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  • Öberg, Olivia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies.
    Öberg, Olivia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies.
    På tal om form: Hur skapar man ett verbalt moodboard?2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This paper investigates how language can help describe the quality within a product that make up it's identity, what's embedded in design aesthetics and what designers do when they give shape to objects.

    For this I have looked into research in the neurological phenomena synesthesia and ideasthesia which help us translate abstract concepts between our different senses. With this in mind, I have conducted a test in using personal traits to describe colors and shapes, later using the data to to describe three different design companies' design aesthetics.

    What I've found is that this language can't be objective and therefore cannot be used as a way of putting data in to get a finished product, where shape a plus color b equals response c. All without requiring a designer to make subjective decisions to make sure the tiny details and nuances get picked up.

    At the same time I've realized that this language is a good foundation for me, as a designer, to stand on and use to reflect on my decisions and give me clarity in my process.

  • Li, Hao
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University.
    Li, Hao
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University.
    Multi-level multi-scaled metabolites simulation2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Diabetes is a world-wide health problem with 415 millions of people suffering from the disease. Most diabetics are suffering from Type 2 Diabetes, which is preceded by insulin resistance in glucose utilizing tissues, such as adipose, liver, and muscle tissues. Diabetes is diagnosed when the insulin control of the glucose levels fails, which leads to high glucose levels in the blood. To better understand the insulin control of blood glucose, mathematical modeling has been used for many years to simulate the dynamics of glucose and insulin levels in the blood. Models have also been used to understand the intracellular insulin-signaling network in the insulin responding tissues. There have also been attempts to connect models from these different layers of control into a multi-level and multi-scale simulation model. However, to do such connections, several assumptions must be made about the comparability of the data from the different levels. Here, I aim for a deeper understanding of these assumptions and to use more advanced data for glucose uptake dynamics than in earlier work. I used data from the literature for the dynamics of glucose uptake in adipose and muscle tissues and improve the model in several steps to have a better agreement with these data. In particular, I refined the sub-division of the glucose uptake between the organs, to also account for liver uptake, a correction that implied a reduction by 50% for the muscle and adipose tissue glucose uptake. Unlike previous models, the updated model also describes blood flow. Finally, because of the connection to the intracellular level, the model can be used to simulate the response to anti-diabetic drugs. 

  • Moreira, A. H.
    et al.
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos, Brazil / Centro Universitário do Instituto Mauá de Tecnologia, São Caetano do Sul, Brazi.
    Moreira, A. H.
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos, Brazil / Centro Universitário do Instituto Mauá de Tecnologia, São Caetano do Sul, Brazi.
    Arjoni, D. H.
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos, Brazil.
    Nicola, R. M.
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos, Brazil.
    Silva, E. T.
    Embraer, São José dos Campos, Brazil.
    Villani, E.
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos, Brazil.
    Trabasso, Luís Gonzaga
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campos, Brazil.
    Experimental evaluation of the contribution of adding a motion system to an EDS2016In: Proceedings of the Aerospace Technology Congress / [ed] Kaj Lundahl, Roland Karlsson, Björn Jonsson and Knut Övrebö, Stockholm, 2016, Vol. 1, 1-10 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of flight simulators in pilot training campaigns has become a cheaper and saferalternative to the use of a real aircraft, as simulators will not cause any kind of humaninjury or vehicular damages. However, the degree of fidelity of the simulation is of theutmost importance for this application, thus it has become the subject of discussion inseveral studies.It is understood as a flight simulator with a high degree of fidelity, all kind of simulatorsthat are capable of providing motion cues that are sufficiently similar to those obtainedduring an actual flight, so much so that a human would be incapable of noticing anydifference (Giordano et al., 2010). Many argue that the only way to obtain such a highquality of simulation is by using a motion platform, which makes the cost of thisequipment the same order of magnitude of a real aircraft.Several recent studies have contributed in this topic of discussion, the influence of themotion platform is still unclear (McCauley, 2006), (Proctor, Bauer and Lucario, 2007),(McDaniel, Scott and Browning, 1983). Bürki-cohen, Sparko and Bellman (2011) madea thorough review of the need of motion platforms in aircraft simulators while discussesthe need of motion platforms in military helicopter simulators, butThe objective of this work is to analyze the contribution of adding a motion system to anEDS (Engineering Development System), yielding a flexible and reconfigurablesimulator, available as soon as the official aerodynamic databank is made available. Theadvantage (if any) of creating an EDS with motion platform is that it brings to the aircraftdevelopment cycle, the opportunity of anticipating the knowledge acquired in thelearning-by-using approach, by means of a simulation environment that resembles thebehavior of the final product, especially in the early development phases.

  • Arjoni, D. H.
    et al.
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campo, Brazil.
    Arjoni, D. H.
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campo, Brazil.
    Rocha, G. C.
    Konatus, São José dos Campo, Brazil.
    Moreira, A. H.
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campo, Brazil.
    Nicola, R. M.
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campo, Brazil.
    Oliveira, W. R.
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campo, Brazil.
    Silva, A. V. S.
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campo, Brazil.
    Natal, G. S.
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Campo, Brazil.
    Silveira, L.
    NAC, São José dos Campo, Brazil.
    Thomas, E.
    Embraer, São José dos Campo, Brazil.
    Villani, E.
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Camp, Brazil.
    Trabasso, Luís Gonzaga
    TA Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica, São José dos Camp, Brazil.
    Experimental Evaluation of the Human Performance on a RoboticFlight Simulator based on FOQA Parameters2016In: Proceedings of the Aerospace Technology Congress / [ed] Kaj Lundahl, Roland Karlsson, Björn Jonsson and Knut Övrebö, Stockholm, 2016, Vol. 1, 1-11 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SIVOR project, currently being developed by ITA and Embraer, consists of designing andimplementing a high fidelity flight simulator based on the use of COTS industrial robots. The aim of theproject is to provide a cost-efficient and flexible platform that can be used along the design phases of theaircraft. One of the advantages of an industrial robot over the traditional Stewart platform is theavailability of a large workspace, which provides more flexibility for defining the washout filter. Thisfilter converts the aircraft dynamics into robot movements, which has a limited workspace. The mainpurpose of the flight simulator is to provide a motion feeling similar to the one imposed by the aircraftmovements in a real flight. The representativeness of the motion cue is usually evaluated in a qualitativeway by the pilots that fly the simulator. Quantitative methods to evaluate the entire range of actuation of asimulator are complex, inducing tests in fractions of the flight to increase performance. In this work, wediscuss the use of FOQA (Flight Operational Quality Assurance) as an additional quantitative tool for theevaluation of the motion cue in the SIVOR flight simulator. FOQA is a voluntary safety program fromFAA, detailed in AC-120-82. It proposes a set of parameters that can be used by airliners to analyse flightsafety and increase operational efficiency. The verification of FOQA parameters checks whether or notthe pilot complies with the standard operational procedures defined by the airliners and aircraftmanufacturers. The purpose of this work is to analyse whether or not, and to what extent, the FOQAparameters can be used to evaluate the quality of the motion cue of flight simulators. For this purpose, wedefine an experimental procedure that compares flights performed by pilots under different motionmodes. It then calculates a set of behavioural parameters that has been proposed in order to quantify howthe motion affects the inputs of the pilot. The results are submitted to ANOVA statistical analysis thatverifies the relevance of the motion factor. Finally, we discuss the capability of a FOQA basedexperiment to estimate the contribution of the motion to the realism of the flight simulation.

  • Turetta, F. M. S.
    et al.
    EMBRAER, Department of Systems Modeling and Simulation, Brazil.
    Turetta, F. M. S.
    EMBRAER, Department of Systems Modeling and Simulation, Brazil.
    Ayala, H. V. H.
    EMBRAER, Department of Systems Modeling and Simulation, Brazil.
    Trabasso, Luís Gonzaga
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SAAB, Aeronautics Human Machine Interaction.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SAAB, Aeronautics Human Machine Interaction.
    Data-driven Pilot Behavior Modeling Applied to a VMCG Determination Flight Test Task2016In: Proceedings of the Aerospace Technology Congress / [ed] Kaj Lundahl, Roland Karlsson, Björn Jonsson and Knut Övrebö, Stockholm, 2016, Vol. 1, 1-10 p., 1Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human models have been studied and used in engineering analysis for over 70 years to allow predictions of the pilot-vehicle system behavior. The difficulties in pilot modeling are evident due to the complexity of the brain, lack of repeatability in behavior and the great number of variables that can affect the human performance. This complexity, associated with the fact that there are no explicit laws to allow modeling based in first principles, could indicate that data-driven modeling techniques would be the most efficient way to obtain pilot models, such as black-box system identification methods that construct dynamic models according to measured input and output data, and where the parameters have no physical meaning. With this approach, it is advantageous to seek knowledge from other fields to allow a better understanding of the pilot behavior, select adequate input/output variables and define the experimental conditions and data. Criteria for evaluating the modeling approaches include adaptability as well as feasibility. Adaptability concerns coping with dynamic and uncertain conditions and feasibility refers to the models contribution to an applied context. This paper presents the results of the application of data-driven theoretical linear dynamic models in the task of representing the behavior of the pilot trying to keep the centerline of the runway after an engine failure. Real data is used, where PID with anti-windup and Hammerstein-Wiener model structures are compared. Results show that the Hammerstein-Wiener structure seems more appropriate to represent this specific behavior.

  • Public defence: 2016-12-06 10:15 Täppan, TP2, Norrköping
    Khoshniyat, Fahimeh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Khoshniyat, Fahimeh
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optimization-Based Methods for Revising Train Timetables with Focus on Robustness2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With increase in the use of railway transport, ensuring robustness in railway timetables has never been this important. In a dense railway timetable even a small disturbance can propagate easily and a_ect trains' arrival and departure times. In a robust timetable small delays are absorbed and knock-on e_ects are prevented e_ectively. The aim of this thesis is to study how optimization tools can support the generation of robust railway tra_c timetables. We address two Train Timetabling Problems (TTP) and for both problems we apply Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) to solve them from network management perspectives. The _rst problem is how robustness in a given timetable can be assessed and ensured. To tackle this problem, a headway-based method is introduced. The proposed method is implemented in real timetables and evaluated from performance perspectives. Furthermore, the impact of the proposed method on capacity utilization, heterogeneity and the speed of trains, is monitored. Results show that the proposed method can improve robustness without imposing major changes in timetables. The second problem addressed in the thesis is how robustness can be assessed and maintained in a given timetable when allocating additional tra_c and maintenance slots. Di_erent insertion strategies are studied and their consequences on capacity utilization and on the properties of the timetables are analyzed. Two di_erent insertion strategies are considered: i) simultaneous and ii) stepwise insertion. The results show that inserting the additional trains simultaneously usually results in generating more optimal solutions. However, solving this type of problem is computationally challenging. We also observed that the existing robustness metrics cannot capture the essential properties of having more robust timetables. Therefore we proposed measuring Channel Width, Chan- nel Width Forward, Channel Width Behind and Track Switching.

    Furthermore, the experimental analysis of the applied MILP model shows that some cases are computationally hard to solve and there is a need to decrease the computation time. Hence several valid inequalities are developed and their e_ects on the computation time are analyzed.

    This thesis contains three papers which are appended. The results of this thesis are of special interests for railway tra_c planners and it would support their working process. However, railway tra_c operators and passengers also bene_t from this study.

    List of papers
    1. Robustness Improvements in a Train Timetable with Travel Time Dependent Minimum Headways
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Robustness Improvements in a Train Timetable with Travel Time Dependent Minimum Headways
    2015 (English)Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a railway network with dense traffic, trains’ scheduled arrival and departure times arehighly dependent on each other and even a small delay easily propagates to subsequenttrains using the same infrastructure resources. In the current paper a given timetable is comparedto a modified timetable, where the assigned minimum time slot in the traffic for aservice is linearly increasing with the service’s travel time. The underlying assumption isthat trains lose precision as they travel longer and catching a fixed-size time slot is easier atthe beginning of the journey. Real world observations confirm this assumption as well. Theaim of this study is to verify the improvement in the robustness of those timetables that aremodified with respect to the idea of travel time dependent reserved time slots for the arrivaltimes of trains and to compare the results with the initial timetables. Numerical experimentsare conducted on a selected double track segment of the Swedish Southern mainline. Fourtimetable case studies are considered for the experiments: off-peak hours and peak hoursin 2011 and 2014, respectively. Each timetable is tested for various disturbance scenarios.Several performance measures are used to evaluate delay propagation in the timetables, includingdeviations from the initial timetable, total delays, total number of delayed trains atdestinations, number of punctual trains with 5 minutes arrival delay tolerance at destinationsand number of violations in trains’ overtaking orders. Results show that the modifiedtimetables outperform the initial ones for small disturbances.

    Keyword
    Robustness, Railway Timetable, Ex-post measures, Delay propagation, Performance measures
    National Category
    Transport Systems and Logistics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117042 (URN)
    Conference
    6th International Conference on Railway Operations Modelling and Analysis - RailTokyo2015, Tokyo, March 23-26, 2015
    Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-04-13 Last updated: 2016-12-01
  • Trabasso, Luís Gonzaga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering .
    Trabasso, Luís Gonzaga
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Aeronautics Institute of Technology, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering .
    Alfredson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. SAAB, Aeronautics Human Machine Interaction, Sweden.
    Functional Mapping as Means for Establishing a Human Factors Research Environment for Future Air Systems2016In: Proceedings of the 12th Swecog Cognition Conference, October 6-7, Göteborg, Sweden: Abstracts / [ed] Alexander Almér, Robert Lowe and Erik Billing, Skövde: Univeristy of Skövde , 2016, Vol. 1, 10-11 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A typical environment for human factors research has equipment and methods for performing a set of experiments such as mental workload assessment, situational awareness evaluation, human resilience measurement and so forth. The common aspect between equipment and methods is that they accomplish a function. The TLX method is part of such an environment because it evaluates the mental workload; an EEG helmet is part of the same research environment because it measures the electrical activity originated by the brain. If the functional structure of a method or equipment is yet to be known, a method for function deployment might be used to this purpose such as FAST. Although cognitive processes in many regards are very different from functions in technical systems, it is possible to describe them in terms of functions for the sake using it for design considerations. For instance, the information-processing paradigm has inspired descriptions that in some regards could be described in functional terms. The multiple resource theory that outlines different mental resources related to various modalities and stages of processing is another example of that. Then a functional mapping engine identifies the equipment and method that address the cognitive functions required for a given experiment. A very simple example of functional mapping is as follows: the cognitive module <vision> has a function X {to track objects}. The equipment *eye tracker* and the method # EPOG – Eye Point of Gaze# have the functions Y [To look at through computer vision] and Z [to track objects]. The mapping among functions X, Y and Z indicate the equipment and method are suitable for addressing the cognitive characteristic under investigation. On the one hand, if an equipment or method do exist, then the functional mapping assist the research environment designer to identify them and help choosing if several options are available. On the other hand, if an equipment or method do not exist, then the functional mapping assist the research environment designer to design and build them. Moving forward from the very simple example to a more practical and realistic situation, the functional mapping can tackle the issues of choosing the necessary functions – from both sides, cognitive and equipment and methods – to meet fidelity requirements of an experiment. This is suggested to be resolved by the cost-benefit trade-off approach detailed as follows. Based on the functional mapping, selective fidelity can be obtained for modeling and simulation considerations. Thereby advantages and disadvantages of the human factors research environment for future air systems could be balanced by the functional mapping, potentially optimizing the use of simulations. System border definition ought to be considered; the border definition practice borrowed from aircraft product/system configuration can be used to this end. Selective fidelity has been applied to transfer of training in military aviation and simulator based design has been shown to be useful for development of air systems. The proposed functional mapping approach could have the potential of adding to this tradition.

  • Johnsson Harrie, Anna
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Department of History, Tourism and Media. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Johnsson Harrie, Anna
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Department of History, Tourism and Media. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En granskning av läroböcker i samhällskunskap och historia för åk 7-9 med fokus på rasism, främlingsfientlighet och intolerans2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten bygger på en analys av tolv läroböcker – sex läroböcker i historia och sex i samhällskunskap. Samtliga läroböcker är för högstadiet och är utgivna efter den senaste läroplansreformen 2011. Läroböckerna har analyserats utifrån frågan hur de behandlar rasism, främlingsfientlighet och intolerans, och utgångspunkten tas i det centrala innehåll som skrivs fram i kursplanen för respektive ämne.

