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  • Karlsson Schedvin, Clara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Ebadian, Mona
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Bestämningsfaktorer till kriminalitet med fokus på effekten av ekonomisk ojämlikhet: En panelstudie över Sveriges län under perioden 2000-20142019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sverige nådde 2018 den högsta nivån av ekonomisk ojämlikhet och det finns svenska studier som har undersökt sambandet mellan kriminalitet och ekonomisk ojämlikhet på individnivå och därför har vi i vår studie studerat svenska län. Syftet med studien har varit att undersöka och analysera bestämningsfaktorer till kriminalitet med fokus på effekten av ekonomisk ojämlikhet under perioden 2000–2014. Har ekonomisk ojämlikhet och våra övriga bestämningsfaktorer en signifikant effekt på antalet brott som begås i Sverige? För att besvara våra frågeställningar gjordes en ekonometrisk modell och med hjälp av paneldata undersökte vi hur ekonomisk ojämlikhet, invandring, inkomst, sysselsättning, utbildning, ålder, kön och befolkningstäthet påverkar olika typer av brott. De brottskategorier som har undersökts är stöld, rån, försökt till mord och dråp, misshandel och narkotikabrott.

    Vi har dragit slutsatsen att minskad ekonomisk ojämlikhet leder till en minskning av antalet förmögenhetsbrott, i form av rån och stöld, och att det finns en svag negativ effekt på grövre våldsbrott. Däremot tycks effekten på narkotikabrott vara positiv men med en justering för tidseffekt blir dessa estimat ej längre signifikanta. De övriga bestämningsfaktorerna hade en varierande effekt på antalet brott. Ökad invandring ledde till färre misshandelsfall och narkotikabrott men till en ökning av antalet stölder, rån samt mord och dråp. Inkomst hade en negativ effekt på stöld och rån samt men effekten var positiv för misshandel och narkotikabrott. En ökad nivå av sysselsättning ledde till färre rån, narkotikabrott och misshandelsfall men för stöld fick vi en signifikant positiv effekt.

    Effekten av en ökad andel av befolkningen med eftergymnasial utbildning var oklar och vi hittade inget tydligt samband till förmögenhetsbrotten. Befolkningstäthet hade störst effekt på förmögenhetsbrotten och vi konstaterade att det blir fler rån, stölder och narkotikabrott om befolkningstätheten ökar. Effekterna från ålder och könlyckades vi inte representera väl i vår studie och vi har dragit slutsatsen att den effekten bättre fångas upp i en studie på individnivå.

  • Aydogan, Helin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Gatjetjiladze, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    The Relationship Between House Prices and Stock Prices: An Empirical Analysis of the Swedish Market2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    It is of continual topicality to understand the interaction between the stock market and the house market as they are central parts of the economy and important resources and investment alternatives for both households and firms. Hence, these two markets can be crucial for consumers and investors and consequently economic growth. With a focus on Sweden and Sweden's three largest cities, we examine the relationship between house prices and stock prices by including GDP, inflation and the repo rate over the period 1994-2018. We examine this by using time series analysis and investigating both the short and long run relationship by mainly focusing how the causal link looks like based on the theories of wealth effect and credit-price effect. Our results show a negative long run relationship in Sweden indicating that an increase in house prices decreases stock prices, and for the short run there is evidence of the credit-price effect. For Stockholm, we found a positive bidirectional long run relationship and a bidirectional causality was also confirmed for the short run. For Gothenburg, we find a negative long run relationship where an increase in stock prices decreases house prices, however there is no evidence of a causal relationship in the short run. For Malmö we find a positive long run relationship that goes from stock prices to house prices and the reverse causation is found for the short run demonstrating the credit-price effect. Although we find that these markets have a relationship, we still argue that they are relatively separated and that investors can diversify over these assets because of the low values our results show.

    Keywords: house prices, stock prices, Sweden, wealth effect, credit-price effect

  • Andersson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Hoque, Mahim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    The Causal Relationships Between ESG and Financial Asset Classes: A multiple investment horizon wavelet approach of the non-linear directionality2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates if Environmental, Social and Governance (ESG) investments can be considered as an independent asset class. As ESG and responsible investing has increased substantially in recent years, responsible investments have entered the portfolios with other asset classes too. Therefore, there is a need in studying ESG investment properties with other financial asset classes. By collecting daily price data from October 2007 to December 2018, we research the directionalities between ESG, ethical, conventional, commodities and currency. Initially, we employed a MODWT, multiscale investment horizon wavelet analysis transformation of the data. The decomposed wavelet data is then applied in pairwise linear and non-linear Granger causality estimations to study the directionality relationships dependent on investment horizon. Additionally, econometric filtering processes have been employed to study the effects of volatility on directionality relationships. The results mainly suggest significant directionality relationships between ESG and the other asset classes. On the medium-term investment horizon, almost all estimations indicate strict bidirectionality. Thus, on the medium-term, ESG can be said to be integrated with the other asset classes. For the long-term horizon, most relationships are still predominantly bidirectional between ESG and all other asset classes. The biggest differences are found on the short-term horizon, with no directionality found between ESG and commodities that cannot be explained by volatility. Furthermore, most directionality relationships also disappear when controlling for the volatility transmission between ESG and currency on the short-term horizon. Thus, our findings suggest significantly more integration between ESG and ethical and conventional as bidirectionality overwhelmingly prevails regardless of investment horizon. As previous research has found similarities between ethical and conventional as well as ESG having similar characteristics to commodities as conventional and ethical, we suggest that ESG should be considered as being integrated and having strong similarities with other equities. Thus, it should be treated as being part of the conventional equity asset class. Deviations from bidirectionality could be caused by ESG variable specific heterogeneity. However, despite our rejection of ESG as an independent asset class, it still carries significant potential as it excludes firms with climate-harming practices, thereby helping in combating climate-related as well as social and governance issues the world is facing.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-27 10:15 Alan Turing, Linköping
    Mengist, Alachew
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Methods and Tools for Efficient Model-Based Development of Cyber-Physical Systems with Emphasis on Model and Tool Integration2019Licentiate thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Model-based tools and methods are playing important roles in the design and analysis of cyber-physical systems before building and testing physical prototypes. The development of increasingly complex CPSs requires the use of multiple tools for different phases of the development lifecycle, which in turn depends on the ability of the supporting tools to interoperate. However, currently no vendor provides comprehensive end-to-end systems engineering tool support across the entire product lifecycle, and no mature solution currently exists for integrating different system modeling and simulation languages, tools and algorithms in the CPSs design process. Thus, modeling and simulation tools are still used separately in industry.

    The unique challenges in integration of CPSs are a result of the increasing heterogeneity of components and their interactions, increasing size of systems, and essential design requirements from various stakeholders. The corresponding system development involves several specialists in different domains, often using different modeling languages and tools. In order to address the challenges of CPSs and facilitate design of system architecture and design integration of different models, significant progress needs to be made towards model-based integration of multiple design tools, languages, and algorithms into a single integrated modeling and simulation environment.

    In this thesis we present the need for methods and tools with the aim of developing techniques for numerically stable co-simulation, advanced simulation model analysis, simulation-based optimization, and traceability capability, and making them more accessible to the model-based cyber physical product development process, leading to more efficient simulation. In particular, the contributions of this thesis are as follows: 1) development of a model-based dynamic optimization approach by integrating optimization into the model development process; 2) development of a graphical co-modeling editor and co-simulation framework for modeling, connecting, and unified system simulation of several different modeling tools using the TLM technique; 3) development of a tool-supported method for multidisciplinary collaborative modeling and traceability support throughout the development process for CPSs; 4) development of an advanced simulation modeling analysis tool for more efficient simulation.

  • Forsström, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Lind, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    The Role of Uncertainty in the Scandinavian Banking Sector2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis we analyse the impact of uncertainty shocks in the Scandinavian banking sector. We apply the spillover approach developed by Diebold and Yilmaz (2009; 2012; 2014), followed by network analysis. Furthermore, the dynamics of uncertainty shocks are examined by applying a quantile regression approach. We study the effects of financial uncertainty, economic policy uncertainty, geopolitical risk and housing market uncertainty on the seven banks Swedbank, Nordea, SEB, Svenska Handelsbanken, DNB, Danske Bank and Jyske Bank. We study these uncertainties on global, regional and local level between 2005 and 2018. We find that the Swedish banks are greater emitters of contagion, compared to the Norwegian and Danish banks, where SEB and Nordea are the banks emitting and receiving the most spillovers. Moreover, the connectedness within the banking sector tend to increase in times of heightened uncertainty, such as during the Global Financial Crisis and the European Sovereign Debt Crisis. Global financial uncertainty is shown to affect the Scandinavian banks the most, followed by regional and local financial uncertainty. The same pattern can be seen for economic policy uncertainty, although at lower levels of spillovers. Reversely, housing market uncertainty is seen to increase going from global, regional to local, where the impact of local housing market uncertainty has a considerable amount of spillovers to the Scandinavian banks. Geopolitical risk is shown to have limited spillovers to the Scandinavian banks. The result of the quantile regressions suggests that financial uncertainty is affecting the banks’ returns negatively during bearish market conditions, whilst the relationship is positive during bullish market conditions. Moreover, we find that financial uncertainty is a quicker transmitter of spillovers than housing market uncertainty. Finally, we conclude that uncertainty shocks affecting the Scandinavian banks negatively tend to take effect instantaneously, while the effects of positive shocks are delayed.

  • Lindskog, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Flytande biogas som bränsle för sjöfartssektorn: Möjligheter och hinder för Östersjöområdet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of LBG's conditions in the shipping sector by mapping out the opportunities and barriers of using LBG as fuel in the Baltic Sea area. The paper consists of a literature study that is supplemented by an interview study with industry players. The thesis uses a combined PESTLE / SWOT methodology, where a survey has been performed using a PESTLE analysis to identify areas and specific factors. The factors were then analyzed through a SWOT analysis to answer the main issue proposed by the author. The results show that there is considerable potential for LBG in the shipping industry, especially as the entire fuel infrastructure is in place due to LNG's continuous growth in the Baltic Sea area. LBG has unique strengths compared to both LNG and fuels that are already established in the maritime industry. LBG's strengths are in line with the aims of increasing renewable fuels in the transport sector, as well as the strategies and targets that exist to reduce carbon dioxide emissions at a global and European level. Interviewed shipping companies see the development towards LBG as a natural step for their LNG-operated fleet, and that testing is ongoing with mixing LBG in some LNG-fueled vessels. Three factors were identified as particularly important for the development of LBG in the Baltic Sea. One of these concerns the production capacity of LBG, where the large energy needs of the shipping industry mean that only a limited use of LBG is possible at present. Another identified focus area is costs in relation to LBG, where the tough competitive situation in the shipping industry negatively impacts shipping companies' ability to afford a more expensive fuel like LBG. The prerequisites are also affected by the fact that ship fuels for commercial shipping are tax-free and that other potential sectors for LBG allow for tax subsidies. The thesis outlines proposals for how to overcome these obstacles and make better use of LBG's strengths as a fuel for shipping in the Baltic Sea area.

  • Asplund, Amelia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Björelind, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Reimertz, Jonathan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Remnebäck, Emelie
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Velander, Alice
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Wahlquist, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Wiström, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Wu, Boris
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Sökmotoroptimering för en e-handelsplattform2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid pace of digitization in this day and age drives major changes in consumer buying behaviour. More and more consumers make use of the internet and search engines when making purchases. E-commerce services have thus become increasingly dependent on search engines, and on their ranking on them. Optimization of e-commerce websites are a highly relevant aspect for website traffic, however, little information on how different types of SEO-optimization techniques affect page ranking is disclosed by search engine companies. In this context, this study is conducted in order to assess how an e-commerce, brewinabox.se, website's page ranking is affected by three ranking factors: page speed, keyword density and site structure. It illustrates how to optimize with respect to these ranking factors. The study tests different versions of the e-commerce web application with different adjustments of the ranking factors, in relation to page rank. The tests did not show any clear results, and they could not confirm the theories and methods suggested by common literature for each factor. The weak results might depend on insufficient tests with many possible errors, especially concerning the indexing process of Google. Ultimately, a final version of the web application was implemented using the recommendations and a clearly positive result of the search engine optimization was noted.

  • Daneli, Alicia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Nordenö, Anton
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Kayar, Efraim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    "Är vi kreditvärdiga?": Hur svenska banktjänstemän fattar kreditbeslut utifrån struktur och professionella bedömningar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Loan and credit is an essential part of today’s economy, both in term of private individuals and corporates. If the banks are too restrictive for corporate credit, the economic growth risks being affected. Furthermore, the banks are considered to be less willing to take risk. This is a problematic trend and the fact is that corporates cannot be sure that they get an objective assessment of their credit application. Thus, a creditors’ reasoning in their assessment plays a crucial role in a credit application. The bank´s structural guidelines that creditors must relate to also affect how the bank officials make credit decisions.

    Purpose: The aim of the study is to explore the bank official's credit assessment and its anchoring in the bank's structure versus the official's professional judgement.

    Method: The study is conducted with a deductive approach and qualitative method. The empirical collection is based on semi-structured interviews.

    Conclusion: The result of the study show that creditors have a considerable amount of space when it comes to the individual assessment of a credit applicant. Where the bank’s assistive tools end, a clear individual assessment begins, about how to choose to continue ahead. It becomes clear that the 5C model was a large part of the credit assessment of all respondents. The most important component of the five Cs is the capacity of repayment, as it is the one that generates revenue for the bank. What we consider to be the most interesting were how much all respondents emphasized the importance of the personal meeting and its impact on the credit decision.

  • Kefalas, Katerina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Broman, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Varför väljer personal att lämna stora revisionsbyråer?: Hur påverkar motivation och arbetstillfredsställelse revisorers och redovisningskonsulters beslut att lämna de stora revisionsbyråerna?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction A high turnover of staff has been a problem in the large auditing firms for a long time. It is not unusual that many people choose to leave their firm after just a few years. Some people see their employment at a large auditing firm as a preparatory step in their careers.

