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  • Almquist, Camilla
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine.
    Implementation of an automated,personalized model of the cardiovascularsystem using 4D Flow MRI2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A personalized cardiovascular lumped parameter model of the left-sided heart and thesystemic circulation has been developed by the cardiovascular medicine research groupat Linköping University. It provides information about hemodynamics, some of whichcould otherwise only have been retrieved by invasive measurements. The framework forpersonalizing the model is made using 4D Flow MRI data, containing volumes describinganatomy and velocities in three directions. Thus far, the inputs to this model have beengenerated manually for each subject. This is a slow and tedious process, unpractical touse clinically, and unfeasible for many subjects.This project aims to develop a tool to calculate the inputs and run the model for mul-tiple subjects in an automatic way. It has its basis in 4D Flow MRI data sets segmentedto identify the locations of left atrium (LA), left ventricle (LV), and aorta, along with thecorresponding structures on the right side.The process of making this tool started by calculation of the inputs. Planes were placedin the relevant positions, at the mitral valve, aortic valve (AV) and in the ascending aortaupstream the brachiocephalic branches, and flow rates were calculated through them. TheAV plane was used to calculate effective orifice area of AV and aortic cross-sectional area,while the LV end systolic and end diastolic volumes were extracted form the segmentation.The tool was evaluated by comparison with manually created inputs and outputs,using 9 healthy volunteers and one patient deemed to have normal left ventricular func-tion. The patient was chosen from a subject group diagnosed with chronic ischemic heartdisease, and/or a history of angina, together with fulfillment of the high risk score ofcardiovascular diseases of the European Society of Cardiology. This data was evaluatedusing coefficient of variation, Bland-Altman plots and sum squared error. The tool wasalso evaluated visually on some subjects with pathologies of interest.This project shows that it is possible to calculate inputs fully automatically fromsegmented 4D Flow MRI and run the cardiovascular avatar in an automatic way, withoutuser interaction. The method developed seems to be in good to moderate agreement withthose obtained manually, and could be the basis for further development of the model.

  • Wajngot, David
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine.
    Improving Image Quality in Cardiac Computed Tomography using Deep Learning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular diseases are the largest mortality factor globally, and early diagnosis is essential for a proper medical response. Cardiac computed tomography can be used to acquire images for their diagnosis, but without radiation dose reduction the radiation emitted to the patient becomes a significant risk factor. By reducing the dose, the image quality is often compromised, and determining a diagnosis becomes difficult. This project proposes image quality enhancement with deep learning. A cycle-consistent generative adversarial neural network was fed low- and high-quality images with the purpose to learn to translate between them. By using a cycle-consistency cost it was possible to train the network without paired data. With this method, a low-quality image acquired from a computed tomography scan with dose reduction could be enhanced in post processing.

    The results were mixed but showed an increase of ventricular contrast and artifact mitigation. The technique comes with several problems that are yet to be solved, such as structure alterations, but it shows promise for continued development.

  • Ibrahimovic, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    DNA Barcoding på Växter: Hur kan man använda genetisk barcoding i olika biologiska fält och i den gymnasiala undervisningen?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the literature study is to conclude which gene sequences are being used in DNA barcoding on plants and how the method in question is being used in three different biological occupations: diet analysis in ecology, analysis of pollen in forensics and analysis of ancient DNA (aDNA) in paleontology. Further it was also of interest to study how DNA barcoding can be used in high school settings and how the method correlates with the Swedish curriculum. How pupils have benefited from the chosen method and what limitations have arisen have also been touched upon. This literature study is based on scientific articles that have been sought with the keywords listed below. The results show that a combination of gene sequences, including rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA and ITS, works best in plant identification. At present, genetic barcoding is still in the developmental phase, where the method is limited by the number of reference sequences in the databases, which makes it difficult to exclude morphological-based methods in the three occupational fields. When using barcoding in upper secondary education it turns out that it’s in good agreement with the Swedish curriculum and increases the students' interest in the scientific subjects, since they can contribute with genuine research when adding reference sequences in the databases. The main limitations are the workload for the teacher, the teacher in question must be comfortable with the different laboratory steps and that the school must have access to necessary equipment.

  • Abtahi, Jahan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Maxillofacial Unit.
    Malakuti, Iman
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Maxillofacial Unit.
    Ajan, Aida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Maxillofacial Unit.
    Surgical Management of Granular Cell Tumor of the Orbit: Case Report and Literature Review2019In: The Open Dentistry Journal, p. 33-40Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Granular Cell Tumors (GCTs) of the orbit are rare-entity soft-tissue tumors, and few reports have been published in the literature. The treatment of the choice is total excision. Early diagnosis prior to surgery is valuable for the distinction of malignant from benign tumor.

    Case presentation: We report a case of a 55-year-old woman with a solitary slow-growing mass in the right orbit with the involvement of the rectus inferior muscle, and present a review of the recent literature. The lesion had a diameter of 1 cm and was noticed 2 years before the examination. Excisional biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of GCT. The tumor was resected through a retroseptal transconjunctival approach. The final histological examination revealed findings characteristic of GCT, including positive reaction for protein S-100, SOX10, and calcitonin and negative reaction for desmin, myogenin, Smooth Muscle Antigen (SMA), Melan-A, and HMB-45. There were no signs of malignancy in this sample. Disturbance of motility was not noted by the patient after surgery.

    Conclusion: GCT should be included in the differential diagnosis of intraorbital lesions, particularly those that involve the orbit muscles. A biopsy is recommended before surgical resection, to exclude malignancy and prevent radical resection.

  • Bäck Öberg, Robert
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Eriksson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Division of Occupational Therapy.
    Arbetsterapeutiska interventioner för ungdomar och vuxna med autismspektrumtillstånd: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Autismspektrumtillstånd utmärker sig främst genom bristande verbal- och ickeverbal kommunikation, nedsatt social ömsesidighet och en oförmåga att skapa samt bibehålla relationer. Detta innebär en aktivitetsproblematik inom; ADL, fritid, skola och arbete.

    Syfte: Att undersöka vilka arbetsterapeutiska interventioner som finns för ungdomar och vuxna personer med autismspektrumtillstånd.

    Metod: En systematisk litteraturstudie utfördes med sammanlagt 23 artiklar som inkluderades. Databassökningen utfördes i de fyra databaserna; PubMed, AMED, CINAHL och Scopus.

    Resultat: Det framkom fyra teman; 1) skapa förutsättningar för aktiviteter, 2) träna sociala färdigheter, med två underteman; 2.1) träna sociala färdigheter med datorprogram, 2.2) träna sociala färdigheter med rollspel, 3.) träna motoriska färdigheter och träna i aktivitet samt 4) handledning.

    Konklusion: Det framkom att sociala färdigheter är fokus för arbetsterapeutisk intervention. Även att teknikstöd och rollspel var vanligt förekommande för unga vuxna och vuxna med AST.

  • Frode Blomberg, Agneta (Editor)
    Linköping University, University Services.
    Årsredovisning 2018: Linköpings universitet2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den ekonomiska tillväxten har fortsatt under 2018 och Linköpings universitet (LiU) redovisar en omsättning av intäkter på 4 miljarder kronor. LiU har erkänt hög kvalitet i utbildningarna. Att behålla den höga kvaliteten är fortsatt den viktigaste förutsättningen för att rekrytera de bäst lämpade studenterna och för att ha en fortsatt framgångsrik forskning.

    Lärosätet bedriver flera olika insatser som syftar till en breddad studentrekrytering. Arbetet följs årligen upp i LiU:s handlingsplan för Lika villkor och kunskap om Lika villkor sprids också bland studenter som deltar i studentrekryteringsaktiviteter.

    Under 2018 har universitetet utvecklat flera utbildningsprogram. Bland nyheterna kan nämnas att LiU för första gången har startat ett program på kandidatnivå på engelska, Experimental and Industrial Biomedicine.

    LiU arbetar med uppdragsutbildning utifrån visionen ”Uppdragsutbildning i samverkan – för ett livslångt lärande på vetenskaplig grund och för kvalificerade analyser av nuvarande och framtida kompetensbehov”. I januari 2018 startade en särskild nhet för att stödja institutionerna och fakulteterna i arbetet med att utveckla och erbjuda denna typ av utbildning till kunder inom både privat och offentlig sektor.

    Även under 2018 har LiU visat mycket god förmåga att attrahera externa medel och därigenom kunnat fortsätta bygga starka och fokuserade forskningsmiljöer. Antalet vetenskapliga publikationer skrivna av forskare från LiU ökar ständigt.

    Under året fick LiU flera större anslag inom olika vetenskapsområden, vilket indikerar lärosätets bredd, och flera forskare belönades också på andra sätt. Som exempel kan nämnas anslag för forskning för att få fram nya material som ska bidra till effektivare energisystem; för utveckling och prövning av internetbaserad behandling för psykisk ohälsa hos nyanlända barn och ungdomar; för att visa hur man kan ta fram kvantmekanikens minsta beståndsdelar i rumstemperatur och för forskning kring en framtida teknik för flytande bränsle baserat på vatten och syre. Flera forskare från LiU deltar i programmet Agtech 2030 vars mål är att göra östra Götaland världsledande inom jordbruksteknik och bidra till att nå globala hållbarhetsmål. Programmet utsågs till ett av 2018 års Vinnväxt-program.

    Under det gångna året har det pågått en rad projekt som ytterligare har vässat LiU:s samverkansförmåga och tydliggjort det breda nyttiggörande som lärosätets forskning och utbildning bidrar till. En stor del av verksamheten har fokuserat på framtida utmaningar där LiU tillsammans med andra svenska lärosäten deltar i ett antal strategiska utvecklingsprojekt som är finansierade av Vinnova.

    Samverkan sker i allt högre utsträckning på en internationell arena. Tillsammans med sina samarbetspartner deltar LiU aktivt i delegationsresor och konferenser samt i nätverk och internationella utvecklingsprojekt för att gemensamt bidra till en internationaliserad agenda.

    Inom nätverket ECIU (European Consortium of Innovative Universities) finns en tydligt markerad ambition att genom en systematisk och kontinuerlig interaktion mellan forskning, innovation och utbildning bidra till regional tillväxt och social utveckling. Nätverket har under året tagit fram en rad policydokument på EU-nivå.

    Linköpings universitet har ett fortsatt behov av att rekrytera kärnkompetens. Den hårda konkurrensen om lärare och forskare innebär att LiU står inför en stor utmaning. Det finns även behov av rekrytering till tidsbegränsade anställningar som doktorand och postdoktor.

    Det ekonomiska resultatet för 2018 visar ett överskott på 156 mnkr, vilket motsvarar 4 procent av intäkterna. Överskottet fördelar sig med 45 mnkr inom utbildning och 111 mnkr inom forskning. Under året ökade intäkterna med 5 procent (varav bidragsintäkterna ökade med 14 procent) medan kostnaderna hade en mer måttfull ökning på 2 procent, samtidigt som antalet årsarbetare minskade. Det har inte funnits tillräckliga personalresurser för att bibehålla omfattningen på den anslagsfinansierade forskningsverksamheten, och kostnaderna för denna har därför minskat betydligt, samtidigt som den bidragsfinansierade forskningen ökat väsentligt i omfattning.

  • Perselli, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Modern Languages.
    Stärkande av elevers digitala kompetens i ämnet Moderna Språk: Tyska: Ett undervisningsupplägg för Flipped Classroom exemplifierad med en Webquest för reseplanering till Tyskland2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vi är på väg in i ett nytt samhälle pga. digitaliseringen av vår omgivning och det påverkar elevernas och lärarnas vardagbåde i och utanför klassrummet. Eleverna i skolorna har ofta stora kunskaper om internet som ett instrument förunderhållning, men mer sällan som ett verktyg för kunskapsinhämtning. Men i och med revisionen av läroplanen som blevobligatorisk att följa från och med hösten 2018, så måste nu lärare anpassa sin undervisning till teknik- ochinternetanvändning om de inte redan gjort det. Det är viktigt men svårt och tidskrävande att planera, särskilt förundervisningsmetoder där erfarenhet saknas. Den här texten är ämnad för att underlätta för lärare att lägga upp sinundervisning på ett sådant sätt att eleverna får träna på just det, att använda internet som ett verktyg.Det är i huvudsak två områden som legat till grund för den planering som presenterats i detta arbete: För det första vardet den tidigare forskning om Flipped Classroom, en metod som involverar video i undervisningen, och för det andra:Webquest, ett undervisningsformat där eleverna själva behöver inhämta information från internet för att kunna lösa enuppgift och samtidigt också ett format för att presentera sin arbetsområdesplanering med tillhörande uppgifter och materialpå internet.Att lägga upp en planering för ett arbetsområde utifrån läroplanen är ett didaktiskt arbete och därför har planerandetfölja vissa didaktiska riktlinjer. Skolverket (2011) har en text med sådana riktlinjer, men det har också varit nödvändigt atttitta på didaktiska handböcker (Lindström & Pennlert, 2012; Steinig & Huneke, 2015). Undervisningsplanering är lättastatt beskriva som om den vore en lång kedja av beslut, som var och ett har lett fram till nästa länk i kedjan. Så sker detnaturligtvis inte, utan alla delarna, läromål, metod, tillgänglig materiel och teknik etc., påverkar varandra.Utifrån ramfaktorer som språknivå, tidsramar, kursplan och läroplanen har ett undervisningsunderlag presenterats, föranvändning av Flipped Classroom i undervisningen för elever i årskurs 9. I det projektorienterade arbetet som tagits framsom exempel, får eleverna planera en kulturresa till Tyskland. Med upplägget från Webquest ges eleverna utrymme att 1)använda den digital tekniken 2) få tid att testa sig fram vid informationsletande och 3) jämföra sökresultat och informationmed varandra. Den konkreta undervisningsplaneringen finns på både tyska och svenska i bilagan till detta arbete. Litearbete återstår för en undervisande lärare, och det är att spela in videoklippen och närmare utforma de föreslagnauppgifterna. Det arbetet har inte gjorts eftersom det är sådant som måste anpassas efter den aktuella elevgruppen.