    Studien visar att ingen av läroböckerna förmedlar rasistiska eller främlingsfientliga värden. Däremot finns i några samhällskunskapsböcker ibland en uppdelning mellan ”svenskar” och ”invandrare” och ett ”vi” och ”de” som kan framträda i såväl text som bild. Denna uppdelning riskerar att exkludera många svenska elever med utländsk bakgrund.

    Några läroböcker täcker inte riktigt alla de områden som ska behandlas enligt det centrala innehållet i kursplanerna. Urfolket samerna och de övriga nationella minoriteterna judar, romer, sverigefinnar och tornedalingar ska alla tas upp i såväl historieämnet som samhällskunskapen. Alla läroböcker lever inte upp till detta. Ett annat exempel är frågan om hur historia kan användas för att skapa nationella identiteter, som inte heller behandlas i alla historieläroböcker.

    En lärobok ska vara ett stöd för elevens lärande i frågor som många gånger kan vara mycket komplicerade. För att kunna vara ett stöd krävs tydlighet och struktur i lärobokens framställning. I vissa fall finns en föredömlig tydlighet, även i behandlingen av svåra frågor. I andra fall saknas den tydligheten. Det kan vara begrepp som inte förklaras, eller begrepp som först definieras, men där författarna sedan inte håller sig till sina egna definitioner.

    Läroboken har länge haft en ohotad stark ställning i de svenska klassrummen. Idag har läroboken konkurrens från många olika kategorier av läromedel. Om den vill hålla kvar en stark ställning måste den också leva upp till höga kvalitetskrav.

  • Melander, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Melander, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Applied VMS to handle mathematical misconception in algebra: Metacognition through interactive visualisation prototype2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish education needs to change in order to reverse the negative trend in PISA and TIMSS. At the same time digital artifacts are increasingly present in the classroom and commercial applications more available. It is difficult to determine which technical tool that provide real results and it is not yet clear what role technology should have in the classroom. This study examines how visualisation and technology can be used to promote deeper understanding of algebra by addressing the misconception that frequently occurs among students.

    Observation and interviews were held with students from two schools, one in Norrköping and one in Östersund. Theory regarding algebraic misconceptions have been studied and compiled into two categories. In addition, three prototypes were developed with and later evaluated by a focus group. This work has resulted in suggestions on what technical and interactive activities could be used in algebraic education. The study shows that more research is needed to determine how technology best can be implemented and used effectively in teaching. The work also shows that such research and development needs to be implemented with a user-centered approach with the involvement of relevant target groups.

  • Falklöf, Lennart (Editor)
    Linköping University, University Services.
    Falklöf, Lennart (Editor)
    Linköping University, University Services.
    LiU Magasin2016Other (Other academic)
  • Svensson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Svensson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Arbetets musuem som plats och arbetsplats2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

     This study aims to research how the Museum of work is as a place of work and place. To reach the studie's purpose the question of what a place of work is will be answered before the specific place, the Museum of work is discussed and put in a broader place context. The conclusion of this study is that a working place is relatively hard to explain but the physical place is emphasized and also the movement to and from work. The technological development has led to a more placeless and less time bound place of work but the physical place and the room are still prefered. The Museum of Work as a place of work is only positive but its easy to end up in a bubble and reproduce norms and behaviors. Finally he surrounding envoronment has a big impact on The Museum of Work as place and place of work since it changes alongside the society.

  • Wedendal, Elsa
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities.
    Wedendal, Elsa
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Arts and Humanities.
    Den farliga kvinnan: En studie i Evas roll som syndamoder inom renässansens konst2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie är att utforska den negativa syn på Eva som präglade renässansens religiösa konst. Allt som oftast verkar konstvetare vara överens om att Evas framställning inom renässanskonsten tycks vara tyngd av främst negativa värden och associationer. Det finns naturligtvis alster där Evas uppenbarelse har tolkats övervägande bära andra värden än de syndiga och farliga, men dessa förefaller till syntes vara i bister minoritet. De flesta renässansverk där Eva är avbildad skulle idag betraktas som misogyna, men misogyni verkar vara ett för trubbigt begrepp att använda i detta sammanhang, när hela dåtidens samhälle vilade på fundamentalt skilda värdegrunder från de som präglar dagens västvärld. Denna uppsats ämnar undersöka vad de negativa föreställningarna grundade sig i samt vad som var roten till Eva-motivets popularitet i det kristna Europa under 1400-och 1500-

    talet. Vidare ämnas undersökas hur den negativa synen gentemot Eva kom till uttryck inom konsten. Det är inte främst konstnärens individuella uttryck som kommer att tolkas, utan genom att analysera betydande sociala, kulturella och stilmässiga förutsättningar under renässansen vars spår går att fina i de sex verk som är studiens underlag, är målet att i konstverken finna gemensamma mönster och ledtrådar som kan belysa hur man såg på Eva och därmed även i förlängningen på kvinnan.

    Tre frågeställningar har formulerats med studiens syfte i beaktande:

    • Vad karaktäriserade synen på Eva innan och under renässansen, och hur växte detta synsätt fram? I vad grundar sig Eva-motivets popularitet under denna epok?
    • På vilka olika sätt gestaltas Eva i de valda verken? Finns det några återkommande symboler och allegorier verken emellan, och vad ämnar dessa belysa?
    • Vilka negativa värden associerades Eva med, och på vilka sätt framgår detta i de valda verken?
  • Public defence: 2017-01-20 09:15 Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Elofsson, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elofsson, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Nanoscale engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nanoscale structure forming processes: Metal thin films grown far-from-equilibrium2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Thin film growth from the vapor phase has for a long time intrigued researchers endeavouring to unravel and understand atomistic surface processes that govern film formation. Their motivation has not been purely scientific, but also driven by numerous applications where this understanding is paramount to knowledge-based design of novel film materials with tailored properties.

    Within the above framework, this thesis investigates growth of metal films on weakly bonding substrates, a combination of great relevance for applications concerning e.g., catalysis, graphene metallization and architectural glazing. When metal vapor condenses on weakly bonding substrates three dimensional islands nucleate, grow and coalesce prior to forming a continuous film. The combined effect of these initial growth stages on film formation and morphology evolution is studied using pulsed vapor fluxes for the model system Ag/SiO2. It is shown that the competition between island growth and coalescence completion determines structure evolution. The effect of the initial growth stages on film formation is also examined for the tilted columnar microstructure obtained when vapor arrives at an angle that deviates from the substrate surface normal. This is done using two metals with distinctly different nucleation behaviour, and the findings suggest that the column tilt angle is set by nucleation conditions in conjunction with shadowing of the vapor flux by adjacent islands. Vapor arriving at an angle can in addition result in films that exhibit preferred crystallographic orientations, both out-of-plane and in-plane. Their emergence is commonly described by an evolutionary growth model, which for some materials predict a double in-plane alignment that has not been observed experimentally. Here, an experiment is designed to replicate the model’s growth conditions, confirming the existence of double in-plane alignment.

    New and added film functionalities can further be unlocked by alloying. Properties are then largely set by chemistry and atomic arrangement, where the latter can be affected by thermodynamics, kinetics and vapor flux modulation. Their combined effect on atomic arrangement is here unravelled by presenting a research methodology that encompasses high resolution vapor flux modulation, nanoscale structure v vi probes and growth simulations. The methodology is deployed to study the immiscible Ag-Cu and miscible Ag-Au model systems, for which it is shown that capping of Cu by Ag atoms via near surface diffusion processes and rough morphology of the Ag-Au growth front are the decisive structure forming processes in each respective system.

    The results generated in this thesis are of relevance for tuning structure of metal films grown on weakly bonding substrates. They also indicate that improved growth models are required to accurately describe structure evolution and emergence of a preferred in-plane orientation in films where vapor arrives at an angle that deviates from the substrate surface normal. In addition, this thesis presents a methodology that can be used to identify and understand structure forming processes in multicomponent films, which may enable tailoring of atomic arrangement and related properties in technologically relevant material systems.

    List of papers
    1. Time-domain and energetic bombardment effects on the nucleation and coalescence of thin metal films on amorphous substrates
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-domain and energetic bombardment effects on the nucleation and coalescence of thin metal films on amorphous substrates
    Show others...
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 46, no 21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsed, ionized vapour fluxes, generated from high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharges, are employed to study the effects of time-domain and energetic bombardment on the nucleation and coalescence characteristics during Volmer–Weber growth of metal (Ag) films on amorphous (SiO2) substrates. In situ monitoring of the film growth, by means of wafer curvature measurements and spectroscopic ellipsometry, is used to determine the film thickness where a continuous film is formed. This thickness decreases from ~210 to ~140 Å when increasing the pulsing frequency for a constant amount of material deposited per pulse or when increasing the amount of material deposited per pulse and the energy of the film forming species for a constant pulsing frequency. Estimations of adatom lifetimes and the coalescence times show that there are conditions at which these times are within the range of the modulation of the vapour flux. Thus, nucleation and coalescence processes can be manipulated by changing the temporal profile of the vapour flux. We suggest that other than for elucidating the atomistic mechanisms that control pulsed growth processes, the interplay between the time scales for diffusion, coalescence and vapour flux pulsing can be used as a tool to determine characteristic surface diffusion and island coalescence parameters.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Physics: Hybrid Open Access, 2013
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95508 (URN)10.1088/0022-3727/46/21/215303 (DOI)000319116300009 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|VR 621-2011-4280|COST Action Highly Ionized Pulsed Plasmas|MP0804|Linkoping University via the LiU Research Fellows program||

    Available from: 2013-07-05 Created: 2013-07-05 Last updated: 2016-11-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Unravelling the Physical Mechanisms that Determine Microstructural Evolution of Ultrathin Volmer-Weber Films
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unravelling the Physical Mechanisms that Determine Microstructural Evolution of Ultrathin Volmer-Weber Films
    2014 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 116, no 4, 044302- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The initial formation stages (i.e., island nucleation, island growth, and island coalescence) set characteristic length scales during growth of thin films from the vapour phase. They are, thus, decisive for morphological and microstructural features of films and nanostructures. Each of the initial formation stages has previously been well-investigated separately for the case of Volmer-Weber growth, but knowledge on how and to what extent each stage individually and all together affect the microstructural evolution is still lacking. Here we address this question using growth of Ag on SiO2 from pulsed vapour fluxes as a case study. By combining in situ growth monitoring, ex situ imaging and growth simulations we systematically study the growth evolution all the way from nucleation to formation of a continuous film and establish the effect of the vapour flux time domain on the scaling behaviour of characteristic growth transitions (elongation transition, percolation and continuous film formation). Our data reveal a pulsing frequency dependence for the characteristic film growth transitions, where the nominal transition thickness decreases with increasing pulsing frequency up to a certain value after which a steady-state behaviour is observed. The scaling behaviour is shown to result from differences in island sizes and densities, as dictated by the initial film formation stages. These differences are determined solely by the interplay between the characteristics of the vapour flux and time required for island coalescence to be completed. In particular, our data provide evidence that the steady-state scaling regime of the characteristic growth transitions is caused by island growth that hinders coalescence from being completed, leading to a coalescence-free growth regime.

    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103920 (URN)10.1063/1.4890522 (DOI)000340710700078 ()
    Available from: 2014-02-03 Created: 2014-02-03 Last updated: 2016-11-30
    3. Tilt of the columnar microstructure in off-normally deposited thin films using highly ionized vapor fluxes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tilt of the columnar microstructure in off-normally deposited thin films using highly ionized vapor fluxes
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, no 17, 7 pages- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The tilt of the columnar microstructure has been studied for Cu and Cr thin films grown off-normally using highly ionized vapor fluxes, generated by the deposition technique high power impulse magnetron sputtering. It is found that the relatively large column tilt (with respect to the substrate normal) observed for Cu films decreases as the ionization degree of the deposition flux increases. On the contrary, Cr columns are found to grow relatively close to the substrate normal and the column tilt is independent from the ionization degree of the vapor flux when films are deposited at room temperature. The Cr column tilt is only found to be influenced by the ionized fluxes when films are grown at elevated temperatures, suggesting that film morphology during the film nucleation stage is also important in affecting column tilt. A phenomenological model that accounts for the effect of atomic shadowing at different nucleation conditions is suggested to explain the results.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2013
    National Category
    Engineering and Technology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-94608 (URN)10.1063/1.4804066 (DOI)000319292800398 ()
    Available from: 2013-06-27 Created: 2013-06-27 Last updated: 2016-11-30Bibliographically approved
    4. Double in-plane alignment in biaxially textured thin films
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Double in-plane alignment in biaxially textured thin films
    2014 (English)In: Applied Physics Letters, ISSN 0003-6951, E-ISSN 1077-3118, Vol. 105, no 23, 233113- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The scientific interest and technological relevance of biaxially textured polycrystalline thin films stem from their microstructure that resembles that of single crystals. To explain the origin and predict the type of biaxial texture in off-normally deposited films, Mahieu et al. have developed an analytical model [S. Mahieu et al., Thin Solid Films 515, 1229 (2006)]. For certain materials, this model predicts the occurrence of a double in-plane alignment, however, experimentally only a single in-plane alignment has been observed and the reason for this discrepancy is still unknown. The model calculates the resulting in-plane alignment by considering the growth of faceted grains with an out-of-plane orientation that corresponds to the predominant film out-of-plane texture. This approach overlooks the fact that in vapor condensation experiments where growth kinetics is limited and only surface diffusion is active, out-of-plane orientation selection is random during grain nucleation and happens only upon grain impingement. Here, we compile and implement an experiment that is consistent with the key assumptions set forth by the in-plane orientation selection model by Mahieu et al.; a Cr film is grown off-normally on a fiber textured Ti epilayer to pre-determine the out-of-plane orientation and only allow for competitive growth with respect to the in-plane alignment. Our results show unambiguously a biaxially textured Cr (110) film that possesses a double in-plane alignment, in agreement with predictions of the in-plane selection model. Thus, a long standing discrepancy in the literature is resolved, paving the way towards more accurate theoretical descriptions and hence knowledge-based control of microstructure evolution in biaxially textured thin films.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113499 (URN)10.1063/1.4903932 (DOI)000346266000086 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Linkoping University

    Available from: 2015-01-19 Created: 2015-01-19 Last updated: 2016-11-30
    5. Atomic arrangement in immiscible Ag-Cu alloys synthesized far-from-equilibrium
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Atomic arrangement in immiscible Ag-Cu alloys synthesized far-from-equilibrium
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 110, 114-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Physical attributes of multicomponent materials of a given chemical composition are determined by atomic arrangement at property-relevant length scales. A potential route to access a vast array of atomic configurations for material property tuning is by synthesis of multicomponent thin films using vapor fluxes with their deposition pattern modulated in the sub-monolayer regime. However, the applicability of this route for creating new functional materials is impeded by the fact that a fundamental understanding of the combined effect of sub-monolayer flux modulation, kinetics and thermodynamics on atomic arrangement is not available in the literature. Here we present a research strategy and verify its viability for addressing the aforementioned gap in knowledge. This strategy encompasses thin film synthesis using a route that generates multi-atomic fluxes with sub-monolayer resolution and precision over a wide range of experimental conditions, deterministic growth simulations and nanoscale micro structural probes. Investigations are focused on structure formation within the archetype immiscible Ag-Cu binary system, revealing that atomic arrangement at different length scales is governed by the arrival pattern of the film forming species, in conjunction with diffusion of near-surface Ag atoms to encapsulate 3D Cu islands growing on 2D Ag layers. The knowledge generated and the methodology presented herein provides the scientific foundation for tailoring atomic arrangement and physical properties in a wide range of miscible and immiscible multinary systems. (C) 2016 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2016
    Keyword
    Ag-Cu thin films; MD simulations; Modulated vapor fluxes; Nonequilibrium synthesis; Immiscible alloys
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128722 (URN)10.1016/j.actamat.2016.03.023 (DOI)000374810400012 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Linkoping University [Dnr-LiU-2015-01510]; Swedish Research Council [VR 621-2011-5312]; AForsk through the project "Towards Next Generation of Energy Saving Windows"

    Available from: 2016-06-01 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2016-11-30
  • Bäckman, Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bäckman, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Broqvist, Mari
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Uppföljning av prioriteringsarbeten: Exempel på olika tillvägagångssätt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport syftar till att ge inspiration och vara till hjälp för dem somfunderar på hur ett prioriteringsarbete ska kunna följas upp. Vi har samlat exempel på uppföljningar som gjorts med avseende på olika frågeställningar ochtillvägagångssätt. Det är exempel både från landstings-/regionövergripande nivåoch från verksamhetsnivå. I några fall har uppföljningen gjorts internt i den egnaorganisationen medan andra har tagit hjälp av en extern part.