    Purpose The purpose of this study is to investigate how accountants experienced motivation at their previous workplace and how motivation and job satisfaction affected their decision to terminate their employment.

    Method This qualitative study is pursued through a deductive approach with inductive elements where empirical data has been collected through semi-structured interviews with accountants.

    Conclusion The study indicates that there are several reasons why accountants choose to leave their workplace and that there are many different factors that affect motivation and job satisfaction. What gave our respondents the most motivation was the customer contact and to help their customers. Factors that caused our respondents to leave their workplace were salary, stress in combination with an excessively high workload, that they had too many tasks that did not have to do with their clients, the management and other job opportunities.

  • Wänström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Motsatta ideal i den politiska styrningen av mindre kommuner: Mot en ny(gammal) kommunal politikerroll?2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Under senare år har det förts en diskussion om hur Sveriges kommuner ska styras. Tillitsdelegationen och dess uppdragsgivare (regeringen) vill till exempel se mindre målstyrning och framförallt mindre uppföljning och hårt ansvarsutkrävande till förmån för en politisk styrning som präglas mer av dialog och tillit. Mycket av den tidigare forskningen om målstyrning har genomförts på kommuner som är större än den svenska mediankommunen, det vill säga kommuner som har mer än 16 000 invånare. Den här studien gör istället nedslag i tre kommuner som alla har mindre än 16 000 invånare.

    Syftet med den här studien är att beskriva och analysera de olika ideal som präglar ledande politikers och tjänstepersoners reflektioner kring hur den politiska styrningen i mindre kommuner bör organiseras och utföras. Genom djupintervjuer med 14 ledande politiker och tjänstepersoner framkom två övergripande modeller för den politiska styrningen – modeller som i sin tur präglas av två övergripande ideal: närhet och distans.

    Vissa av respondenterna framhävde betydelsen av att ett större avstånd mellan styrande politiker och oppositionspolitiker för att på så sätt skapa förutsättningar för mer av majoritets- och framförallt konkurrensdemokrati. De förespråkade också ett större avstånd mellan politiker och tjänstemän där politikerna fokuserar på att styra genom mål och andra former av övergripande riktlinjer. Andra respondenter framhävde betydelsen av att olika aktörer – såväl politiker, tjänstepersoner som lokala medborgare, företag och föreningar – verkar i ett nära samspel där samförstånd snarare än konflikt eftersträvas. När förespråkare för mer distanserade relationer framhäver vikten av platsoberoende akademiskt förankrad kunskap (vilken framförallt förväntas finnas i den professionaliserade förvaltningen) framhäver de som förespråkar ett nära samspel ofta betydelsen av den lokalt förankrade kunskapen som finns och växer fram i samspelet mellan olika aktörer. När de som förespråkar mer distanserade relationer framhäver vikten av tilliten till övergripande principer och system, framhäver de som förespråkar ett nära samspel tilliten mellan enskilda individer.

    Det faktum att Sveriges kommuner ser olika ut i relation till en rad olika parametrar, såsom till exempel befolkningsmässig och geografisk storlek, gör att man har olika förutsättningar att genomföra någon form av universell styrmodell. Den här studien påvisar därutöver att såväl politiker som tjänstpersoner i olika kommuner sätter olika värde till olika ideal kopplade till den politiska styrningen – ideal som ofta behöver balanseras mot varandra.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-24 13:00 Belladonna, Linköping
    Bratengeier, Cornelia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mechanisms of mechanically induced Osteoclastogenesis: in a novel in vitro model for bone implant loosening2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Total joint arthroplasty is the primary intervention in the treatment of end-stage osteoarthritis. Despite the high success rate, in some patients, the replacement will fail during their lifetime requiring a revision of the implant. These revisions are strenuous for the patient and costly for health care. Joint replacement at a younger age, in combination with a more active lifestyle, increases the need for an early revision of the joint prosthesis. The main reason for revision surgeries is aseptic loosening, a condition where the prosthesis is loosening due to bone degradation at the peri-prosthetic interface in the absence of infections. The most well-established pathological mechanism for aseptic loosening is related to wear particles, generated from different parts of the prosthesis that will trigger bone degradation and bone loss. In addition, early micromotions of the prosthesis and resulting local pressurized fluid flow in the peri-prosthetic interface (supraphysiological loading) have also been identified as a cause for aseptic loosening. However, it remains unknown what cells are the primary responders to supraphysiological loading, and what underlying physical, cellular and molecular mechanism that triggers osteoclast differentiation and osteolysis.

    In this thesis, we intended to shed light on three currently unknown aspects of mechanical loading-induced peri-prosthetic osteolysis, leading to aseptic loosening of orthopedic prostheses: (1)Which cells are the primary responder to supraphysiological loading? (2)What characteristics of the mechanical stimulus induce an osteo-protective or osteo-destructive response? (3)Which cellular mechano-sensing mechanisms are involved in an osteo-destructive response?

    We successfully implemented supraphysiological mechanical loading, mimicking the periprosthetic pressurized fluid flow around a loosening implant, in an in vitro model for bone implant loosening. Using this model, we uncovered the involvement of mesenchymal stem cells and myeloid progenitor cells (monocytes) in mechanical loading-induced peri-prosthetic osteolysis. Applying supraphysiological loading on cells from patients undergoing primary hip arthroplasty, successfully validated the in vitro model for the use of cells of human origin. We further identified in murine myeloid progenitor cells that a combination of high loading amplitude (3.0±0.2Pa), prolonged active loading duration per cycle (duty cycle 22%-50%), and rapid alterations in minimum/maximum values of the loading profile (square wave) is necessary to induce an osteo-destructive response. Further, the loading-induced ATP release and subsequent activation of the P2X7 receptor was essential for the release of soluble factors modulating osteoclastogenesis.

    In conclusion, we expect that the proposed new in vitro model is a helpful tool to further advance the knowledge in aseptic loosening, by uncovering the mechanoresponsive cellular mechanism to supraphysiological mechanical loading. The identification of the respondent cells in mechanical loading-induced prosthetic loosening gives the opportunity to deliver targeted treatment strategies. Furthermore, identifying the physical parameters that define the shift towards an osteo-destructive response emphasizes the importance of the prosthetic design and surgical technique to reduce mechanical loading-induced bone degradation around a prosthesis.

    List of papers
    1. Supraphysiological loading induces osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis in a novel in vitro model for bone implant loosening
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supraphysiological loading induces osteocyte-mediated osteoclastogenesis in a novel in vitro model for bone implant loosening
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Orthopaedic Research, ISSN 0736-0266, E-ISSN 1554-527X, Vol. 36, no 5, p. 1425-1434Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We aimed to develop an in vitro model for bone implant loosening, allowing analysis of biophysical and biological parameters contributing to mechanical instability-induced osteoclast differentiation and peri-implant bone loss. MLO-Y4-osteocytes were mechanically stimulated for 1h by fluid shear stress using regimes simulating: (i) supraphysiological loading in the peri-prosthetic interface (2.9 +/- 2.9Pa, 1Hz, square wave); (ii) physiologic loading in the cortical bone (0.7 +/- 0.7Pa, 5Hz, sinusoidal wave); and (iii) stress shielding. Cellular morphological parameters, membrane-bound RANKL expression, gene expression influencing osteoclast differentiation, nitric oxide release and caspase 3/7-activity were determined. Either Mouse bone marrow cells were cultured on top of loaded osteocytes or osteocyte-conditioned medium was added to bone marrow cells. Osteoclast differentiation was assessed after 6 days. We found that osteocytes subjected to supraphysiological loading showed similar morphology and caspase 3/7-activity compared to simulated physiological loading or stress shielding. Supraphysiological stimulation of osteocytes enhanced osteoclast differentiation by 1.9-fold compared to physiological loading when cell-to-cell contact was permitted. In addition, it enhanced the number of osteoclasts using conditioned medium by 1.7-fold, membrane-bound RANKL by 3.3-fold, and nitric oxide production by 3.2-fold. The stimulatory effect of supraphysiological loading on membrane-bound RANKL and nitric oxide production was higher than that achieved by stress shielding. In conclusion, the in vitro model developed recapitulated the catabolic biological situation in the peri-prosthetic interface during instability that is associated with osteoclast differentiation and enhanced RANKL expression. The model thus provides a platform for pre-clinical testing of pharmacological interventions with potential to stop instability-induced bone implant loosening. (c) 2017 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 36:1425-1434, 2018.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    WILEY, 2018
    Keywords
    osteocyte; osteoclast; implant; osteolysis; RANKL
    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150301 (URN)10.1002/jor.23780 (DOI)000434360700015 ()29068483 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [521-2013-2593, 2016-01822, 2016-06097]; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems [2012-04409]

    Available from: 2018-08-16 Created: 2018-08-16 Last updated: 2019-08-21
    2. Mechanical loading releases osteoclastogenesis-modulating factors through stimulation of the P2X7 receptor in hematopoietic progenitor cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mechanical loading releases osteoclastogenesis-modulating factors through stimulation of the P2X7 receptor in hematopoietic progenitor cells
    2019 (English)In: Journal of Cellular Physiology, ISSN 0021-9541, E-ISSN 1097-4652, Vol. 234, no 8, p. 13057-13067Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Mechanical instability of bone implants stimulate osteoclast differentiation and peri-implant bone loss, leading to prosthetic loosening. It is unclear which cells at the periprosthetic interface transduce mechanical signals into a biochemical response, and subsequently facilitate bone loss. We hypothesized that mechanical overloading of hematopoietic bone marrow progenitor cells, which are located near to the inserted bone implants, stimulates the release of osteoclast-inducing soluble factors. Using a novel in vitro model to apply mechanical overloading, we found that hematopoietic progenitor cells released adenosine triphosphate (ATP) after only 2min of mechanical loading. The released ATP interacts with its specific receptor P2X7 to stimulate the release of unknown soluble factors that inhibit (physiological loading) or promote (supraphysiological loading) the differentiation of multinucleated osteoclasts derived from bone marrow cultures. Inhibition of ATP-receptor P2X7 by Brilliant Blue G completely abolished the overloading-induced stimulation of osteoclast formation. Likewise, stimulation of P2X7 receptor on hematopoietic cells by BzATP enhanced the release of osteoclastogenesis-stimulating signaling molecules to a similar extent as supraphysiological loading. Supraphysiological loading affected neither gene expression of inflammatory markers involved in aseptic implant loosening (e.g., interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, tumor necrosis factor-, and PTGES2) nor expression of the osteoclast modulators receptor activator of nuclear factor -B ligandand osteoprotegerin. Our findings suggest that murine hematopoietic progenitor cells are a potential key player in local mechanical loading-induced bone implant loosening via the ATP/P2X7-axis. Our approach identifies potential therapeutic targets to prevent prosthetic loosening.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    WILEY, 2019
    Keywords
    fluid flow; implant loosening; mechanoresponsive hematopoietic progenitor cells; osteolysis; purinergic signaling
    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158040 (URN)10.1002/jcp.27976 (DOI)000467240800083 ()30536959 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2016-01822, 2016-06097, 521-2013-2593]; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems [2012-04409]

    Available from: 2019-06-25 Created: 2019-06-25 Last updated: 2019-08-21
  • Shala, Fidan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ryner, Adam
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Användningen av balanserade styrkortet i små och medelstora företag2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - The purpose of this study is to explore how SMEs use the Balanced Scorecard to manage and control their organization.

    Method - The study is of a qualitative nature and is based on a deductive approach. The empirical data has been collected through semi-structured interviews.

    Conclusion - The results show that the SME owner-managers’ personal goals affect how SMEs use the balanced scorecard to control and manage the company. We note that SMEs wherein the owner-manager has ambitions to grow the business also tend to formulate a more tangible vision for the SME itself, and consequently use the balanced scorecard more thoroughly to control and manage the business. The results also showed that the organizational characteristics of SMEs affect how the balanced scorecard is used in these organizations. We note that SMEs value flexibility, adaptability and ad hoc decision making more than formal control tools and formal processes, like those presented in the balanced scorecard. Furthermore, we can also distinguish that organizational maturity plays an important role in how SMEs use the Balanced Scorecard. The essay highlights how SMEs organizational characteristics and the owners character affect how the Balanced Scorecard is used in SMEs and provide important insights on how the governance looks in these businesses.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-20 10:15 ACAS, Linköping
    Larsson, L. Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Control of Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis deals with control aspects of complex hybrid hydromechanical transmissions for heavy mobile working machines. Control problems are identified and solved to facilitate the implementation and use of these systems.

    Fuel prices and environmental concerns have increased the interest in hybrid hydromechanical transmissions for heavy mobile working machines. Hybridisation, the introduction of a secondary energy source in the transmission, offers attractive improvements in terms of both fuel efficiency and performance. These improvements are, in turn, enabled by software control. A complex transmission architecture has several components that need to interact in a stable manner. In addition, optimal utilisation of the added energy source is required to maximise fuel savings. Meanwhile, there is a strong trend towards automation, where many of the operator’s difficult control tasks need to be managed by computers. Sophisticated control strategies are therefore needed, along with a deeper understanding of dynamic properties.

    Previous research on the control of hybrid hydromechanical transmissions has primarily focussed on on-road applications. The working conditions of heavy working machines place different requirements on the transmission, which is also reflected in the control strategy.

    This thesis highlights the importance of fast response of the variable displacement pump/motors used in hybrid hydromechanical transmissions. Their central position in the interface between hydraulics and mechanics makes their dynamic performance a limiting factor both for the stability of the transmission control loops and in the realisation of smooth mode shifts in multiplemode transmissions. Dynamic models and control strategies for displacement actuators are derived and validated in simulation and experiments. A linear model for dynamic analysis of a general hybrid hydromechanical transmission for heavy working machines is derived and a powertrain control strategy based on decoupled control is proposed. The strategy is verified in simulations and experiments in hardware-in-the-loop simulations, and may be used in a working machine with or without a human operator.