  • Sklyar, Alexey
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Marketing, CERS – Centre for Relationship Marketing and Service Management, Hanken School of Economics, Finland.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    nland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; CTF – Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Sweden.
    Sörhammar, David
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Organizing for digital servitization: A service ecosystem perspective2019In: Journal of Business Research, ISSN 0148-2963, E-ISSN 1873-7978Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Harnessing digital technology is of increasing concern as product firms organize for service-led growth. Adopting a service ecosystem perspective, we analyze interfirm and intrafirm change processes taking place as firms pursue digital servitization. The study draws on in-depth interviews with 44 managers involved in organizing activities in two multinational industry leaders. Our findings identify major differences between the two focal firms in terms of digital service-led growth and associated ecosystem-related activities. The study disentangles underlying processes of organizational change in the ecosystem and suggests that within-firm centralization and integration play a key role in the capacity to organize for digital servitization. For managers, the findings highlight the need to foster service-centricity in order to take full advantage of digitalization beyond purely technological benefits.

  • Lind, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, History and Media Studies.
    Syns vi inte på sociala medier, så finns vi inte: En fallstudie av bloggen Resfredag och hur kommuner arbetar med influencers som en del av platsmarknadsföringen.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how municipalities can work with place marketing through the use of social media and influencers. This has been explored through a case study of the blog Resfredagand the blog’s thematic series Svenska pärlor, a collaborative marketing initiative initiated by the municipalities of: Borås, Karlstad Karlskrona, Marstrand, Nynäshamn, Skaftö/ Lysekil, Söderköping, Skara, Tjörn, Strömstad, Östersund and Umeå. The study has been carried out through nine semi-structured interviews with key sources representing the municipalities who have an entry posted to the blog, but also with Annika Myhre who runs the blog Resfredag.

    The result of the study showed that the similarities and differences between the municipalities work with place marketing can be viewed through the themes of: the changed role of the tourism organizations, target markets and groups, as well as digital presence. The municipalities´ collaborations with the blog Resfredagcould also be answered through the themes of: selling an idea, daring to make an attempt and paid/non- paid collaboration. Finally, the possibilities and problems of influencer collaborations were described through the themes of: credibility, cooperation and difficulties to measure. The different themes have created the understanding that municipalities tourism organizations are increasingly becoming tourism actors in a more and more digitalized market.

  • Fejes, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Fragoso, António
    University of Algarve.
    Jütte, Wolfgang
    University of Bielefeld.
    Kurantowicz, Ewa
    University of Lower Silesia.
    Merrill, Barbara
    University of Warwick.
    Salling Olesen, Henning
    Roskilde University.
    Wildemeersch, Danny
    Leuven University.
    RELAs 10-year anniversary: What have we accomplished?2019In: European Journal for Research on the Education and Learning of Adults, ISSN 2000-7426, E-ISSN 2000-7426, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 7-12Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The first issue of RELA was published in 2010, so with this issue we enter the 10-year anniversary. In this editorial, we will firstly elaborate on what we as editors find that RELA has accomplished. Secondly, we introduce changes that are taking place while entering 2019, and lastly, we introduce the papers which are included in this issue.

  • Prihodko, Nikolajs
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning.
    Machine Learning for Forecasting Signal Strength in Mobile Networks2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we forecast the future signal strength of base stations in mobile networks. Better forecasts might improve handover of mobile phones between base stations, thus improving overall user experience. Future values are forecast using a series of past sig- nal strength measurements. We use vector autoregression (VAR), a multilayer perceptron (MLP), and a gated recurrent unit (GRU) network. Hyperparameters, including the set of lags, of these models are optimised using Bayesian optimisation (BO) with Gaussian pro- cess (GP) priors. In addition to BO of the VAR model, we optimise the set of lags in it using a standard bottom-up and top-down heuristic. Both approaches result in similar predictive mean squared error (MSE) for the VAR model, but BO requires fewer model estimations. The GRU model provides the best predictive performance out of the three models. How- ever, none of the models (VAR, MLP, or GRU) achieves the accuracy required for practical applicability of the results. Therefore, we suggest adding more information to the model or reformulating the problem.

  • Barakat, Arian
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning.
    What makes an (audio)book popular?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Audiobook reading has traditionally been used for educational purposes but has in recent times grown into a popular alternative to the more traditional means of consuming literature. In order to differentiate themselves from other players in the market, but also provide their users enjoyable literature, several audiobook companies have lately directed their efforts on producing own content. Creating highly rated content is, however, no easy task and one reoccurring challenge is how to make a bestselling story. In an attempt to identify latent features shared by successful audiobooks and evaluate proposed methods for literary quantification, this thesis employs an array of frameworks from the field of Statistics, Machine Learning and Natural Language Processing on data and literature provided by Storytel - Sweden’s largest audiobook company.

    We analyze and identify important features from a collection of 3077 Swedish books concerning their promotional and literary success. By considering features from the aspects Metadata, Theme, Plot, Style and Readability, we found that popular books are typically published as a book series, cover 1-3 central topics, write about, e.g., daughter-mother relationships and human closeness but that they also hold, on average, a higher proportion of verbs and a lower degree of short words. Despite successfully identifying these, but also other factors, we recognized that none of our models predicted “bestseller” adequately and that future work may desire to study additional factors, employ other models or even use different metrics to define and measure popularity.

    From our evaluation of the literary quantification methods, namely topic modeling and narrative approximation, we found that these methods are, in general, suitable for Swedish texts but that they require further improvement and experimentation to be successfully deployed for Swedish literature. For topic modeling, we recognized that the sole use of nouns provided more interpretable topics and that the inclusion of character names tended to pollute the topics. We also identified and discussed the possible problem of word inflections when modeling topics for more morphologically complex languages, and that additional preprocessing treatments such as word lemmatization or post-training text normalization may improve the quality and interpretability of topics. For the narrative approximation, we discovered that the method currently suffers from three shortcomings: (1) unreliable sentence segmentation, (2) unsatisfactory dictionary-based sentiment analysis and (3) the possible loss of sentiment information induced by translations. Despite only examining a handful of literary work, we further found that books written initially in Swedish had narratives that were more cross-language consistent compared to books written in English and then translated to Swedish.

  • Tholander, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    The making and unmaking of a bullying victim2019In: Interchange, ISSN 0826-4805, E-ISSN 1573-1790Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on a video-recorded meeting in which a 13-year old female student, in front of her teacher and parents, discloses that she is being bullied. Through a combination of a conversation analytic approach and a victimological perspective, the analyses center on how the student frames her own victimhood narrative as well as on how the other participants, mainly the teacher, respond. While the student in observable ways strives to portray herself as a genuine bullying victim, she nevertheless, after encountering a series of discursive practices, ends up as a rejected victim. This could potentially lead to a form of secondary victimization, in which the original suffering of the victim is exacerbated through inadequate responses by third parties. Three implications for teachers in similar positions are highlighted: (1) Thoroughly scrutinize your own discursive environment, (2) take every victimhood narrative seriously, and (3) solve the problem without delay.

  • Wennberg, Joar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Carlqvist, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    "Jag ska ju hitta en balans i det": - En kvalitativ studie om mellanchefers förväntningar, rollkonflikter och handlingsstrategier i balansen mellan arbetsliv och privatliv.2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien ämnar undersöka mellanchefers förväntningar, rollkonflikter och handlingsstrategier i balansen mellan arbetsliv och privatliv. För att undersöka detta utgår vi från frågeställningarna: Vilka förväntningar upplever mellanchefer på sig själva? Vilka rollkonflikter kan uppstå genom förväntningarna? Hur hanterar mellancheferna rollkonflikterna? Studiens vetenskapliga utgångspunkter grundar sig i konstruktionistisk ontologi och hermeneutisk epistemologi. Studien är av kvalitativ karaktär och studiens tillvägagångssätt har en induktiv ansats med inslag av deduktion. Den teoretiska referensramen etableras på teoretiska begrepp som förväntningar, rollkonflikter, rolldistans, segmentering och integrering. Empirin har samlats in genom semistrukturerade intervjuer. Studiens resultat visar att intervjupersonerna har olika strategier för att hantera rollkonflikterna som uppstår genom förväntningar. I analysen framkom det tre typer av handlingsstrategier, reflektion, prioritering och kommunikation.

  • Knöös, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Digitala visioner möter praktikens utmaningar: En kvalitativ studie av pedagogers erfarenheter kring användande av digitala verktyg i skolan2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Internationella och nationella råd och direktiv om digitalisering i samhället är grund för utmaningar för skolan. Digital kompetens anses som en nyckelkompetens för livslångt lärande. Det skapar utmaningar för skolan att utveckla denna kompetens på olika nivåer. Det är relevant att studera var skolan befinner sig i digitaliseringsarbetet för att hitta strategier för fortsatt utveckling.

    Studiens syfte utgår från undervisande pedagogers erfarenheter av att använda digitala verktyg i sin undervisning. De olika användningsformer som lärarna beskriver lyfts i studien samt hur arbetet med digitala verktyg kan kopplas till kunskapsutveckling. Även lärarnas resonemang kring den tillgång till digitala verktyg som finns på skolan sätts i fokus.

    Undersökningen tangerar ett delmål i den nationella digitaliseringsstrategin som handlar om att barn, elever och personal ska ha god och likvärdig tillgång till digitala verktyg och resurser i syfte att förbättra utbildningen och effektivisera verksamheten.

    Studien har i sin kvalitativa form sökt svar på frågor kring detta. Undersökningen genomfördes i form av en fallstudie med semistrukturerade intervjuer av sex informanter på en skola.

    Resultatet visar ett upplevt behov av kompetensutveckling för pedagoger vad gäller tekniken och undervisning med digitala verktyg samt en större tydlighet kring strategier och planer för arbetet med dessa. Ett annat resultat är att lärarna önskar ökad kompetens vad gäller hur elever lär sig med digitala verktyg, exempelvis strategier för digital läsning. Sammanfattningsvis konstateras att en digital klyfta finns på skolan, d v s tillgången till digitala verktyg är relativt god men kunskap att använda den varierar och kan beskrivas som ojämlik.

  • Fejes, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Adult Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Adult education and the fostering of asylum seekers as “full” citizens2019In: International Review of Education, ISSN 0020-8566, E-ISSN 1573-0638Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of adult education in the shaping and fostering of democratic citizens is prevalent in current transnational and national policy discussions; a significance which has been further infused by the past few years’ historically high migration flows. This article focuses specifically on the role of adult education in shaping asylum seekers into “full” citizens in Sweden. Drawing on a poststructural discursive theorisation, the author analyses policy reports as well as interviews with project managers and leaders of study circles (a particular form of collaborative adult learning in Sweden) involved in a state-funded initiative called Svenska från dag ett [Swedish from Day One]. This programme emerged in the wake of the arrival of high numbers of asylum seekers in Sweden in the autumn of 2015 and onwards, providing them with an introduction to the Swedish language and to Swedish society. The author’s analysis illustrates how a discourse on asylum seekers as “not yet citizens” emerges, where “they” still lack certain knowledge and capabilities deemed necessary to potentially become “full” citizens in Sweden. Such knowledge, besides language, concerns (Swedish) cultural and institutional (e.g. healthcare and taxation) knowledge. The article concludes by raising some questions regarding the way in which the need for country-specific language as a basis for inclusion is taken for granted.