    Eftersom prioriteringsarbeten kan göras med många olika syften kommer därmed även uppföljningen av dem fokusera på olika aspekter och använda sigav olika metoder. De uppföljningar vi har tagit upp i rapporten fokuserar på:

    • följsamhet till prioriteringsbeslut samt dess ekonomiska effekter
    • uppfattningar om prioriteringsprocessen
    • kännedom och uppfattningar om samsyn om prioriteringar
    • patienters/brukares uppfattningar.

    För dessa uppföljningar ger vi exempel på olika angreppssätt för datainsamlingsom använts, såsom:

    • via journalsystem, bokningssystem eller databaser
    • via intervjuer, uppföljningssamtal eller enkäter
    • via interna möten
    • via sammanställning av flera olika källor.

    En avgränsning i rapporten är att vi inte gör någon resultatredovisning eller värdering av det prioriteringsarbete som respektive uppföljning riktar sig mot. Dels fanns det inte resultat ännu för pågående uppföljningar och dels ligger detutanför syftet med denna rapport. Här hänvisar vi istället till den dokumentationsom nämns som referenser eller till att ta kontakt direkt med det aktuellalandstinget/regionen eller verksamheten. Avslutningsvis diskuterar vi kort kring de exempel vi presenterat och om förochnackdelar med olika typer av uppföljningar.

  • Landälv, Ludvig
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Landälv, Ludvig
    Luleå Tekniska Universitet.
    Samband mellan tjockleken hos PVD-skikt och förslitningsbeteendet vid svarvning2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has as main goal to study the influence of the coating thickness, deposited by arc-PVD- technology, on the wear resistance of coated cemented carbide inserts in three different turning operations. An additional effort has also been made to develop a new test method for evaluating flank wear resistance. Three different coating types (Coating A, Coating B and Coating C) have been studied in three distinctive thicknesses (2, 4 and 6 μ m) for each type. For two of the coating types (Coating A and B) special studies has been done with the thickest coating, creating two additional coating versions of the thickest coating, by changing various deposition parameters, with the aim to enhance the cohesive properties of the coating and lower the residual stresses at the cutting edge. The results show increased crater wear resistance with increased coating thickness for all coating types, but the amount of increase changes with coating type (Coating A>B>C). Flaking wear resistance decreased with increased coating thickness for all coating types. Further the high temperature version of Coating A, showed a significant increase in the flaking wear resistance compared to the standard version of Coating A. The flank wear test showed an increased resistance with thicker coatings in all cases except for the 6 μ m version of Coating C. The flank wear resistance of the most flank wear resistant coatings (Coating B, C) was also successfully examined in a new developed test method. The method suppressed excessive crater wear on the rake face and presented a high abrasive wear rate on the flank and some flaking on the rake face. The amount of flaking is judged not to influence the testing of the flank wear resistance. For all the tested coatings in the new test an increase in the coating thickness resulted in better flank wear resistance.

  • Rönnby, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry.
    Rönnby, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry.
    Quantum Chemical Feasibility Study of Methylamines as Nitrogen Precursors in Chemical Vapor Deposition2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility of using methylamines instead of ammonia as a nitrogen precursor for the CVD of nitrides is studied using quantum chemical computations of reaction energies: reaction electronic energy (Δ𝑟𝐸𝑒𝑙𝑒𝑐) reaction enthalpy (Δ𝑟𝐻) and reaction free energy (Δ𝑟𝐺). The reaction energies were calculated for three types of reactions: Uni- and bimolecular decomposition to more reactive nitrogen species, adduct forming with trimethylgallium (TMG) and trimethylaluminum (TMA) followed by a release of methane or ethane and surface adsorption to gallium nitride for both the unreacted ammonia or methylamines or the decomposition products. The calculations for the reaction entropy and free energy were made at both STP and CVD conditions (300°C-1300°C and 50 mbar). The ab inito Gaussian 4 (G4) theory were used for the calculations of the decomposition and adduct reactions while the surface adsorptions were calculated using the Density Functional Theory method B3LYP. From the reactions energies it can be concluded that the decomposition was facilitated by the increasing number of methyl groups on the nitrogen. The adducts with mono- and dimethylamine were more favorable than ammonia and trimethylamine. 𝑁𝐻2 was found to be most readily to adsorb to 𝐺𝑎𝑁 while the undecomposed ammonia and methylamines was not willingly to adsorb.

  • Nyman, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems.
    Nyman, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Fluid and Mechatronic Systems.
    Estimation of Aerodynamic Parameters in Real-Time: Implementation and Comparison of a Sequential Frequency Domain Method and a Batch Method2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The flight testing and evaluation of collected data must be efficient during intensive flight-test programs such as the ones conducted during development of new aircraft. The aim of this thesis has thus been to produce a first version of an aerodynamic derivative estimation program that is to be used during real-time flight tests. The program is to give a first estimate of the aerodynamic derivatives as well as check the quality of the data collected and thus serve as a decision support during tests.

    The work that has been performed includes processing of data in order to use it in computations, comparing a batch and a sequential estimation method using real-time data and programming a user interface. All computations and programming has been done in Matlab.

    The estimation methods that have been compared are both built on transforming data to the frequency domain using a Chirp z-transform and then estimating the aerodynamic derivatives using complex least squares with instrumental variables.The sequential frequency domain method performs estimates at a given interval while the batch method performs one estimation at the end of the maneuver. Both methods compared in this thesis produce equal results. The continuous updates of the sequential method was however found to be better suited for a real-time application than the single estimation of the batch method.

    The telemetric data received from the aircraft must be synchronized to a common frequency of 60 Hz. Missing samples of the data stream must be linearly interpolated and different units of measured parameters must be corrected in order to be able to perform these estimations in the real-time test environment.

  • Zander, Jens
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Zander, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Forchheimer, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    SOFTNET – an approach to high level packet communication1983In: Pioneer Papers on Packet Radio 1981-1985, ARRL, 1983, 1-2 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    SOFTNET is a packet-radio concept under development in Sweden. The network is distributed and all nodes are programmable via the network during normal operation. This concept represents an unconventional approach to the protocol issue and offers elegant solutions to the higher level communication problems. This paper gives a programming model of the network, along with some illustrating examples.

  • Zander, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zander, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Softnet – packet Radio in Sweden1981In: Arrl Amateur Radio: Computer Networking Conferences: Pioneer Papers on Packet Radio 1981-1985, 1981, 1-4 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experimental packet radio network is under construction at the University of Linkoping, Sweden. The network is distributed and all nodes are programmable via the network during normal operation. This concept gives full flexibility at all levels. Experiments at low levels, such as access schemes, as well as at high levels, such as routing and flow-control, are possible. Finally, the implementation of the network is sketched.

  • Ramstedt, John
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Ramstedt, John
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Implementation av slagbaserat interaktionsmönster för Kinect2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kinect är en spelkontroll för rörelse- och gestbaserade spel. Genom specifika interaktionsmönster interagerar en spelare med en spelapplikation. I denna studie utvecklades en spelapplikation där spelaren ska boxa till måltavlor som dyker upp på en spelplan. I studien undersöktes hur man kan gå tillväga för att utveckla en slagbaserad spelapplikation för Kinect. Olika typer av visuell återkoppling samt olika sätt att styra spelplanen implementerades och testades. Metoderna analyserades utifrån hur de påverkade spelupplevelsen. Studien visar att den visuella återkopplingen från en spelapplikation är viktig eftersom den påverkar spelupplevelsen.

  • Hemm-Ode, Simone
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute for Medical and Analytical Technologies, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHNW, Muttenz, Switzerland.
    Hemm-Ode, Simone
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Institute for Medical and Analytical Technologies, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHNW, Muttenz, Switzerland.
    Pison, Daniela
    Institute for Medical and Analytical Technologies, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHNW, Muttenz, Switzerland.
    Alonso, Fabiola
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Shah, Ashesh
    Institute for Medical and Analytical Technologies, School of Life Sciences, University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland FHNW, Muttenz, Switzerland.
    Coste, Jérôme
    Université Clermont Auvergne, Université d’Auvergne, EA 7282, Image Guided Clinical Neurosciences and Connectomics (IGCNC), Clermont-Ferrand, France; Service de Neurochirurgie, Hôpital Gabriel-Montpied, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Lemaire, Jean-Jacques
    Université Clermont Auvergne, Université d’Auvergne, EA 7282, Image Guided Clinical Neurosciences and Connectomics (IGCNC), Clermont-Ferrand, France; Service de Neurochirurgie, Hôpital Gabriel-Montpied, Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Clermont-Ferrand, Clermont-Ferrand, France.
    Wårdell, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Biomedical Instrumentation. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Patient-Specific Electric Field Simulations and Acceleration Measurements for Objective Analysis of Intraoperative Stimulation Tests in the Thalamus2016In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 10, 577Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite an increasing use of deep brain stimulation (DBS) the fundamental mechanisms of action remain largely unknown. Simulation of electric entities has previously been proposed for chronic DBS combined with subjective symptom evaluations, but not for intraoperative stimulation tests. The present paper introduces a method for an objective exploitation of intraoperative stimulation test data to identify the optimal implant position of the chronic DBS lead by relating the electric field (EF) simulations to the patient-specific anatomy and the clinical effects quantified by accelerometry. To illustrate the feasibility of this approach, it was applied to five patients with essential tremor bilaterally implanted in the ventral intermediate nucleus (VIM). The VIM and its neighborhood structures were preoperatively outlined in 3D on white matter attenuated inversion recovery MR images. Quantitative intraoperative clinical assessments were performed using accelerometry. EF simulations (n = 272) for intraoperative stimulation test data performed along two trajectories per side were set-up using the finite element method for 143 stimulation test positions. The resulting EF isosurface of 0.2 V/mm was superimposed to the outlined anatomical structures. The percentage of volume of each structure’s overlap was calculated and related to the corresponding clinical improvement. The proposed concept has been successfully applied to the five patients. For higher clinical improvements, not only the VIM but as well other neighboring structures were covered by the EF isosurfaces. The percentage of the volumes of the VIM, of the nucleus intermediate lateral of the thalamus and the prelemniscal radiations within the prerubral field of Forel increased for clinical improvements higher than 50% compared to improvements lower than 50%. The presented new concept allows a detailed and objective analysis of a high amount of intraoperative data to identify the optimal stimulation target. First results indicate agreement with published data hypothesizing that the stimulation of other structures than the VIM might be responsible for good clinical effects in essential tremor. (Clinical trial reference number: Ref: 2011-A00774-37/AU905)

  • Garbrecht, Adi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Garbrecht, Adi
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Nilsson, Ida
    Matematikundervisning i olika kontexter: Hur matematikundervisning i olika kontexter påverkar elevers motivation och prestation2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie var att undersöka hur olika kontexter som förekommer i matematikundervisningen påverkarelevers motivation och prestation i aritmetik. Dessa kontexter är verklighetsanknuten undervisning, användning av spel samtdigitala spel. Litteraturstudiens tema är väsentligt eftersom matematiken upplevs i många olika kontexter, både inom skolanoch i vardagen. Insamlingen av data ägde rum genom användning av databaserna ERIC, UniSearch, MathEduc och GoogleScholar. Resultatet visade att användningen av de tre olika kontexterna i matematikundervisningen kan bidra till utvecklingen avelevers motivation och prestation. Resultatet visade även att det finns nackdelar med användning av samma kontext under enlängre tidsperiod.

  • Public defence: 2016-12-20 10:15 ACAS, building A, Linköping
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Paramonova, Svetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Re-viewing industrial energy-efficiency improvement using a widened system boundary2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improved energy efficiency in industry is important for reaching the targets within the EU strategy for increased sustainability. However, energy efficiency is not always prioritised within companies, and the improvement potential remains large. This paradox called an energyefficiency gap is explained by energy-efficiency barriers. The low interest in energy efficiency is also explained by the fact that it is not within companies’ core competences and not perceived as strategic. The public policies aiming at closing the gap have thus far been concentrated on the faster diffusion of energy-efficient technologies. This is not sufficient, and the gap can be extended by including energy management practices. To bridge the extended gap, there is a need to introduce an extended system perspective. The aim of this thesis is to  investigate the industrial energy-efficiency potential and possibilities for reaching this potential using an extended system boundary.

    In this thesis, the extended gap was quantified by means of classification of the energy data covering the most electricity-intensive Swedish industrial companies. The results show that technology-related measures represent 61% of energy savings, whereas management-related measures account for 38%. Energy efficiency due to management-related measures can be improved with lower costs. The energy-efficiency potentials for different levels of industrial motor systems were quantified, showing that the highest potential is found in the measures that include personal involvement and the optimisation of routines. This proves that the general approaches based on technological diffusion seem to not be sufficient to solve the energy paradox.

    The evaluation of the Swedish energy audit programme for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) proved that there is a lack of energy-related knowledge among SMEs. The implementation rate of measures proposed in the audits is only 54%, while there is also a need to reach the SMEs not covered by the programme. The international study of energy-efficiency potentials did not indicate energy management to be considered by SMEs at all.

    To bridge the extended gap, the external experts’ knowledge on how to work with energy efficiency has to stay within companies. For this, there is a need for methods based on longterm orientation as well as a systematic view of complicated processes. The methods should be universal and applied in a particular context. An example of such a method for large industries is presented in this thesis, whereas applying it to SMEs is problematic due to limited resources. Participating in networks for energy efficiency can be a way to initiate energy-efficiency work within SMEs on a continuous basis. Moreover, this thesis shows that there is a need for the development of a common taxonomy for energy data as well as the development of a central portal where energy data can be reported and stored. This would simplify the monitoring of energy end-use, the control of measures implementation and the comparison between processes, companies and sectors.

