedish Brain Foundation||County Council of Ostergotland||Queen Silvias Anniversary Foundation||King Gustaf V and Queen Victorias Freemasons Foundation||Stina and Birger Johanssons Foundation||Swedish Society for Medical Research||Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research||European Research Council||

    Available from: 2012-06-21 Created: 2012-06-21 Last updated: 2018-04-09
    2. Reciprocal voltage sensor-to-pore coupling leads to potassium channel C-type inactivation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reciprocal voltage sensor-to-pore coupling leads to potassium channel C-type inactivation
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 27562Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Voltage-gated potassium channels open at depolarized membrane voltages. A prolonged depolarization causes a rearrangement of the selectivity filter which terminates the conduction of ions - a process called slow or C-type inactivation. How structural rearrangements in the voltage-sensor domain (VSD) cause alteration in the selectivity filter, and vice versa, are not fully understood. We show that pulling the pore domain of the Shaker potassium channel towards the VSD by a Cd2+ bridge accelerates C-type inactivation. Molecular dynamics simulations show that such pulling widens the selectivity filter and disrupts the K+ coordination, a hallmark for C-type inactivation. An engineered Cd2+ bridge within the VSD also affect C-type inactivation. Conversely, a pore domain mutation affects VSD gating-charge movement. Finally, C-type inactivation is caused by the concerted action of distant amino acid residues in the pore domain. All together, these data suggest a reciprocal communication between the pore domain and the VSD in the extracellular portion of the channel.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016
    National Category
    Structural Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130064 (URN)10.1038/srep27562 (DOI)000377343800001 ()27278891 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council; Swedish Brain Foundation; Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation; Swedish e-Science Research Center; Foundation Blanceflor Boncompagni Ludovisi, nee Bildt

    Available from: 2016-07-06 Created: 2016-07-06 Last updated: 2018-04-09
  • Public defence: 2018-05-04 13:15 Ada Lovelace, B-huset, Linköping
    Wahlsten, Markus
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Uncertainty quantification for wave propagation and flow problems with random data2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we study partial differential equations with random inputs. The effects that different boundary conditions with random data and uncertain geometries have on the solution are analyzed. Further, comparisons and couplings between different uncertainty quantification methods are performed. The numerical simulations are based on provably strongly stable finite difference formulations based on summation-by-parts operators and a weak implementation of boundary and interface conditions.

    The first part of this thesis treats the construction of variance reducing boundary conditions. It is shown how the variance of the solution can be manipulated by the choice of boundary conditions, and a close relation between the variance of the solution and the energy estimate is established. The technique is studied on both a purely hyperbolic system as well as an incompletely parabolic system of equations. The applications considered are the Euler, Maxwell's, and Navier--Stokes equations.

    The second part focuses on the effect of uncertain geometry on the solution. We consider a two-dimensional advection-diffusion equation with a stochastically varying boundary. We transform the problem to a fixed domain where comparisons can be made. Numerical results are performed on a problem in heat transfer, where the frequency and amplitude of the prescribed uncertainty are varied.

    The final part of the thesis is devoted to the comparison and coupling of different uncertainty quantification methods. An efficiency analysis is performed using the intrusive polynomial chaos expansion with stochastic Galerkin projection, and nonintrusive numerical integration. The techniques are compared using the non-linear viscous Burgers' equation. A provably stable coupling procedure for the two methods is also constructed. The general coupling procedure is exemplified using a hyperbolic system of equations.