    List of papers
    1. Mode Shifting in Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mode Shifting in Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions
    2015 (English)In: ASME/BATH 2015 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, ASME Press, 2015, p. 13-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Demands for low cost sustainable solutions have increased the use of and interest in complex hydromechanical transmissions for heavy off-road vehicles. In transmissions with multiplemodes, an important condition is to maintain the tractive force during the mode shifting event. For hybrid hydromechanical transmissions, with a direct connection to a hydraulic accumulator, the impressed system pressure caused by the hydraulic accumulator has not yet been observed to interfere with this condition. In this paper, a black box model approach is used to modify the hydraulic system after obtaining knowledge regarding how it is affected by a mode shift. A comparative study is carried out where a full vehicle model of a mobile working machine is simulated with two different hydraulic systems. The results show that different system solutions imply different demands on the included components, and that the mode shifting event is not a negligible factor in heavy hydraulic hybrid vehicles.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ASME Press, 2015
    Keywords
    Mode shifting, hydromechanical transmissions, fluid power, heavy construction machinery
    National Category
    Other Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126556 (URN)10.1115/FPMC2015-9583 (DOI)000373970500045 ()978-0-7918-5723-6 (ISBN)
    Conference
    ASME/BATH 2015 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, Chicago, Illinois, USA, October 12–14, 2015
    Projects
    Research on Hydromechanical Transmissions and Hybrid Motion systems, RHYTHM
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, P39367-1
    Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2019-08-21
    2. Modelling of the Swash Plate Control Actuator in an Axial Piston Pump for a Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation Test Rig
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modelling of the Swash Plate Control Actuator in an Axial Piston Pump for a Hardware-In-the-Loop Simulation Test Rig
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of the 9th FPNI Ph.D. Symposium on Fluid Power, FPNI2016, ASME Press, 2016, article id UNSP V001T01A044Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydraulic hybrid system solutions are promising in the quest for energy efficiency in heavy construction machines. Hardware-in-the-loop simulations, where hardware is included in software simulations in real time, may be used to facilitate the development process of these systems without the need to build expensive prototypes. In this paper, the displacement actuator of a prototype pump used in a hardware-in-the-loop simulation test rig is modelled and validated against hardware, in order to draw conclusions regarding its dynamic behaviour in a future control design. The results show that the dynamic response of the modelled displacement actuator is mainly determined by the system pressure as well as the response and geometry of the control valve.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ASME Press, 2016
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133328 (URN)10.1115/FPNI2016-1570 (DOI)000398986900044 ()978-0-7918-5047-3 (ISBN)
    Conference
    The 9th FPNI Ph.D. Symposium on Fluid Power
    Projects
    Research on Hydromechanical Transmissions and Hybrid Motion systems, RHYTHM
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, P39367-1
    Note

    The authors would like to thank the Swedish Energy Agency for contributing funds for the research project. Thanks also go to Bosch Rexroth for providing the prototype machines.

    Available from: 2016-12-20 Created: 2016-12-20 Last updated: 2019-08-21
    3. Displacement Control Strategies of an In-Line Axial-Piston Unit
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Displacement Control Strategies of an In-Line Axial-Piston Unit
    2017 (English)In: Proceedings of 15:th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, June 7-9, 2017, Linköping, Sweden / [ed] Petter Krus, Liselott Ericson and Magnus Sethson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017, Vol. 144, p. 244-253Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need for efficient propulsion in heavy vehicles has led to an increased interest in hybrid solutions. Hydraulic hybrids rely on variable hydraulic pumps/motors to continuously convert between hydraulic and mechanical power. This process is carried out via the implementation of secondary control which, in turn, is dependent on a fast displacement controller response. This paper reports on a study of a prototype axial piston pump of the in-line type, in which the displacement is measured with a sensor and controlled using a software-based controller. A pole placement control approach is used, in which a simple model of the pump is used to parametrise the controller using desired resonance and damping of the closed loop controller as input. The controller’s performance is tested in simulations and hardware tests on the prototype unit. The results show that the pole placement approach combined with a lead-compensator controller architecture is flexible, easy to implement and is able to deliver a fast response with high damping. The results will in the future be used in further research on full-vehicle control of heavy hydraulic hybrids.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2017
    Series
    Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 144
    Keywords
    Hydraulic hybrids, displacement control, pole placement
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139854 (URN)10.3384/ecp17144244 (DOI)9789176853696 (ISBN)
    Conference
    The 15th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, SICFP’17, June 7-9, 2017, Linköping, Sweden
    Available from: 2017-08-17 Created: 2017-08-17 Last updated: 2019-08-21Bibliographically approved
    4. A General Approach to Low-Level Control of Heavy Complex Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A General Approach to Low-Level Control of Heavy Complex Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions
    2018 (English)In: BATH/ASME 2018 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper focuses on the low-level control of heavy complex hydraulic hybrids, taking stability and the dynamic properties of the included components into account. A linear model which can describe a high number of hybrid configurations in a straightforward manner is derived and used for the development of a general multiple input multiple output (MIMO) decoupling control strategy. This strategy is tested in non-linear simulations of an example vehicle and stability requirements for the low-level actuators are derived. The results show that static decoupling may be used to simplify the control problem to three individual loops controlling pressure, output speed and engine speed. In particular, the pressure and output speed loops rely on fast displacement controllers for stability. In addition, it was found that the decoupling is facilitated if the hydrostatic units have equal response. The low-level control of heavy complex hydraulic hybrids may thus imply other demands on actuators than what is traditionally assumed.

    Keywords
    Control, Multiple input multiple output control, heavy hydraulic hybrids, hydromechanical transmissions
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154306 (URN)10.1115/FPMC2018-8877 (DOI)000460491500042 ()2-s2.0-85058056485 (Scopus ID)978-0-7918-5196-8 (ISBN)
    Conference
    BATH/ASME 2018 Symposium on Fluid Power and Motion Control, Bath, United Kingdom, September 12-14, 2018
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, P39367-2
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2019-02-04 Created: 2019-02-04 Last updated: 2019-08-21Bibliographically approved
    5. Low-Level Control of Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions for Heavy Mobile Working Machines
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low-Level Control of Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions for Heavy Mobile Working Machines
    2019 (English)In: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, no 9, article id 1683Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Fuel efficiency has become an increasingly important property of heavy mobile working machines. As a result, Hybrid Hydromechanical Transmissions (HMTs) are often considered for the propulsion of these vehicles. The introduction of hybrid HMTs does, however, come with a number of control-related challenges. To date, a great focus in the literature has been on high-level control aspects, concerning optimal utilization of the energy storage medium. In contrast, the main topic of this article is low-level control, with the focus on dynamic response and the ability to realize requested power flows accurately. A static decoupled Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) control strategy, based on a linear model of a general hybrid HMT, is proposed. The strategy is compared to a baseline approach in Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) simulations of a reference wheel loader for two drive cycles. It was found that an important benefit of the decoupled control approach is that the static error caused by the system’s cross-couplings is minimized without introducing integrating elements. This feature, combined with the strategy’s general nature, motivates its use for multiple-mode transmissions in which the transmission configuration changes between the modes. 

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2019
    Keywords
    hydromechanical transmissions, hybridization, control, construction machinery; decoupled control, hardware-in-the-loop
    National Category
    Other Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157504 (URN)10.3390/en12091683 (DOI)000469761700099 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency, P39367-2
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency (Energimyndigheten) [P39367-2]

    Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-08-21Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2019-09-13 10:15 K3, Kåkenhus, Norrköping
    Liu, Yu
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics, Electronics and Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Data-centric Internet of Things Framework Based on Public Cloud2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pervasive application of Internet of Things (IoT) has been seen in many aspects in human daily life and industrial production. The concept of IoT originates from traditional machine-to-machine (M2M) communications which aimed at solving domain-specific and applicationspecific problems. Today, the rapid progress of communication technologies, the maturation of Internet infrastructures, the continuously reduced cost of sensors, and emergence of more open standards, have witnessed the approaching of the expected IoT era, which envisions full connectivity between the physical world and the digital world via the Internet protocol. The popularity of cloud computing technology has enhanced this IoT transform, benefiting from the superior computing capability and flexible data storage, let alone the security, reliability and scalability advantages.

    However, there are still a series of obstacles confronted by the industry in deployment of IoT services. First, due to the heterogeneity of hardware devices and application scenarios, the interoperability and compatibility between link-layer protocols, sub-systems and back-end services are significantly challenging. Second, the device management requires a uniform scheme to implement the commissioning, communication, authorization and identity management to guarantee security. Last, the heterogeneity of data format, speed and storage mechanism for different services pose a challenge to further data mining.

    This thesis aims to solve these aforementioned challenges by proposing a data-centric IoT framework based on public cloud platforms. It targets at providing a universal architecture to facilitate the deployment of IoT services in massive IoT and broadband IoT categories. The framework involves three representative communication protocols, namely WiFi, Thread and Lo-RaWAN, to enable support for local, personal, and wide area networks. A security assessment taxonomy for wireless communications in building automation networks is proposed as a tool to evaluate the security performance of adopted protocols, so as to mitigate potential network flaws and guarantee the security. Azure cloud platform is adopted in the framework to provide device management, data processing and storage, visualization, and intelligent services, thanks to the mature cloud infrastructure and the uniform device model and data model. We also exhibit the value of the study by applying the framework into the digitalization procedure of the green plant wall industry. Based on the framework, a remote monitoring and management system for green plant wall is developed as a showcase to validate the feasibility. Furthermore, three specialized visualization methods are proposed and a neuron network-based anomaly detection method is deployed in the project, showing the potential of the framework in terms of data analytics and intelligence.

    List of papers
    1. A Data-Centric Internet of Things Framework Based on Azure Cloud
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Data-Centric Internet of Things Framework Based on Azure Cloud
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 7, p. 53839-53858Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things (IoT) has been found pervasive use cases and become a driving force to constitute a digital society. The ultimate goal of IoT is data and the intelligence generated from data. With the progress in public cloud computing technologies, more and more data can be stored, processed and analyzed in cloud to release the power of IoT. However, due to the heterogeneity of hardware and communication protocols in the IoT world, the interoperability and compatibility among different link layer protocols, sub-systems, and back-end services have become a significant challenge to IoT practices. This challenge cannot be addressed by public cloud suppliers since their efforts are mainly put into software and platform services but can hardly be extended to end devices. In this paper, we propose a data-centric IoT framework that incorporates three promising protocols with fundamental security schemes, i.e., WiFi, Thread, and LoRaWAN, to cater to massive IoT and broadband IoT use cases in local, personal, and wide area networks. By taking advantages of the Azure cloud infrastructure, the framework features a unified device management model and data model to conquer the interoperability challenge. We also provide implementation and a case study to validate the framework for practical applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2019
    Keywords
    Internet of Things, Cloud computing, Protocols, Wireless fidelity, Broadband communication, Monitoring, Interoperability, framework, cloud, azure, IoT hub, thread, WiFi, lorawan
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156704 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2913224 (DOI)000467047300001 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies:  Swedish Environmental Protection Agency; Norrkoping Fund for Research and Development, Sweden

    Available from: 2019-05-10 Created: 2019-05-10 Last updated: 2019-08-21
    2. A Taxonomy for the Security Assessment of IP-based Building Automation Systems: The Case of Thread
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Taxonomy for the Security Assessment of IP-based Building Automation Systems: The Case of Thread
    2018 (English)In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 14, no 9, p. 4113-4123Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Motivated by the proliferation of wireless building automation systems (BAS) and increasing security-awareness among BAS operators, in this paper we propose a taxonomy for the security assessment of BASs. We apply the proposed taxonomy to Thread, an emerging native IP-based protocol for BAS. Our analysis reveals a number of potential weaknesses in the design of Thread. We propose potential solutions for mitigating several identified weaknesses and discuss their efficacy. We also provide suggestions for improvements in future versions of the standard. Overall, our analysis shows that Thread has a well-designed security control for the targeted use case, making it a promising candidate for communication in next generation BASs.

    National Category
    Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148570 (URN)10.1109/TII.2018.2844955 (DOI)000443994500032 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Vinnova (Swedish Innovation Agency); Norrkoping Fund for Research and Development in Sweden; Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency (MSB) through the Cerces project

    Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2019-08-21
    3. Active Plant Wall for Green Indoor Climate Based on Cloud and Internet of Things
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Active Plant Wall for Green Indoor Climate Based on Cloud and Internet of Things
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 6, p. 33631-33644Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    An indoor climate is closely related to human health, well-being and comfort. Thus, indoor climate monitoring and management are prevalent in many places, from public offices to residential houses. Our previous research has shown that an active plant wall system can effectively reduce the concentrations of particulate matter and volatile organic compounds and stabilize the carbon dioxide concentration in an indoor environment. However, regular plant care is restricted by geography and can be costly in terms of time and money, which poses a significant challenge to the widespread deployment of plant walls. In this article, we propose a remote monitoring and control system that is specific to the plant walls. The system utilizes the Internet of Things technology and the Azure public cloud platform to automate the management procedure, improve the scalability, enhance user experiences of plant walls, and contribute to a green indoor climate.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2018
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148850 (URN)10.1109/ACCESS.2018.2847440 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-06-20 Created: 2018-06-20 Last updated: 2019-08-21
    4. A Study on Visual Representations for Active Plant Wall Data Analysis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Study on Visual Representations for Active Plant Wall Data Analysis
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: DATA, E-ISSN 2306-5729, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The indoor climate is closely related to human health, well-being, and comfort. Thus, an understanding of the indoor climate is vital. One way to improve the indoor climates is to place an aesthetically pleasing active plant wall in the environment. By collecting data using sensors placed in and around the plant wall both the indoor climate and the status of the plant wall can be monitored and analyzed. This manuscript presents a user study with domain experts in this field with a focus on the representation of such data. The experts explored this data with a Line graph, a Horizon graph, and a Stacked area graph to better understand the status of the active plant wall and the indoor climate. Qualitative measures were collected with Think-aloud protocol and semi-structured interviews. The study resulted in four categories of analysis tasks: Overview, Detail, Perception, and Complexity. The Line graph was found to be preferred for use in providing an overview, and the Horizon graph for detailed analysis, revealing patterns and showing discernible trends, while the Stacked area graph was generally not preferred. Based on these findings, directions for future research are discussed and formulated. The results and future directions of this research can facilitate the analysis of multivariate temporal data, both for domain users and visualization researchers.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2019
    Keywords
    visualization; qualitative evaluation; temporal multivariate data; active plant walls, Visualisering; kvalitativ utvärdering; tidsvarierande multivariate data; active plant walls
    National Category
    Computer and Information Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157027 (URN)10.3390/data4020074 (DOI)000475303500028 ()
    Available from: 2019-05-23 Created: 2019-05-23 Last updated: 2019-08-21Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2019-09-20 09:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Carlén, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Exercise Testing in Firefighters: Work Capacity and Cardiovascular Risk Assessment in a Low-Risk Population2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Firefighting is one of the most physically demanding occupations and it requires a high cardiorespiratory fitness level.