    List of papers
    1. Outsourcing Industrial Energy Management: Industrial Energy Efficiency Networks Provided As an Energy Service
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Outsourcing Industrial Energy Management: Industrial Energy Efficiency Networks Provided As an Energy Service
    2014 (English)In: Outsourcing: strategies, challenges and effects on organizations / [ed] Andre Deering, New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014, 71-98 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving industrial energy efficiency (IEE) is of the outmost importance for both individual industrial companies, and governments. Improved IEE leads to reduced energy costs for companies, and improved sustainability through reduced CO2 emissions. Despite a large untapped potential for improved IEE, many energy efficiency measures (EEM) remain unexploited due to the existence of various barriers to IEE. One of the reasons for the large untapped IEE potential is the apparent low level of energy management practices in industry. A promising approach to stress improved IEE, and improved energy management practices, are industrial energy efficiency networks (IEEN), which in essence is a type of energy service where energy management is partly outsourced to a third party. There is a need to study how IEENs could and should be structured. Successful networks have been under operation in many different areas and disciplines. A large part of the organizational issues of previous research on networks, could thus be transformed to IEENs, e.g. in terms of transition theory, transformation etc. The aim of this book chapter is to present a general model for the management of IEEN.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    New York: Nova Science Publishers, Inc., 2014
    Keyword
    Energy efficiency networks, energy management practices, double-loop learning
    National Category
    Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112281 (URN)978-1-63463-288-1 (ISBN)
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Available from: 2014-11-21 Created: 2014-11-21 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
    2. Quantifying the extended energy efficiency gap: - evidence from Swedish electricity-intensive industries
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantifying the extended energy efficiency gap: - evidence from Swedish electricity-intensive industries
    2015 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 51, 472-483 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Energy efficiency is one of the major means of reducing CO2 emissions resulting from industrial use of energy. Both from a societal as well as business perspective it is of great importance to reduce industrial energy end use (EEU). The implementation of energy-efficient technologies as well as increased focus on energy management practices has been stated by previous research to be the two most important methods of improved industrial energy efficiency. To date, however, there are few (if any) studies that have analyzed the proportion of industrial energy savings that derive from implementation of new technology versus from continuous energy management practices. By analyzing substantial data from the Swedish PFE program this paper aims to quantify what previously has been referred to as the extended energy efficiency gap. Results show that about 61% of the analyzed 1254 energy efficiency measures are derived from the implementation of new technology, and the rest stems from management and operational measures. The results presented in this paper are of outmost importance for industrial energy managers and energy auditors as well as industrial associations and policy-makers in order to cost-effectively address these no-regret measures.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    Energy management, Energy efficiency gap, Extended energy efficiency gap, PFE, Energy efficiency measures
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119842 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2015.06.012 (DOI)000371000900032 ()
    Funder
    Swedish Energy Agency
    Note

    Funding agencies: Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2015-06-26 Created: 2015-06-26 Last updated: 2016-11-24Bibliographically approved
    3. International study on energy end-use data among industrial SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and energy end-use efficiency improvement opportunities
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>International study on energy end-use data among industrial SMEs (small and medium-sized enterprises) and energy end-use efficiency improvement opportunities
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, Vol. 104, 282-296 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector is important to study in terms of improved energy efficiency, being one of the major energy-using sectors and responsible for a major share of CO2 emissions. The energy end-use (EEU) in the industrial sector is complex in general as processes are intertwined and interrelated. Moreover, bottom-up data of EEU on an aggregated level is scarce. Data for total energy supply like electricity, oil, coal, and natural gas exists but bottom-up data of what processes these energy carriers are used in, and moreover, where the major potential for implementation of energy efficiency measures (EEMs) exists, is less prevalent. This holds in particular for industrial small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This makes policy formulation and design for industry a great challenge. Knowledge on where and how energy is used, as well as where opportunities for improvement exist, may provide good support for developing the most effective policies. Therefore, the aim of this study has been to present and compare available bottom-up energy data for industrial SMEs in four countries, namely Belgium, Italy, Japan and Sweden. Results show that the existence and quality of bottom-up EEU data differs largely between the countries and the development of a general taxonomy of structuring EEU data as well as EEMs is needed. Without the development of such a general taxonomy, the deployment level of EEMs and carbon dioxide emission reductions is unlikely to ever reach its full potential as knowledge is missing on how large the potential is, in which processes the major potential is found, how far industry has reached in terms of deployment levels, and in which areas future energy policies are needed. In conclusion, this paper of EEU and EEM in industrial SMEs addresses the high importance of future research in creating a harmonized data categorization, as this will greatly support the transition towards sustainable industrial energy systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keyword
    SME; Industry; Energy efficiency; Energy audit
    National Category
    Mechanical Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120435 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.04.073 (DOI)000357552900028 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency [35488-1]

    Available from: 2015-08-12 Created: 2015-08-11 Last updated: 2016-11-24
    4. Energy-efficiency networks for SMEs: Learning from the Swedish experience
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy-efficiency networks for SMEs: Learning from the Swedish experience
    2016 (English)In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 65, 295-307 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The potential for energy efficiency improvements in the industry is significant for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), but the implementation of energy-efficiency measures is not always possible owing to various barriers to energy efficiency. Working with energy management personnel inside companies can help to overcome these barriers. However, this is not a common practice among SMEs. Participation in industrial energy-efficiency networks (IEENs) can be a means of introducing customized energy management practices into SMEs. In such a network, industrial companies get support for a period of three to four years from an external network coordinator to determine energy efficiency potential, implement energy-efficiency measures, and monitor energy performance. The method has been used widely in Switzerland and Germany, while in other countries the experience has not proven successful thus far. To show the effects of networking among industrial companies, it is important to evaluate networks quantitatively and qualitatively. This aspect is missing from the field of energy efficiency research, not least with regard to evaluation methods. Thus, it is crucial to evaluate Swedish IEENs and suggest methods for evaluating IEENs. The aim of this study is to review IEENs with particular emphasis on Swedish IEENs. The results show that in Sweden, a common notion of IEENs has not yet been established, and projects with different characteristics and designs fall under the category of IEEN. The lack of a standard approach to running and evaluating IEENs makes it difficult to evaluate Swedish networks quantitatively. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2016
    Keyword
    Industrial energy efficiency; Energy management; Industrial energy efficiency networks; Evaluation method; Energy efficiency measures
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132043 (URN)10.1016/j.rser.2016.06.088 (DOI)000383293800021 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2016-10-18 Created: 2016-10-17 Last updated: 2016-11-24
    5. Ex-post impact and process evaluation of the Swedish energy audit policy programme for small and medium-sized enterprises
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ex-post impact and process evaluation of the Swedish energy audit policy programme for small and medium-sized enterprises
    2016 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 135, 932-949 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The industrial sector accounts for 35%-40% of total energy use in Sweden, where 30% of industrial energy use comes from non-energy-intensive small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). This sector has not historically received much attention when it comes to improving energy efficiency due to limited resources, lower priority given to energy issues, rather small energy-saving potential for a single company, and great heterogeneity of the SMEs. However, the accumulative energy-saving potential for SMEs can be quite high and achieved at very low costs, partly because most improvements are found in support processes and are relatively easy to implement. Various public policies, such as industrial energy audit programmes, serve as a means for overcoming barriers to energy efficiency in the sector of SMEs. One example is the Swedish Energy Audit Programme (SEAP), a stand-alone audit programme functioning between 2010 and 2014. The aim of this paper is to examine the programme by means of process and impact evaluation. The results show that the programme resulted in annual net energy efficiency savings equivalent to 340 GWh/year or 6% of the 713 participating companies energy end use. The implementation rate in the audit programme was 53%. On average, the public cost of one implemented measure was (sic)700. Derived from the amount of energy saved, the audit programmes annual cost-effectiveness is (sic)7/MWh saved energy. This paper adds a significant scientific contribution due to the method used for evaluation. Multiple company visits and availability of quantitative data from 713 companies gave the possibility to address the additionality effects and estimate net energy savings more precisely. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016
    Keyword
    Energy audit policy programme; Small and medium-sized enterprises; Energy policy; Energy efficiency measures; Energy policy evaluation
    National Category
    Energy Systems
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131868 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.06.139 (DOI)000382792900081 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Available from: 2016-10-13 Created: 2016-10-11 Last updated: 2016-11-24
  • Public defence: 2016-12-19 13:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Danielsson, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Danielsson, Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The Clinical and Pathological Spectrum of Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies: Implications for pathogenesis, classification and diagnosis2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) constitute a heterogeneous group of diseases with severe consequences for the life of affected patients. Dermatomyositis, polymyositis and inclusion body myositis (IBM) are the classical representatives of this group. The treatments given today often have limited effects, and are taken at the cost of side effects. Major obstacles in the search for more effective treatments are; (1) an incomplete understanding of the disease mechanisms, (2) difficulties to delineate homogeneous disease groups for clinical studies and (3) the sometimes challenging task to diagnose these diseases.

    Aims: We addressed a number of “loose ends” in the areas of pathogenesis, classification and diagnosis; mechanisms of muscle fiber degeneration in IIM, with a focus of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and invasion of muscle  fibers by inflammatory cells (partial invasion); protecting and mediating factors present in muscle; the association of other diseases with IIM, in particular celiac disease ; the evaluation of two classification systems and laboratory methods for increased diagnostic performance.

    The studies: We included 106 patients, diagnosed at the Neuromuscular unit in Linköping, Sweden, with pathological muscle findings consistent with IIM. The incidence in the county of Östergötland (during 5 years) was 7.3 per million/year (3 patients each year). Of 88 patients with confirmed IIM 4 (4.5 %) had celiac disease, 33 (38%) had an associated systemic inflammatory disease and 5 (5.7 %) had a malignancy. Ninety-nine patients were included for a comparison of two classification systems using criteria of the European Neuromuscle Centre (Amato/ENMC), and the widely used Bohan and Peter classification, both with the addition of IBM according to Griggs et al. Using the Amato/ENMC criteria the most prevalent diagnostic group after IBM (30%) was nonspecific myositis (23%), followed by polymyositis (20%) and dermatomyositis 17%). A substantial number of patients meeting Bohan and Peter (or Griggs) criteria were excluded by Amato/ENMC criteria, most (21/23) due to lack of detectable muscle weakness. Extended muscle sectioning increased the sensitivity of a muscle biopsy by 15 % and the specificity by 22%, and showed an overlap between disease groups. Muscle biopsies from patients with IIM and controls were used to investigate pathological findings considered specific for disease groups, and for the presence of programmed cell death (apoptosis) and disease protecting and mediating factors in muscle. The presence of apoptotic muscle fiber nuclei was detected in muscle with partial invasion (however not in the invaded fibers) in the presence of granzyme B and CD8+ cytotoxic T cells. The major apoptosis inhibiting protein Bcl-2 was shown to be constitutionally expressed in healthy muscle but weakened in IIM.

    Conclusion: We present apoptosis as a possible disease mechanism in parallel with partial invasion of fibers. Furthermore, partial invasion may not be a suitable distinguishing feature in the pathogenesis, or for classification and diagnosis of IIM. We also introduce the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 as a possible relevant muscle fiber protecting factor. A more extensive pathological work-up improves classification and diagnosis of IIM. The proposed Amato/ENMC creates a substantial portion of patients with non-specific or unclassified myositis. Associated diseases are common in IIM, and also include celiac disease.

    List of papers
    1. Classification and Diagnostic Investigation in Inflammatory Myopathies: A Study of 99 Patients
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classification and Diagnostic Investigation in Inflammatory Myopathies: A Study of 99 Patients
    2013 (English)In: Journal of Rheumatology, ISSN 0315-162X, E-ISSN 1499-2752, Vol. 40, no 7, 1173-1182 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. Insights into the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies have led to new diagnostic methods. The aims of our study were (1) to evaluate the consequences of using the classification of Amato/European Neuromuscular Centre Workshop (ENMC), compared to that of Bohan and Peter; and (2) to evaluate any diagnostic benefit in using an extended pathological investigation. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMethods. From a consecutive retrospective database, we evaluated 99 patients for classification. Patients with inclusion body myositis (IBM) were classified according to Griggs, et al. In addition to routine stainings and immunohistochemistry, a multilevel serial sectioning procedure was performed on paraffin-embedded material, to identify scarce pathological findings. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanResults. Classification according to Bohan and Peter could be performed for 83 of the 99 patients, whereas only 60 patients met the Amato/ENMC criteria, the latter resulting in the following diagnostic groups: IBM (n = 18), nonspecific myositis (n = 14), polymyositis (n = 12), dermatomyositis (n = 10), dermatomyositis sine dermatitis (n = 5), and immune-mediated necrotizing myopathy (n = 1). Most of the Amato/ENMC diagnostic groups harbored patients from several of the Bohan and Peter groups, which included a substantial group lacking proximal muscle weakness. The serial sectioning procedure was essential for classification of 9 patients (15%), and led to a more specific diagnosis for 13 patients (22%) according to Amato/ENMC. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanConclusion. The classification of Amato/ENMC was more restrictive, forming groups based on clinical criteria and specified myopathological findings, which clearly differed from the groups of the Bohan and Peter classification. An extended pathological investigation increased the diagnostic yield of a muscle biopsy and highlights the quantity and specificity of certain pathological findings.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Journal of Rheumatology, 2013
    Keyword
    INFLAMMATORY MYOPATHIES, IDIOPATHIC INFLAMMATORY MYOPATHIES, POLYMYOSITIS, DERMATOMYOSITIS, INCLUSION BODY MYOSITIS
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96992 (URN)10.3899/jrheum.120804 (DOI)000321993800023 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|University Hospital Linkoping||County Council of Ostergotland||

    Available from: 2013-09-02 Created: 2013-09-02 Last updated: 2016-11-23
    2. Expression of apoptosis related proteins in normal and diseased muscle: A possible role for Bcl-2 in protection of striated muscle
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Expression of apoptosis related proteins in normal and diseased muscle: A possible role for Bcl-2 in protection of striated muscle
    2009 (English)In: NEUROMUSCULAR DISORDERS, ISSN 0960-8966, Vol. 19, no 6, 412-417 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The unique absence of major histocompatibility complex class I antigen (MHC-I) expression in normal muscle is one possible mechanism protecting striated muscle. In order to define their possible involvement in protection of normal muscle. we investigated the expression of molecules involved in muscle fibre death and survival mechanisms (Bcl-2, Fas, Fas-ligand and TRAIL), focusing on disorders with possible involvement of cytotoxic T cells. We studied muscle biopsies from 20 healthy volunteers, from 10 patients affected by polymyositis and 10 by Duchenne muscular dystrophy. By using immunohistochemistry, Western blot and real-time PCR we detected a constitutional expression of Bcl-2 in healthy muscle, whereas the expression was weaker in disease processes. Fas-L and TRAIL were not detected in muscle fibres, and Fas only in muscle affected by disease. Our findings indicate that the major apoptotic protein Bcl-2 might have a hitherto unrecognized role in the protection of normal muscle.

    Keyword
    Inflammatory myopathy, Apoptosis, Bcl-2, TRAIL, Fas and Fas-L
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-19795 (URN)10.1016/j.nmd.2009.03.008 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-08-10 Created: 2009-08-10 Last updated: 2016-11-23
  • Public defence: 2016-12-16 09:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Vikström Eckevall, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Vikström Eckevall, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The influence of infertility and in vitro fertilization treatment on postpartum and long-term mental health in women2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It is estimated that about 10-15% of couples suffer from infertility, i.e. the inability to achieve a clinical pregnancy after at least one year of regular, unprotected intercourse and that between 2-5% of births are a result of in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Infertility and its treatment can have adverse effects on psychological well-being. While previous studies on postpartum depression (PPD) in IVF women suffer some methodological issues, there are no published studies on the risk of postpartum psychosis (PPP) after IVF pregnancies. Long-term, most women adjust well emotionally after IVF treatment but some, especially the childless, still suffer negative consequences. Meanwhile, few studies have extended beyond the first decade after treatment. Some studies have found that the childless elderly have social networks of less support potential but most show that psychological well-being is not affected by parental status. None of the studies have focused on the oldest old (≥85 years) and many have excluded those who live in institutional care, thus the frailest.

    Objective: The overall aim of this thesis was to study postpartum mental health in women who have undergone IVF treatment, using psychiatric diagnoses as outcomes, while controlling for major PPD and PPP risk factors as well as to determine the influences of childlessness, infertility and IVF treatment on long-term mental health in women. Materials and methods: Studies I-II are register-based, case control studies of 3532 (I) and 10,412 (II) primiparous women included in the Swedish IVF register. A control group of 8,553 (I) and 18,624 (II) primiparous women with spontaneous conceptions was selected from the Medical Birth Register. The main outcomes were PPD and PPP diagnoses the 1st year postpartum collected from the National Patient Register. Studies III-IV are cross-sectional. Study III included 470 women who had undergone IVF treatment 20-23 years previously. The Symptom Checklist-90 was used to investigate self-reported mental health. The results were compared with those from a population-based study and by parental status group. Study IV included 496 85-year olds. Psychological well-being, living situation, demographics and social network was investigated through a questionnaire and an interview.

    Results: Study I-II: There were no differences between the IVF and control group in the risk of receiving a PPD or PPP diagnosis. Having previously been diagnosed with any psychiatric, an affective or personality disorder increased  the risk of PPD while any previous psychiatric, psychotic, bipolar, depressive, anxiety or personality disorder diagnosis increased the risk of PPP. None of the women had committed suicide. Study III: The IVF women reported symptoms of higher intensity and were at increased risk of symptoms of depression, obsessive-compulsion and somatisation compared with the reference group. Childless women, compared with parents, reported a higher level of mental health problems as well as symptoms of depression and phobic anxiety. Study IV: No differences in psychological wellbeing, living situation or having friends close by were found across parental status groups. The childless 85-year olds were less likely to have relatives close by and to receive help.

    Discussion: This thesis indicates that the risk of receiving a PPD or PPP diagnosis from in- or outpatient psychiatric care or of committing suicide during the first year postpartum is not increased in women who have undergone IVF treatment. Any negative effects of infertility and its treatment might have been mitigated by the “healthy patient effect”; those who choose to enter treatment are generally psychologically robust. A history of mental illness is a major risk factor for PPD and PPP. The risk of some adverse symptoms of mental illness might be increased in women who have undergone IVF treatment twenty years previously, especially in those who have remained childless. The childless elderly appear to have social networks of less support potential but are not more likely to live in institutional care and do not experience more adverse effects on psychological well-being than the elderly who are parents.