    List of papers
    1. Variance reduction through robust design of boundary conditions for stochastic hyperbolic systems of equations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Variance reduction through robust design of boundary conditions for stochastic hyperbolic systems of equations
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Computational Physics, ISSN 0021-9991, E-ISSN 1090-2716, Vol. 282, p. 1-22Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a hyperbolic system with uncertainty in the boundary and initial data. Our aim is to show that different boundary conditions gives different convergence rates of the variance of the solution. This means that we can with the same knowledge of data get a more or less accurate description of the uncertainty in the solution. A variety of boundary conditions are compared and both analytical and numerical estimates of the variance of the solution is presented. As applications, we study the effect of this technique on Maxwell's equations as well as on a subsonic outflow boundary for the Euler equations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    Uncertainty quantification, hyperbolic system, initial boundary value problems, well posed, stability, boundary conditions, stochastic data, variance reduction, robust design, summation-by parts
    National Category
    Computational Mathematics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111893 (URN)10.1016/j.jcp.2014.10.061 (DOI)000346430700001 ()
    Available from: 2014-11-07 Created: 2014-11-07 Last updated: 2018-04-09
    2. Robust Boundary Conditions for Stochastic Incompletely Parabolic Systems of Equations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robust Boundary Conditions for Stochastic Incompletely Parabolic Systems of Equations
    2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We study an incompletely parabolic system in three space dimensions with stochastic boundary and initial data. We show how the variance of the solution can be manipulated by the boundary conditions, while keeping the mean value of the solution unaffected. Estimates of the variance of the solution is presented both analytically and numerically. We exemplify the technique by applying it to an incompletely parabolic model problem, as well as the one-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes equations.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. p. 39
    Series
    LiTH-MAT-R, ISSN 0348-2960 ; 19
    Keyword
    uncertainty quantifcation, incompletely parabolic system, initial boundary value problems, stochastic data, variance reduction, robust design
    National Category
    Computational Mathematics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133365 (URN)LiTH-MAT-R--2016/19--SE (ISRN)
    Available from: 2016-12-22 Created: 2016-12-22 Last updated: 2018-04-09Bibliographically approved
    3. The effect of uncertain geometries on advection–diffusion of scalar quantities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of uncertain geometries on advection–diffusion of scalar quantities
    2017 (English)In: BIT Numerical Mathematics, ISSN 0006-3835, E-ISSN 1572-9125, Vol. 226, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The two dimensional advection–diffusion equation in a stochastically varyinggeometry is considered. The varying domain is transformed into a fixed one andthe numerical solution is computed using a high-order finite difference formulationon summation-by-parts form with weakly imposed boundary conditions. Statistics ofthe solution are computed non-intrusively using quadrature rules given by the probabilitydensity function of the random variable. As a quality control, we prove that thecontinuous problem is strongly well-posed, that the semi-discrete problem is stronglystable and verify the accuracy of the scheme. The technique is applied to a heat transferproblem in incompressible flow. Statistical properties such as confidence intervals andvariance of the solution in terms of two functionals are computed and discussed. Weshow that there is a decreasing sensitivity to geometric uncertainty as we graduallylower the frequency and amplitude of the randomness. The results are less sensitiveto variations in the correlation length of the geometry.

    Keyword
    Incompressible flow, Advection–diffusion, Uncertainty quantification, Uncertain geometry, Boundary conditions, Parabolic problems, Variable coefficient, Temperature field, Heat transfer
    National Category
    Mathematics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140135 (URN)10.1007/s10543-017-0676-7 (DOI)
    Available from: 2017-08-31 Created: 2017-08-31 Last updated: 2018-04-09
    4. Stochastic Galerkin Projection and Numerical Integration for Stochastic Investigations of the Viscous Burgers’ Equation
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Stochastic Galerkin Projection and Numerical Integration for Stochastic Investigations of the Viscous Burgers’ Equation
    2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider a stochastic analysis of the non-linear viscous Burgers’ equation and focus on the comparison between intrusive and non-intrusive uncer- tainty quantification methods. The intrusive approach uses a combination of polynomial chaos and stochastic Galerkin projection. The non-intrusive method uses numerical integration by combining quadrature rules and the probability density functions of the prescribed uncertainties. The two methods are applied to a provably stable formulation of the viscous Burgers’ equation, and compared. As measures of comparison: variance size, computational efficiency and accuracy are used.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 14
    Series
    LiTH-MAT-R, ISSN 0348-2960 ; 2018:2
    Keyword
    Uncertainty quantification, stochastic data, polynomial chaos, stochastic Galerkin, intrusive methods, non-intrusive methods, Burgers’ equation
    National Category
    Mathematics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-146038 (URN)LiTH-MAT-R--2018/02--SE (ISRN)
    Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-04-09Bibliographically approved
    5. An efficient hybrid method for uncertainty quantification
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>An efficient hybrid method for uncertainty quantification
    2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A technique for coupling an intrusive and non-intrusive uncertainty quantification method is proposed. The intrusive approach uses a combination of polynomial chaos and stochastic Galerkin projection. The non-intrusive method uses numerical integration by combining quadrature rules and the probability density functions of the prescribed uncertainties. A strongly stable coupling procedure between the two methods at an interface is constructed. The efficiency of the hybrid method is exemplified using a hyperbolic system of equations, and verified by numerical experiments.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 20
    Series
    LiTH-MAT-R, ISSN 0348-2960 ; 2018:3
    Keyword
    Uncertainty quantification, numerical integration, stochastic Galerkin, polynomial chaos, coupling, projection operator
    National Category
    Mathematics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-146036 (URN)LiTH-MAT-R--2018/03--SE (ISRN)
    Available from: 2018-03-22 Created: 2018-03-22 Last updated: 2018-04-09Bibliographically approved
  • Gustafsson, Joachim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Skattemässig neutralitet - till vilket pris?: En analys av Finansdepartementets promemoria Nya regler för företagssektorn gällande ränteavdragsbegränsningar i svensk skattelagstiftning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Under ett flertal år har det såväl på nationell som internationell nivå pågått en omfattande diskussion gällande den skattemässiga hanteringen av räntor. OECD har lämnat rekommendationer som behandlar internationell skatteplanering med ränteavdrag och EU-kommissionen har presenterat ett direktiv mot skatteundandragande med hjälp av ränteavdrag. Ett direktiv som föranlett en lagstiftningsprocess och Finansdepartementets promemoria Nya skatteregler för företagssektorn. I promemorian föreslås bland annat en insnävning av nuvarande reglering och två olika förslag på hur nya ränteavdragsbegränsningsregler kan komma att utformas i svensk skattelagstiftning. Lagstiftningen föreslås dels eftersom EU:s medlemsstater ska införa en lik-värdig reglering enligt direktivet och att Finansdepartementet vill öka den skattemässiga neut-raliteten mellan finansiering med eget och lånat kapital. I den här framställningen har jag tagit del av promemorian och analyserat huruvida förslagen är förenliga med vad näringslivet kan förvänta sig av en god skattelagstiftning samt hur förslagen skulle kunna justeras för att bidra till en ökad rättssäkerhet och ett konkurrenskraftigt och dynamiskt företagsklimat.