  • Public defence: 2019-02-27 13:15 Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Karhu, Robin
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Semiconductor Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    CVD growth of SiC for high-power and high-frequency applications2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Silicon Carbide (SiC) is a wide bandgap semiconductor that has attracted a lot of interest for electronic applications due to its high thermal conductivity, high saturation electron drift velocity and high critical electric field strength. In recent years commercial SiC devices have started to make their way into high and medium voltage applications.

    Despite the advancements in SiC growth over the years, several issues remain. One of these issues is that the bulk grown SiC wafers are not suitable for electronic applications due to the high background doping and high density of basal plane dislocations (BPD). Due to these problems SiC for electronic devices must be grown by homoepitaxy. The epitaxial growth is performed in chemical vapor deposition (CVD) reactors. In this work, growth has been performed in a horizontal hot-wall CVD (HWCVD) reactor. In these reactors it is possible to produce high-quality SiC epitaxial layers within a wide range of doping, both n- and p-type.

    SiC is a well-known example of polytypism, where the different polytypes exist as different stacking sequences of the Si-C bilayers. Polytypism makes polytype stability a problem during growth of SiC. To maintain polytype stability during homoepitaxy of the hexagonal polytypes the substrates are usually cut so that the angle between the surface normal and the c-axis is a few degrees, typically 4 or 8°. The off-cut creates a high density of micro-steps at the surface. These steps allow for the replication of the substrates polytype into the growing epitaxial layer, the growth will take place in a step-flow manner. However, there are some drawbacks with step-flow growth. One is that BPDs can replicate from the substrate into the epitaxial layer. Another problem is that 4H-SiC is often used as a substrate for growth of GaN epitaxial layers. The epitaxial growth of GaN has been developed on on-axis substrates (surface normal coincides with c-axis), so epitaxial 4H-SiC layers grown on off-axis substrates cannot be used as substrates for GaN epitaxial growth.

    In efforts to solve the problems with off-axis homoepitaxy of 4H-SiC, on-axis homoepitaxy has been developed. In this work, further development of wafer-scale on-axis homoepitaxy has been made. This development has been made on a Si-face of 4H-SiC substrates. The advances include highly resistive epilayers grown on on-axis substrates. In this thesis the ability to control the surface morphology of epitaxial layers grown on on-axis homoepitaxy is demonstrated. This work also includes growth of isotopically enriched 4H-SiC on on-axis substrates, this has been done to increase the thermal conductivity of the grown epitaxial layers.

    In (paper 1) on-axis homoepitaxy of 4H-SiC has been developed on 100 mm diameter substrates. This paper also contains comparisons between different precursors. In (paper 2) we have further developed on-axis homoepitaxy on 100 mm diameter wafers, by doping the epitaxial layers with vanadium. The vanadium doping of the epitaxial layers makes the layers highly resistive and thus suitable to use as a substrate for III-nitride growth. In (paper 3) we developed a method to control the surface morphology and reduce the as-grown surface roughness in samples grown on on-axis substrates. In (paper 4) we have increased the thermal conductivity of 4H-SiC epitaxial layers by growing the layers using isotopically enriched precursors. In (paper 5) we have investigated the role chlorine have in homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC. In (paper 6) we have investigated the charge carrier lifetime in as-grown samples and traced variations in lifetime to structural defects in the substrate. In (paper 7) we have investigated the formation mechanism of a morphological defect in homoepitaxial grown 4H-SiC.

    List of papers
    1. The Role of Chlorine during High Growth Rate Epitaxy
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Role of Chlorine during High Growth Rate Epitaxy
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 821-823, p. 141-144Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The influence of chlorine has been investigated for high growth rates of 4H-SiC epilayers on 4o off-cut substrates. Samples were grown at a growth rate of approximately 50 and 100 μm/h and various Cl/Si ratios. The growth rate, net doping concentration and charge carrier lifetime have been studied as a function of Cl/Si ratio. This study shows some indications that a high Cl concentration in the growth cell leads to less availability of Si during the growth process.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Pfaffikon, Switzerland: Scientific.Net, 2015
    Keywords
    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), Chlorine, Doping, Epitaxy, High Growth Rate
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123951 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.821-823.141 (DOI)
    Conference
    European Conference on Silicon Carbide & Related Materials, Grenoble, France, 21-25 September 2014
    Available from: 2016-01-14 Created: 2016-01-14 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
    2. Long Charge Carrier Lifetime in As-Grown 4H-SiC Epilayer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long Charge Carrier Lifetime in As-Grown 4H-SiC Epilayer
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Materials Science Forum, ISSN 0255-5476, E-ISSN 1662-9752, Vol. 858, p. 125-128Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Over 150 μm thick epilayers of 4H-SiC with long carrier lifetime have been grown with a chlorinated growth process. The carrier lifetime have been determined by time resolved photoluminescence (TRPL), the lifetime varies a lot between different areas of the sample. This study investigates the origins of lifetime variations in different regions using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), low temperature photoluminescence (LTPL) and a combination of KOH etching and optical microscopy. From optical microscope images it is shown that the area with the shortest carrier lifetime corresponds to an area with high density of structural defects.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Trans Tech Publications, 2016
    Keywords
    Carrier Lifetime, Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD), Chlorine, Epitaxy
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154468 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.858.125 (DOI)
    Available from: 2019-02-13 Created: 2019-02-13 Last updated: 2019-02-14
  • Petrovych, Veronika
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Thellman, Sam
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Human Interpretation of Goal-Directed Autonomous Car Behavior2018In: COGSCI2018 Changing / minds, 40th annual cognitive science society meeting, Madison, Wisconsin, USA, July 25-28, Victoria, British Columbia: Cognitive Science Society , 2018, p. 2235-2240Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    People increasingly interact with different types of autonomous robotic systems, ranging from humanoid social robots to driverless vehicles. But little is known about how people interpret the behavior of such systems, and in particular if and how they attribute cognitive capacities and mental states to them. In a study concerning people’s interpretations of autonomous car behavior, building on our previous research on human-robot interaction, participants were presented with (1) images of cars – either with or without a driver – exhibiting various goal-directed traffic behaviors, and (2) brief verbal descriptions of that behavior. They were asked to rate the extent to which these behaviors were intentional and judge the plausibility of different types of causal explanations. The results indicate that people (a) view autonomous car behavior as goal-directed, (b) discriminate between intentional and unintentional autonomous car behaviors, and (c) view the causes of autonomous and human traffic behaviors similarly, in terms of both intentionality ascriptions and behavior explanations. However, there was considerably lower agreement in participant ratings of the driverless behaviors, which might indicate an increased difficulty in interpreting goal-directed behavior of autonomous systems.

  • Nilsson, Doris
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Svedin, Carl Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Barnafrid. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry in Linköping.
    Kunskapsöversikt om stöd och behandling för barn som utsatts för sexuella övergrepp och fysisk misshandel2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna översikt är inte vad man brukar kalla en systematisk litteraturöversikt utan en översikt i huvudsak baserad på tidigare kunskapsöversikter och metaanalyser. Det innebar att enstaka artiklar och studier kan ha förbisetts beroende på de sökord som har använts i de olika översiktsartiklarna och metaanalyserna. Vi har dock så långt det är möjligt letat i andra sammanställningar och organisationers hemsidor för att minimera risken för att viktiga instrument och evidensbaserade interventioner missats.

    Det som framkommit i denna kunskapsöversikt är att när något barn eller ungdom varit utsatt för ett trauma så är det viktigt att det tidigt finns ett gott omhändertagande för att lindra och om möjligt förhindra en negativ utveckling av den psykiska hälsan som följd av att ha varit utsatt för ett potentiellt trauma. I vissa fall och kanske framförallt när det gäller potentiella trauman som inte innehåller våld eller sexuella övergrepp kan det kanske räcka med en kortare men evidensbaserad tidig intervention. Forskning visar att det för ungefär hälften av de traumatiserade barnen sker en spontanläkning de första tre månaderna av posttraumatisk stress, för att sedan plana ut, men att det efter 6 månader inte längre är troligt att symtomen försvinner utan intervention (Hiller et al., 2016).

    Genom screening och annan bedömning bör man kunna avgöra om barnet eller ungdomen behöver någon ytterligare behandling, förslagsvis då en av de evidensbaserade behandlingar som finns, och vid mer komplex traumatisering en behandling anpassad för detta ändamål.

    Det är dock viktigt att betona att en del barn och ungdomar kan behöva behandling omedelbart, till exempel när allvarliga symtom utvecklas snabbt. Observera också att tidsintervallet inom 4 veckor avser tid efter traumahändelsen, inte tid efter avslöjande eller anmälan. Våld och sexuella övergrepp består inte sällan av många händelser över tid. Utsatta barn berättar ofta att de utsatts en lång tid efteråt. Vid avslöjandet kan de redan ha utvecklat symtom som kräver behandling direkt.

    För att kunna ge rätt insats/behandling, både tidigt och senare, efter ett eller flera potentiella trauman, är det viktigt med validerade mätinstrument för screening av traumaerfarenheter och symtom, men även för bedömning av mer allvarlig problematik/diagnoser. Detta är något som framkommit mycket tydligt under arbetet med denna kunskapsöversikt. Då det många gånger är psykologiska begrepp och symtom som inte så lätt låter sig identifieras, operationaliserar man det man vill mäta med frågor som besvaras av den som berörs. Man försöker identifiera hur en person mår, vilka symtom den har etc. genom ett frågeformulär som används regelbundet bland t.ex. barn och ungdomar. Efter att ha studerat formulärets kvaliteter (att det mäter vad det utger sig för att mäta och att det är stabilt över tid) har man utvecklat ett standardiserat instrument för att mäta ett visst symtom. Det är i detta sammanhang också viktigt att påpeka att de mätinstrument man använder även är undersökta i det land de används.

    Sammanfattning av Bedömningsinstrument

    I denna översikt finns såväl skattnings- och bedömningsinstrument som mäter förekomsten av trauma som instrument som mäter symtom och beteendeproblem som kan förknippas med traumatiska händelser. Instrumenten kan vara i form av intervjuer, mer eller mindre kliniska/diagnostiska eller utformade som självsvarsformulär.

    Barn och unga är givetvis en viktig källa då det gäller information omkring deras egna erfarenheter och posttraumatiska reaktioner och de rapporterar sina erfarenheter (Bernstein et al., 1997) och sina symtom tillförlitligt (Hamby, Finkelhor, Ormod & Turner, 2005). Dessutom rapporterar de mer symtom än vad andra gör å deras vägnar (Nader, 2008). Då det gäller överensstämmelsen mellan hur olika informanter rapporterar barns erfarenhet av potentiellt traumatiska händelser så har den visat sig inte vara särskilt god (Tingskull, Svedin, Agnafors, deKeyser, Sydsjö & Nilsson, 2013) varför vi med ledning av ovanstående rekommenderar att använda självsvarsformulär för de barn och ungdomar som själva kan hantera dessa.

    När det gäller att screena för erfarenheter av potentiellt traumatiska händelser traumaformulär så kan man välja att använda kortare formulär som på så sätt tidsmässigt är lättare att administrera (LITE, LYLES) eller längre och mer omfattande formulär som JVQ som ger en mer allsidig bild av barnets utsatthet. För mindre barn finns då föräldraversioner av såväl LITE som LYLES.

    Symtomformulär finns med olika inriktning och i huvudsak ser vi översatta formulär som mäter akut stress, symtom relaterade till traumaupplevelser, som posttraumatiskt stressyndrom samt formulär som mäter dissociativa symtom. Här finns flera att välja på men det som är mest allsidigt och mest använt i Sverige är TSCC och TSCYC vars nackdelar är att de inte är fria att användas utan kostnad och behörighet. För akut stress finns ASC-kids. Beträffande dissociation så finns flera formulär att välja på men tre som är relativt lättadministrerade är Dis-Q-Sweden (självsvar), CDC (föräldrasvar) samt SDQ-20 vid misstanke om somatoform dissociation.

    Vid behov av vidare diagnostik finns en rad kliniska standardiserade intervjuer men där kanske K-SADS-PL eller M.I.N.I. KID är de mest använda i klinisk praxis med barn och ungdomar.

    För forskning så är det också angeläget att använda internationellt erkända formulär om man vill jämföra traumaförekomst eller symtom efter potentiellt traumatiska upplevelser med undersökningar från andra länder.

    För framtiden ser vi behov av att fler instrument översätts till andra språk då Sverige idag är ett multikulturellt samhälle med stort inflöde av unga människor med annan språklig bakgrund, traumatiska erfarenheter samt traumarelaterade symtom. Det finns också behov av att översätta eller utveckla ett kortare kombinerat instrument för screening av såväl traumahistoria som symtom.

    Sammanfattning av tidig intervention

    Att tidigt kunna ge stöd och hjälp vid upplevda potentiella trauman såväl naturkatastrofer, trafikolyckor som vid våld och sexuella övergrepp måste anses som viktigt.