    List of papers
    1. Risk of postnatal depression or suicide after in vitro fertilisation treatment: a nationwide case–control study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk of postnatal depression or suicide after in vitro fertilisation treatment: a nationwide case–control study
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: British Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology, ISSN 1470-0328, E-ISSN 1471-0528Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    To examine whether women who undergo in vitro fertilisation (IVF) treatment are at greater risk of postnatal suicide or postnatal depression (PND) requiring psychiatric care, compared with women who conceive spontaneously.

    Design

    Case–control study using data from national registers.

    Setting

    Sweden during the period 2003–2009.

    Population

    Cases were 3532 primiparous women who had given birth following IVF treatment. An aged-matched control group of 8553 mothers was randomly selected from the medical birth register.

    Methods

    Logistic regression analyses were performed with PND as the outcome, and with known risk factors of PND as well as IVF/spontaneous birth as covariates.

    Main outcome measures

    Postnatal depression (PND), defined as diagnoses F32–F39 of the tenth edition of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD–10), within 12 months of childbirth.

    Results

    Initial analyses showed that PND was more common in the control group than in the IVF group (0.8 versus 0.4%; P = 0.04); however, these differences disappeared when confounding factors were controlled for. A history of any psychiatric illness (P = 0.000; odds ratio, OR = 25.5; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI = 11.7–55.5), any previous affective disorder (P = 0.000; OR = 26.0; 95% CI = 10.5–64.0), or specifically a personality disorder (P = 0.028; OR = 3.8; 95% CI = 1.2–12.7) increased the risk of PND. No woman in either group committed suicide during the first year after childbirth.

    Conclusions

    Whereas mothers who receive IVF treatment are not at increased risk of PND, the risk is increased among mothers with a history of mental illness. Tweetable abstract A Swedish study on 3532 women showed that IVF treatment does not increase the risk of postnatal depression.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Chichester: Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2016
    Keyword
    In vitro fertilisation, infertility treatment, postnatal depression, postnatal mental illness
    National Category
    Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Medicine Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Geriatrics Family Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132763 (URN)10.1111/1471-0528.13788 (DOI)26663705 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-11-23 Created: 2016-11-23 Last updated: 2016-12-01Bibliographically approved
    2. Mental health in women 20-23 years after IVF treatment: a Swedish cross-sectional study
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mental health in women 20-23 years after IVF treatment: a Swedish cross-sectional study
    2015 (English)In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 5, no 10, e009426- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To assess self-perceived mental health in women treated with in vitro fertilisation (IVF) 20-23years previously, while comparing them to a reference group, and to determine any differences in mental health between those who had given birth, those who had adopted a child, those who had given birth and adopted a child and those who remained childless. Design A cross-sectional study. Setting A Center of Reproductive Medicine (RMC) at a Swedish University hospital. Participants 520 women who had undergone at least one IVF cycle at the University Hospital in Linkoping between 1986 and 1989. 504 of 520 women (97%) were eligible for follow-up. While 34 women declined, 93 per cent (n=470) of the women agreed to participate. The reference group consisted of 150 women of the Swedish population included in a study that was used to validate the Symptom CheckList (SCL)-90. Interventions Follow-up was conducted in 2008-2009. The SCL-90 was used to measure the womens self-perceived mental health and a questionnaire specific for this study was used to retain demographic information. Outcome measures The SCL-90 assesses 9 primary dimensions; somatisation, obsessive-compulsive, interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, hostility, phobic anxiety, paranoid ideation and psychoticism. There is also a global index of distress. Results Women who had previously undergone IVF treatment were at increased risk of symptoms of depression (p=0.017), obsessive-compulsion (p=0.02) and somatisation (p0.001) when compared to a reference group. In addition, the women who have remained childless are at increased risk of symptoms of depression (p=0.009) and phobic anxiety (p=0.017). Conclusions The majority of the women who have been treated with IVF 20-23years previously appear to be in good mental health. However, women who remain childless and/or without partner after unsuccessful infertility treatment constitute a vulnerable group even later on in life.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BMJ PUBLISHING GROUP, 2015
    Keyword
    Infertility; childlessness; MENTAL HEALTH; IVF; depression
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123849 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2015-009426 (DOI)000365467600111 ()26510732 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Health Research Council in the south east of Sweden

    Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2016-11-23
    3. The influences of childlessness on the psychological well-being and social network of the oldest old
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influences of childlessness on the psychological well-being and social network of the oldest old
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    2011 (English)In: BMC Geriatrics, ISSN 1471-2318, Vol. 11, no 78Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ELSA 85 project is a population-based study with the purpose to learn more about the “elderly elderly”. The aim of this part of the ELSA 85 study is to explore the effects of childlessness on the psychological wellbeing, living situation and social support of 85-year old individuals.

    Methods: A postal questionnaire was sent to all (650) 85-year old men and women living in Linköping Municipality in 2007. Psychological well-being and social network was measured using a number of questions.

    Results: 496 individuals participated in the study. No differences in psychological wellbeing were found between the 85-year olds who were childless and those who were parents. The childless 85-year olds were less likely to have relatives close by and to receive help than those who were parents. Individuals of both groups were equally likely to end up in institutional care, to have friends close by and to be in contact with neighbours.

    Conclusions: Even though elderly childless individuals have social networks of less support potential than those who are parents there are no differences in certain psychological wellbeing indicators between the two groups. Apparently, childless elderly individuals find ways to cope with whatever negative effects of childlessness they may have experienced.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73616 (URN)10.1186/1471-2318-11-78 (DOI)000208731700078 ()
    Available from: 2012-01-10 Created: 2012-01-10 Last updated: 2016-11-23Bibliographically approved
  • Trygg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Trygg, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Simulering av samtalsdata från en telefonväxel2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the creation of a simulator for generating phone call data similar to the output from a real telephone exchange.

    The thesis was performed for the company Nipsoft AB and the simulator is intended to be used by Nipsoft during testing and demonstrations of their telecom rating system. A telecom rating system is a system that process data from telephone exchanges to determine things like the cost and payer of each call. The simulator will be used to generate input to the rating system in cases when it is not suitable to use real call data.

    To better understand how to create a realistic simulator a large amount of phone calls from one of Nipsoft’s customers has been studied. Statistics for call length, calls per day, distribution over the day, destination, phone numbers per customer, number of unanswered calls and different kind of error rates has been computed.

    A model for the simulator was created according to Nipsoft’s demands and the computed statistics. The model was implemented in C# and Windows Forms. The simulator was tested by feeding it’s output as input to the Nipsoft rating system. Statistics was computed and compared to the statistics previously calculated from real phone calls. The result showed that the simulator does produce realistic call data, very similar to a real telephone exchange. Also a performance test was made and this showed that the simulator has excellent performance.

  • Van Chien, Trinh
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Chien, Trinh
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Björnson, Emil
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Massive MIMO Communications2017In: 5G Mobile Communications / [ed] Xiang Wei; Zheng Kan; Xuemin Sherman, Switzerland: Springer, 2017, 77-116 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every new network generation needs to make a leap in area data throughput, to manage the growing wireless data traffic. The Massive MIMO technologycan bring at least ten-fold improvements in area throughput by increasing the spec-tral efficiency (bit/s/Hz/cell), while using the same bandwidth and density of basestations as in current networks. These extraordinary gains are achieved by equipping the base stations with arrays of a hundred antennas to enable spatial multiplexing of tens of user terminals. This chapter explains the basic motivations and communication theory behind the Massive MIMO technology, and provides implementation-related design guidelines.

  • Hultberg, Per Å R
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    Hultberg, Per Å R
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning.
    Att välja på byggprogrammet: Kvinnliga elevers val av inriktning2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studien har försökt att klargöra varför kvinnliga elever som sökt till gymnasiets byggprogram, väljer målaryrket istället förändra yrken inom byggsektorn. Studien har skett genom intervjuer med kvinnliga eleverna på en gymnasieskola i Sverige. Intervjuerna har skett med sju stycken elever på gymnasieskolans byggprogram. Eleverna har gått i årskurs två och intervjuerna har skett på skolan. Det finns en stor manlig struktur i byggbranschen så även i måleribranschen. Det visar sig ofta med att det är tungt, smutsigt, obekväma arbetsställningar och en machostruktur som i sig inte är särskilt jämställd, har de kvinnliga eleverna kännedom om detta när de valt sina yrken? Under mitt arbete med denna studie har det visat sig i övrig forskning att det finns en ojämlikhet och ett icke genusperspektiv i byggbranschens förhållningssätt. Det skulle kunna vara en orsak till att flickor inte väljer att söka sig till dessa yrken.

    Resultatet visar på en viss kännedom om hur det förhåller sig med den struktur som finns i byggbranschen. Det har dock inte avskräckt dem för deras val av yrke. Mina studier visar på att flickor söker sig till målaryrket dels för att de vill arbeta pragmatiskt med händerna men också för att de tror sig få kvinnliga arbetskamrater som målare. De har dock varit medvetna om att målaryrket är ett tungt arbete.

    För att byggbranschen skulle attrahera flickor att söka de yrken som finns så behövs en omstrukturering av arbetssätt och arbetsmiljö. Då blir det acceptabelt för kvinnor att söka sig till de yrken som finns och som behöver rekrytering av arbetskraft.

  • Ehrenstråhle, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering.
    Ehrenstråhle, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Computer Engineering.
    Polynomial Expansion-Based Displacement Calculation on FPGA2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis implements a system for calculating the displacement between two consecutive video frames. The displacement is calculated using a polynomial expansion-based algorithm. A unit tested bottoms-up approach is successfully used to design and implement the system. The designed and implemented system is thoroughly elaborated upon. The chosen algorithm and its computational details are presented to provide context to the implemented system. Some of the major issues and their impact on the system are discussed.

  • Public defence: 2016-12-15 09:00 Hasselqvistsalen, Växthuset, Linköping
    Loftås, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Norrköping.
    Loftås, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Surgery in Norrköping.
    Response to neoadjuvant treatment in rectal cancer surgery2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Rectal cancer is one of the three most common malignancies in Sweden with an annual incidence of about 2000 cases. Current treatment consists of surgical resection of the rectum including the loco-regional lymph nodes in the mesorectum. In advanced cases, neoadjuvant chemo-radiotherapy (CRT) prior to the operative treatment reduces local recurrences and enables surgery. The neoadjuvant treatment can also eradicate the tumour completely, i.e. complete response. This research project was designed to investigate the effects of preoperative radiotherapy/ CRT and analyze methods to predict response to CRT.

    Study I investigated the expression of the FXYD-3 protein with immunohistochemistry in rectal cancer, with or without preoperative radiotherapy. The results from the total cohort showed that, strong FXYD-3 expression was correlated to infiltrative tumour growth (p = 0.02). In the radiotherapy group, strong FXYD-3 expression was related to an unfavourable prognosis (p = 0.02). Tumours with strong FXYD-3 expression had less tumour necrosis (p = 0.02) after radiotherapy. FXYD-3 expression in the primary tumour was increased compared to normal mucosa (p=0.008). We concluded that FXYD-3 expression was a prognostic factor in patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy for rectal cancer.

    Study II investigated FXYD-3 expression in tumours that developed local recurrences following surgery and compared this with expression in tumours that did not develop local recurrences. There was no difference in the expression of FXYD-3 between the group that developed local recurrences and the group that did not develop local recurrences. There was no difference in survival between those with strong or weak FXYD-3 expression. We concluded that this study could not confirm the findings from study 1 i.e. that FXYD-3 expression has prognostic significance in rectal cancer.

    Study III was a register-based study on the incidence and effects of complete response to neoadjuvant treatment. Eight per cent of the patients with adequate CRT to achieve complete response also had a complete histological response of the luminal tumor in the resected bowel. Sixteen per cent of that group had remaining lymph node metastases in the operative specimen. Chemotherapy together with radiotherapy doubled the chance of complete response in the luminal tumour. Patients with remaining lymph node metastases had a lower survival rate compared to those without. We concluded that residual nodal involvement after neoadjuvant treatment was an important factor for reduced survival after complete response in the luminal tumour.

    Study IV followed up the results from the previous study by re-evaluating magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)- images in patients with complete tumour response. Two experienced MRI radiologists performed blinded re-staging of post CRT MR- images from patients with complete response in the luminal tumour. One group with lymph node metastases and another one without were studied and the results compared with the pathology reports. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predicted values for correct staging of positive lymph nodes was 37%, 84%, 70% and 57%. The size of the largest lymph node (4.5 mm, p=0.04) seemed to indicate presence of a tumour positive lymph node. We concluded that MRI couldn’t correctly stage patients for lymph node metastases in patients with complete response to CRT in the luminal tumour.

    List of papers
    1. EXPRESSION OF FXYD-3 IS AN INDEPENDENT PROGNOSTIC FACTOR IN RECTAL CANCER PATIENTS WITH PREOPERATIVE RADIOTHERAPY
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>EXPRESSION OF FXYD-3 IS AN INDEPENDENT PROGNOSTIC FACTOR IN RECTAL CANCER PATIENTS WITH PREOPERATIVE RADIOTHERAPY
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    2009 (English)In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF RADIATION ONCOLOGY BIOLOGY PHYSICS, ISSN 0360-3016, Vol. 75, no 1, 137-142 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: FXYD-3 (MAT-8) is overexpressed in several types of cancers; however, its clinical relevance in rectal cancers has not been studied. Therefore, we examined FXYD-3 expression in rectal cancers from the patients who participated in a Swedish clinical trial of preoperative radiotherapy (RT) to determine whether FXYD-3 was overexpressed in rectal cancers and correlated with RT, survival, and other clinicopathologic variables. Methods and Materials: The study included 140 rectal cancer patients who participated in a clinical trial of preoperative RT, 65 with and 75 without RT before surgery. FXYD-3 expression was immumohistochemically examined in distant (n = 70) and adjacent (n = 101) normal mucosa, primary tumors (n = 140), and lymph node metastasis (n = 36). Results: In the whole cohort, strong FXYD-3 expression was correlated with infiltrative tumor growth (p = 0.02). In the RT group, strong FXYD-3 expression alone (p = 0.02) or combined with phosphatase of regenerating liver was associated with an unfavorable prognosis (p = 0.02), independent of both TNM stage and tumor differentiation. In tumors with strong FXYD-3 expression, there was less tumor necrosis (p = 0.02) and a trend toward increased incidence of distant metastasis (p = 0.08) after RT. None of these effects was seen in the non-RT group. FXYD-3 expression in the primary tumors tended to he increased compared with normal mucosa regardless of RT. Conclusion: FXYD-3 expression was a prognostic factor independent of tumor stage and differentiation in patients receiving preoperative RT for rectal cancer.

    Keyword
    FXYD-3, Rectal cancer, Radiotherapy, Prognosis, Immunohistochemistry
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20598 (URN)10.1016/j.ijrobp.2008.10.076 (DOI)
    Available from: 2009-09-16 Created: 2009-09-15 Last updated: 2016-11-24
    2. FXYD-3 expression in relation to local recurrence of rectal cancer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>FXYD-3 expression in relation to local recurrence of rectal cancer
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    2016 (English)In: Radiation Oncology Journal, ISSN 2234-1900 (print), 2234-3156 (online), Vol. 34, no 1, 52-58 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: In a previous study, the transmembrane protein FXYD-3 was suggested as a biomarker for a lower survival rate and reduced radiosensitivity in rectal cancer patients receiving preoperative radiotherapy. The purpose of preoperative irradiation in rectal cancer is to reduce local recurrence. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential role of FXYD-3 as a biomarker for increased risk for local recurrence of rectal cancer.

    Materials and Methods: FXYD-3 expression was immunohistochemically examined in surgical specimens from a cohort of patients with rectal cancer who developed local recurrence (n = 48). The cohort was compared to a matched control group without recurrence (n = 81).

    Results: Weak FXYD-3 expression was found in 106/129 (82%) of the rectal tumors and strong expression in 23/129 (18%). There was no difference in the expression of FXYD-3 between the patients with local recurrence and the control group. Furthermore there was no difference in FXYD-3 expression and time to diagnosis of local recurrence between patients who received preoperative radiotherapy and those without.