    Pre-duty medical evaluation of firefighters includes fitness testing and assessment of cardiac health to ensure that firefighters meet the minimum physical fitness standard and to ensure that they are not at increased risk of cardiac events. The medical evaluation methods for Swedish firefighters are regulated by the Swedish Work Environment Authority and include a 6 min constant workload treadmill (TM) test for fitness evaluation in which the firefighter wears full smoke diving equipment and a maximal effort exercise electrocardiography test (ExECG) at cycle ergometer (CE) for assessment of cardiac health. Previously, fitness was also evaluated by cycle ergometry.

    The standard parameter for evaluation of ischaemic heart disease (IHD) is exercise-induced ST depression. In general, exercise testing of asymptomatic low-risk individuals is discouraged due to low sensitivity and specificity for IHD, generating both false-positive and false-negative test results. Heart rate (HR) adjustment of the ST-segment response has been shown to be superior to simple ST depression to evaluate cardiac ischaemia in some populations, but has not been extensively evaluated in an occupational setting.

    Methods. We retrospectively analysed a cohort of 774 firefighters who were asymptomatic at the time of the testing.

    In paper I, test approval, HR response, and calculated oxygen uptake from TM tests and CE tests for 424 firefighters (44±10 years) were compared.

    Paper II methodologically described the process for data extraction, processing, and calculation of ExECG data from a clinical database. Procedures for noise assessment, error checking, and computerized calculation of ST/HR parameters were described.

    In paper III, ExECG and medical records of 521 male firefighters (44±10 years) were studied. During 8.4 ± 2.1 years of follow-up, IHD was verified angiographically in 12 subjects. The predictive value of HR-adjusted ST variables (ST/HR index, ST/HR slope, and ST/HR loop) for IHD was evaluated.

    In paper IV, subjects with objectively verified IHD were excluded and factors associated with exercise-induced nonischaemic ST depression were studied in the remaining 509 males (46±11 years).

     

    Results. The firefighters had an average maximal exercise capacity of 281 ± 36 W (range 186-467 W) achieved by incremental CE exercise. To enable comparison, the maximal workload was converted to the workload sustainable for 6 min. It was more common to pass the 6 min TM fitness test but to fail the supposedly equivalent CE test rather than vice versa.

    Twenty percent of the firefighters developed an ST depression of ≥o.1 mV in at least one lead during exercise and half of the firefighters had a horizontal or downsloping ST depression. While an abnormal ST response associated with an increased risk for IHD only in V4, both an abnormal ST/HR index and an abnormal ST/HR slope associated with IHD in three leads each. Clockwise rotation of the ST/HR loop was infrequent in all precordial leads (1%), but it associated with an increased risk for IHD.

    In the subgroup without evidence of coronary artery disease, age and the HR response associated with ST depression, whereas hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, blood pressure response, and exercise capacity did not.

     

    Conclusions. Even though the calculated oxygen uptake was higher for the TM test than for the supposedly equivalent CE test, the higher treadmill approval rate may indicate that the fitness requirement for Swedish firefighters has been lowered by changing the test modality.

    Exercise-induced ST depression was common in asymptomatic physically active men, although there were only a few cases of IHD during follow-up. If performing ExECG in asymptomatic, low-risk populations, ST/HR analysis could be given more importance. However, the limited clinical value of ExECG in low-risk populations was emphasised and needs to be reconsidered.

    In asymptomatic, physically active men without coronary artery disease, false-positive ST depressions can be partially explained by HR variables rather than by common cardiovascular risk factors and blood pressure response to exercise.

    List of papers
    1. Loaded treadmill walking and cycle ergometry to assess work capacity: a retrospective comparison in 424 firefighters.
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Loaded treadmill walking and cycle ergometry to assess work capacity: a retrospective comparison in 424 firefighters.
    2017 (English)In: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging, ISSN 1475-0961, E-ISSN 1475-097X, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 37-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The fitness of firefighters is regularly evaluated using exercise tests. We aimed to compare, with respect to age and body composition, two test modalities for the assessment work capacity. A total of 424 Swedish firefighters with cycle ergometer (CE) and treadmill (TM) tests available from Jan 2004 to Dec 2010 were included. We compared results from CE (6 min at 200 W, 250 W or incremental ramp exercise) with TM (6 min at 8° inclination, 4·5 km h(-1) or faster, wearing 24-kg protective equipment). Oxygen requirements were estimated by prediction equations. It was more common to pass the TM test and fail the supposedly equivalent CE test (20%), than vice versa (0·5%), P<0·001. Low age and tall stature were significant predictors of passing both CE and TM tests (P<0·05), while low body mass predicted accomplishment of TM test only (P = 0·006). Firefighters who passed the TM but failed the supposedly equivalent CE test within 12 months had significantly lower body mass, lower BMI, lower BSA and shorter stature than did those who passed both tests. Calculated oxygen uptake was higher in TM tests compared with corresponding CE tests (P<0·001). Body constitution affected approval differently depending on the test modality. A higher approval rate in TM testing suggests lower cardiorespiratory requirements compared with CE testing, even though estimated oxygen uptake was higher during TM testing. The relevance of our findings in relation to the occupational demands needs reconsidering.

    National Category
    Sport and Fitness Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120004 (URN)10.1111/cpf.12265 (DOI)000390688200006 ()26096157 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: ALF grants; County Council of Ostergotland, Sweden; Olav Axelssons memorial fund

    Available from: 2015-07-02 Created: 2015-07-02 Last updated: 2019-08-21
    2. ST/HR variables in firefighter exercise ECG - relation to ischemic heart disease
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>ST/HR variables in firefighter exercise ECG - relation to ischemic heart disease
    2019 (English)In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 7, no 2, article id e13968Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise electrocardiography (ExECG) is regularly performed by Swedish firefighters by law. Heart rate-corrected analysis of ST segment variables (ST/HR) has shown improved prediction of ischemic heart disease (IHD) compared to ST depression alone. This has not previously been extensively studied in asymptomatic persons with a low probability of IHD. We therefore evaluated the predictive performance of ST/HR analysis in firefighter ExECG. ExECG was studied in 521 male firefighters. During 8.4 ± 2.1 years, 2.3% (n = 12) were verified with IHD by catheterization or myocardial scintigraphy (age 51.5 ± 5.5 years) and were compared with firefighters without imaging proof of IHD (44.2 ± 10.1 years). The predictive value of ST depression, ST/HR index, ST/HR slope, and area and rotation of the ST/HR loop was calculated as age-adjusted odds ratios (OR), in 10 ECG leads. Predictive accuracy was analyzed with receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. ST/HR index ≤-1.6 μV/bpm and ST/HR slope ≤-2.4 μV/bpm were associated with increased IHD risk in three individual leads (all OR > 1.0, P < 0.05). ST/HR loop area lower than the fifth percentile of non-IHD subjects indicated IHD risk in V4, V5, aVF, II, and -aVR (P < 0.05). ST depression ≤-0.1 mV was associated with IHD only in V4 (OR, 9.6, CI, 2.3-40.0). ROC analysis of each of these variables yielded areas under the curve of 0.72 or lower for all variables and leads. Clockwise-rotated ST/HR loops was associated with increased risk in most leads compared to counterclockwise rotation. The limited clinical value of ExECG in low-risk populations was emphasized, but if performed, ST/HR analysis should probably be given more importance.

    Keywords
    Electrocardiography, ST depression, ST/HR variables, low risk
    National Category
    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159752 (URN)10.14814/phy2.13968 (DOI)30688031 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2019-08-20 Created: 2019-08-20 Last updated: 2019-08-21
    3. Exercise-induced ST depression in an asymptomatic population without coronary artery disease
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exercise-induced ST depression in an asymptomatic population without coronary artery disease
    2019 (English)In: Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, ISSN 1401-7431, E-ISSN 1651-2006, Vol. 53, no 4, p. 206-212Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. Exercise electrocardiogram (ExECG) in low risk populations frequently generates false positive ST depression. We aimed to characterize factors that are associated with exercise-induced ST depression in asymptomatic men without coronary artery disease. Design. Cycle ergometer exercise tests from 509 male firefighters without imaging proof of significant coronary artery disease were analysed. Analysed test data included heart rate at rest before exercise, and workload, blood pressure, heart rate, ST depression and ST segment slope at peak exercise. ST depression of amp;gt;0.1 mV was considered significant (STdep). With a mean follow-up of 6.1 +/- 1.7 years, medical records were reviewed for cardiovascular diagnoses, hyperlipidemia and diabetes. Logistic regression analysis was used for risk assessment. Results. In total, 22% had STdep in amp;gt;= 1 lead. Subjects with STdep were older than those with normal ExECG (p amp;lt; .001). Downsloping STdep was more common in extremity leads (9%) than in precordial leads (2%). STdep was categorized according to location (precordial/extremity) and slope direction into eight categories. Larger age-adjusted heart rate increase predicted STdep in seven categories (p amp;lt; .05). Age-adjusted peak heart rate correlated with STdep in five categories, predominantly where the ST slope was positive. Peak blood pressure and exercise capacity were both associated with STdep in few categories. We found no association between STdep and hypertension, hyperlipidemia or diabetes (all p amp;gt; .05). Conclusions. In asymptomatic men with a physically demanding occupation and no coronary artery disease, both age and heart rate response were associated with ST depression, whereas common cardiovascular risk factors, blood pressure response and exercise capacity were not.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2019
    Keywords
    Stress test; false positive; electrocardiography; heart rate; ST segment deviation; firefighters; low risk
    National Category
    Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158872 (URN)10.1080/14017431.2019.1626021 (DOI)000472278700001 ()31144537 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|County Council of Ostergotland, Sweden [LIO-711261]; ALF grant [700731]

    Available from: 2019-07-15 Created: 2019-07-15 Last updated: 2019-08-21
  • Weisner, Angelica
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Does Asellus aquaticus change its pigmentation when given different types of food?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When an animal’s pigmentation matches the background across various types of environments, it is potentially an example of cryptic pigmentation, most likely as a response to natural selection by visually oriented predators. One example of cryptic pigmentation is phenotypic plasticity, meaning that an organism can exhibit different phenotypes in different environments. The freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticusliving in stands of reeds tends to have darker pigmentation than individuals living amongst lighter-coloured stoneworts, which has been suggested to result from visual predation. A recent study showed, however, that pigmentation in A. aquaticus is partly plastic, influenced by the nutritional composition in their diet. Here, I performed a laboratory experiment on A. aquaticusto see if the nutritional composition in stoneworts decreases pigmentation. Isopods were provided with a diet of either decaying leaves or stoneworts. The experiment took place over four weeks and pigmentation and growth were analysed at 0, 15 and 31 days. I found that pigmentation in A. aquaticusincreased significantly on both diets. And, there was no difference between both diets in amount of change in pigmentation. The fact that isopods that were feeding on stoneworts did not become lighter to match their background colour preferably depend on a high nutritional composition in the provided food, considering they also more than doubled their weight. In other words, phenotypic plasticity due to different diets between habitats is not the explanation to lighter coloured isopods living amongst stoneworts. However, these results do not exclude that differences can arise over a longer time or differs between different species of stoneworts. 

  • Markström, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Medarbetarundersökning som styrmedel: En kvalitativ studie om hur resultatet från en medarbetarundersökning kopplas samman med övriga styrmedel2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the report is to investigate how the results from employee survey is linked to other management control instruments in an organization. This was investigated through two research questions that concerned how this link looks and what factors may affect its priority. The report has used an inductive approach where a qualitative analysis was used to get an in-depth picture of the leaders’ perspective in the field.

    The result shows that an employee survey is one of the most important management control instruments in the organization. The results of the survey are linked to other instruments through an organizational balance where the most important instruments, including the employee survey, are interdependent. The aim of conducting the employee survey for the studied company is thus to get prosperous and productive employees, thus making the company achieve its goals. Factors that influence the prioritization of the survey are mainly how the follow-up work is done and the interval in which the surveys are performed. The departmental situation also affects how a leader chooses to prioritize the employee survey as a management control instrument.

  • Janselius, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Incitamentssystem, vägen att gå för nå motiverade medarbetare?: En flerfallsstudie om hur incitamentssystem som styrmedel upplevs av medarbetare med avseende på motivation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to motivate employees has always been an important question in all kind of companies. One way the create motivation among the employees is to use incentive systems, both monetary and non-monetary. There are no clear answers in previous theories what kind of incentive system that perceives as the most effective in terms of motivated employees. For example, some research has shown that monetary incentives such as bonus is an effective way to motivate employees in the short term, while others disagree. Accordingly, the purpose of the study is to describe and analyze how employees perceive current incentive systems in terms of motivation. To fulfill this purpose, we have done a qualitative multiple case study in two specific companies. The empirical material has been collected by interviews. The research question in the thesis is as follows:

    • How are incentive systems perceived by employees in different line of businesses in terms of motivation?

    The empirical results show that non-monetary incentives have a significant impact on employees' motivation in both case studies. Furthermore, the monetary incentives perceived important as well in both case studies, but the empirical result indicated that monetary incentives didn’t follow the same consistent thread as it did in the non-monetary incentives: one of the case study perceived the monetary incentives as more important in terms of motivation than the other. 