    Att kunna identifiera barn som riskerar att utveckla posttraumatisk stress kan spela en viktig roll när det gäller att minska risken för att utveckla kvarstående svårigheter efter potentiellt traumatiska händelser. Detta är något som framkommer i alla dessa studier. Ingen studie rapporterar skadlig inverkan vid de tidiga interventionerna. Således hittar man positiva tendenser även om inte man inte alltid får signifikanta symtomreduktioner när det gäller posttraumatisk stress. De flesta av studierna har interventioner som bara är en gång, vissa 1–2 och ibland endast en information via webben och en broschyr. Den intervention som framstår som den mest välgjorda studien var metoden Child and Family Traumatic Stress Intervention (CFTSI) (metoden beskrivs i kapitlet om tidig intervention) som visade på bäst resultat med signifikant symtomreduktion på flera utfallsmått och även posttraumatisk stress efter 4 sessioner. Denna metod har även i en icke randomiserad studie (n=114, 5-8 sessioner) vid för- och eftermätning visat på signifikanta resultat och metoden är också bedömd av CEBC som ha ett lovande vetenskapligt stöd (nivå 3).

    Det som i denna kunskapsöversikt samstämmigt framkommit i alla studierna är att screena för risk samt ge psykoedukation om trauma och hur man kan reagera efter en traumatisk händelse samt information om vad som kommer att ske.

    De svagheter vi kan se är att i stort sett inga interventioner vänder sig till barn under 6–7 års ålder samt att de flesta interventioner vänder sig till barn som varit utsatt för kroppsligt trauma såsom bilolyckor. Få vänder sig till barn som upplevt interpersonella trauman.

    För framtiden ser vi ett behov av att i Sverige utvärdera och implementera såväl CFTSI som den modell ”Efter barnförhöret” som utvecklats av Elfström, Landberg och Olofsson (2017).

    Sammanfattning av Behandling

    Det framkommer tydligt från studierna i denna kunskapsöversikt att psykologiska behandlingar för barn och ungdom som exponerats för potentiella trauman hjälper. De hjälper för barn och ungdomar som varit utsatt för våld och eller sexuella övergrepp. Det finns också flera studier som visar att det är viktigt att också välja behandling utefter barnets erfarenheter, behov och förutsättningar såsom ålder, typ av övergrepp/trauma, vad man söker för och vilket problem man tycker att man har. De komponenter som förkommer i alla de behandlingar som visar på stark evidens är: Psykoedukation om trauma och prevalens, och vad trauma kan få för inverkan (impact) och om behandlingen; träning i känsloregleringsstrategier (t.ex. avslappning, identifikation av känslor, kognitiv koping, imaginär exponering, in vivo exponering, kognitivt processande och problemlösning).

    Av den ovanstående genomgången blir det tydligt att det också finns mer evidens för vissa behandlingar än andra ibland beroende på att det finns fler studier av en viss sorts behandling och färre eller mycket små av en annan typ.

    Det finns i dagsläget ett mycket starkt stöd för TF-KBT baserat på minst 17 randomiserade studier som styrker TF-KBT:s effektivitet. Behandlingen har kortfattat beskrivits i detta dokument. Dock ska man beakta att TF-KBT vänder sig till barn som fyllt 6 år och som har ett bättre utvecklat språk och har större kognitiva förmågor än yngre barn. När det gäller yngre barn (under 6 år) så bör leken få en större plats. Child and Parent Psychotherapy (CPP) är en behandling som visat sig vara troligen effektiv. Även denna behandling är kortfattat beskriven i detta dokument och rekommenderas till mindre barn som bevittnat våld. Även EMDR kan ges till mycket små barn Kognitiv integrerad behandling vid Barnmisshandel (KIBB) är ytterligare en behandling för barn 6 år och äldre och där det beslutats att barnet ska fortsättta leva med den som utövat våldet. KIBB har de ingredienser som de väletablerade behandlingarna har men har fortfarande för få och för små studier.

    Således är det TF-KBT som kan sägas vara den behandling som bör rekommenderas i första hand när det gäller sexuella övergrepp. Vid fysisk misshandel rekommenderas KIBB om barnet ska fortsätta leva med den som utsatt barnet, i annat fall TF-KBT. För yngre barn rekommenderas CPP och EMDR.

    För ungdomar som uppvisar mer komplex traumatisering rekommenderas IITCT som innehåller alla plus fler ingredienser som de väletablerade behandlingarna gör.

    Det är viktigt att se var i vårdkedjan de olika behandlingarna kommer in alltifrån exponering av ett potentiellt trauma, screening/risk, bedömning, behandling som sätts in efter ca 4 veckor eller om det behövs mer komplexbehandling. För de svenska Barnahusen syns det som en viktig uppgift att till alla barn erbjuda screening av trauma och symtom samt tidig intervention. Även bedömning för fortsatt terapi är en viktig uppgift samt tillförsäkra och ha rutiner för att de barn som bedöms ha ett behov av fortsatt behandling också erhåller detta allt i enlighet med FN’s konvention om barns rättigheter.

    Det visar sig således att vi idag har en god kunskap om vad som är effektivt när det gäller arbete med barn och trauma men inför framtiden ser vi ett behov av att denna kunskap implementeras samt att barn oavsett var man bor i Sverige får ett likartat bemötande baserad på forskning (evidens) och beprövad erfarenhet (framtida evidens).

    Vi har i denna genomgång inte hittat terapiformer som anpassats eller utvecklats för barn med olika typer av funktionsnedsättningar.

  • Public defence: 2019-03-01 13:00 I:101, Hus I, Linköping
    Halvarsson Lundkvist, Agneta
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Learning Dynamics of Workplace Development Programmes: Studies in Swedish national programmes2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis focuses on workplace development programmes (WPDPs) that operationalize national policies on workplace development. WPDPs are time-limited and they provide support to organizations that aim to improve their operational performance or employees’ work conditions. The support that such programmes provide to organizations consists of competence-development activities provided through networks, courses or hands-on coaching. The supported organizations aimed at changing work practices to increase their operational performance.

    Departing from a workplace-learning perspective, the overall aim of the thesis was to contribute to knowledge about learning in workplace development programmes and the supported organizations when realizing policies on workplace development. A qualitative multiple-case study design was used and a total of 115 interviews and notes from meetings are included in the data material. Four substudies made up the empirical base.

    The findings revealed that realizing policies on workplace development required continuous learning among stakeholders at different levels of the WPDPs. Thus, conditions that enabled learning were important throughout the whole WPDP, which was seen as a large, complex social learning system. Learning between different levels of the WPDP was especially important, which required stakeholder representatives with the appropriate qualifications or characteristics that enabled them to take on roles as brokers between the stakeholders involved in realizing the policy. The overall conclusion pointed towards the dynamics of realizing policies of workplace learning, which cannot be achieved by a one-size-fitsall model for learning.

    The findings imply that funders and other authorities that make policies on workplace development through WPDPs should scrutinize how learning among stakeholders that enter into partnership to operate WPDPs is to be facilitated. Linear plans that are not complemented with careful explanations of how such learning is to be facilitated may constitute warning signs. Furthermore, the findings imply that organizations looking for external support to develop the innovative capabilities of employees must be careful in choosing their support. A WPDP may consume the resources of an organization without providing any benefit, if it does not provide the appropriate support. On the other hand, a WPDP may be a great source for learning, particularly if it includes support in designing the change effort, and help in developing an internal support infrastructure that will continue supporting workplace development after the programme ends.

    List of papers
    1. Program steering by learning
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Program steering by learning
    2015 (English)In: Sustainable development in organizations: studies on innovative practices / [ed] Mattias Elg, Per-Erik Ellström, Magnus Klofsten, Malin Tillmar, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 77-92Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015
    Keywords
    Organisationsförändringar
    National Category
    Economics and Business
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125518 (URN)000374407200006 ()978-17-8471-688-2 (ISBN)
    Available from: 2016-02-25 Created: 2016-02-25 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
    2. The role of brokers in a workplace development programme targeting SMEs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of brokers in a workplace development programme targeting SMEs
    2018 (English)In: European Journal of Training and Development, ISSN 2046-9012, E-ISSN 2046-9020Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the development of a workplace development programme (WPDP) targeting small and medium sized manufacturing enterprises (SMEs) by focussing on the people who acted as brokers providing cross-boundary connections between its collaborating partners.

    Design/methodology/approach

    The material, from interviews with 32 individuals and 11 meetings, was analysed in a boundary-crossing framework, which provided tools to reveal how the roles of brokers at different levels (operative, strategic and national) of the WPDP affected its development.

    Findings

    The findings indicate that cross-boundary connections were made by persons who acted as brokers within and between different levels of the WPDP. The brokers who provided cross-boundary connections between different levels of the WPDP were found to play the most important role for the prompt development of the WPDP.

    Originality/value

    Apart from unique empirical material depicting the development of a collaborative venture between national and regional stakeholders of the manufacturing industry, the value of this study is the attention given to the people behind the policymaking of publicly funded national WPDPs, revealing the complex business of developing policy-driven competence development activities to employees in SMEs.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
    Keywords
    SME, Manufacturing industry, Programme development, Broker, Cross-boundary connections, Workplace development programme
    National Category
    Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151603 (URN)10.1108/EJTD-04-2018-0037 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053333619 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-09-27 Created: 2018-09-27 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
    3. Learning conditions for continuous improvement in a public service organization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Learning conditions for continuous improvement in a public service organization
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Workplace Learning, ISSN 1366-5626, E-ISSN 1758-7859Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose – This study focuses on a transformation effort in a social welfare department of a Swedish municipality where continuous improvement, which is a Lean principle, was introduced in employees’everyday work via a workplace development programme (WPDP). The aim of this paper is to explore the conditions (internal and external) that enabled or constrained employee learning during the introduction of continuous improvement into employees’ everyday work in a WPDP-supported social welfare department.

    Design/methodology/approach – This case study is based mainly on 22 semi-structured interviews with individuals holding different positions in the department and overarching municipality.

    Findings – The findings show that multiple and emerging conditions, both internal and external, shaped a predominantly restrictive learning environment during the introduction of continuous improvement into the social welfare department. The major conditions identified were related to the initial implementation and top management’s steering and monitoring of the “Lean investment”, activities and support provided by the WPDP, activities and support provided by the internal Lean support team and first-line managers’ abilities to facilitate employee learning.

    Originality/value – Apart from unique empirical material depicting an effort towards change under conditions far from favourable for employee learning, the value of this study lies in the attention given to the external dynamics that drive change in line with the concept of new public management in public service organizations, including a WPDP that supported the social welfare department.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2018
    Keywords
    Organizational change, learning environment, public service organization, workplace development programmes
    National Category
    Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152661 (URN)10.1108/JWL-03-2018-0049 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-11-12 Created: 2018-11-12 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
    4. Conditions for Employee Learning and Innovation: Interweaving Competence Development Activities Provided by a Workplace Development Programme with Everyday Work Activities in SMEs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conditions for Employee Learning and Innovation: Interweaving Competence Development Activities Provided by a Workplace Development Programme with Everyday Work Activities in SMEs
    2018 (English)In: Vocations and Learning, ISSN 1874-785X, E-ISSN 1874-7868, Vol. 11, no 1, p. 45-63Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to investigate how the formal competence development activities provided by the Production Leap, a workplace development programme (WPDP), were interwoven with everyday work activities and to identify the conditions that enabled learning and employee-driven innovation that contributed to production improvement, in small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in Sweden. The study adopts a qualitative case approach and draws on evidence from research conducted in four manufacturing SMEs that participated in this Swedish WPDP. Funded by EU authorities, WPDPs provide competence development activities to SMEs in order to boost their production capabilities and/or promote innovation. The findings reveal that the competence development activities provided by the programme triggered learning in everyday work activities and fostered the development of different approaches to employee-driven innovation in the enterprises. The conclusion is that it is essential to consider that employee-driven innovations may take different forms and involve functions that can support innovative learning that goes beyond minor adjustments to the existing standards of production. Moreover, employee-driven innovation may impose new demands on management leadership skills. The findings provide important guidance for future WPDPs, for vocational education and training or university activities that are customised to SME contexts to promote production capabilities, and for SMEs that aim to strengthen employee-driven innovation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2018
    National Category
    Learning
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137495 (URN)10.1007/s12186-017-9179-6 (DOI)000426597000003 ()
    Funder
    VINNOVA, 2013-02430
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Agency for Innovation Systems (VINNOVA) [Vinnova 2013-02430]

    Available from: 2017-05-18 Created: 2017-05-18 Last updated: 2019-02-13Bibliographically approved
  • Holmberg, Kaj
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A new method for optimal proportional representation2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a democratic proportional election system, it is vital that the mandates in the parliament are allocated as proportionally as possible to the number of votes the parties got in the election. We formulate an optimization model for allocation of seats in a parliament so as to minimize the disproportionality. By applying separable programming techniques, we obtain an easily solvable problem, and present a method for solving it optimally. The obtained solution is thus the feasible solution that has the minimal disproportionality (with the measure chosen), in contrast to the heuristic procedures used in many countries. We apply the approach to real life data from the last three elections in Sweden, and show that the result is better, i.e. more proportional, than what was obtained with the “adjusted odd number rule”, which is presently used. A natural suggestion would be to use our method instead.