    Conclusion: Previous findings indicated that FXYD-3 expression may be used as a marker of decreased sensitivity to radiotherapy or even overall survival. We were unable to confirm this in a cohort of rectal cancer patients who developed local recurrence.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Korea, 2016
    Keyword
    Rectal cancer, Human FXYD3 protein, Local recurrence
    National Category
    Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Cancer and Oncology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132758 (URN)10.3857/roj.2016.34.1.52 (DOI)27104167 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-11-23 Created: 2016-11-23 Last updated: 2016-11-29Bibliographically approved
    3. Nodal involvement in luminal complete response after neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nodal involvement in luminal complete response after neoadjuvant treatment for rectal cancer
    2016 (English)In: European Journal of Surgical Oncology, ISSN 0748-7983, E-ISSN 1532-2157, Vol. 42, no 6, 801-807 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pathological complete response (pCR) after neoadjuvant therapy in rectal cancer is correlated with improved survival. There is limited knowledge on the incidence of pCR at a national level with uniform guidelines. The aim of this prospective register-based study was to investigate the incidence and outcome of pCR in relation to neoadjuvant therapy in a national cohort. Method: All patients abdominally operated for rectal cancer between 2007 and 2012 (n = 7885) were selected from The Swedish Colorectal Cancer Register. Twenty-six per cent (n = 2063) had neoadjuvant therapy with either long or short course radiotherapy with amp;gt;4 weeks delay with the potential to achieve pCR. The primary endpoints were pCR and survival in relation to neoadjuvant therapy. Results: Complete eradication of the luminal tumor, ypTO was found in 161 patients (8%). In 83% of the ypTO the regional lymph nodes were tumor negative (ypTONO), 12% had 1-3 positive lymph nodes (ypTON1) and 4% had more than three positive lymph nodes (ypTON2). There was significantly greater survival with ypTO compared to ypT+ (hazard ratio 0.38 (C.I 0.25-0.58)) and survival was significantly greater in patients with ypTONO compared to ypT0N1-2 (hazard ratio 0.36 (C.I 0.15-0.86)). In ypTO, cT3-4 tumors had the greater risk of node-positivity. The added use of chemotherapy resulted in 10% ypTO compared to 5.1% in the group without chemotherapy (p amp;lt; 0.00004). Conclusion: Luminal pathological complete response occurred in 8%, 16% of them had tumor positive nodes. The survival benefit of luminal complete response is dependent upon nodal involvement status. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2016
    Keyword
    Rectal cancer; Complete response; Lymph nodes; Neoadjuvant treatment
    National Category
    Cancer and Oncology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130432 (URN)10.1016/j.ejso.2016.03.013 (DOI)000379559300007 ()27146960 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-08-07 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2016-11-24
  • Public defence: 2016-12-15 13:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Bivik Stadler, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bivik Stadler, Caroline
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Genetic pathways controlling CNS development: The role of Notch signaling in regulating daughter cell proliferation in Drosophila2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The human central nervous system (CNS) displays the greatest cellular diversity of anyorgan system, consisting of billions of neurons, of numerous cell sub-types, interconnectedin a vast network. Given this enormous complexity, decoding the genetic programscontrolling the multistep process of CNS development remains a major challenge. Whilegreat progress has been made with respect to understanding sub-type specification,considerably less is known regarding how the generation of the precise number of eachsub-type is controlled.

    The aim of this thesis was to gain deeper knowledge into the regulatory programs controlling cell specification and proliferation. To address these questions I have studied the Drosophila embryonic CNS as a model system, to thereby be able to investigate the genetic mechanisms at high resolution. Despite the different size and morphology between the Drosophila and the mammalian CNS, the lineages of their progenitors share similarity. Importantly for this thesis, both species progenitors show elaborate variations in their proliferation modes, either giving rise to daughters that can directly differentiate into neurons or glia (type 0), divide once (type I), or multiple times (type II).

    The studies launched off with a comprehensive chemical forward genetic screen, for the very last born cell in the well-studied lineage of progenitor NB5-6T: the Ap4 neuron, which expresses the neuropeptide FMRFa. NB5-6T is a powerful model to use, because it undergoes a programmed type I>0 daughter cell proliferation switch. An FMRF-eGFP transgenic reporter was utilized as readout for successful terminal differentiation of Ap4/FMRFa and thereby proper lineage progression of the ∼20 cells generated. The strongest mutants were mapped to genes with both known and novel essential functions e.g., spatial and temporal patterning, cell cycle control, cell specification and chromatin modification. Subsequently, we focused on some of the genes that showed a loss of function phenotype with an excess of lineage cells. We found that Notch is critical for the type I>0 daughter cell proliferation switch in the NB5-6T lineage and globally as well. When addressing the broader relevance of these findings, and to further decipher the Notch pathway, we discovered that selective groups of E(spl) genes is controlling the switch in a close interplay with four key cell cycle factors: Cyclin E, String, E2F and Dacapo, in most if not all embryonic progenitors. The Notch mediation of the switch is likely to be by direct transcriptional regulation. Furthermore, another gene identified in the screen, sequoia, was investigated. The analysis revealed that sequoia is also controlling the daughter cell switch in the CNS, and this partly through context dependent interactions with the Notch pathway.

    Taken together, the findings presented in this thesis demonstrate that daughter cell proliferation switches in Drosophila neural lineages are genetically programmed, and that Notch contributes to the triggering of these events. Given that early embryonic processes is frequently shown to be evolutionary conserved, you can speculate that changeable daughter proliferation programs could be applied to mammals, and contribute to a broader understanding of proliferation processes in humans as well.

    List of papers
    1. Novel Genes Involved in Controlling Specification of Drosophila FMRFamide Neuropeptide Cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Novel Genes Involved in Controlling Specification of Drosophila FMRFamide Neuropeptide Cells
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    2015 (English)In: Genetics, ISSN 0016-6731, E-ISSN 1943-2631, Vol. 200, no 4, 1229-1244 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The expression of neuropeptides is often extremely restricted in the nervous system, making them powerful markers for addressing cell specification . In the developing Drosophila ventral nerve cord, only six cells, the Ap4 neurons, of some 10,000 neurons, express the neuropeptide FMRFamide (FMRFa). Each Ap4/FMRFa neuron is the last-born cell generated by an identifiable and well-studied progenitor cell, neuroblast 5-6 (NB5-6T). The restricted expression of FMRFa and the wealth of information regarding its gene regulation and Ap4 neuron specification makes FMRFa a valuable readout for addressing many aspects of neural development, i.e., spatial and temporal patterning cues, cell cycle control, cell specification, axon transport, and retrograde signaling. To this end, we have conducted a forward genetic screen utilizing an Ap4-specific FMRFa-eGFP transgenic reporter as our readout. A total of 9781 EMS-mutated chromosomes were screened for perturbations in FMRFa-eGFP expression, and 611 mutants were identified. Seventy-nine of the strongest mutants were mapped down to the affected gene by deficiency mapping or whole-genome sequencing. We isolated novel alleles for previously known FMRFa regulators, confirming the validity of the screen. In addition, we identified novel essential genes, including several with previously undefined functions in neural development. Our identification of genes affecting most major steps required for successful terminal differentiation of Ap4 neurons provides a comprehensive view of the genetic flow controlling the generation of highly unique neuronal cell types in the developing nervous system.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Genetics Society of America, 2015
    Keyword
    Drosophila; CNS development; neural cell fate specification; forward genetic screening; FMRFamide
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121318 (URN)10.1534/genetics.115.178483 (DOI)000359917000020 ()26092715 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2015-09-16 Created: 2015-09-14 Last updated: 2016-11-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Control of neuronal cell fate and number by integration of distinct daughter cell proliferation modes with temporal progression
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Control of neuronal cell fate and number by integration of distinct daughter cell proliferation modes with temporal progression
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    2012 (English)In: Development, ISSN 0950-1991, E-ISSN 1477-9129, Vol. 139, no 4, 678-689 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    During neural lineage progression, differences in daughter cell proliferation can generate different lineage topologies. This is apparent in the Drosophila neuroblast 5-6 lineage (NB5-6T), which undergoes a daughter cell proliferation switch from generating daughter cells that divide once to generating neurons directly. Simultaneously, neural lineages, e.g. NB5-6T, undergo temporal changes in competence, as evidenced by the generation of different neural subtypes at distinct time points. When daughter proliferation is altered against a backdrop of temporal competence changes, it may create an integrative mechanism for simultaneously controlling cell fate and number. Here, we identify two independent pathways, Prospero and Notch, which act in concert to control the different daughter cell proliferation modes in NB5-6T. Altering daughter cell proliferation and temporal progression, individually and simultaneously, results in predictable changes in cell fate and number. This demonstrates that different daughter cell proliferation modes can be integrated with temporal competence changes, and suggests a novel mechanism for coordinately controlling neuronal subtype numbers.

    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74790 (URN)10.1242/dev.074500 (DOI)000300259800005 ()
    Note

    funding agencies|Swedish Research Council||Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation||Swedish Cancer Foundation||

    Available from: 2012-02-08 Created: 2012-02-08 Last updated: 2016-11-30
    3. Control of Neural Daughter Cell Proliferation by Multi-level Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH Signaling
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Control of Neural Daughter Cell Proliferation by Multi-level Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH Signaling
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    2016 (English)In: PLoS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 12, no 4, e1005984Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Notch pathway controls proliferation during development and in adulthood, and is frequently affected in many disorders. However, the genetic sensitivity and multi-layered transcriptional properties of the Notch pathway has made its molecular decoding challenging. Here, we address the complexity of Notch signaling with respect to proliferation, using the developing Drosophila CNS as model. We find that a Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH cascade specifically controls daughter, but not progenitor proliferation. Additionally, we find that different E(spl)-HLH genes are required in different neuroblast lineages. The Notch/Su(H)/E(spl)-HLH cascade alters daughter proliferation by regulating four key cell cycle factors: Cyclin E, String/Cdc25, E2f and Dacapo (mammalian p21(CIP1)/p27(KIP1)/p57(Kip2)). ChIP and DamID analysis of Su(H) and E(spl)-HLH indicates direct transcriptional regulation of the cell cycle genes, and of the Notch pathway itself. These results point to a multi-level signaling model and may help shed light on the dichotomous proliferative role of Notch signaling in many other systems.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2016
    National Category
    Clinical Medicine
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128759 (URN)10.1371/journal.pgen.1005984 (DOI)000375231900032 ()27070787 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW2012.0101]; Swedish Research Council [621-2010-5214]; Swedish Cancer Foundation [120531]

    Available from: 2016-05-31 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2016-11-30
    4. sequoia controls the type I>0 daughter proliferation switch in the developing Drosophila nervous system
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>sequoia controls the type I>0 daughter proliferation switch in the developing Drosophila nervous system
    2016 (English)In: Development, ISSN 0950-1991, E-ISSN 1477-9129, Vol. 143, no 20, 3774-3784 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Neural progenitors typically divide asymmetrically to renew themselves, while producing daughters with more limited potential. In the Drosophila embryonic ventral nerve cord, neuroblasts initially produce daughters that divide once to generate two neurons/glia (type I proliferation mode). Subsequently, many neuroblasts switch to generating daughters that differentiate directly (type 0). This programmed type I&gt;0 switch is controlled by Notch signaling, triggered at a distinct point of lineage progression in each neuroblast. However, how Notch signaling onset is gated was unclear. We recently identified Sequoia (Seq), a C2H2 zinc-finger transcription factor with homology to Drosophila Tramtrack (Ttk) and the positive regulatory domain (PRDM) family, as important for lineage progression. Here, we find that seq mutants fail to execute the type I&gt;0 daughter proliferation switch and also display increased neuroblast proliferation. Genetic interaction studies reveal that seq interacts with the Notch pathway, and seq furthermore affects expression of a Notch pathway reporter. These findings suggest that seq may act as a context-dependent regulator of Notch signaling, and underscore the growing connection between Seq, Ttk, the PRDM family and Notch signaling.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    The Company of Biologists Ltd, 2016
    Keyword
    Lineage tree, Cell cycle, Asymmetric division, Combinatorial control, Notch
    National Category
    Cell and Molecular Biology Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Cell Biology Medical Biotechnology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132739 (URN)10.1242/dev.139998 (DOI)27578794 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-11-22 Created: 2016-11-22 Last updated: 2016-11-28Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2016-12-19 13:15 ACAS, A-huset, Linköping
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Söderström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Introducing public sector eIDs: The power of actors’ translations and institutional barriers2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The electronic identification (eID) is a digital representation of our analogue identity used for authentication in order to gain access to personalized restricted online content. Despite its limited and clearly defined scope, the eID has a unique role to play in information society as an enabler of public digital services for citizens as well as businesses and a prerequisite for the development of electronic government (eGovernment). This study shows a tendency of treating public sector eIDs like Information and Communications Technology (ICT) artefacts in general. Hence, a narrow focus on technology is often applied thus placing non-technical aspects in the background. Consequently, social and organizational implications are often unproblematized which in turn becomes problematic in the case of the public sector eID.

    This study puts forth a need for a broader focus in this area and contributes by focusing on the challenges related to the resistance to introductions of eIDs among affected actors in the public sector. This study assumes that affected actors’ perceptions (translations) of the eID have a potential impact on its introduction on organizational as well as operational level. Research questions focus on the influence of resistance on the introduction and the relationship between resistance and actors’ translations of the eID. The aim is to further develop existing concepts and bring new insights to research as well as practice. The analytical perspectives of sociology and institutionalism aim at developing a tentative analytical framework for investigations of this relationship. Introductions, therefore, become institutional pressures facing resistance as related to affected actors’ translations. The empirical basis consists of two interpretive case studies of eID introductions –a national eID to cover the entire public sector and a professional eID in health care.

    The result shows that resistance in the form of institutional barriers develops from actors’ negative translations of the eID and main coordinating actors’ tend to fail in their attempts to negotiate these barriers. This confirms a closer relationship between institutional pressures and barriers and a view of pressures, barriers and eIDs as translated institutions transferred across organizational settings is put forth. To facilitate future research and practice related to public sector eID introductions, three propositions are put forth. (1) The importance of acknowledging pressures to introduce eIDs as closely related to barriers. (2) The institutions involved in this process as all translated by the government, coordinating actors as well as affected actors. (3) The importance of a developed understanding of these institutions, translations and relationships in order to facilitate cooperative efforts shaping future public sector eIDs.

  • Public defence: 2016-12-09 10:15 Visionen, B-huset, Linköping
    Nyqvist, Hanna E.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nyqvist, Hanna E.
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On Pose Estimation in Room-Scaled Environments2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pose (position and orientation) tracking in room-scaled environments is an enabling technique for many applications. Today, virtual reality (vr) and augmented reality (ar) are two examples of such applications, receiving high interest both from the public and the research community. Accurate pose tracking of the vr or ar equipment, often a camera or a headset, or of different body parts is crucial to trick the human brain and make the virtual experience realistic. Pose tracking in room-scaled environments is also needed for reference tracking and metrology. This thesis focuses on an application to metrology. In this application, photometric models of a photo studio are needed to perform realistic scene reconstruction and image synthesis. Pose tracking of a dedicated sensor enables creation of these photometric models. The demands on the tracking system used in this application is high. It must be able to provide sub-centimeter and sub-degree accuracy and at same time be easy to move and install in new photo studios.

    The focus of this thesis is to investigate and develop methods for a pose tracking system that satisfies the requirements of the intended metrology application. The Bayesian filtering framework is suggested because of its firm theoretical foundation in informatics and because it enables straightforward fusion of measurements from several sensors. Sensor fusion is in this thesis seen as a way to exploit complementary characteristics of different sensors to increase tracking accuracy and robustness. Four different types of measurements are considered; inertialmeasurements, images from a camera, range (time-of-flight) measurements from ultra wide band (uwb) radio signals, and range and velocity measurements from echoes of transmitted acoustic signals.

    A simulation study and a study of the Cramér-Rao lower filtering bound (crlb) show that an inertial-camera system has the potential to reach the required tracking accuracy. It is however assumed that known fiducial markers, that can be detected and recognized in images, are deployed in the environment. The study shows that many markers are required. This makes the solution more of a stationary solution and the mobility requirement is not fulfilled. A simultaneous localization and mapping (slam) solution, where naturally occurring features are used instead of known markers, are suggested solve this problem. Evaluation using real data shows that the provided inertial-camera slam filter suffers from drift but that support from uwb range measurements eliminates this drift. The slam solution is then only dependent on knowing the position of very few stationary uwb transmitters compared to a large number of known fiducial markers. As a last step, to increase the accuracy of the slam filter, it is investigated if and how range measurements can be complemented with velocity measurement obtained as a result of the Doppler effect. Especially, focus is put on analyzing the correlation between the range and velocity measurements and the implications this correlation has for filtering. The investigation is done in a theoretical study of reflected known signals (compare with radar and sonar) where the crlb is used as an analyzing tool. The theory is validated on real data from acoustic echoes in an indoor environment.