  • Cullberg, Adrian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Olsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Borta låg men hemma lägst: Importprisernas roll för inflationen i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots minusränta, kvantitativa lättnader och positiv BNP-tillväxt är inflationen i Sverige 2012 till 2016 närmast obefintlig. Liknande mönster visar sig i stora delar av världen där inflationen under återhämtningen efter den globala finanskrisen 2008 inte beter sig som förväntat. En anledning till den låga inflationen anses bland annat vara att ökad import från låglöneländer, med betydligt lägre prisnivåer än Sveriges, håller tillbaka den svenska inflationen. På global nivå visar forskning att inflationsdynamiken ändras efter den globala finanskrisen och att inflationens känslighet för olika förklaringsvariabler, inklusive importpriserna, ändrar sig. I vissa studier uppvisar importpriserna till och med ett negativt samband med inflationen efter finanskrisen. Syftet med uppsatsen är därför att undersöka hur importpriserna påverkar inflationen och om importprisernas effekt på inflationen ändras efter finanskrisen.

    För att utreda huruvida importpriser faktiskt påverkar inflationen och i vilken grad detta sker ställer vi med hjälp av månadsdata över förväntad inflation och arbetslöshetsgap upp en modell baserad på Phillipssambandet som vi utökar med importpriser. Vi kommer fram till att importpriserna har en effekt på inflationen och att sambandet är positivt under hela mätperioden. Våra resultat visar att importpriserna är en viktig del av inflationen; under perioden 2017 till 2018 består inflationen till en tredjedel av ökningen i importpriserna. För att undersöka om sambandet förändras i återhämtningsfasen efter finanskrisen introduceras en indikatorvariabel för finanskrisen och en för år 2012 och framåt. Trots tidigare studier som visar på en förändrad effekt av importpriserna efter den globala finanskrisen så finner vi ingen förändring av effekten i och med, eller efter, finanskrisen.

  • Friberg, Marc
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Examining the Effects of Stress on Tourniquet Application in a Layperson and Professional Civilian Population2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, approximately 3000 people die as the result of physical trauma in Sweden (Gedeborg, Chen, Thiblin, & Byberg, 2012). Many of these deaths occurs outside of the hospital and are preventable, including some caused by hemorrhage. One hemorrhage control device is the tourniquet which can be used in a civilian pre-hospital setting. The effects of stress on a laypersons tourniquet application ability is unknown and to date only one study have examined the effects of stress on tourniquet application in a military population (Schreckengaust, Littlejohn, & Zarow, 2014). The purpose of this study was to investigate how the performance of two first aid interventions, tourniquet application and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), is affected by stress in immediate (layperson) and first (professional) responders. A total of 55 participants followed a brief educational program about hemorrhage control. Their ability to apply a tourniquet and perform CPR was tested in a calm classroom scenario and a stressful scenario, which consisted of paintball fire and an obstacle course. Stress was assessed through subjective reports of stress, physiological heart rate and heart rate variability measurements, and subjective workload and with a secondary task. The results showed differences of elicited stress reaction between the conditions and groups. Tourniquet and CPR performance was moderately affected by stress. Participants across all groups experienced more stress reactions during the stressful scenario, and laypersons did experience more stress reactions than professional first responders. In conclusion, the method did make participants experience more stress reactions in terms of psychological, physiological and performance adaptations in the stressful scenario. However, the results need to be replicated and a list of suggested improvements are given, such as: examining the fidelity of the scenarios, validating the tourniquet application assessment method, and examining the relationship between tourniquet application performance and self-assessed performance.

  • Mrad, Mona
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Transfer Printing and Cellulose Based substrates for modern Textile Printing2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digital printing technology is a technique that has been growing since the 1990s and has a high growth potential when it comes to using different ink types and transfer printing techniques. In comparison to screen printing, digital transfer printing techniques have shown to consume less ink and water and are therefore considered to be a more environmentally friendly alternative for textile printing. Therefore, a digital printing technique called sublimation transfer printing was studied in this thesis. In a sublimation transfer printing process, an image is printed on a paper and then the image is transferred to a textile by using heat and pressure. Suitable coating of the paper surface has shown to improve the printing properties on the paper and therefore the paper samples used in the thesis were coated with three different coating formulas. The coating formulas used in this thesis were polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) of a type A, PVOH A with ground calcium carbonate (GCC) and PVOH type B with GCC. PVOH A has a higher degree of hydrolysis than PVOH B. Results showed that there was no significant difference between optical densities between textiles and paper samples of different coat weights and coating formulas. The colour bleeding and colour penetration decreased in the printed paper samples for PVOH A + GCC and PVOH B + GCC when the coat weight increased, and the porosity of the coating decreased to some extent. As a conclusion, paper samples coated with PVOH A + GCC with coat weights above 15 g/m2 showed to give the best properties since the colour bleeding was minimal in those printed coated paper samples.

  • Carlén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Åström Aneq, Meriam
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Gustafsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    ST/HR variables in firefighter exercise ECG - relation to ischemic heart disease2019In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 7, no 2, article id e13968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise electrocardiography (ExECG) is regularly performed by Swedish firefighters by law. Heart rate-corrected analysis of ST segment variables (ST/HR) has shown improved prediction of ischemic heart disease (IHD) compared to ST depression alone. This has not previously been extensively studied in asymptomatic persons with a low probability of IHD. We therefore evaluated the predictive performance of ST/HR analysis in firefighter ExECG. ExECG was studied in 521 male firefighters. During 8.4 ± 2.1 years, 2.3% (n = 12) were verified with IHD by catheterization or myocardial scintigraphy (age 51.5 ± 5.5 years) and were compared with firefighters without imaging proof of IHD (44.2 ± 10.1 years). The predictive value of ST depression, ST/HR index, ST/HR slope, and area and rotation of the ST/HR loop was calculated as age-adjusted odds ratios (OR), in 10 ECG leads. Predictive accuracy was analyzed with receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. ST/HR index ≤-1.6 μV/bpm and ST/HR slope ≤-2.4 μV/bpm were associated with increased IHD risk in three individual leads (all OR > 1.0, P < 0.05). ST/HR loop area lower than the fifth percentile of non-IHD subjects indicated IHD risk in V4, V5, aVF, II, and -aVR (P < 0.05). ST depression ≤-0.1 mV was associated with IHD only in V4 (OR, 9.6, CI, 2.3-40.0). ROC analysis of each of these variables yielded areas under the curve of 0.72 or lower for all variables and leads. Clockwise-rotated ST/HR loops was associated with increased risk in most leads compared to counterclockwise rotation. The limited clinical value of ExECG in low-risk populations was emphasized, but if performed, ST/HR analysis should probably be given more importance.

  • Högberg Mårder, Thérèse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering.
    Modelling breast cancer pathology reports using SNOMED CT and openEHR2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a longer-living population and an increase in cancer incidence the health care’s workload has increased over the past decade. The treatment process of a cancer patient is dependant on clinical information collected and communicated from the pathology department. With a standardised and structured pathology report the information communicated can become easier to interpret and will fa- cilitate the search for important parameters.

    This master thesis aims to develop a template prototype to replace four static free-text templates used in the area of breast cancer pathology at the pathology department at Region Östergötland. The end product was intends to store docu- mented information in a structured manner through structured data, in order to obtain semantic interoperability.

    Semantic interoperability means that different systems are able to communicate with each other in such a way that the information is handled and interpreted equally by the systems. By using certain standards such as openEHR archetypes and SNOMED CT concepts, the data becomes uniform and unambiguous. When that is achieved, information can be sent more easily between systems such as patient health data if an individual moves between different cities where the hos- pitals have different medical records systems.

    The result of the master thesis is a single template that incorporates all the parts from the four static templates currently used at Region Östergötland. To avoid a large and cumbersome template for the end-user the template is built with con- ditions that changed the appearance of the template while it is being filled in, making it dynamic.

  • Mo Eriksson, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Dunström, Hampus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Measuring Architectural Degeneration: In Systems Written in the Interpreted Dynamically Typed Multi-Paradigm Language Python2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Architectural degeneration is an ever-present threat to software systems with no exception based on the domain or tools used. This thesis focus on the architectural degeneration in systems written in multi-paradigm run-time evaluated languages like Python. The focus on Python in this kind of investigation is to our knowledge the first of its kind; thus the thesis investigates if the methods for measuring architectural degeneration also applies to run-time evaluated languages like Python as believed by other researchers. Whom in contrast to our research have only researched this phenomenon in systems written in compiled languages such as Java, C, C++ and C#. In our research a tool PySmell has been developed to recover architectures and identify the presence of architectural smells in a system. PySmell has been used and evaluated on three different projects Django, Flask and PySmell itself. The results of PySmell are promising and of great interest but in need of further investigating and fine-tuning to reach the same level as the architectural recovery tools available for compiled languages. The thesis presents the first step into this new area of detecting architectural degeneration in interpreted languages, revealing issues such as that of extracting dependencies and how that may affect the architectural smell detection.

  • Tandberg, Tandberg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Magnusson, Elliot
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Dahlin, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Johansson, Isabelle
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Papalelas Kantola, Philip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Hansson, Wilhelm
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Köhler, William
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Navigerbar e-handel för äldre2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An estimated 46% of the Swedish population above the age of 75 never uses Internet, and one of the main reasons is experienced complicated and hard to understand technology [1]. The purpose of this study was to investigate how an e-commerce website can be developed which is percieved as navigable by elderly users. Theory and guidelines about usability were used to guide the creation of enkelhandel.se, which improved its usability through-out the study with the help of iterative testing on elderly users. Metrics used to measure usability included time to complete a specific onsite task and satisfaction with the shopping experience. Experienced usability was measured with qualitative response from test users and the time taken for test users to complete given tasks. The results of this study suggest that by changing factors of the user experience, the perceived usability with focus on navigability of an e-commerce could be improved for elderly users. The biggest changes included the use of a linear navigational structure in place of the traditional hierarchical structure and removal of the scroll function in favor of a vertical swipe function.

  • Alkhalil, Mohamad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Effect of eWOM on consumers purchasing decision making process2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People in the past were trying to get information through libraries, magazines or marketing agencies that were created specifically to attract consumers. In the age of the Internet people have been able to communicate with each other around the world after it was one-way communication in the pre-Internet age. Two-way communication has led to the creation of a product purchase website that encourages people to share and publish their views. Today, people looking for the best and most satisfying purchase option that makes multiple alternatives available. Online reviews can increase or decrease the life of these alternatives in the decision-making process. Due to the importance of online reviews in a person's decision, this study aims to investigate and evaluate how and whether online reviews affect the person's decision-making process. The problem is mainly about people's opinion of online reviews, and why they use them, the impact of the electronic word of mouth versus the word of mouth, to what extent online reviews are used to make potential decisions for consumers. In order to obtain the results of the study, focus group were conducted with four of semi-structured interviews.  In order to obtain the results of the study, interviews were conducted with the focus group as well as a number of semi-structured interviews. The results showed the dominance of online reviews of a person's decision. Study participants believe that it is good to rely on online reviews to obtain information, while at the same time believing that these reviews do not affect the final outcome but can affect the details of the product or service to be purchased.

  • Onkhaw, Yata
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Fedorova, Natalia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Cross-cultural Comunication in International Organizations2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: While the multinational teams consisting of members from different nationalities,backgrounds and cultures have advantages of diversity in the workplace, the differencesbetween team members can also pose the challenges. Our study focuses on InformationTechnology (IT) project teams in organizations located in Sweden. The rapid growth oftechnology and IT sector, increasing demand in IT professionals, and the knowledge ofwriting universal code allow people to work internationally regardless of citizenship.Therefore, the workforce in the IT sector is rapidly growing and diversifying — it ischaracterized by teams consisting of different nationalities. However, these differences incultures, languages and nationalities can complicate the communication processes betweenthe team members. Therefore, efficient cross-cultural communication within a team isessential for team collaboration and performance.

    Purpose: The study aims to find the significant issues in the process of adaptation to the newculturally diverse environment faced by immigrant professionals in IT project teams. Thestudy mainly focuses on an individual level, consequently expanding it to a collective level,as the related challenges refer to collaboration among the team members.

    Method: The study was conducted by interviewing immigrant professionals who have beenworking in IT project teams in the companies, located in Sweden. The participants belong tosix different nationalities and have worked in Sweden for approximately 2-8 years. They areall male aged between 30-33 years old. After the interviews, we can present findings, whichdemonstrate the points of similarity and difference.

    Conclusion: Technology, which is a significant factor in IT projects, constantly changes, andtherefore, IT project teams that work with innovation require high adaptability to explore newopportunities. That makes effective coordination and communication essential. In theculturally diverse team, managers should manage global mindset and cultural intelligence forindividuals to help team members in adaptation process. Cross-cultural training should beprovided to the migrant professionals in the team to avoid miscommunication based oncultural differences, hence overcoming challenges.

  • Björk, Kim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engdahl, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    På vilka sätt kan lärare hjälpa elever i matematiksvårigheter?: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are opportunities for students in mathematical difficulties to reach the school’s requirements in mathematics if theyreceive help in form of effective interventions. Therefore, it is of intrest to investigate which teaching methods areinlcluded in effective interventions.The questions for this literature study are:• In what ways can teachers support students in mathematical difficulties?o What teaching methods have shown to be beneficial for students in mathematical difficulties?o What forms of representation do teachers use to support students in mathematical difficulties?• How does teaching methods and reprepresentations influence the mathematical abilities of students?The result shows that effective inteventions include verbal and written instructions (using visual support), computersupport, laboratory teaching and self-assessment, as well as various combinations of the mentioned interventions. Theeffectiveness of an intervention is measured by means of effect size. All articles included in this literature study have inmeta-analyzes been considered to have a large effect size.

  • Wahlgren, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Kraft, Billy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Kategorisering och energikartläggning av flerbostadshus byggda 1945 eller tidigare: En analys av energieffektiviseringspotentialen hos historiska byggnader i Vasastaden, Linköping2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased energy usage and its affect on the environment the European Union (EU) has issued climate and environment goals which will oversee countries energy saving potential. These goals focus on several areas including the energy usage within buildings. The purpose of this thesis is to categorize and analyze the energy saving potential for buildings constructed 1945 or earlier. The building stock in focus consists of 73 apartment buildings in Vasastaden, Linköping. The buildings were all chosen with Boverket’s database within building characteristics GRIPEN. The method consisted of stocktaking via location visits, categorizing and performing simulations on the buildings. The fictive buildings were based on the categorized building stock. They were modelled and simulated with the help of IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE). With the results of the energy usage a greater understanding of energy saving potential was obtained.