    We also consider the issue about constituencies, and suggest a procedure, based on the same kind of optimization problem, for allocating mandates in the constituencies, without changing the overall allocation with respect to parties. In our approach, the numbers of mandates for the constituencies are based on the number of votes given, not on estimated numbers of inhabitants. This removes the need for fixed and equalization mandates, and also makes the question about sizes of the constituencies less important.

  • Persson, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Prioriteringscentrum.
    Året som gått 2018: Prioriteringscentrums verksamhetsberättelse2018Report (Other academic)
  • Hudson, Joshua
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning.
    A Partially Observable Markov Decision Process for Breast Cancer Screening2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the US, breast cancer is one of the most common forms of cancer and the most lethal. There are many decisions that must be made by the doctor and/or the patient when dealing with a potential breast cancer. Many of these decisions are made under uncertainty, whether it is the uncertainty related to the progression of the patient's health, or that related to the accuracy of the doctor's tests. Each possible action under consideration can have positive effects, such as a surgery successfully removing a tumour, and negative effects: a post-surgery infection for example. The human mind simply cannot take into account all the variables involved and possible outcomes when making these decisions. In this report, a detailed Partially Observable Markov Decision Process (POMDP) for breast cancer screening decisions is presented. It includes 151 states, covering 144 different cancer states, and 2 competing screening methods. The necessary parameters were first set up using relevant medical literature and a patient history simulator. Then the POMDP was solved optimally for an infinite horizon, using the Perseus algorithm. The resulting policy provided several recommendations for breast cancer screening. The results indicated that clinical breast examinations are important for screening younger women. Regarding the decision to operate on a woman with breast cancer, the policy showed that invasive cancers with either a tumour size above 1.5 cm or which are in metastasis, should be surgically removed as soon as possible. However, the policy also recommended that patients who are certain to be healthy should have a breast biopsy. The cause of this error was explored further and the conclusion was reached that a finite horizon may be more appropriate for this application.

  • Forsberg, Olov
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science.
    Turkisk utrikespolitik i förändring sedan AKP:s tillträde: Hur den turkiska utrikespolitiken mot Mellanöstern har förändrats sedan 2002 enligt ett neoklassiskt realistiskt perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay analyzes Turkish foreign policy and aims to find explanations to why Turkey has increased its foreign policy involvement in the middle east since 2002. Explanations were identified in turkish external and internal processes in the shape of independent and intervening variables using a neoclassical realist analytical model. The identification of variables is made by examining key changes in domestic and foreign policy since AKP took power in 2002, using the categories leader images, strategic culture, state-society relations and domestic institutions. The results that are presented indicate that external processes set the basic parameters for foreign policy change, but domestic factors also influence the policy decisions that have altered Turkey’s foreign policy involvement in the middle east.

  • Wallo, Andreas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Kock, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Lundqvist, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Utvärdering och mätning av kompetensutveckling och lärande i organisationer: En kunskapsöversikt2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    En central fråga inom HR-området idag är hur olika HR-processer bidrar till organisationers målsättningar, strategier och utvecklingsarbete. I denna rapport presenteras resultaten av en delstudie i ett HELIX-projekt som fokuserar värdeskapande HR-arbete i praktiken. Denna delstudie riktar sig specifikt mot att förstå vad som kännetecknar HR-medarbetares arbete med att mäta och följa upp kompetensutvecklings- och lärandeprocesser. Delstudien har utvecklats tillsammans med ett stort industriföretag som har ett stort intresse för frågor om hur man säkerställer att satsningar på kompetensutveckling och lärande leder till önskat resultat. Syftet med rapporten är att bidra med ökad kunskap om HR-funktionens arbete med att mäta och utvärdera satsningar på kompetensutveckling och lärande samt att diskutera hur detta arbete påverkar legitimiteten och statusen för HR som yrke. Mer precist är avsikten att presentera, analysera och diskutera teorier, tidigare forskning och det empiriska material som samlats in i projektet.

    Projektet har bedrivits utifrån en interaktiv forskningsansats vilket innebär att identifiering av forskningsproblem och design av empiriska studier bygger på nära samverkan mellan forskare och representanter för den studerade verksamheten. Den övergripande designen utgår från fallstudiemetodologi på så sätt att vi genom metodtriangulering sökt skapa en bred förståelse för projektets forskningsfrågor. Underlaget i rapporten består av 1) en litteraturöversikt som omfattade såväl teorier och begrepp som tidigare empirisk forskning inom området, 2) ”benchlearning” med andra organisationer i syfte att hitta verksamheter som har innovativa synsätt på hur resultat och effekter av kompetensutveckling kan mätas och/eller utvärderas, 3) intervjuer med HR-medarbetare för att skapa en bild av hur dessa olika kategorier av anställda ser på och pratar om frågor om kompetensutveckling och lärande, 4) granskning av företagets medarbetarundersökning i syfte att skapa en bild av vilken information som samlas in i organisationen rörande lärmiljö och lärandemöjligheter och hur denna information kan användas i organisationens fortsatta arbete med dessa frågor, 5) en workshop genomförd tillsammans med representanter för företaget där resultaten av projektet analyserades.

    Resultaten av litteraturöversikten visar att området kompetensutveckling och lärande är relativt välbeforskat och att det finns en samlad bild över vad lärande innebär samt under vilka organisatoriska förutsättningar som lärande kan befrämjas. Det som däremot ännu inte är speciellt utforskat är hur kompetensutveckling och lärande kan mätas och utvärderas. Här står fortfarande teorier som utvecklades i slutet på 1950-talet i en särställning. Vidare finns det ett begränsat antal empiriska studier med fokus på mätning och utvärdering av kompetensutveckling och lärande i en arbetslivskontext. De studier som granskats i litteraturöversikten visar dock att det finns flera intressanta vetenskapligt grundade mätinstrument och nyckeltal som organisationer kan inspireras av. Däremot finns det ingen modell, teori eller instrument som enkelt går att plocka in i en organisation, utan snarare krävs det anpassningar till lokala förutsättningar såsom organisationsstrukturer och kulturer.

    Resultaten av benchlearningen visar en stor spridning mellan de fyra organisationer som jämförts. Några organisationer har en mycket begränsad användning av nyckeltal för lärande och kompetensutveckling och en av organisation har en omfattande uppsättning av nyckeltal som används på flera olika sätt. Jämförelsen visar att det verkar finnas en slags basal nivå där många organisationer har nyckeltal relaterade till arbetsmiljö (t.ex. sjuktal) eller olika typer av kostnader (t.ex. för kurser) medan nyckeltal kopplade till resultat och effekter av kompetensutveckling och lärande är betydligt mer ovanliga. Utifrån de uppföljningsintervjuer som genomfördes i de fyra organisationerna angavs flera skäl för varför organisationerna inte i någon högre utsträckning använder nyckeltal för kompetensutveckling och lärande. Här nämndes bland annat att ledningen inte känner behov av nyckeltal, att ledningen saknar kunskap om att det finns nyckeltal, att HR-medarbetare saknar kompetens och motivation för att använda nyckeltal samt att det är mycket komplicerat att mäta förändrade ”beteenden” och ”resultat” av lärande och kompetensutveckling.

    Resultatet av intervjuerna visar att kompetensutveckling och lärande ses som viktigt inom organisationen. Vidare beskrivs i resultatkapitlet att de metoder som främst används för att utvärdera och följa upp kompetensutvecklingsprocesser är utvecklingssamtal, kursutvärderingar samt till viss del även medarbetarenkäten. I övrigt lyfts även andra metoder där användningen av dessa varierar i form och utsträckning. Det är i huvudsak kompetensmatriser som används för att kartlägga kompetenser och identifiera kompetensgap och ett nytt kurshanteringssystem som ska användas för att kartlägga kompetenser, kompetensbehov samt visa på kurser och utvecklingsvägar. Resultatet visar också utvecklingsbehov när det kommer till strukturen för uppföljning och utvärdering inom organisationen. Det finns ingen tydlighet i vem som bestämmer vad som ska utvärderas, vad syftet med utvärderingen är eller vad den ska användas till. Det leder till att genomförandet skiftar mycket i kvalitet mellan olika chefer och kursansvariga. Ibland genomförs den inte alls om det inte prioriteras av de inblandade. Något som lyfts är att det saknas en efterfrågan från ledning när det gäller uppföljning vilket bidrar till att frågan inte prioriteras på en övergripande nivå.

    Resultatet av granskningen av företagets medarbetarundersökning visar att frågorna generellt har medelstarka samband med varandra. Vidare tycks dessa frågor fånga fem olika dimensioner. En av dessa dimensioner handlar om den lärmiljö som organisationen erbjuder och hur klimatet för lärande ser ut. Även ledarskap framkommer som en egen dimension. Medarbetarundersökningen skulle därmed kunna användas initialt för att mäta och inventera lärmiljön i organisationen, men kan även användas för att undersöka hur denna är relaterad till andra typer av fenomen. Som exempel analyseras relationen mellan ledarskap, lärandeklimat och arbetslagets produktivitet, liksom sambanden mellan enkätens empirigenerade dimensioner och arbetslagets produktivitet. Eftersom materialet är insamlat vid samma tillfälle är det dock omöjligt att uttala sig om orsak och verkan, men om möjlighet finns kan organisationen använda tidigare insamlade och framtida medarbetarundersökningar för att studera hur lärmiljön förändras över tid och hur olika fenomen är relaterade till dessa förändringar.

    Utifrån det insamlade materialet kan ett antal slutsatser dras. För det första ser vi för HR-funktionen en stor potential i att använda mätningar och utvärderingar för att visa på värdet av tänkta eller genomförda satsningar på lärande och kompetensutveckling. Kunskaper om mätning och utvärdering kan således betraktas som en viktig pusselbit i HR-funktionens arbete med att skapa värde i organisationen. Denna potential är dock inte fullt ut realiserade i de organisationer som medverkade i studien. Ytterligare en slutsats är att användande av mätningar och utvärderingar inte är en fråga som enbart ska ligga på HR-funktionens bord. Snarare visar resultaten på vikten av att involvera ledningen för att få mandat, resurser och styrning. Utan ledningens engagemang blir det också svårt att se nyttan på organisationsnivå. I rapporten presenteras flera exempel på nyckeltal och verktyg som HR-medarbetare skulle kunna använda. Det finns dock inte någon ”best practice”, utan det krävs lokala anpassningar.

    Vad gäller fortsatt forskning finns behov av fler kvalitativa, longitudinella studier av HR-arbete i praktiken samt studier som involverar ”kunden/mottagaren”, det vill säga att studera vilka behov chefer i linjen har av information som kan erhållas genom mätningar och utvärderingar. Ytterligare en möjlighet till fortsatt forskning är att utveckla en skala för att studera organisationers lärmiljöer.

    Förhoppningsvis kan rapporten bidra med kunskaper både för HR-medarbetare och chefer i organisationer när det gäller framgångsfaktorer och hinder för arbetet med att mäta och utvärdera lärande och kompetensutveckling. För HR-medarbetare tycks det också finnas ett behov av kompetensutveckling inom området. Detta är en relevant uppgift för universitet och högskolor och för utbildningskonsulter inom HR-området.

  • Gervilla Palomar, Víctor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Metal film growth on weakly-interacting substrates: Stochastic simulations and analytical modelling2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin films are nanoscale layers of material, with exotic properties useful in diverse areas, ranging from biomedicine to nanoelectronics and surface protection. Film properties are not only determined by their chemical composition, but also by their microstructure and roughness, features that depend crucially on the growth process due to the inherent out-of equilibrium nature of the film deposition techniques. This fact suggest that it is possible to control film growth, and in turn film properties, in a knowledge-based manner by tuning the deposition conditions. This requires a good understanding of the elementary film-forming processes, and the way by which they are affected by atomic-scale kinetics. The kinetic Monte Carlo (kMC) method is a simulation tool that can model film evolution over extended time scales, of the order of microseconds, and beyond, and thus constitutes a powerful complement to experimental research aiming to obtain an universal understanding of thin film formation and morphological evolution.