    I stora drag är en förändring av regelverket välkommen och direktivet öppnar upp för en möjlighet för Sverige att anpassa sig efter internationella standarder. Att Finansdepartementet i sin promemoria föreslår regler med syftet att öka neutraliteten mellan finansiering med eget och lånat kapital är i sig önskvärt. Finansdepartementet bör dock ställa sig frågan: till vilket pris bör den skattemässiga neutraliteten öka? Direktivet förespråkar jämlika regler för medlemsstaterna, men Finansdepartementet föreslår i sin promemoria en förhållandevis hård reglering jämfört med direktivet och andra länder som tillämpar direktivet. Skattelagstiftningen ska bidra till skattemässig neutralitet, men inte i den mån att konkurrenskraften hos de svenska bolagen avsevärt försämras jämfört med internationella bolag. Förslagen i promemorian bör således ses över och enligt den här framställningens resultat bör strävan efter skattemässig neutralitet reduceras till förmån för den internationella konkurrenskraften. Vidare bör den föreslagna ändringen av den nuvarande regleringen i fråga om riktade ränteavdragsbegränsningar inom intressegemenskap utformas utan oklara rekvisit som ger utrymme för egna tolkningar och godtycke. Att önska sig av en justerad reglering är att den ska tillrättaställa de faktiska problem som 2013 års reglering gett upphov till samt att skattelagstiftningen bör öka förutsebarheten och därmed rättssäkerheten.

  • Lundkvist, Herman
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering.
    Yngve, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering.
    Accelerated Simulation of Modelica Models Using an FPGA-Based Approach2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents Monza, a system for accelerating the simulation of modelsof physical systems described by ordinary differential equations, using a generalpurpose computer with a PCIe FPGA expansion card. The system allows bothautomatic generation of an FPGA implementation from a model described in theModelica programming language, and simulation of said system.Monza accomplishes this by using a customizable hardware architecture forthe FPGA, consisting of a variable number of simple processing elements. A cus-tom compiler, also developed in this thesis, tailors and programs the architectureto run a specific model of a physical system.Testing was done on two test models, a water tank system and a Weibel-lung,with up to several thousand state variables. The resulting system is several timesfaster for smaller models and somewhat slower for larger models compared to aCPU. The conclusion is that the developed hardware architecture and softwaretoolchain is a feasible way of accelerating model execution, but more work isneeded to ensure faster execution at all times.

  • Wassrin, Siri
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Why is it difficult to design innovative IT?: An agential realist study of designing IT for healthcare innovation2018Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It may seem strange to claim that it is difficult to design innovative information technology (IT) in a time when the technological progress leaps forward like never before. However, despite the numerous opportunities that this rapid progress provides, we often design IT that is similar to existing artifacts, making IT design incremental rather than radical. At the same time, IT innovations are pointed out as crucial to meet the societal challenges we are facing, not least in the public sector, including a growing and older population, increasing demands from citizens and reduced tax revenues. This calls for us to better understand why it is difficult to design innovative IT. Previous research on this topic have mainly focused on human and social aspects, not paying close attention to IT. In this thesis, it is suggested that the sociomaterial theory agential realism can help shed light on the role of IT in innovative IT design, acknowledging the sociomateriality of IT. Thus, the overarching aim of this thesis is to apply agential realism on an empirical case in order to explore and explain why it is difficult to design innovative IT. To fulfill the aim, a qualitative case study was conducted in publicly funded healthcare. The empirical case is an example of an attempt to design innovative IT in a healthcare context. The empirical material was generated through participant observations, including video recordings, and semi-structured interviews. The material was analyzed in several rounds, with and without a theoretical lens. In the agential realist analysis, IT has been viewed as entangled with the world. The analysis focused on what boundaries IT produced and how these boundaries were consequential for what was possible and impossible to design. The thesis illustrates how IT is produced and productive in terms of both matter and meaning, and thus, is agential – IT makes differences in the world. What is possible to design is not only constrained by social structures but by the materiality of IT, what boundaries IT helps produce and the material-discursive practices that enact IT. Innovative IT design means to design material configurations that produce boundaries that are different from what have been enacted before and, thus, deviate from existing material-discursive practices. However, it is difficult to deviate from these since material-discursive practices are agential and define what boundaries are meaningful and legitimate. Hence, it is difficult to design innovative IT since innovative IT design has to both enact boundaries that deviate from agential material-discursive practices and also gain legitimacy. Through this explanation, the thesis makes an explanatory knowledge contribution which differs from and adds to earlier explanations. It also makes a contribution to conceptualizing the IT artifact by emphasizing IT as sociomaterial and providing examples of how IT can be understood as produced, productive, agential and entangled. Finally, the thesis also makes an empirical and methodological contribution in the sense that it demonstrates how an agential realist case study can be conducted in the field of Information Systems.