    The result of the categorization displayed that typical buildings in Vasastaden are buildings out of brick, fully detached (no adjoining walls), specifically with 3 floors. The fictive buildings have an calculated energy usage of 102-144 kWh/m2,year and have an energy saving potential within ranges of 17-41% compared to the building regulations set by Boverket (BBR). The building stock obtained an calculated energy usage of 804-3 515 MWh/m2,year.

    GRIPEN displayed several inaccuracies compared with the collected data from the location visits which proves that more frequent updates in databases such as GRIPEN are of high significance.

  • Lewenhaupt, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Optimizing the Number of Time-steps Used in Option Pricing2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Calculating the price of an option commonly uses numerical methods and can becomputationally heavy. In general, longer computations result in a more precisresult. As such, improving existing models or creating new models have been thefocus in the research field. More recently the focus has instead shifted towardcreating neural networks that can predict the price of a given option directly.This thesis instead studied how the number of time-steps parameter can beoptimized, with regard to precision of the resulting price, and then predict theoptimal number of time-steps for other options. The number of time-stepsparameter determines the computation time of one of the most common models inoption pricing, the Cox-Ross-Rubinstein model (CRR). Two different methodsfor determining the optimal number of time-steps were created and tested. Bothmodels use neural networks to learn the relationship between the input variablesand the output. The first method tried to predict the optimal number oftime-steps directly. The other method instead tried to predict the parameters ofan envelope around the oscillations of the option pricing method. It wasdiscovered that the second method improved the performance of the neuralnetworks tasked with predicting the optimal number of time-steps. It was furtherdiscovered that even though the best neural network that was found significantlyoutperformed the benchmark method, there was no significant difference incalculation times, most likely because the range of log moneyness and pricesthat were used. It was also noted that the neural network tended tounderestimate the parameter and that might not be a desirable property of asystem in charge of estimating a price in the financial sector.

  • Sten, Sofie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Rättsliga aspekter av arbetstagarens privata elanvändning på arbetsplatsen: Mot bakgrund av ett ökat antal elfordon2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den tekniska utvecklingen har gjort oss alltmer beroende av tillgången på el, inte minst när vi väljer att färdas med elbil eller elcykel. El kan med hänsyn till sina säregna egenskaper inte utan vidare kategoriseras som fast eller lös egendom. Mycket talar för att ett funktionalistiskt synsätt som ger vid handen att el, mer precist själva rätten att använda el, är lös egendom. Oavsett egendomsklassificeringen kostar elanvändning pengar. Den arbetstagare som använder sin arbetsgivares el för att ladda ett elfordon åsamkar således arbetsgivaren en kostnad.

    I relation till arbetsgivaren är arbetstagaren skyldig att vara lojal, vilket följer av den okodifierade men väl etablerade principen om lojalitetsplikt. Lojalitetsplikten innebär att arbetstagaren ska värna om arbetsgivarens namn, egendom och intressen och avhålla sig från sådant beteende som kan skada arbetsgivaren. I uppsatsen konstateras att det finns fler skäl som talar förän motatt det skulle utgöra ett lojalitetsbrott att ladda sitt elfordon på arbetsgivarens bekostnad. Den arbetstagare som begår ett lojalitetsbrott riskerar att bli uppsagd, avskedad eller skadeståndsskyldig. Respektive sanktion kräver iakttagande av ett antal faktorer och sannolikheten att bli uppsagd eller avskedad på grund av att ha laddat sitt elfordon på jobbet är mycket låg, förutsatt att arbetsgivaren inte har reglerat frågan explicit. Sannolikheten att råka ut för sanktioner har visat sig vara låg även i Tyskland. Enligt tysk arbetsrättspraxis är den tyska motsvarigheten till avsked, “außerordentlicher Kündigung”, en oproportionerlig sanktion när arbetstagaren har laddat sitt elfordon på arbetsplatsen. I övrigt framkommer inga avsevärda skillnader mellan svensk och tysk rätt vad gäller arbetstagarens skyldigheter gentemot sin arbetsgivare och arbetsgivarens sanktionsmöjligheter. Möjligtvis anas ett strängare synsätt i tysk rätt med avseende på “min och din” egendom. I Tyskland är det nämligen ett brott att använda någon annans eluttag med uppsåt att tillägna sig el.

    Om det uppstår en sak-eller personskada till följd av att arbetstagaren laddar ett elfordon på arbetsplatsen kommer sannolikt arbetsgivaren att få betala för skadan. Detta följer av det s.k. kallade principalansvaret, vilket förutsätter att laddningen kanan ses ha skett i tjänsten. Mot bakgrund av förarbetsuttalanden samt vad arbetsgivaren erfarenhetsmässigt har att förutse anses så vara fallet. Som arbetsgivare är det möjligt att genom proaktiva åtgärder hantera många men inte alla risker som är förenade med att ha arbetstagare i sin tjänst. I uppsatsen framkommer att arbetsgivarens möjlighet att hantera de kostnader och skaderisker som arbetstagarens privata elanvänding är förenat med består i att utfärda ensidiga arbetsgivarregleringar i form av policies. Den arbetsgivare som vill specifikt reglera kostnaden har möjlighet att göra ett schablonmässigt avdrag på arbetstagarens lön.

  • Lundgren Lodetti, Mathilda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Log-diversity and abundance of dead wood dependent bracket fungi and bryophytes, a comparison between spruce woodland key habitats and adjacent production forests in Östergötland, Sweden.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dead wood in forests are essential habitat for a wide range of fungal, insects, lichens and bryophyte species. The main threat to dead wood dependent species is lack of substrate, which aggravates their ability to reach and colonize a new substrate. Inventories of woodland key habitats (WKHs) is a method to map forests with high biological value in Sweden, and these areas may benefit dead wood dependent species. The aim of this study was to compare spruce dominated WKHs with adjacent production spruce forests (APFs), regarding (1) log diversity, (2) log characteristics and (3) abundance of selected species on logs. The study was conducted in Östergötland County in Sweden, seven spruce WKHs (≥ 60% spruce) and seven APFs of three different types (two clear-cuts, two dominated by trees < 20 cm and three dominated by trees > 20 cm) were investigated. Data of eight wood dependent species (three bryophytes and five bracket fungi), log diversity, six log characteristics and two environmental factors were collected. In a total area of 4.27 ha, 210 logs (105 logs in WKH and APF each) were studied and the results show that there were significantly higher amount of coarse logs, distribution area of species, number of logs/ha, diameter, decay class and humidity inside WKHs compared with APFs. The total distribution area of species was approximately 85% larger in WKHs. Bark cover was slightly less in WKHs and sun exposure was significantly higher and humidity was lower in clear-cuts. According to the current study, WKHs are important for conservation of wood depending species due to the higher amount and diversity of coarse dead wood. Furthermore, it is necessary to put aside larger amount of coarse dead wood inside production forests, together with changed logging techniques to increase the suitable substrate for dead wood dependent species.

  • Lindqvist, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Weurlander, Maria
    Department of Learning in Engineering Sciences, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wernerson, Annika
    CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Boundaries as a coping strategy: emotional labour and relationship maintenance in distressing teacher education situations2019In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTStudent teachers have to cope with distressing emotions during teacher education. Coping is important in relation to both attrition and bridging the gap between being a student teacher and starting work. The data consist of semi-structured interviews with 25 student teachers, which were analysed using a constructivist grounded theory framework. The aim of the current study was to examine student teachers? perspectives on distressing situations during teacher education, as well as how boundaries were established as a way of coping with emotions related to these situations. The findings show that the student teachers? main concern was to make sense of the imbalance between resources and the demands placed by distressing situations. As a coping strategy, student teachers established professional boundaries linked to emotional labour and relationship maintenance.

  • Syssner, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Varför längtar vi till skogen?2018Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    VARFÖR LÄNGTAR VI TILL SKOGEN? är en bildsvit och en samling röster om skogen. Här förenas längtan efter fjällskogar, myrmarker och nordisk blandskog med längtan efter lugn och stillhet, samhörighet och frihet, rörelseglädje, adrenalin och arbetsvilja. I boken ger jägare, skogsbrukare, orienterare, naturguider och andra med skogen i hjärtat sina personliga perspektiv på just skog. Josefina Syssner fångar skogens mångfald och föränderlighet i enkla och stundtals naivistiska teckningar i blyerts och tusch.

    JOSEFINA SYSSNER är forskare och författare. Hon har gett ut tre monografier, varit redaktör för sex antologier och publicerat en lång rad vetenskapliga artiklar och rapporter. Syssner har varit forskningsledare i flera stora forskningsprojekt och är en flitigt anlitad föreläsare. Hennes forskning handlar framförallt om lokal utveckling, politik och planering och om landsbygdens framtid. I den här boken publicerar hon för första gången ut en del av sin omfattande bildproduktion - en bildsvit om skogen i blyerts och tusch.

  • Persson Proos, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Enabling Digital Twins: A comparative study on messaging protocols and serialization formats for Digital Twins in IoV2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the trade-offs between latency and transmitted data volume in vehicle-to-cloud communication for different choices of application layer messaging protocols and binary serialization formats are studied. This is done with the purpose of getting enough performance improvement to enable delay-sensitive Intelligent Transport System (ITS) features, and to reduce data usage in mobile networks. The studied protocols are Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP), Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) and Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT), and the serialization formats studied are Protobuf and Flatbuffers.  The results show that CoAP — the only User Datagram Protocol (UDP) based protocol — has the lowest latency and overhead while not being able to guarantee reliable transfer. The best performer that can guarantee reliable transfer is MQTT. For the serialization formats, Protobuf is shown to have three times smaller serialized message size than Flatbuffers and also faster serialization speed. Flatbuffers is the winner in the case of memory use and deserialization time, which could make up for the poor performance in other aspects of data processing in the cloud. Further, the implications of these results in ITS communication are discussed suggestions made into future research topics.

  • Lind, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En kvalitativ explorativ studie för framtagande av lämplig funktionalitet hos internettjänster för behandling av social ångest2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En tanke som ligger till grund för denna studie är de svårigheter som en person med social ångest kan ha inför att söka hjälp hos en kurator eller terapeut, detta då hjälpsökandet i sig kan innebära en stor social utmaning. Ett potentiellt sätt att närma sig en lösning till detta är användandet av olika former av digitala hjälpmedel, som kan tillgås av vem som helst som har tillgång till mobil eller dator, som kan agera som ett underlättande steg till att exempelvis bättre förstå sina problem och söka och hitta hjälp via internet. Denna kvalitativa studie ämnar utforska behov, erfarenheter och åsikter kring behandling av social ångest i koppling till internetanvändning utifrån perspektivet hos dem som upplever social ångest, genom tematisk analys av enkätsvar. Således uppfylls syftet bakom studien som är att lägga en grund för hur internettjänster kan utformas på lämpligt sätt för att möjliggöra och underlätta behandling för personer med social ångest/fobi. Det studien ämnar besvara är; vilka tjänster och funktioner på internet för behandling av social ångest är behövda och efterfrågade och vilka problem och frågeställningar behöver i sin tur lösas och besvaras för att dessa tjänster och funktioner ska göras tillgängliga? Den slutliga tematiska analysen visar sammanfattningsvis att det bland personer med sociala svårigheter kan finnas ett behov och efterfrågan gällande möjligheter till förbättrad digital vårdkontakt, att man som person med sociala svårigheter överlag har en positiv inställning till olika former av chatt och samtal i behandlings- och stödsyfte via internet och att olika former av individanpassningar av internetförmedlade behandlingar efter en individs unika behov och mål kan vara ett lämpligt sätt att hitta rätt behandling. Vidare uppstår nya spår för framtida forskning och utredningar som kan vara intressanta utifrån studiens resultat; att pröva olika varianter och mäta effekt av individanpassad vård förmedlad via internet, utreda hur man kan skapa förbättrad (säker) digital vårdkontakt samt utreda hur innovativa effektiva behandlingslösningar bättre kan nå ut till den som efterfrågar den.

  • Castillo Ellström, Oskar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Andersson, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    A Guideline for Conducting Form Analysis of Branded Products: The Development of a Design Guideline Framework for Product-Producing Companies in a Brand Management Context2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the research and development of a framework for creating design guidelines, aimed towards product-producing companies as a part of a brand extension strategy. The thesis answers two research questions:

    RQ1: What strategies could be used to analyze visual form and product design as a part of a brand extension strategy for a product-producing company?

    RQ2: How can an existing visual brand identity be utilized during the product development process and redefined for new product categories?

    The thesis is divided into a literature review and a case application of the presented theories on a real-world product development process. The literature review includes three central frameworks. Firstly, a theoretical framework including theories regarding brand management, product design and form, design syntactics and product architecture is introduced. The theoretical framework also includes product modularity which is specifically included for the case application. These theories are used to create a form analysis framework, which is the second element of the literature review. The third element of the literature review is a framework for how to create design guidelines, based on explicit and implicit design features. The design guideline framework is built from insights and theories found in literature used throughout the literature review.

    The case application focuses on the development of a new concept and design guidelines for a modular Autonomous Mobile Robot (AMR) for a case company. The case application utilizes the created theoretical frameworks for a real-world product development process. The created concept envisions the visual brand language of the case company, while also serving as the foundation for the design guideline development.

    The form analysis framework is used to understand product design and form on already existing products within a product category. A total of six analyses are introduced, all with their own respective focus on different fields of study and area of application. The form analysis framework investigates three areas of application: Internal and external factors as well as the existing product family of a company. Applying the form analysis framework to the case show that these methods are suitable for analyzing the visual form of products.

    By examining the internal factors of the case company, such as analyzing existing products and prior design guidelines, a format for key design principles can be created. Based on these design principles and insights from the form analysis, the visual brand identity can be transferred to a new product category and described through redefined design guidelines. Findings show that certain design features, such as color and usage of logotype, are the most suitable for acting as identity carriers. Utilizing these can bring cohesiveness to a product portfolio. It can be concluded that the use of explicit and implicit design features is a viable way to holistically describe and articulate product design.