    In this work, kMC simulations, coupled with analytical modelling, are used to investigate the early stages of formation of metal films and nanostructures supported on weakly-interacting substrates. This starts with the formation and growth of faceted 3D islands, that relies first on facile adatom ascent at single-layer island steps and subsequently on facile adatom upward diffusion from the base to the top of the island across its facets. Interlayer mass transport is limited by the rate at which adatoms cross from the sidewall facets to the island top, a process that determines the final height of the islands and leads non-trivial growth dynamics, as increasing temperatures favour 3D growth as a result of the upward transport. These findings explain the high roughness observed experimentally in metallic films grown on weakly-interacting substrates at high temperatures.

    The second part of the study focus on the next logical step of film formation, when 3D islands come into contact and fuse into a single one, or coalesce. The research reveals that the faceted island structure governs the macroscopic process of coalescence as well as its dynamics, and that morphological changes depend on 2D nucleation on the II facets. In addition, deposition during coalescence is found to accelerate the process and modify its dynamics, by contributing to the nucleation of new facets.

    This study provides useful knowledge concerning metal growth on weakly-interacting substrates, and, in particular, identifies the key atomistic processes controlling the early stages of formation of thin films, which can be used to tailor deposition conditions in order to achieve films with unique properties and applications.

    List of papers
    1. Formation and morphological evolution of self-similar 3D nanostructures on weakly interacting substrates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Formation and morphological evolution of self-similar 3D nanostructures on weakly interacting substrates
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    2018 (English)In: PHYSICAL REVIEW MATERIALS, ISSN 2475-9953, Vol. 2, no 6, article id 063401Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Vapor condensation on weakly interacting substrates leads to the formation of three-dimensional (3D) nanoscale islands (i.e., nanostructures). While it is widely accepted that this process is driven by minimization of the total film/substrate surface and interface energy, current film-growth theory cannot fully explain the atomic-scale mechanisms and pathways by which 3D island formation and morphological evolution occurs. Here, we use kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to describe the dynamic evolution of single-island shapes during deposition of Ag on weakly interacting substrates. The results show that 3D island shapes evolve in a self-similar manner, exhibiting a constant height-to-radius aspect ratio, which is a function of the growth temperature. Furthermore, our results reveal the following chain of atomic-scale events that lead to compact 3D island shapes: 3D nuclei are first formed due to facile adatom ascent at single-layer island steps, followed by the development of sidewall facets bounding the islands, which in turn facilitates upward diffusion from the base to the top of the islands. The limiting atomic process which determines the island height, for a given number of deposited atoms, is the temperature-dependent rate at which adatoms cross from sidewall facets to the island top. The overall findings of this study provide insights into the directed growth of metal nanostructures with controlled shapes on weakly interacting substrates, including two-dimensional crystals, for use in catalytic and nanoelectronic applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2018
    National Category
    Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149345 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevMaterials.2.063401 (DOI)000435337300001 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Linkoping University [Dnr-LiU-2015-01510]; Swedish Research Council [VR-2011-5312, VR-2015-04630, VR2014-5790]; Knut and AliceWallenberg Foundation [KAW2011-0094]

    Available from: 2018-07-02 Created: 2018-07-02 Last updated: 2019-02-11
  • Hild Walett, Oliver
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berlin, Emmanuel
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Larsson, Johan
    Arvidsson, Sofie
    Fors, Filip
    Gavelius, Marianne
    Genander, Filip
    Granqvist, Johanna
    Lifwergren, Philip
    Sandéhn, Alexandra
    Viksten, Martin
    Wenhov, Irma
    Investigating the function of GroES with hard-to-fold proteins in vivo2019Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of molecular chaperones can increase the yield of correctly folded proteins. This is especially needed in the expression of proteins non-native to the host organism. This study set out to investigate the function of the chaperone GroES; a component in the GroE-system. The function of this chaperone has only been studied alone in vitro. Here we lay ground to further studies on GroES and its ability to act alone in vivo. GroES was expressed from a plasmid and characterized through its potential to increase the amount of correctly folded proteins. Characterization was mainly done by fluorescence spectroscopy with hard-to-fold proteins linked to fluorescent probes. Results show a very clear increase in fluorescence for most of the substrate proteins tested, indicating that GroES has a significant role in the GroE-system and perhaps outside of it.

  • Larsen, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Risk-Adjustment for Swedish In-Hospital Trauma Mortality using International Classification of disease Injury Severity Score (ICISS): issues with description and methods2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Different methods have been used to describe the epidemiology of trauma with varying results. Crude mortality outcome data differ significantly from risk-adjusted information. A previous standard method for risk-adjustment in trauma was the Injury Severity Score (ISS), although it has several shortcomings. In this thesis I examine Swedish injury statistics from an epidemiological perspective using crude and risk-adjusted mortality, and to adjust for injury I used the International Classification of disease Injury Severity Score (ICISS). The groups of most lethal injuries (fall, traffic, and assault) were examined separately using an ICISS mortality prediction model that focused particularly on the effects on the prediction of mortality by adding coexisting conditions (comorbidity) to it. Differences in mortality between the sexes and changes over time were tested separately.

    Material and Methods

    Data from all patients with ICD-10 based diagnoses of injury (ICD-10: V01 to Y36) in the Swedish National Patient Registry and Cause of Death Registry were collected from 1999 to 2012 and used for assessment of mortality and comorbidity. A subgroup (patients in hospital) from 2001-2011 were selected as the study group. Their injuries were in the subgroups of falls, traffic, and assaults, and are the focus of this thesis. Mortality within 30 days of injury was used as the endpoint. The severity of injury was adjusted for using the ICISS, which was first described by Osler et al. The model was also adjusted for age, sex, and comorbidities.

    Results

    The study group comprised 815 846 patients (of whom 17 721 died). There was a decrease over time in injuries caused by falls and traffic (coefficient -4.71, p=0.047 and coefficient -5.37, p<0.001), whereas there was no change in assault-related injuries/100 000 inhabitants. The risk-adjusted 30-day mortality showed a decrease in injuries related to traffic and assault (OR 0.95, p<0.001 and OR 0.93, p=0.022) whereas for falls it remained unchanged. There was also a risk-adjusted survival benefit for women, which increased with increasing age. Adjusting for comorbidities made the prediction of 30-day mortality by the ICISS model better (accuracy, calibration, and discrimination). However, most of this effect was found to be the result of the other characteristics of the fall related injury group (they were older, and had more coexisting conditions).

    Conclusion

    During a 10-year period, there has been a significant overall decrease in crude as well as risk-adjusted mortality for these three injury groups combined. Within these groups there is a clear, risk-adjusted, female survival advantage. The ICISS model for the prediction of mortality improves when comorbidities are added, but this effect is minor and seen mainly among the injuries caused by falls, where comorbidity is significant. The ICISS method was a valuable adjunct in the investigation of data on Swedish mortality after injury that has been gathered from health care registry data.

    List of papers
    1. Deaths caused by injury among people of working age (18-64) are decreasing, while those among older people (64+) are increasing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deaths caused by injury among people of working age (18-64) are decreasing, while those among older people (64+) are increasing
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    2018 (English)In: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery, ISSN 1863-9933, E-ISSN 1863-9941, Vol. 44, no 4, p. 589-596Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Injury is an important cause of death in all age groups worldwide, and contributes to many losses of human and economic resources. Currently, we know a few data about mortality from injury, particularly among the working population. The aim of the present study was to examine death from injury over a period of 14 years (1999-2012) using the Swedish Cause of Death Registry (CDR) and the National Patient Registry, which have complete national coverage.

    METHOD: CDR was used to identify injury-related deaths among adults (18 years or over) during the years 1999-2012. ICD-10 diagnoses from V01 to X39 were included. The significance of changes over time was analyzed by linear regression.

    RESULTS: The incidence of prehospital death decreased significantly (coefficient -0.22, r (2) = 0.30; p = 0.041) during the study period, while that of deaths in hospital increased significantly (coefficient 0.20, r (2) = 0.75; p < 0.001). Mortality/100,000 person-years in the working age group (18-64 years) decreased significantly (coefficient -0.40, r (2) = 0.37; p = 0.020), mainly as a result of decrease in traffic-related deaths (coefficient -0.34, r (2) = 0.85; p < 0.001). The incidence of deaths from injury among elderly (65 years and older) patients increased because of the increase in falls (coefficient 1.71, r (2) = 0.84; p < 0.001) and poisoning (coefficient 0.13, r (2) = 0.69; p < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: The epidemiology of injury in Sweden has changed during recent years in that mortality from injury has declined in the working age group and increased among those people 64 years old and over.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2018
    Keywords
    Elderly, Injury, Mortality, Prehospital, Trauma, Working age
    National Category
    Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142763 (URN)10.1007/s00068-017-0827-1 (DOI)000440981100014 ()28825159 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85027836250 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2019-02-11Bibliographically approved
    2. Decreased risk adjusted 30-day mortality for hospital admitted injuries: a multi-centre longitudinal study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decreased risk adjusted 30-day mortality for hospital admitted injuries: a multi-centre longitudinal study
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    2018 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Trauma, Resuscitation and Emergency Medicine, ISSN 1757-7241, E-ISSN 1757-7241, Vol. 26, no 1, article id 24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The interpretation of changes in injury-related mortality over time requires an understanding of changes in the incidence of the various types of injury, and adjustment for their severity. Our aim was to investigate changes over time in incidence of hospital admission for injuries caused by falls, traffic incidents, or assaults, and to assess the risk-adjusted short-term mortality for these patients.less thanbr /greater thanMethods: All patients admitted to hospital with injuries caused by falls, traffic incidents, or assaults during the years 2001-11 in Sweden were identified from the nationwide population-based Patient Registry. The trend in mortality over time for each cause of injury was adjusted for age, sex, comorbidity and severity of injury as classified from the International Classification of diseases, version 10 Injury Severity Score (ICISS).less thanbr /greater thanResults: Both the incidence of fall (689 to 636/100000 inhabitants: p = 0.047, coefficient - 4.71) and traffic related injuries (169 to 123/100000 inhabitants: p less than 0.0001, coefficient - 5.37) decreased over time while incidence of assault related injuries remained essentially unchanged during the study period. There was an overall decrease in risk-adjusted 30-day mortality in all three groups (OR 1.00; CI95% 0.99-1.00). Decreases in traffic (OR 0.95; 95% CI 0.93 to 0.97) and assault (OR 0.93; 95% CI 0.87 to 0.99) related injuries was significant whereas falls were not during this 11-year period.less thanbr /greater thanDiscussion: Risk-adjustment is a good way to use big materials to find epidemiological changes. However after adjusting for age, year, sex and risk we find that a possible factor is left in the pre- and/or in-hospital care.less thanbr /greater thanConclusions: The decrease in risk-adjusted mortality may suggest changes over time in pre- and/or in-hospital care. A non-significantdecrease in risk-adjusted mortality was registered for falls, which may indicate that low-energy trauma has not benefited for the increased survivability as much as high-energy trauma, ie traffic- and assault related injuries.

    National Category
    Surgery
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-146965 (URN)10.1186/s13049-018-0485-2 (DOI)000429285700002 ()29615089 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2018-04-09 Created: 2018-04-09 Last updated: 2019-02-11
  • Ringdahl, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Vision.
    Stereo Camera Pose Estimation to Enable Loop Detection2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Visual Simultaneous Localization And Mapping (SLAM) allows for three dimensionalreconstruction from a camera’s output and simultaneous positioning of the camera withinthe reconstruction. With use cases ranging from autonomous vehicles to augmentedreality, the SLAM field has garnered interest both commercially and academically.

    A SLAM system performs odometry as it estimates the camera’s movement throughthe scene. The incremental estimation of odometry is not error free and exhibits driftover time with map inconsistencies as a result. Detecting the return to a previously seenplace, a loop, means that this new information regarding our position can be incorporatedto correct the trajectory retroactively. Loop detection can also facilitate relocalization ifthe system loses tracking due to e.g. heavy motion blur.

    This thesis proposes an odometric system making use of bundle adjustment within akeyframe based stereo SLAM application. This system is capable of detecting loops byutilizing the algorithm FAB-MAP. Two aspects of this system is evaluated, the odometryand the capability to relocate. Both of these are evaluated using the EuRoC MAV dataset,with an absolute trajectory RMS error ranging from 0.80 m to 1.70 m for the machinehall sequences.

    The capability to relocate is evaluated using a novel methodology that intuitively canbe interpreted. Results are given for different levels of strictness to encompass differentuse cases. The method makes use of reprojection of points seen in keyframes to definewhether a relocalization is possible or not. The system shows a capability to relocate inup to 85% of all cases when a keyframe exists that can project 90% of its points intothe current view. Errors in estimated poses were found to be correlated with the relativedistance, with errors less than 10 cm in 23% to 73% of all cases.