  • Marcinkowski, Michal
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Contextualization of Autonomous Spaceflight Operations for deep space planetary encounters2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work concerns the research and application of data visualization techniques to depict ongoing activities in mankind’s investigation of space as part of a larger open-source visualization- and science-outreach software known as OpenSpace. It involves the construction of a physically accurate virtual environment of our local star group and solar system so as to facilitate development of a robust and generalized solution capable of articulating mission-science to its viewers. The research part is focused on deploying data visualization methods suitable for contextualizing scientific findings towards the general public in a pedagogical manner, with the end goal to provide a fully operational New Horizons visualization on the day of encounter with Pluto for the first public broadcast of OpenSpace across the globe.

  • Muralidharan, Rohit
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    The Impact of E-Commerce on Parcel Shipping Operators in The EU and The US2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Parcel carriers are susceptible to changes in the supply chain industry, as the carrier industry consists of many stakeholders who have an impact on the way they function. The stakeholders in the carrier industry are directly affected by the market trends that in turn affect the carrier business. Currently, E-commerce has a major influence on supply chain design, the operation of parcel carriers and the consumers. One main area of this thesis study is to analyse the impact of E-commerce on the parcel carriers in the EU and the US. Over time, E-commerce has caused a shift in the logistics industry that has made the carriers update the solutions they provide to their customers and to update their operations to accommodate the changes brought about by E-commerce. Since the operations of carriers in the EU and the US are different, this study focusses on five major parameters (Segmentation, Networks, Services, Specification and Tariff Structure) that help understand the carriers better in these two regions. This study will also help European Logistics Software Providers to re-organise themselves so it may help them to perform better integration processes between the carrier and their customers. It is evident that E-commerce has affected the parcel carrier industry and that the Logistics Software Providers must consider these parameters to have harmonized collaboration between the stakeholders in the supply chain. It is also difficult to normalize the selection of factors to be considered in the selection of a parcel carrier since the factors have a different effect in different regions around the world.

  • Fransson, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Driving behavior modeling and evaluation of merging control strategies - A microscopic simulation study on Sirat Expressway2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bangkok is a city where the congestion levels have been a major problem for many years. In 2017, Bangkok was rated the most congested city in Asia, and the second most congested in the world. According to The Expressway Authority of Thailand (EXAT), on-ramp merging is one of the most critical problem that causes congestion on the urban expressways. EXAT have evaluated several merging control strategies through microscopic traffic simulation to find suitable strategies for implementation in real life. However, their simulation studies were all based on the assumption that all motorists strictly follow the traffic rules. This is not the actual case in Bangkok, where the drivers ignore both solid lines and striped areas, as well as utilize the shoulder lane on a regular basis. The aim of this thesis is to investigate if it is possible to include this complex driving behavior in existing microscopic simulation models. A second objective is to identify merging control strategies that can reduce the occurrence and the effects of this driving behavior in order to increase the throughput at an on-ramp area on Sirat Expressway. A model was built in VISSIM and calibrated based on data collected from video recordings. In the study, parameters that are significant for the driving behavior modeling, as well as the difficulties that arise from performing a realistic calibration of the model using video observations and model-specific constraints, are identified. From the video recordings it was discovered that the main problem causing the congestion was a result of the mainline traffic who traversed to the on-ramp. Two merging control strategies were suggested to address this problem: the installment of a center barrier, and successive merging areas. The results confirmed that both actions can improve the traffic situation in terms of reducing the individual travel time. Installing a center barrier was the most efficient option and reduced the travel time by 16.58 % on the mainline and 63.24 % at the on-ramp.