  • Ihs Håkansson, Ellinor
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Hur kan en chatbot implementeras som ett hjälpmedel för supporttekniker?: En förstudie för att undersöka möjligheten att implementera en chatbot i en industriell verksamhet.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det projekt som beskriv i denna uppsats är att undersökta möjligheterna med att implementera en chatbot i Siemens verksamhet. Fokuset för chatboten skulle vara att den på något sätt skulle implementeras som ett hjälpmedel för supportteknikerna på Siemens. Supportteknikerna arbetar dygnet runt med kundärenden som kommer in rörande deras maskiner. Därmed behöver supportteknikerna ibland hitta dokumentation och information kring dessa maskiner för att kunna ge rekommendationer till kund om hur det eventuella problemet ska lösas. I denna studie gjordes en litteraturundersökning kring chatbotar i allmänhet, tekniken kring chatbotar idag och hur en chatbot bör designas. Dessutom genomfördes en datainsamling i form av kontextuella intervjuer som sedan strukturerades till ett affinitetsdiagram. Detta affinitetsdiagram var i sin tur grunden för den persona och det kontextscenario som skapades. Affinitetsdiagrammet och de kontextuella intervjuerna beskrivs i mer detalj i arbetet skrivet av Linn Olsson (2019). Utifrån personan, kontextscenariot, affinitetsdiagrammet samt bakgrundslitteraturen skapades en uppsättning krav. Dessa var krav kring hur chatboten skulle se ut och fungera. Det som eftersöktes mest var något som kopplade samman alla system de använde sig av för att hitta information kring de olika maskinerna, samt en enklare sökfunktion för att hitta specifik dokumentation kring ett visst taggnamn. Kraven blev sedan poängsatta och prioriterade av supporttekniker på Siemens. De prioriterade kraven var utgångspunkten i designandet av en prototyp av en chatbot. Detta implementerades sedan i en interaktiv prototyp. Den prototyp som skapades är ett första utkast på hur en chatbot skulle kunna se ut för just uppgiften att hitta specifik information. Denna uppgift var som tidigare nämnts något de uttryckte sig vara i störst behov av. Detta förslag på användningsområde för en chatbot i Siemens system hade troligtvis underlättat supportteknikernas arbete i ganska stor grad. Det minskar tiden de lägger på att försöka hitta informationen så att de snabbare kan lösa kundärenden. Det här visar på att det finns möjligheter att implementera en chatbot i deras system. Dock krävs ytterligare undersökningar kring exakt vad för information supportteknikerna vill åt, samt hur det ska möjliggöras att de kan få tag på denna information, för att kunna implementera en chatbot. Dessutom skulle de behöva undersöka fler uppgifter som denna chatbot skulle vara användningsbar för. Detta för att chatboten får ett större användningsområde och kan på så vis få en större avgränsning från att likna en begränsad sökmotor. På så vis skulle detta vara ytterligare argument för att en chatbot bör implementeras.

  • Johansson, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Sjöholm, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    User Preferences of Application Attributes During Product Browsing: An Investigation of Customer Experience in Fashion E-Commerce2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a fast-changing retail environment, including hard competition and demanding consumers, the customer experience of the purchasing service is crucial to gain a competitive advantage. Since consumers are to some extent moving from offline to online, and from desktop shopping to purchasing clothing in a mobile application, there is a need for investigating consumers expectations of their experience of a mobile application. The existing and performance of attributes and functions determines the satisfaction of the user experience, which is why it is reasonable to investigate expectations concerning attributes.

    The finding and classification of quality attributes in mobile applications in the fashion industry was the main goal of this thesis. Attributes were found using a qualitative study including 16 interviews, where respondents field tested already existing applications. The reasonability to further investigate these attributes was confirmed by a literature research. After finding 35 relevant attributes, these were investigated and analysed using the Theory of Attractive Quality and a 5-level Kano questionnaire.

    The analysis was conducted using the Theory of Attractive Quality, classifying attributes according to the Kano chart of evaluation. Further, each attribute was analysed using tools such as better/worse diagrams and self-stated importance values. The classification results from the questionnaire were that “Choose product size” was categorised as Must-Be, “Loading speed” as One-Dimensional, eight quality attributes were combinations of classifications, and 25 were classified as Indifferent. A number of 510 respondents answered the questionnaire.

    The classification of attributes implies that customers are rather indifferent to attributes during their shopping experience. However, further analysis concludes that even though many attributes are classified as Indifferent, many attributes need to be considered, according to the better/worse values and diagrams, which are useful regarding resource allocation.

    According to the classification and better/worse diagrams, one can distinguish a difference between genders: male respondents proved to be more indifferent to their shopping experience than females. Analysis of the data also shows a difference between age groups. The two youngest age groups including respondents born in 1990-1994 and 1995-2000, had higher better and worse values, implying that younger people expect more from their shopping user experience.

    Conclusively, this report resulted in an overview of consumers’ expectations regarding their experience when shopping in a fashion mobile application. The Theory of Attractive Quality is a useful method when measuring perceived and expected quality; however, each investigative occasion demands different method setup, adjusting for specific attribute types, as well as business. Some improvements can be made regarding the Theory of Attractive Quality, increasing the chances of a better result.

  • Eskilsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Magnuson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Åtgärder för en effektivare intern materialförsörjning: Genomlysning av förbättringsområden för lager till slutmontering av gruvmaskiner med fördjupning inom frekvensläggning – en studie vid Epiroc Rock Drills AB2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Epiroc has had a long period of strong growth, where several efficiency projects have been implemented to increase production volume in order to meet market demand. A variant of Lean production has been implemented over several years – called The Way We Produce by Epiroc. A large part of that change has been the implementation of sequenced flow-oriented assembly with just-in-time sequenced material deliveries to the assembly floor. This, in turn, has increased the requirements for the warehouse Logistic Center (LC) and management has now begun to investigate ways to improve efficiency at LC. Hence, the aim of the study is to develop realistic improvement proposals for the logistics operations at Logistics Center of Epiroc Rock Drills AB at Örebro to increase efficiency and delivery reliability.

    The study has been conducted in two phases; the identification phase and the in-depth phase. During the identification phase, a mapping of the current situation in LC was carried out, where the basis for the survey is based on interviews, observations and analyzes. Through a root cause analysis, with the goal of finding sources of inefficiency, nine areas of improvement could be identified, one of which would be chosen for further investigation in the in-depth phase. The areas of improvement were evaluated with an effect-input matrix to choose the area of improvement that provides the greatest efficiency potential in relation to the expected effort. The analysis model for the effect-input matrix was the eight wastes of Lean based on Petersson et al. (2015), its expected impact on efficiency and the expected complexity of an implementation. The result of the root cause analysis gave article classification as the primary area of improvement, where the measure is an alternative slotting strategy to minimize the movement time between storage locations.

    During the in-depth phase, the current article classification and frequency setting were examined by synthesis of an alternative model for the classification of articles and storage locations based on an in-depth literature study. To investigate whether an alternative classification can increase efficiency, an evaluation model was developed that models the movement time from historical data from pick lists. It was used to test which combination of sizes for the article classes gave the smallest possible total movement time. A combination of 60/30/10% (A/B/C) gave the lowest total movement time for a picking history of 15 months with a reduction corresponding to 33% (1760 h) compared to the current situation. Furthermore, an alternative sorting of the pick lists for the vertical lift modules and pallet racking was examined with the evaluation model, which gave a reduction of 4% and 11% respectively. Finally, various forms for the zones were examined for the classification of storage locations in pallet rack W3, where the delivery site is located three-quarter way into the pallet rack. A center of gravity for the for the A-class placed between the entrance and the delivery point gave the best simulation result.

    In summary, the article classification improvement area was established with the greatest realizable efficiency potential with the least effort based on the root cause analysis. Epiroc is recommended to implement the classification model with three classes of size 60/30/10 % (A/B/C) of the accumulated number of picking rows, and to implement that alternative sorting of pick rows on picklists for pallet racking.

  • Bennet, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Bergmark, William
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Claesson, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Holte, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Järvinen, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Svenska hushålls fosforfotavtryck2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus is a vital element that is currently being consumed in an unsustainable manner. The element is crucial to humanity's food supply systems. In this study, the amount of phosphorus required to meet an average Swedish household's annual consumption was calculated. The method for the report was based on a literature study along with calculations. The data collection was structured into five categories and 15 subcategories, each representing an influx of phosphorus to Swedish households. The study found that, based on these subcategories, the total phosphorus footprint for Swedish households' annual consumption is 16.36 kg. Food consumption accounts for the largest proportion of this footprint and amounts to 14.23 kg. Wool is the subcategory for which the highest concentration of phosphorus is consumed for each weight unit. Wool consumes about 0.43 kg of phosphorus for every kg of product. The report also examines and discusses various scenarios for how much phosphorus that could be saved if Swedish households were to follow a certain type of diet. Furthermore, a comparison was made between the phosphorus footprint of this report and other studies. The Swedish household's phosphorus footprint in this report is considerably higher than the corresponding phosphorus footprint in other studies. It is therefore important to consider the different definitions that the different studies use for their respective phosphorus footprint.

  • Jarnehammar, Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    DNA sampling using different tissues from the butterfly species Vanessa cardui2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental challenge to prevent species from going extinct is difficult but of grave importance. Halting species from going extinct minimizes the loss of biodiversity. One way of researching biodiversity is by studying species on a genetic level. This creates a dilemma as studying species genetically often requires using destructive sampling and is not desirable or even allowed when studying threatened species. Thus, there is a necessity for alternate sampling methods. In this study both non-lethal and lethal methods were used to gather tissues from the butterfly species Vanessa cardui. The DNA extractions turned out to give varying amounts of DNA, but it was successfully extracted from all the different tissue types. Amplifiable DNA was successfully gained using PCR and confirmed using gel electrophoresis. Existing and newly designed primers for multi-copy genes were used and several of them gave amplifiable DNA. Even if amplifiable DNA has been obtained in other studies, using various tissues, it turned out to only work with a live butterfly’s body in this study.

  • Isaksson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    The impact of the antidepressant fluoxetine on personality traits in the isopod Asellus aquaticus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals that end up in our aquatic environment continue to increase. In recent years, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) have increased in usage as it is considered safer than other substances to treat depression.  Fluoxetine (Prozac) is a widely used anti-depressant that commonly leak out after human use to aquatic environments. Although widely spread, the impact of fluoxetine on aquatic animals in is poorly investigated. The objective of this study was to see if fluoxetine impacts the behaviour of freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. Asellus aquaticus were exposed to an ecologically relevant concentration of fluoxetine for 28 days. Through a series of behavioural assays designed to measure the personality traits boldness, activity, exploration and escape behaviour, Asellus aquaticus responses were investigated. A. aquaticus can differ greatly in phenotype, from non-pigmentation to dark pigmentation. Further objective was therefore to investigate if pigmentation correlated with any of the measured behavioural responses, due to potential across-reaction between serotonergic and melatoneric systems. I found that fluoxetine reduced boldness, but had no effect on activity, exploration or escape behaviour. Furthermore, I observed no correlation between pigmentation and behaviour measured in fluoxetine exposed, or control animals. These results indicate that fluoxetine at low levels  affect boldness of wild A. aquaticus but no other personality traits explored. However, other research contradicts these results and show that fluoxetine can affect a range of behaviours. Taken together fluoxetine can have ecological impact on aquatic environments. Hence, our residual pharmaceuticals can have ranging effects.

  • Amanda, Jaber
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Evaluating the Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS)2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS) is an instrument that consist of several measurements, such as team-member exchange, workload, the TRAMS observation protocol etc. This thesis researches the observation protocol. The TRAMS protocol is an assessment method for resilience in simulation games. The aim of this protocol is to support the identification of resilience strategies used and developed by the participants in a simulation game. It is a challenge to assess resilience in teams and that is why the TRAMS protocol has been developed. The scenario of the simulation games is a disruption for 10 days in the card payment system. During the simulation games, the participants work in teams and have to try to cope with the disruption in the card payment system. During the course of this study, 14 simulation games have been conducted with seven different teams. Each of the simulation games has been executed during one whole day, and the participating teams have in total played two games each. During every simulation game there were three observers equipped with the TRAMS protocol. To interpret the data collected with the TRAMS protocol, two methods have been used: transcription and thematic analysis. As a result, guidelines and design changes was formed. In addition, results showed that the distribution and frequency of observations of resilience strategies made were similar, that the observations noted by the observers were similar, and lastly eight themes from the data collection could be extracted: Coordinate and collaborate, Payment options, Cash circulation, Safety, Fuel and transportation, Inform, communicate and the media, Hoarding and rationing, Vulnerable groups. In conclusion, the TRAMS protocol is still under development and 15 more simulation games are planned to be conducted within the ongoing CCRAAAFFTING project. However, the protocol has been applied in this study´s 14 simulation games so far, and the similarities in how the observers filled in the protocol and how similar the observations were, indicate that it hopefully can develop into a recognized research tool in the future. 

  • Karlsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Climate change beliefs and attitudes relationship to informational influences and demographic factors2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the biggest challenges for the modern society is that of climate change. Despite the growing accumulation of scientific evidence that points towards a strong need for action to be made regarding anthropogenic (human made) climate change, there is a lack of unity in what actions are needed and an outspread passivity amongst both establishments and the public. The reason behind this is attributed to lack of belief in anthropogenic climate change, and lack of pro-environmental attitudes amongst the public. Furthermore, these issues have been found to relate to identity related beliefs and attitudes that conflict with pro-environmental beliefs and attitudes, where political orientation has proven to be a strong factor. One way of dealing with these issues could be through informational influences. By presenting people to information shaped in different ways, one could increase the belief in anthropogenic climate change and pro-environmental attitudes. This study examined the relationship between three different informational influences, and its potential effect on climate change beliefs and attitudes. Furthermore, this study examined the relationship between demographic factors such as age, gender and political orientation with regards to their potential effect on climate change beliefs and attitudes. 449 participants completed a survey with intent to measure the potential effects informational influences and demographic factors had on climate change beliefs and attitudes. Despite that indications where found, no significant results could be identified for the informational influences. All demographic factors had some significant effect on climate change beliefs or attitudes, where political orientation was the strongest influencing factor. This relates to earlier research and further implications were discussed for future studies.