    The evaluation of the whole system is augmented with an evaluation of local imagedescriptors and pose estimation algorithms. The descriptor SIFT was found to performbest overall, but demanding to compute. BRISK was deemed the best alternative for afast yet accurate descriptor.

    Conclusions that can be drawn from this thesis is that FAB-MAP works well fordetecting loops as long as the addition of keyframes is handled appropriately.

  • Changfoot, Donovan M.
    et al.
    University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Malan, Arnaud G
    University of Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa.
    Nordström, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hybrid Computational-Fluid-Dynamics Platform to Investigate Aircraft Trailing Vortices2019In: Journal of Aircraft, ISSN 0021-8669, E-ISSN 1533-3868, Vol. 56, no 1, p. 344-355Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper outlines the development of a parallel three-dimensional hybrid finite volume finite difference capability. The specific application area under consideration is modeling the trailing vortices shed from the wings of aircraft under transonic flight conditions. For this purpose, the Elemental finite volume code is employed in the vicinity of the aircraft, whereas the ESSENSE finite difference software is employed to accurately resolve the trailing vortices. The former method is spatially formally second-order, and the latter is set to sixth-order accuracy. The coupling of the two methods is achieved in a stable manner through the use of summation-by-parts operators and weak imposition of boundary conditions using simultaneous approximation terms. The developed hybrid solver is successfully validated against an analytical test case. This is followed by demonstrating the ability to model the flowfield, including trailing vortex structures, around the NASA Common Research Model under transonic flow conditions. The interface treatment is shown to describe the intersecting vortices in a smooth manner. In addition, insights gained in resolving the vortices include violation of underlying assumptions of analytical vortex modeling methods.

  • Weiss, Dorothea
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Centre for Applied Ethics.
    PRIMUM NON NOCERE: Medicine's Culture of Dealing with and Denial of the Occurrence of Medical Harm2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The hippocratic principle "primum non nocere" (above all do no harm) has always been and still is the strong foundation of medical conduct. For a long time healthcare professionals created the image of infallibility of medicine. Even within the "closed" hierarchies mistakes and malpractice were never openly discussed. This paper first investigates reasons for medical mistakes and introduces the legislation when malpractice occurs. Secondly ethical questions concerning medical mistakes are discussed through the lens of Beauchamp and Childress' principles of biomedical ethics (nonmaleficence, beneficence, respect for autonomy, justice). Thirdly, an ethically defensible strategy to deal with failure and malpractice is proposed. This proposal stresses how to improve the patient-physician communication by involving patients' experiences in order to increase patient safety and lower costs in the healthcare system. In regard to tackling medical harm there is the strong recommendation to follow four directives: open disclosure and explanation, adequate restorative and/or compensatory actions, fair and square apologies and information about strategies to avoid recurrence.

  • Lundström, Catrin
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    White Women. White Nation. White Cosmopolitanism: Swedish Migration between the National and the Global2019In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, p. 1-16Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emerging from the concepts of white cosmopolitanism and white cosmopolitan femininity, this article analyses "cosmopolitan narratives" of Swedish migrant women who lived abroad for an extended period and eventually returned to Sweden. Based on eight months' ethnographic work, including 46 in-depth interviews with migrants who had returned in Sweden, the article explores how national boundaries are both maintained and traversed in the construction of a "world citizen". It is argued that the women?s self-identification with a cosmopolitan ethos is structured by whiteness, nationality, and class that grants uninterrupted mobility and "worldliness". As symbolic bearers of the Swedish nation, national ideals act on the white women?s bodies internationally, in ways that both uphold and re-inscribe the nation into the global. Thus, apart from obscuring global inequalities, white cosmopolitan femininity is imbricated in both national and global politics as a place where global structures reconnect with the white nation, thereby enabling Swedish migrants to re-install themselves into contemporary global settings as self-defined cosmopolitan subjects

  • Ruggiu, Andrea Alessandro
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nordström, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Multigrid schemes for high order discretizations of hyperbolic problems2019In: 2019 AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, AIAA Scitech Forum, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, 2019, p. 1-25, article id AIAA 2019-0103Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Total variation diminishing multigrid methods have been developed for first order accurate discretizations of hyperbolic conservation laws. This technique is based on a so-called upwind biased residual interpolation and allows for algorithms devoid of spurious numerical oscillations in the transient phase. In this paper, we justify the introduction of such prolongation and restriction operators by rewriting the algorithm in a matrix-vector notation. This perspective sheds new light on multigrid procedures for hyperbolic problems and provides a direct extension for high order accurate difference approximations. The new multigrid procedure is presented, advantages and disadvantages are discussed and numerical experiments are performed.

  • Viktorin, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature.
    Hjärnan är för förnuftet vad hjärtat är för känslan: En redogörelse för hur begreppen förnuft och känsla har gestaltats i romanerna Robinson Crusoe samt Den unge Werthers lidanden2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A report on how the concepts of reason and sentiment have been portrayed in the novels Robinson Crusoe and The sorrows of young Werther

  • Ruud, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Jag är norsk men min pappa är från Kuba: En studie av tvärkulturella uppväxtförhållanden2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    My aim of this study is to investigate and describe cross-cultural upbringing. The purpose of the essay is to study how children are formed by growing up with two cultures, ie where the child's/children's parents come from two different cultures and one culture is not represented during the child's/children's upbringing.

    The issues from this are;

    • What does the parent convey to the child/children of this culture?
    • What hopes does the parent have regarding the meaning and consequences of the cross-cultural upbringing?

    The literature study shows that in a cross-cultural upbringing one must first see what the culture carries with it, which cultural traditions and attitudes that exist in the respective cultures. Do they, for example, have a foundation in group or individual orientation where different views are advocated and rewarded, and where these take different forms in parents’ views and during the children’s upbringing? Concepts that involve cross-cultural upbringing are identity, socialization, ethnicity and nationalism. Several studies also show the importance of language for socialization and cultural identity. Who you are and who you become are affected by language and also reflected in the language.

    The results of the study's interview survey and auto-ethnography point to, among other things, the importance of contacts with family and relatives through audiovisual aids via the internet, to keep a positive image of the other parent, and to visualize the culture through photographs and objects.

  • Danemalm Jägervall, Carina
    et al.
    Växjö county hospital, Växjö, Sweden.
    Brüggemann, Jelmer
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johnson, Ericka
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gay men’s experiences of sexual changes after prostate cancer treatment: a qualitative study in Sweden2019In: Scandinavian journal of urology, ISSN 2168-1805, E-ISSN 2168-1813, p. 1-5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The needs of gay men after prostate cancer treatment are becoming visible. This patient group reports a more negative impact of treatment than heterosexual men. Yet, gay men’s experiences of post-treatment sexual changes are still little explored. This study aims to determine specific concerns of gay men’s post-treatment sexual practices.

    Methods: A qualitative study design was deployed using semi-structured interviews as data. Participants were purposefully sampled through advertisements and the snowball method. Eleven self-identifying gay men aged 58–81 years and treated for prostate cancer participated in interviews during 2016–2017. The interviews were transcribed, coded and thematically analysed.

    Results: The analysis highlights sexual changes in relation to the physical body, identity and relations. Problematic physical changes included loss of ejaculate and erectile dysfunction. Some respondents reported continued pleasure from anal stimulation and were uncertain about the role of the prostate. These physical changes prompted reflections on age and (dis)ability. Relationship status also impacted perception of physical changes, with temporary sexual contacts demanding more of the men in terms of erection and ejaculations.

    Conclusions: Gay prostate cancer survivors’ narratives about sexual changes circle around similar bodily changes as heterosexual men’s, such as erectile problems and weaker orgasms. The loss of ejaculate was experienced as more debilitating for gay men. Men who had anal sex were concerned about penetration difficulties as well as sensations of anal stimulation. Additional studies are required to better understand the role of the prostate among a diversity of men, regardless of sexuality.

  • Weiser, Wolfgang
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Embodied: En begreppsanalys och kontextuell utforskning2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vad menar vi egentligen när vi säger att vi har det i oss eller att vi ska lära oss med alla våra sinnen och att elever ska utveckla hela sin förmåga? Denna studie är en begreppsanalys av det som man på engelska benämner embodied. Den undersöker detta i en svensk utbildningskontext och försöker finna motsvarande begrepp på svenska. Den belyser hur kroppsligt kunnande/lärande beskrivs inom tre olika utbildningsvetenskapliga områden. Studien består dels av en semantisk undersökning och dels av en kontextuell exploration. Den semantiska undersökningen innehåller en hermeneutisk begreppsanalys enligt Koort (1975) och en etymologisk granskning. Den hermeneutiska explorationen undersöker begreppet embodied först inom praktisk kunskap, sedan inom kognitiva lärandeteorier och slutligen relateras embodied till ett somatiskt kunskapsfält med kroppsliga/body-mind praktiker, på engelska kallat somatics.

  • Lahbi, Hoda
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration.
    The Power of Business Intelligence on the Decision-Making Process at Linkoping University A Case Study2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The decision-making process (DMP) is based on two elements: Organizational and technical (Poleto et al., 2015). The organizational element is related to managers’ everyday decisionmaking based on the organization strategy (Poleto et al., 2015). Its aim is to set up specific actions for the planned objectives for the business (Rouse, 2018). The second element is the technical DMP. According to (Poleto et al., 2015), it is related the set of tools that are used as an aid in the DMP, which includes information technology and big data. Business intelligence (BI) is the decisionmaking helping system (Ali et al., 2017). Consequently, BI helps make better decisions, and it has become popular in many organizations. As a result, it is important to show BI’s power over DMPs and to show how the tools used in BI facilitate the DMP. “Higher education institutions worldwide are operating today in a very dynamic and complex environment” (Kabakchieva 2015, p. 104). As a result, universities that are within higher education are threatened because competition is serious (Barrett, 2010). Moreover, higher education is another area that will potentially impact big data research (Ong, 2016). Consequently, the application and use of big data in higher educational institutions may result in better quality education for students and a better experience for the university staff (Ong, 2016). As a result, HEI is adopting new technologies with the aim of sustaining its position on the market. DMPs at higher academic institutions require structured data from a sophisticated system, which can be only done through efficient and effective use of BI tools. This thesis will investigate how the BI system is used at Linkoping University (LIU) and how its benefits have changed DMPs. We studied the BI tool (Qlikview) that has been used at LIU for 10 years. 10 To answer the research question, a theoretical framework was developed that was based on two models: Simon’s (1997) and Huber’s (1980) DMP models. The two models were combined with the BI benefits that were based in El Bashir et al.’s (2008) model. The research is done through a qualitative method of data collection and data analysis. At LIU, seven interviews were conducted with BI users and with strategic decision-makers. The findings show that the BI system, alongside Qlikview, has a positive effect on DMPs at LIU as a public HEI. The factors affected are the information gathering time, the quality of data provided and the accessibility to information by all BI users.

  • Sans Fuentes, Carles
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning.
    Markov Decision Processes and ARIMA models to analyze and predict Ice Hockey player’s performance2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, player’s performance on ice hockey is modelled to create newmetricsby match and season for players. AD-trees have been used to summarize ice hockey matches using state variables, which combine context and action variables to estimate the impact of each action under that specific state using Markov Decision Processes. With that, an impact measure has been described and four player metrics have been derived by match for regular seasons 2007-2008 and 2008-2009. General analysis has been performed for these metrics and ARIMA models have been used to analyze and predict players performance. The best prediction achieved in the modelling is the mean of the previous matches. The combination of several metrics including the ones created in this thesis could be combined to evaluate player’s performance using salary ranges to indicate whether a player is worth hiring/maintaining/firing

  • Dahné-Branting, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Olsson, Anette
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Elevbeskrivningar i pedagogiska utredningar: - Att göra en synvända!2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Leiding, Frida
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Corpus & Nisch: En ikonologisk studie av altarskåp i Strängnäs Stift2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents an iconological analysis of four altarpieces in the Canonry of Strängnäs. The selected altarpieces for the study are Strängnäs cathedral’s altarpiece, Härad church’s altarpiece, Ytterselö church’s altarpiece and finally Aspö church’s altarpiece. Through a field study to analyze the imaging in the altarpieces, a comparative analysis between said altarpieces, an analysis of placement and viewer perspective based on reception theory is also applied.

  • Tinnerholm, John
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    An LLVM backend for the Open Modelica Compiler2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the construction and evaluation of an LLVM based codegenerator, an LLVM backend. The introduction of an LLVM based backend into the OpenModelica compiler was done to examine the advantages and disadvantages of compiling Modelica and MetaModelica to LLVM IR instead of C. To answer this question, the LLVM backend was compared against the existing interpreter and C code generator using four different schemes with corresponding cases. This comparison was made both for both optimised and unoptimised code. From the experiments, it was concluded that an LLVM backend can be used to improve runtime and compile time performance in the OpenModelica Interactive environment.