    List of papers
    1. A High-Performance Tracking System based on Camera and IMU
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>A High-Performance Tracking System based on Camera and IMU
    2013 (English)In: 16th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION), 2013, IEEE , 2013, 2065-2072 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We consider an indoor tracking system consisting of an inertial measurement unit (IMU) and a camera that detects markers in the environment. There are many camera based tracking systems described in literature and available commercially, and a few of them also has support from IMU. These are based on the best-effort principle, where the performance varies depending on the situation. In contrast to this, we start with a specification of the system performance, and the design isbased on an information theoretic approach, where specific user scenarios are defined. Precise models for the camera and IMU are derived for a fusion filter, and the theoretical Cramér-Rao lower bound and the Kalman filter performance are evaluated. In this study, we focus on examining the camera quality versus the marker density needed to get at least a one mm and one degree accuracy in tracking performance.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2013
    Keyword
    Tracking, IMU, Vision, Indoor, Landmarks, Cameras, Lenses, Earth, Accuracy, Optical sensors, Noise, Optical imaging
    National Category
    Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96751 (URN)000341370000274 ()9786058631113 (Print) (ISBN)9781479902842 (online) (ISBN)9786058631113 (CD) (ISBN)
    Conference
    2013 16th International Conference on Information Fusion, Istanbul, Turkey, July 9-12, 2013
    Projects
    VPS
    Funder
    Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research
    Available from: 2013-08-26 Created: 2013-08-26 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved
    2. Pose Estimation Using Monocular Vision and Inertial Sensors Aided with Ultra Wide Band
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pose Estimation Using Monocular Vision and Inertial Sensors Aided with Ultra Wide Band
    2015 (English)In: International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation (IPIN), 2015, IEEE , 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a method for global pose estimation using inertial sensors, monocular vision, and ultra wide band (UWB) sensors. It is demonstrated that the complementary characteristics of these sensors can be exploited to provide improved global pose estimates, without requiring the introduction of any visible infrastructure, such as fiducial markers. Instead, natural landmarks are jointly estimated with the pose of the platform using a simultaneous localization and mapping framework, supported by a small number of easy-to-hide UWB beacons with known positions. The method is evaluated with data from a controlled indoor experiment with high precision ground truth. The results show the benefit of the suggested sensor combination and suggest directions for further work.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2015
    Keyword
    inertial sensor (IMU), ultra wide band (UWB), monocular camera, simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM)
    National Category
    Signal Processing Control Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122140 (URN)10.1109/IPIN.2015.7346940 (DOI)000379160900049 ()9781467384025 (online) (ISBN)9781467384018 (USB) (ISBN)
    Conference
    Sixth International Conference on Indoor Positioning and Indoor Navigation, Banff, October 13-16, 2015
    Projects
    Virtual Photo Studio (VPS)
    Funder
    Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , IIS11-0081Swedish Research CouncilSecurity Link
    Available from: 2015-10-20 Created: 2015-10-20 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved
    3. On Joint Range and Velocity Estimation in Detection and Ranging Sensors
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>On Joint Range and Velocity Estimation in Detection and Ranging Sensors
    2016 (English)In: Proceedings of 19th International Conference on Information Fusion (FUSION), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, 1674-1681 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radar and sonar provide information of both range and radial velocity to unknown objects. This is accomplished by emitting a signal waveform and computing the round trip time and Doppler shift. Estimation of the round trip time and Doppler shift is usually done separately without considering the couplings between these two object related quantities. The purpose of this contribution is to first model the amplitude, time shift and time scale of the returned signal in terms of the object related states range and velocity, and analyse the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB) for the joint range and velocity estimation problem. One of the conclusions is that there is negative correlation between range and velocity. The maximum likelihood (ML) cost function also confirms this strong negative correlation. For target tracking applications, the use of the correct covariance matrix for the measurement vector gives a significant gain in information, compared to using the variance of range and velocity assuming independence. In other words, the knowledge of the correlation tells the tracking filter that a too large range measurement comes most likely with a too small velocity measurement, and vice versa. Experiments with sound pulses reflected in a wall indoors confirm the main conclusion of negative correlation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
    Keyword
    Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB), time scale, Doppler shift, time shift, time delay, tracking
    National Category
    Control Engineering Signal Processing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130476 (URN)9780996452748 (online) (ISBN)9781509020126 (PoD) (ISBN)
    Conference
    19th International Conference on Information Fusion, Heidelberg, Germany, July 5-8, 2016
    Projects
    Virtual Photo Studio (VPS)Scalable Kalman Filters
    Funder
    Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research , IIS11-0081Swedish Research Council
    Available from: 2016-08-09 Created: 2016-08-09 Last updated: 2016-11-22Bibliographically approved
  • Holmbom, Martin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Holmbom, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Urology in Östergötland.
    Giske, Christian G.
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.; Clinical Microbiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Occupational and Environmental Medicine Center.
    Östholm Balkhed, Åse
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    Claesson, Carina
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Lennart E
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hoffmann, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hanberger, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Infectious Diseases.
    14-Year Survey in a Swedish County Reveals a Pronounced Increase in Bloodstream Infections (BSI). Comorbidity: An Independent Risk Factor for Both BSI and Mortality2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 11Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: we assessed the incidence, risk factors and outcome of BSI over a 14-year period (2000-2013) in a Swedish county.

    Methods: retrospective cohort study on culture confirmed BSI among patients in the county of Östergötland, Sweden, with approximately 440,000 inhabitants. A BSI was defined as either community-onset BSI (CO-BSI) or hospital-acquired BSI (HA-BSI).

    Results: of a total of 11,480 BSIs, 67% were CO-BSI and 33% HA-BSI. The incidence of BSI increased by 64% from 945 to 1,546 per 100,000 hospital admissions per year during the study period. The most prominent increase, 83% was observed within the CO-BSI cohort whilst HA-BSI increased by 32%. Prescriptions of antibiotics in outpatient care decreased with 24% from 422 to 322 prescriptions dispensed/1,000 inhabitants/year, whereas antibiotics prescribed in hospital increased by 67% (from 424 to 709 DDD per 1,000 days of care). The overall 30-day mortality for HA-BSIs was 17.2%, compared to 10.6% for CO-BSIs, with an average yearly increase per 100,000 hospital admissions of 2 and 5% respectively. The proportion of patients with one or more comorbidities, increased from 20.8 to 55.3%. In multivariate analyses, risk factors for mortality within 30 days were: HA-BSI (2.22); two or more comorbidities (1.89); single comorbidity (1.56); CO-BSI (1.21); male (1.05); and high age (1.04).

    Conclusion: this survey revealed an alarming increase in the incidence of BSI over the 14-year study period. Interventions to decrease BSI in general should be considered together with robust antibiotic stewardship programmes to avoid both over- and underuse of antibiotics.

  • Public defence: 2016-12-15 10:15 Plank, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Zeglio, Erica
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Zeglio, Erica
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Self-doped Conjugated Polyelectrolytes for Bioelectronics Applications2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Self-doped conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) are a class of conducting polymers constituted of a π-conjugated backbone and charged side groups. The ionic groups provide the counterions needed to balance the charged species formed in the CPEs backbones upon oxidation. As a result, addition of external counterions is not required, and the CPEs can be defined as selfdoped. The combination of their unique optical and electrical properties render them the perfect candidates for optoelectronic applications. Additionally, their “soft” nature provide for the mechanical compatibility necessary to interface with biological systems, rendering them promising materials for bioelectronics applications. CPEs solubility, aggregation state, and optoelectronic properties can be easily tuned by different means, such as blending or interaction with oppositely charged species (such as surfactants), in order to produce materials with the desired properties. In this thesis both the strategies have been explored to produce new functional materials that can be deposited to form a thin film and,  therefore, used as an active layer in organic electrochemical transistors (OECTs). Microstructure formation of the films as well as influence on devices operation and performance have been investigated. We also show that these methods can be exploited to produce materials whose uniquecombination of self-doping ability and hydrophobicity allows incorporation into the phospholipid double layer of biomembranes, while retaining their properties. As a result, self-doped CPEs can be used both as sensing elements to probe the physical state of biomembranes, and as functional ones providing them with new functionalities, such as electrical conductivity. Integration of conductive electronic biomembranes into OECTs devices has brought us one step forward on the interface of manmade technologies with biological systems.

    List of papers
    1. Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Blends for Electrochromic and Electrochemical Transistor Devices
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Blends for Electrochromic and Electrochemical Transistor Devices
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Chemistry of Materials, ISSN 0897-4756, E-ISSN 1520-5002, Vol. 27, no 18, 6385-6393 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Two self-doped conjugated polyelectrolytes, having semiconducting and metallic behaviors, respectively, have been blended from aqueous solutions in order to produce materials with enhanced optical and electrical properties. The intimate blend of two anionic conjugated polyelectrolytes combine the electrical and optical properties of these, and can be tuned by blend stoichiometry. In situ conductance measurements have been done during doping of the blends, while UV vis and EPR spectroelectrochemistry allowed the study of the nature of the involved redox species. We have constructed an accumulation/depletion mode organic electrochemical transistor whose characteristics can be tuned by balancing the stoichiometry of the active material.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2015
    National Category
    Materials Chemistry Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122212 (URN)10.1021/acs.chemmater.5b02501 (DOI)000361935000028 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Marie Curie network "Renaissance"; Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation through Wallenberg Scholar grant; Swedish Research Council [VR-2014-3079, D0556101]; Carl Trygger Foundation [CTS 12:206]

    Available from: 2015-10-26 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2016-11-21
    2. Electronic polymers in lipid membranes
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic polymers in lipid membranes
    Show others...
    2015 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, no 11242Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Electrical interfaces between biological cells and man-made electrical devices exist in many forms, but it remains a challenge to bridge the different mechanical and chemical environments of electronic conductors (metals, semiconductors) and biosystems. Here we demonstrate soft electrical interfaces, by integrating the metallic polymer PEDOT-S into lipid membranes. By preparing complexes between alkyl-ammonium salts and PEDOT-S we were able to integrate PEDOT-S into both liposomes and in lipid bilayers on solid surfaces. This is a step towards efficient electronic conduction within lipid membranes. We also demonstrate that the PEDOT-S@alkyl-ammonium: lipid hybrid structures created in this work affect ion channels in the membrane of Xenopus oocytes, which shows the possibility to access and control cell membrane structures with conductive polyelectrolytes.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nature Publishing Group, 2015
    National Category
    Biophysics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120045 (URN)10.1038/srep11242 (DOI)000356090400002 ()26059023 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Research Council

    Available from: 2015-07-06 Created: 2015-07-06 Last updated: 2016-11-21
    3. Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Blend as Photonic Probe of Biomembrane Organization
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conjugated Polyelectrolyte Blend as Photonic Probe of Biomembrane Organization
    Show others...
    2016 (English)In: ChemistrySelect, ISSN 2365-6549, Vol. 1, no 14, 4340-4344 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In the following report, a conjugated polyelectrolyte (CPE) blend has been introduced for the first time as a fluorescent probe of membrane organization. Insertion of the blend into the lipid double layer has been rendered possible through formation of a hydrophobic complex by counterion exchange. Changes in membrane physical state from liquid-disordered (Ldis) to liquid-ordered (Lord), and to solid-ordered (Sord) result in red shifts of blend excitation (up to Δλex=+90 nm) and emission (up to Δλnm=+37 nm) maxima attributable to backbone planarization of CPEs. We found that blend stoichiometry can be adjusted to attain the best interplay among single polyelectrolytes properties, such as sensitivity and luminescence. The resulting probes therefore allow a bimodal detection of membrane physical state: changes in absorption permit a direct visualization of membrane organization, while variations in emission spectra demonstrate that CPE-blends are a promising probes that can be used for imaging applications.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2016
    Keyword
    Conjugated Polyelectrolytes, Fluorescent Probes, Liposomes, Membrane Probes, Polyelectrolytes blend
    National Category
    Biomaterials Science Condensed Matter Physics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132729 (URN)10.1002/slct.201600920 (DOI)
    Available from: 2016-11-21 Created: 2016-11-21 Last updated: 2016-11-21Bibliographically approved
  • Sköld, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sköld, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Samverkan och utbildningskvalitet: en litteraturöversikt om utbildningsrelaterad samverkan mellan universitet/högskola och privata/offentliga organisationer2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt är att kartlägga tidigare forskning om samverkan i utbildningen av studenter – mellan universitet/högskola och externa organisationer – och dess relation till utbildningskvalitet. Översikten kommer att omfatta vetenskaplig litteratur baserad på skandinavisk empiri. Avgränsningen motiveras av att kvalitet på högskoleutbildning är mycket kontextberoende (Chalmers, 2008; Gibbs, 2010). Den övergripande frågeställningen är: Hur ser tidigare forskning på sambandet mellan utbildningsrelaterad samverkan och kvalitet på utbildningen för studenterna? Syfte och frågeställningar kommer att diskuteras med utgångspunkt tagen i tre olika kvalitetsindikatorer, som används av myndigheter och andra intresseorganisationer i samhället för att granska högskoleutbildningens kvalitet och relevans för studenterna i deras framtida arbetsliv: svenska högskolans nationella mål, studenternas anställningsbarhet samt utbildningens användbarhet för studenterna. De frågeställningar som kommer att diskuteras är: Hur får studenter nytta av den utbildningsrelaterade samverkan? Vilka förutsättningar möjliggör och/eller hindrar att studenterna får nytta av samverkansaktiviteterna?

    I nästa kapitel redogörs för studiens definitioner och avgränsningar avseende utbildningsrelaterade samverkansaktiviteter samt kvalitet i högskoleutbildningen. I kapitel 3 presenteras litteraturöversiktens metod i termer av sökprocess, avgränsningar och litteraturgenomgång. Resultaten av studien redovisas i kapitel 4. En indelning har gjorts utifrån de olika samverkansaktiviteter som litteraturen behandlat och vilka effekter som uppmärksammats. I det avslutande kapitlet 5 diskuteras resultaten utifrån litteraturöversiktens frågeställningar, vilket mynnar ut i slutsatser och förslag på vidare forskning.

  • Strindlund, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Strindlund, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Ståhl, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Vägen till arbetsgivarna2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Det övergripande syftet med projektet är att få fördjupad kunskap om vad som påverkar arbetsgivares synsätt på arbetslösa från utsatta grupper, särskilt arbetslösa med funktionsnedsättning, och inställning till arbetsmarknadsinkludering, utifrån målsättningen att förbättra förutsättningarna för en ökad inkluderande arbetsmarknad.

    Metod: Urvalet bestod av 27 arbetsgivare med maximal variation gällande yrkesområde, sektor, storlek och erfarenhet av arbetsmarknadsinkludering av utsatta grupper. Datainsamling skedde genom kvalitativa forskningsintervjuer och materialet analyserades med kvalitativ innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Arbetsgivarnas inställning till arbetsmarknadsinkludering påverkas av en mängd olika faktorer, av möjliggörande och hindrande karaktär, relaterade till arbetsplats, individ och myndighetsstöd och har samband med arbetsgivarnas olika synsätt på målgruppen; som belastning, resurs och miljörelativt.

    Diskussion: Utifrån framkommen kunskap om de olika faktorerna som påverkar arbetsgivarnas synsätt och inställning till arbetsmarknadsinkludering har en arbetsgivarorienterad modell tagits fram. Arbetssättet utgår ifrån en arbetsgivarkoordinator  som genom sin kännedom om arbetsgivaren och tillgång till adekvata stödinsatser kan möta och anpassa insatsen till arbetsgivarnas olika komplexa behov och förutsättningar.

    Konklusion: Metoden öppnar upp för utveckling av en tillitsfull och professionell samverkan mellan arbetsgivare och myndighetsaktörer vilket skapar ökade möjligheter till arbetsmarknadsinkludering av arbetstagare med funktionsnedsättning, och sannolikt även arbetslösa från andra utsatta grupper.