  • Uddfors, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    Martinsson Åberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    EMQ-modellen: En övergripande modell för att estimera illikviditetsrabatten2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The marketability discount (DLOM) is a controversial discount that has often led to conflict in valuation. DLOM is derived from a lack of marketability and the problem lies in the fact that DLOM is not observable and also considered subjective. Furthermore, DLOM depends on multiple often unique factors, which means that the discount can differ greatly from case to case. DLOM can assume values ranging from negative values and up to as much as 90%, which means that the company's final value to a great extent depends on this discount. Thus, it becomes relevant to determine a reasonable level of this discount based on scientific literature and practice.

    The case company for this study, PwC, has requested a new model to estimate DLOM. The reason behind the request is that the Swedish Tax Agency and customers of the case company have increased its effort on controlling whether estimates of DLOM have been carried out in a correct and arguably manner. Currently, the case company claims that the subject has been given a lack of attention in the industry, which is why an update of their current methodology for estimating DLOM is critical for their continued work.

    Aim: The aim of this report is to create and analyze a model, based on validity and practical feasibility, which estimates the marketability discount.

    Completion: Due to the fact that the discount is not observable creates a need for identifying proxies for the discount and an understanding of the connection between these and DLOM. An extensive literature study together with a case study on the case company has been made in order to achieve this. A model is then developed based on this and triangulation. The model is then used on four valuation cases, provided by the case company. After that follows an analysis of the methodology of the case company, the model of this study and a comparison between these two.

    Findings: The EMQ-model is a model that is based on three methods for estimating DLOM. The three methods are an empirical method, a mathematical method and a qualitative method. Two possible intervals for DLOM is created based on company-specific data by the empirical and mathematical method. These intervals are then weighted together into one interval with respect to the restriction period for the holding to be valued. Finally, qualitative factors that provide a definite value are investigated within the interval of DLOM. The three methods are chosen based on considering the factors affecting DLOM. The model is also created to enable adaptability to each specific valuation case.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-12 09:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Aida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The Importance of Macrophages, Lipid Membranes and Seeding in Experimental AA Amyloidosis2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Amyloidosis is a group of protein misfolding diseases caused by tissue deposition of fibrillary protein aggregates termed amyloid. Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a systemic form of amyloidosis that occurs as a complication of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, familial Mediterranean fever and chronic infections, such as tuberculosis. AA amyloid is derived from the precursor protein serum amyloid A and is deposited in several organs preferably kidneys, liver and spleen. AA amyloidosis can be induced in mice by long standing inflammatory stimulation and concurrent administration of tissue extracts of AA amyloid, referred to as amyloid enhancing factor (AEF), reduces the time for amyloid deposition in the marginal zone of the spleen from 5 weeks to 2 days. The general aim of this thesis was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the development of AA amyloid in the mouse model of AA amyloidosis.

    Amyloid was induced in inflamed mice by injection of AEF and amyloid toxicity to splenic macrophages was investigated. We found that the marginal zone macrophages were very sensitive to amyloid formation and increasing amyloid load caused progressive depletion of these cells, whereas red pulp macrophages and metallophilic marginal zone macrophages appeared unaffected. To clarify the role of splenic macrophages in amyloidogenesis, macrophages were depleted by clodronate containing liposomes. We displayed that in the absence of splenic macrophages, especially marginal zone macrophages, amyloid formation was delayed implying a crucial role of macrophages in amyloid formation.

    The effect of lipid membranes on amyloid formation was studied and we showed that liposomes exhibited an amyloidogenic effect in inflamed mice although not as powerful as AEF. Following the fate of the liposomes, we showed that liposomes were rapidly cleared by uptake in the spleen and liver and colocalized with lysosomes. A tentative mechanism might be that accumulation of liposomes in lysosomes interfere with the SAA degradation process facilitating amyloid formation.

    Finally the conformational properties of two AEF (AEF1 and AEF2) preparations were studied using conformation sensitive luminescent-conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs). We found that AEF1 and AEF2 displayed significantly different ultrastructure as well as conformation and consequently induced different cytotoxicity in vitro. Inducing amyloid formation in inflamed mice by AEF1 and AEF2 revealed that the polymorph of the amyloid aggregates was replicated in vivo.

    In summary, the results obtained in this thesis indicate an important role for macrophages for the formation of amyloid. The existence of amyloid strains has long been an in vitro finding, but the finding that AEF ultrastructure drives the morphology of newly formed amyloid in vivo opens up for new studies that can help us to understand the formation of homologous and heterologous fibrils. Thus, the fundamental mechanisms of various amyloid diseases are similar and the results presented in the thesis can increase the understanding of other amyloid diseases.

    List of papers
    1. Depletion of Spleen Macrophages Delays AA Amyloid Development: A Study Performed in the Rapid Mouse Model of AA Amyloidosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depletion of Spleen Macrophages Delays AA Amyloid Development: A Study Performed in the Rapid Mouse Model of AA Amyloidosis
    2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 11, p. e79104-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    AA amyloidosis is a systemic disease that develops secondary to chronic inflammatory diseases Macrophages are often found in the vicinity of amyloid deposits and considered to play a role in both formation and degradation of amyloid fibrils. In spleen reside at least three types of macrophages, red pulp macrophages (RPM), marginal zone macrophages (MZM), metallophilic marginal zone macrophages (MMZM). MMZM and MZM are located in the marginal zone and express a unique collection of scavenger receptors that are involved in the uptake of blood-born particles. The murine AA amyloid model that resembles the human form of the disease has been used to study amyloid effects on different macrophage populations. Amyloid was induced by intravenous injection of amyloid enhancing factor and subcutaneous injections of silver nitrate and macrophages were identified with specific antibodies. We show that MZMs are highly sensitive to amyloid and decrease in number progressively with increasing amyloid load. Total area of MMZMs is unaffected by amyloid but cells are activated and migrate into the white pulp. In a group of mice spleen macrophages were depleted by an intravenous injection of clodronate filled liposomes. Subsequent injections of AEF and silver nitrate showed a sustained amyloid development. RPMs that constitute the majority of macrophages in spleen, appear insensitive to amyloid and do not participate in amyloid formation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Public Library of Science, 2013
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102982 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0079104 (DOI)000327254700092 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|GTW5343|County Council of Ostergotland Magnus Bergvalls research foundation||Ingrid Svenssons research foundation||Broderna Karlssons research foundation||Hildur Pettersons research foundation||

    Available from: 2014-01-09 Created: 2014-01-09 Last updated: 2019-08-15
    2. Lipid membranes accelerate amyloid formation in the mouse model of AA amyloidosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lipid membranes accelerate amyloid formation in the mouse model of AA amyloidosis
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Amyloid: Journal of Protein Folding Disorders, ISSN 1350-6129, E-ISSN 1744-2818, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 34-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: AA amyloidosis develops as a result of prolonged inflammation and is characterized by deposits of N-terminal proteolytic fragments of the acute phase reactant serum amyloid A (SAA). Macrophages are usually found adjacent to amyloid, suggesting their involvement in the formation and/or degradation of the amyloid fibrils. Furthermore, accumulating evidence suggests that lipid membranes accelerate the fibrillation of different amyloid proteins.

    Methods: Using an experimental mouse model of AA amyloidosis, we compared the amyloidogenic effect of liposomes and/or amyloid-enhancing factor (AEF). Inflammation was induced by subcutaneous injection of silver nitrate followed by intravenous injection of liposomes and/or AEF to accelerate amyloid formation.

    Results: We showed that liposomes accelerate amyloid formation in inflamed mice, but the amyloidogenic effect of liposomes was weaker compared with AEF. Regardless of the induction method, amyloid deposits were mainly found in the marginal zones of the spleen and coincided with the depletion of marginal zone macrophages, while red pulp macrophages and metallophilic marginal zone macrophages proved insensitive to amyloid deposition.

    Conclusions: We conclude that increased intracellular lipid content facilitates AA amyloid fibril formation and show that the mouse model of AA amyloidosis is a suitable system for further mechanistic studies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2019
    Keywords
    Amyloid; liposomes; lipid membrane; macrophages; AA amyloidosis
    National Category
    Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157278 (URN)10.1080/13506129.2019.1576606 (DOI)000466218300001 ()30929476 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85063746690 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|County Council of Ostergotland; Magnus Bergvalls Research Foundation; Broderna Karlssons Research Foundation; K. Molins Minnesfond and Hildur Pettersons Research Foundation

    Available from: 2019-06-12 Created: 2019-06-12 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
  • Alhola, Sini
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Unraveling interaction between tinnitus symptoms, cognitive abilities, and mental disorders2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the former studies, there is evidence of tinnitus being associated with performance on cognitive ability tests (for example Andersson et al. 2009, Hallam et al. 2004). The topic of my bachelor thesis was to unravel how depression, stress and anxiety connected with tinnitus symptoms are related to cognitive abilities such as verbal fluency, inhibition ability and working memory capacity. In order to fill an existing gap of knowledge, the relationship of different severity of stress caused by tinnitus symptoms as measured with Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and cognitive abilities and depression and anxiety symptoms was emphasized.

    The experiment group was divided into two subgroups, those with lower and higher level of perceived tinnitus severity and the differences in test scores between groups were investigated with one-way analysis of variance. As a result, significant differences between the two tinnitus patient groups were found in the level of performance in inhibition task where participants were asked to give the font color of congruent color - word pair as an answer. It was also studied whether there were correlations between perceived severity of tinnitus symptoms, depression and anxiety symptoms, working memory capacity and inhibition ability. As a result of correlation analysis, this study confirmed the connection between tinnitus symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms found in previous studies, and a significant correlation was found between THI scores and anxiety symptoms, and THI scores and C inhibition test scores where the participant was asked to name the font color from incongruent color-word pairs. The results of this study suggest that there is a connection between the level of perceived tinnitus severity and the ability to name font color of incongruent color - word pair. The current study found no evidence about the connection between THI scores and other cognitive abilities as well as anxiety and depression symptoms, even though the THI scores correlated with both anxiety symptom scores and with the reaction times of an inhibition task where the participants were asked to point out the font color from incongruent color - word pairs.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-09 10:00 ACAS, A-huset, Linköping
    Farhad, Nandita
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Supply Chain Governance for Social Sustainability: A Study of the Ready-Made Garment Industry in Bangladesh2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis approaches the phenomenon of supply chain governance for social sustainability in the ready-made garment industry in Bangladesh. This research is based on a study of eight large multinational corporations (e.g. clothing brands and retailers) and their ready-made garment suppliers. The purpose of this research is to understand how supply chain governance mechanisms and governance structures improve social sustainability performance when stakeholders are engaged.

    The study identifies four main governance systems, namely, market-based, hierarchical controlbased, collaborative multi-stakeholder-based and relational cross-sectoral-based. These governance systems are employed in the supply chain by the multinational corporations in combination with different stakeholders, such as suppliers, multi-stakeholder-initiatives, and non-government organisations. The study focuses on the challenges faced by the multinational corporations to ensure social sustainability, whilst at the same time, incorporating suppliers’ viewpoints on the consequences of different governance systems for social sustainability.

    This research shows the choice of governance structures from market-based, hierarchy-based, collaboration-based and relational-based depend on the cost of managing relationships with the stakeholders and potential risks of governance in a given situation. An effective governance structure for a multinational corporation in a particular context is determined by how well the structure supports governance mechanisms to reduce associated transaction risks that results from potential opportunistic behaviour of the suppliers. In this research, it is argued that governance structure provides the platform for practicing a set of governance mechanisms.

    The study claims that social sustainability governance incorporates three mechanisms with separate outcomes: one consists of buyer-driven control-based mechanisms which include codes of conduct, supplier assessment and monitoring, and supplier training for regular social compliance; the second consists of multi-stakeholder-based governance mechanisms for structural compliance when unexpected problems occur, for example, building collapse, electrical and fire safety risks emerge; and the third comprises cross-sectoral governance mechanisms when the multinational corporations involve with non-government organisations for social development of the garment workers and community by facilitating drinking water, health-hygiene, education, and so on.

    This thesis contributes to the Sustainable Supply Chain Management literature by expanding knowledge of supply chain governance through bringing an understanding of governance mechanisms, governance structures and stakeholder engagements for social sustainability. As the demand for supply chain governance for social sustainability are growing, this thesis can help responsible corporate sourcing managers to develop a deeper understanding of how supply chain governance can affect social sustainability. 

  • McCarthy, Holly
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Constructed Realities: Framing an inclusive, multicultural Australia’s exclusion of people seeking asylum2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2001, Australia’s increasingly securitised and exclusionary asylum policy has been legitimated through a damaging discourse surrounding people who seek asylum. This discourse, reinforced by successive Australian Prime Ministers, has been instrumental in shaping policies which have a devastating human impact. While political elites across the West are distancing themselves from a discourse of inclusive multiculturalism, Australia continues to celebrate its multicultural success despite the ongoing tension between a rhetoric of inclusion and one justifying exclusion. Since discourse is both productive and reflective of the social world, shaping discourse can be understood as a means to shape reality. This thesis explores how discourse is constructed and reproduced through framing; a discursive practice that influences how certain issues are understood. The texts analysed are those in which Australian Prime Ministers and senior political figures defend policies of exclusion against people who seek asylum by boat as part of a broader policy vision for a Safe, Secure & Free Australia. In order to contrast the frames, narratives and discourses associated with exclusion, communications promoting the policy vision of an inclusive Multicultural Australia have also been analysed. The frames identified in the material reproduce particular narratives which help to maintain the hegemonic position of discourses which present Australia as a humanitarian, welcoming and inclusive multicultural society and situate people who seek asylum by boat as illegal, seeking an unfair advantage, and as a threat to national security. By identifying frames that consistently appear in the messaging of Australian political elites, we can understand how certain narratives have come to be accepted as truth.