  • Lindkvist, Tilda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Strukturella förändringar i Östergötlands skogar: En jämförelse mellan år 1927 och 1983–20172018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Humans have affected the Swedish forests for a long time, mainly through agriculture and forestry. Since the beginning of the 20th century, a lot of changes have taken place in forest policy, which have affected the structures of our forests, such as tree age, size and species distributions. By using information from different types of historical data, we can increase our understanding of the earlier structures of forests and how to manage them in the future. This study investigated changes in annual growth and changes in age, diameter, height and tree species distribution in the forests of Östergötland from year 1927 to the period 1983-2017, using data from the Swedish National Forest Inventory. Six tree species where used, Picea spp, Pinus spp, Quercus robur, Betula spp, Alnus spp and Populus tremula. There was an increase in the proportion of Picea spp, and a decrease in the proportion of Pinus spp since 1927. The proportion of deciduous trees also increased but not as much. Interestingly, the proportion of Betula spp had fallen since 1927, but the now larger proportion of young trees indicate that the proportion of Betula spp is increasing again. Q. robur, P. tremula, Picea spp and Pinus spp also had a larger proportion of younger trees in the more recent period. There was a significantly higher proportion of tall trees during the latter period for all tree species. For growth rate in width, the results varied among tree species. For Betula spp it had decreased and for Q. robur it had increased. For the coniferous trees there was hardly any difference between the periods. Overall, the results show that Östergötland's forests have been influenced by forestry and increased ungulate populations since the first inventory 1927 and that there have been changes in the composition of the forests.

  • Brambila-Macias, Sergio
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Requirements for REES design support: A survey among large companies and SMEs2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report presents the results of a survey carried out during 2017-2018 among 11 different companies as part of the REES programme (www.mistrarees.se) work package (WP) 2.2 of Project 2 (the project concerning design in the programme). The objective of the survey was to identify the most important requirements for design support that is being developed for REES designers in the manufacturing industry. The survey comprises results from a total of 25 participants from 5 SMEs and 6 large companies, which included 8 participants from SMEs and 17 from large companies. This classification was made according to the EU commission (2015) definition of SMEs (< 250 employees and ≤ EUR 50 million in annual turnover). The results presented are divided into Section 1 where an overview of the survey and the method is presented and section 2 results, where consolidated data and comparison between large companies and SMES is provided.

  • Amgård, Erik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems.
    Bergman, Kevin
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems.
    Efficient Energy Use of FPGA for Underwater Sensor Network2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Operational time is becoming an increasingly important aspect in electronic devices and is also highly relevant in Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks (UWSN). This thesis contains a study which explores what can be done to de-crease power consumption while maintaining the same functionality of an FPGA inside an underwater sensor-node network. A longer operational time means a more effective system since reconnaissance is one of UWSN’s area of application. The thesis will also cover the implementation of a new sensor-node ‘mode’ which will add new features and increase operational time.

  • Hermelin, Brita
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Trygg, Kristina
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lokalt utvecklings- och tillväxtarbete: En studie av kommunernas näringslivsfunktioner2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport handlar om hur kommunerna arbetar med utvecklings- och tillväxtarbete. Förväntningarna på att kommuner ska verka för lokalt utvecklingsarbete har inneburit växande åtaganden för den kommunala sektorn. Genom rapporten redovisas och analyseras resultaten från en enkätstudie som riktade sig till näringslivsanvariga tjänstepersoner i samtliga kommuner i Sverige. Genom enkäten ställdes frågor om vad kommunerna i Sverige gör inom området utvecklings- och tillväxtarbete och på vilket sätt resurser för det här området genereras genom externa relationer med andra kommuner, regionala organ, EU samt statliga organisationer. Resultatet från enkätstudien redovisas dels för alla kommuner som besvarat enkäten (62 procent av Sveriges kommuner) sammantaget och dels uppdelat på olika kommunkategorier. Denna kategorisering utgår från SKLs kommungruppsindelning.

    Den sammanfattande diskussionen utgår från tre slutsatser. För det första kvarstår det som kan betraktas vara det traditionella området för kommunernas tillväxtarbete – som centreras kring kontaktskapande arbete med lokala nätverk, organisationer och företag – som ett centralt moment för kommunernas lokala tillväxtarbete. Detta område benämner vi näringslivsarbete och det omfattar att främja sektorsövergripande kommunikation mellan kommunen och de lokala företagen. Detta område omfattar även att arbeta med platsmarknadsföring.

    För det andra har synen på vad utvecklings- och tillväxtarbete omfattar breddats. Detta ställer krav på samverkan över traditionella gränser inom kommunens förvaltning. Enkätresultatetet visar erfarenheter av att arbetet genom kommunernas näringslivsfunktion innebär att bli involverad för frågor om fysisk planering och för kompetensutveckling. Tidigare studier och den genomförda enkäten illustrerar att kommunernas utvecklings- och tillväxtarbete har kommit att breddats till att relatera till samtliga delar av hållbar utveckling. Samtidigt framträdet frågor om ekonomisk hållbarhet och fysisk planering mer tydligt än frågor om social hållbarhet, genom exempelvis arbetsmarknadsfrågor, och ekologiskt hållbarhet, genom exempelvis samverkan med miljönätverk.

    Slutsats nummer tre handlar om hur tillväxtarbete sker på olika sätt i olika geografier. Enkätstudien visar att kommunkategorier som i högre grad är beroende av sina egna lokala arbetsmarknader (dvs. större städer, mindre städer och landsbygdskommuner) är mer aktiva inom det lokala tillväxtarbetet jämfört med utpendlingskommuner, samtidigt som profilen för det här arbetet skiljer sig åt mellan de tre kategorier av kommuner som är mest aktiva.

    För att värdera resultatet som framkommer genom studien som presenteras och diskuteras i den här rapporten är det också viktigt att påminna om begränsningarna. Det empiriska materialet har genererats genom en enkätstudie som riktade sig till tjänstepersoner i ledningen för kommunernas näringslivsfunktioner. Det betyder att resultatet har genererats utifrån hur en respondent per kommun har besvarat frågor om det breda fält lokalt utvecklingsarbete berör. Studiens design har syftat till att ge en översikt som genererar frågor för fördjupade studier. Ett angeläget tema för framtida studier är frågan om geografiska beroendeförhållanden för det lokala utvecklingsarbetet och som innebär att fördjupa förståelsen för varierande förutsättningar för kommunernas utvecklingsarbete och hur detta skapar villkor för samverkan med andra politiska nivåer och andra kommuner. Jämförelser mellan olika kommunkategorier visar att kommunernas samverkan ser olika ut och att profilen för det lokala utvecklingsarbetet varierar.

  • Sundin, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization .
    Scheduling of Electric Buses with Column Generation2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Column generation has during the last years been popular in vehicle scheduling as it for larger problems can find an optimum faster than using an ordinary mixed-integer programming (MIP) model. We study the problem of finding optimal schedules for electric buses by means of column generation. The motive for this approach is that when the size of the problem becomes very large in terms of variables and different solutions, solving it with a mixed- integer programming model can take a lot time. The purpose of this work is to investigate how the best found integral solution and the solution time vary between different column generation methods and how these methods perform compared to a MIP. This has been done by implementing these methods on a test problem for scheduling of electric buses. The results indicate that column generation methods can be very efficient in terms of time and best found integral solution for larger problems. A modified column generation method has been created in order to accelerate the generation of columns, which is better than standard column generation in terms of solution time and best found integral solution. 

  • Brambila-Macias, Sergio A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Widgren, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    State of the Art of Design Methods for Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions: Report from “Product and Service Design Methods for REES” Project of Mistra REES program2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document reports on the results of work packages (WPs) 2.1 and 2.2 in Project 2 (Product and Service Design Methods for REES, i.e. resource efficient and effective solutions) of the Mistra REES program (www.mistrarees.se). WP 2.1 and WP 2.2 aim at documenting current use of design methods and deriving requirements for design methods, respectively. The document only covers results from the scientific literature review, while other reports to be developed will cover results, for instance, from the interview study and the design session with industry partners in the Mistra REES consortium. The results of the literature review will be a foundation for WP 2.3, which aims at developing new design methods. Note that methods here include frameworks, tools, and support for designers.

    The document describes current use (i.e., “as‐is” status) of product and service design methods when designing REES, as well as requirements for product and service design methods for REES (i.e., information soon‐to‐be). Both of these are results of analysis in different phases of an early phase of design for REES. Those phases consist of requirement specification, conceptual design, and analysis and evaluation, which can be ordered temporally along the design process.

    From the overall analysis, found is a lack of insights about methods for designing REES, although potentially useful methods are available. This means advancement of knowledge is insufficient for industry within the subject, which is relatively new. It may also mean the developed methods are not precisely according to the needs of companies. This shows a high potential of developing new methods in the rest of the project.

    More specifically, in the requirement specification, the literature shows that potentially useful methods include QFD (Quality Function Deployment), the Taguchi method, the Kano model, and data mining, among others. In the conceptual design, numerous methods exist, and most of them were developed in an older context, where REES was not as relevant as today. Those methods include DfX methods (X denotes cost, assembly, etc.), the functional block diagram, the checklist, morphological analysis, and the Fishbone Diagram. Only a few seem to be used widely in industry today. In the analysis and evaluation, available methods include Lifecycle Simulation, Lifecycle Costing, multi‐criteria decision making, and the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Most of the methods or tools available specialise in one area. This is a problem when developing an integrated offering of products and services, because designers need to have a holistic perspective for that.

    Regarding requirements for methods to be developed, the authors analysed literature as follows. In the requirement specification, requirements originating from multiple aspects and actors need to be taken into account. Since an enormous amount of data and information can be collected from products and by technologies implemented today, a huge opportunity is presented for enhancing requirement specification. Yet, there seems to be little insights to take this opportunity. In conceptual design, it is important to identify and involve relevant actors as well as their requirements according to a number of scientific reports. Especially, interaction between the relevant actors seems to be critical to be implemented. In analysis and evaluation, various pieces of earlier research works recommend different features to be implemented in methods. These features include visualization of information and information flows, graphical user interface, multiple users’ participation, and ability to handle environmental information, uncertainty and risk.

  • Brambila-Macias, Sergio A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nilsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Widgren, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Support for Designing Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions: Current Use and Requirements by Swedish Industry: Report from “Product and Service Design Support for REES” Project of Mistra REES program2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This document reports on the results of work packages (WPs) 2.1 and 2.2 in Project 2 (Product and Service Design Support for REES, i.e. resource efficient and effective solutions) of the Mistra REES program (www.mistrarees.se). WP 2.1 and WP 2.2 aim at documenting current use of design support and deriving requirements for design support, respectively. The document only covers results from interviews with companies, while the other reports will cover results, for instance, from scientific literature review (ISRN: LIU‐IEI‐RR‐‐17/00264—SE) and the design session with industry partners in the Mistra REES consortium. The results of this research into industrial practice will be a foundation for WP 2.3, which aims at developing new design support for designers.

    The document describes current use (i.e., “as‐is” status) of product and service design support when designing REES, as well as requirements for product and service design support for REES (i.e., information soon‐to‐be). Both of these are results of analysis in different phases of an early phase of design for REES. Those phases consist of requirement specification, conceptual design, and analysis and evaluation, which can be ordered temporally along the design process.

    Eight Sweden‐based companies that provide products and services in different sectors and work on resource efficiency participated in the interviews. They vary in terms of the size: from small to large. 24 individual interviews were conducted in total with the length being between 54 and 117 minutes (with two additional shorter follow up interviews via phone/skype). The 24 interviews were carried out all with face to face between May and July, 2016. The result from each company is described per section in this report, while cross‐company analysis will be made in a separate document.

  • Cheng, Sijin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Relevance feedback-based optimization of search queries for Patents2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this project, we design a search query optimization system based on the user’s relevance feedback by generating customized query strings for existing patent alerts. Firstly, the Rocchio algorithm is used to generate a search string by analyzing the characteristics of related patents and unrelated patents. Then the collaborative filtering recommendation algorithm is used to rank the query results, which considering the previous relevance feedback and patent features, instead of only considering the similarity between query and patents as the traditional method.

    In order to further explore the performance of the optimization system, we design and conduct a series of evaluation experiments regarding TF-IDF as a baseline method. Experiments show that, with the use of generated search strings, the proportion of unrelated patents in search results is significantly reduced over time. In 4 months, the precision of the retrieved results is optimized from 53.5% to 72%. What’s more, the rank performance of the method we proposed is better than the baseline method. In terms of precision, top10 of recommendation algorithm is about 5 percentage points higher than the baseline method, and top20 is about 7.5% higher. It can be concluded that the approach we proposed can effectively optimize patent search results by learning relevance feedback.