  • Granholm, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Granholm, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematics and Applied Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Some cyclic properties of graphs with local Ore-type conditions2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A Hamilton cycle in a graph is a cycle that passes through every vertex of the graph. A graph is called Hamiltonian if it contains such a cycle.

    In this thesis we investigate two classes of graphs, defined by local criteria. Graphs in these classes, with a simple set of exceptions K, were proven to be Hamiltonian by Asratian, Broersma, van den Heuvel, and Veldman in 1996 and by Asratian in 2006, respectively.

    We prove here that in addition to being Hamiltonian, graphs in these classes have stronger cyclic properties. In particular, we prove that if a graph G belongs to one of these classes, then for each vertex x in G there is a sequence of cycles such that each cycle contains the vertex x, and

    • the shortest cycle in the sequence has length at most 5;
    • the longest cycle in the sequence is a Hamilton cycle (unless G belongs to the set of exceptions K, in which case the longest cycle in the sequence contains all but one vertex of G);
    • each cycle in the sequence except the first contains all vertices of the previous cycle, and at most two other vertices.

    Furthermore, for each edge e in G that does not lie on a triangle, there is a sequence of cycles with the same three properties, such that each cycle in the sequence contains the edge e.

  • Public defence: 2016-12-12 13:15 Visionen, B-huset, Linköping
    Karlsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Karlsson, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Aspects of Massive MIMO2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Next generation cellular wireless technology faces tough demands: increasing the throughput and reliability without consuming more resources, be it spectrum or energy. Massive mimo (Multiple-Input Multiple-Output) has proven, both in theory and practice, that it is up for the challenge. Massive mimo can offer uniformly good service to many users using low-end hardware, simultaneously, without increasing the radiated power compared to contemporary system. In Massive mimo, the base stations are equipped with hundreds of antennas. This abundance of antennas brings many new, interesting aspects compared to single-user mimo and multi-user mimo. Some issues of older technologies are nonexistent in massive mimo, while new issues in need of solutions arise. This thesis considers two aspects, and how these aspects differ in a massive mimo context: physical layer security and transmission of system information. First, it is shown that a jammer with a large number of antennas can outperform a traditional, single-antenna jammer in degrading the legitimate link. The excess of antennas gives the jammer opportunity to find and exploit structure in signals to improve its jamming capability. Second, for transmission of system information, the vast number of antennas prove useful even when the base station does not have any channel state information, because of the increased availability of space-time coding. We show how transmission without channel state information can be done in massive mimo by using a fixed precoding matrix to reduce the pilot overhead and simultaneously apply space-time block coding to use the excess of antennas for spatial diversity.

  • Kacperczyk, Aleksandra (Olenka)
    et al.
    Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Kacperczyk, Aleksandra (Olenka)
    Sloan School of Management, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, USA.
    Balachandran, Chanchal
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Vertical and Horizontal Wage Inequality and Mobility Outcomes: Evidence from the Swedish Microdata2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Using employer–employee matched data from Sweden between 2001 and 2008, we test hypotheses designed to assess the contingent nature of the relationship between wage inequality and cross-firm mobility. Whereas past research has mostly established that wage inequality increases inter-firm mobility, we investigate the conditions under which pay variance might have an opposite effect, serving to retain workers. We propose that the effect of wage inequality is contingent on organizational rank and that it depends on whether wages are dispersed vertically (between job levels) or horizontally (within the same job level). We find that vertical wage inequality suppresses cross-firm mobility because it is associated with outcomes beneficial for employees, such as attractive advancement opportunities. In contrast, horizontal wage dispersion increases cross-firm mobility because it is associated with outcomes harmful for employees, such as inequity concerns or job dissatisfaction. We further find that the vertical-inequality effect is amplified (mitigated) for bottom (top) different-level wage earners, consistent with the notion that bottom wage earners have the most to gain from climbing job ladders. Similarly, the horizontalinequality effect is amplified (mitigated) for bottom (top) same-level wage earners, consistent with the notion that bottom wage earners are most subject to negative consequences of this inequality. More broadly, the study contributes to our understanding of the relationship  between wage inequality and cross-firm mobility.

  • Hedström, Peter
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hedström, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Causal Mechanisms in Organization and Innovation Studies2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We outline the guiding ideas behind mechanisms-based theorizing in analytical sociology as a fruitful alternative to economics-inspired research on identification of causal effects, and discuss the potential of mechanisms-based theorizing for further development in organization and innovation studies. We discuss the realist stance on providing broader explanations as an identifying characteristic of the mechanism approach, its focus on the dynamic processes through which outcomes to be explained are brought about, and outline theoretical and methodological implications for organization and innovation studies.

  • Brandén, Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Sociologiska Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet.
    Brandén, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Sociologiska Institutionen, Stockholms Universitet.
    Birkelund, Gunn Elisabeth
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Sociology and Human Geography, University of Oslo.
    Szulkin, Ryszard
    Department of Sociology, Stockholm University.
    Does School Segregation Lead to Poor Educational Outcomes?: Evidence from Fifteen Cohorts of Swedish Ninth Graders2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We examine the impact of ethnic school segregation on the educational outcomes of students, using Swedish population register data. Through a school fixed effects, family fixed effects, and a two-way school- and family fixed effects design, we adjust for selection effects related to variation in the student composition across schools. The analyses show that students’ grades are relatively unaffected by the proportion of immigrant schoolmates.  However, it has a small negative effect on levels of eligibility for upper secondary school. Furthermore, immigrants’ educational outcomes are weakly positively affected by the proportion of peers with the same national background as themselves.

  • Bird, Miriam
    et al.
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Bird, Miriam
    University of St. Gallen, Switzerland.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS.
    Why Family Matters: The Impact of Family Resources on Immigrant Entrepreneurs’ Exit from Entrepreneurship2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We integrate insights from the social embeddedness perspective with research on immigrant entrepreneurship to theorize on how family resources influence exit from entrepreneurship among previously unemployed immigrant entrepreneurs. Results from a cohort study of immigrant entrepreneurs in Sweden reveal that family resources are important for immigrants to integrate economically into a country. We find that having family members in geographical proximity increases immigrant entrepreneurs’ likelihood of remaining in entrepreneurship. Further, family financial capital enhances immigrant entrepreneurs’ likelihood of remaining in entrepreneurship as well as their likelihood of exiting to paid employment. Although often neglected in immigrant entrepreneurship studies, resources accruing from spousal relationships with natives influence entrepreneurs’ exit behavior. We discuss contributions for research on entrepreneurial exit, entrepreneurs’ social embeddedness, and immigrant entrepreneurship.

  • Kim, Phillip H
    et al.
    Babson College, USA.
    Kim, Phillip H
    Babson College, USA.
    Wennberg, Karl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Croidieu, Grégoire
    Linköping University, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Grenoble Ecole de Management, France.
    Hidden in Plain Sight: Untapped Riches of Meso-Level Entrepreneurship Mechanisms2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Entrepreneurial action is embedded within a variety of complex social structures, not all of which can be as easily defined or measured as macro-institutional or micro-individual characteristics, but collectively hold rich insights into the actual causal mechanisms influencing action. To address this problem, we call upon researchers to broaden their levels of analysis and direct their focus to mesolevel structures. Although meso-level social structures are widely studied independently, these intermediate levels are seldom integrated into existing multi-level models. We argue that meso-level structures offer untapped riches for enhancing multi-level entrepreneurial mechanisms and discuss how social groups, associations, and other collectives operating at a meso-level can play a more distinct integrative role in between the two ends of the institutional spectrum. To provide practical guidance for pursuing such investigations, we adapt Coleman’s Bathtub model to form a robust framework that integrates micro, meso, and macro levels of analysis. Our framework helps alleviate the shortcomings produced by an overdependence on either solely macro- or micro-level entrepreneurial mechanisms and brings the hidden intermediate level into plain sight.

  • Ylikoski, Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department o f Social Research, University of Helsinki.
    Ylikoski, Petri
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, The Institute for Analytical Sociology, IAS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department o f Social Research, University of Helsinki.
    Thinking with the Coleman Boat2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this article is to provide a rational reconstruction of the diagram as a tool for social scientific theorizing. I will show how Coleman uses the diagram and how it can be employed as a tool for theoretical thinking. I will also demonstrate how it can be used to clarify the nature of the micro-macro challenge in social explanation. The structure of the article is as following. Section 2 will describe the diagram and its elements. Section 3 will show various ways in which Coleman used the diagram in his work. Section 4 discusses more systematically issues related to the interpretation of the diagram, and Section 5 will provide a diagnosis of some recent interpretations of the diagram. Finally, Section 6 focuses on some important limitations of the diagram.

  • Rosales, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rosales, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Minding the Gap: The Role of UK Civil Society in the European Refugee Crisis2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The recent collapse of the Dublin system, a system meant to distribute responsibility towards asylum-seekers and refugees between EU Member States (MSs), has marked a new phase of the so-called European Refugee “Crisis”, where the inability of EU MS governments to address the situation in a unified and coherent manner ultimately harms those most in need of protection. Public discontent with EU and MS government responses to the crisis has led to strong citizen mobilisation in the form of civil society. This study focuses on the case of the UK and examines the role played by policy advocacy Civil Society Organisations (CSOs). The concept of Political Responsibility is used to establish the emergence of a Governance Gap in the UK’s response to the crisis, where the government finds itself unable to bridge a growing distance between its representation and responsible governance functions. Policy advocacy CSOs are found to be now minding this gap. Critical Discourse Analysis is used to study how CSOs react to the UK government’s response in terms of practice and discourse, and to highlight the consequences which language use can have on how we perceive and treat refugees and asylum-seekers in this context.

  • Chizarie, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
    Chizarie, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Electronics System.
    Driving Implantable Circuits Without Internal Batteries2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis investigates how implantable devices can operate without the use of internal batteries. The idea is to be able to drive a circuit inside human tissue to i.e. monitor blood flow in patients. Methods such as harvesting energy from the environment to power up the devices and wireless energy transferring such as electromagnetic induction have been investigated. Implantable devices as this communicates wirelessly, this means that data will be transferred through the air. Sending data streams through air have security vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities can be prevented and have been discussed. Measurements of the electromagnetic induction have been made with tissue-like material, to see how tissue affects the received signal strength indication levels. Optimization have been made to make printed inductors as efficient as possible by looking at the parameters that have an impact on it. This to get the most out of the inductor, while still keeping it small when it comes implantable devices. Smaller size is better for implantable device.

  • Public defence: 2016-12-09 13:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Nilsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nilsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Mechanisms Behind Illness-Induced Anorexia2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Loss of appetite is together with fever and malaise hallmarks of infection. Loosing appetite during an acute infection such as influenza does not result in any longlasting effects, but loosing appetite during chronic diseases such as cancer or AIDS constitutes a risk factor for mortality. Food intake regulation during inflammation is orchestrated by the brain in response to peripheral inflammatory signals. It is known that expression of the prostaglandin synthesizing enzyme cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) is crucial for the mechanisms underlying inflammation-induced anorexia, and that prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is involved in anorexia induced by interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β). In this thesis I examined the prostaglandin-pathways proposed to be involved in anorexia. We show that acute anorexia is dependent on COX-2 expression, while cancer-induced anorexia is mediated by cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1), at least in the initial stages, suggesting that the signaling pathways for chronic- and acute anorexia are distinct. We were able to demonstrate that the pathway underlying acute anorexia is distinct from that of fever, and that taste aversion is prostaglandin independent. We could also show that both acute and chronic anorexia-cachexia is dependent on expression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene (MyD88) in hematopoietic/myeloid cells.

    In summary, the findings presented in this thesis suggest that anorexia is a result of many different signaling pathways, as opposed to what is the case for several other inflammatory symptoms such as fever and malaise, where the pathways have been shown to be very exclusive. This provides new insight into the diversity of the pathways underlying inflammatory symptoms, which is fundamental for the ability to present potential, symptom-specific drug targets.

    List of papers
    1. Cancer-induced anorexia in tumor-bearing mice is dependent on cyclooxygenase-1
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cancer-induced anorexia in tumor-bearing mice is dependent on cyclooxygenase-1
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    2013 (English)In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 29, 124-135 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    It is well-established that prostaglandins (PGs) affect tumorigenesis, and evidence indicates that PGs also are important for the reduced food intake and body weight loss, the anorexia–cachexia syndrome, in malignant cancer. However, the identity of the PGs and the PG producing cyclooxygenase (COX) species responsible for cancer anorexia–cachexia is unknown. Here, we addressed this issue by transplanting mice with a tumor that elicits anorexia. Meal pattern analysis revealed that the anorexia in the tumor-bearing mice was due to decreased meal frequency. Treatment with a non-selective COX inhibitor attenuated the anorexia, and also tumor growth. When given at manifest anorexia, non-selective COX-inhibitors restored appetite and prevented body weight loss without affecting tumor size. Despite COX-2 induction in the cerebral blood vessels of tumor-bearing mice, a selective COX-2 inhibitor had no effect on the anorexia, whereas selective COX-1 inhibition delayed its onset. Tumor growth was associated with robust increase of PGE2 levels in plasma – a response blocked both by non-selective COX-inhibition and by selective COX-1 inhibition, but not by COX-2 inhibition. However, there was no increase in PGE2-levels in the cerebrospinal fluid. Neutralization of plasma PGE2 with specific antibodies did not ameliorate the anorexia, and genetic deletion of microsomal PGE synthase-1 (mPGES-1) affected neither anorexia nor tumor growth. Furthermore, tumor-bearing mice lacking EP4 receptors selectively in the nervous system developed anorexia. These observations suggest that COX-enzymes, most likely COX-1, are involved in cancer-elicited anorexia and weight loss, but that these phenomena occur independently of host mPGES-1, PGE2 and neuronal EP4 signaling.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2013
    Keyword
    Cancer anorexia-cachexia, Cyclooxygenase, Microsomal prostaglandin E synthase-1, Prostaglandin E2
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90188 (URN)10.1016/j.bbi.2012.12.020 (DOI)000315365400013 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Cancer Foundation||Swedish Research Council||Swedish Brain Foundation||

    Available from: 2013-04-04 Created: 2013-03-21 Last updated: 2016-11-18Bibliographically approved
    2. Inflammation- and tumor-induced anorexia and weight loss require MyD88 in hematopoietic/myeloid cells but not in brain endothelial or neural cells
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Inflammation- and tumor-induced anorexia and weight loss require MyD88 in hematopoietic/myeloid cells but not in brain endothelial or neural cells
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    2013 (English)In: The FASEB Journal, ISSN 0892-6638, E-ISSN 1530-6860, Vol. 27, no 5, 1973-1980 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Loss of appetite is a hallmark of inflammatory diseases. The underlying mechanisms remain undefined, but it is known that myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88), an adaptor protein critical for Toll-like and IL-1 receptor family signaling, is involved. Here we addressed the question of determining in which cells the MyD88 signaling that results in anorexia development occurs by using chimeric mice and animals with cell-specific deletions. We found that MyD88-knockout mice, which are resistant to bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexia, displayed anorexia when transplanted with wild-type bone marrow cells. Furthermore, mice with a targeted deletion of MyD88 in hematopoietic or myeloid cells were largely protected against LPS-induced anorexia and displayed attenuated weight loss, whereas mice with MyD88 deletion in hepatocytes or in neural cells or the cerebrovascular endothelium developed anorexia and weight loss of similar magnitude as wild-type mice. Furthermore, in a model for cancer-induced anorexia-cachexia, deletion of MyD88 in hematopoietic cells attenuated the anorexia and protected against body weight loss. These findings demonstrate that MyD88-dependent signaling within the brain is not required for eliciting inflammation-induced anorexia. Instead, we identify MyD88 signaling in hematopoietic/myeloid cells as a critical component for acute inflammatory-driven anorexia, as well as for chronic anorexia and weight loss associated with malignant disease.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Federation of American Society of Experimental Biology (FASEB), 2013
    Keyword
    lipopolysaccharide; methylcholanthrene-induced sarcoma; food intake; chimeric mice; Cre-LoxP; inducible cell-specific deletion
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96147 (URN)10.1096/fj.12-225433 (DOI)000318226100017 ()
    Available from: 2013-08-14 Created: 2013-08-14 Last updated: 2016-11-18
    3. The involvement of prostaglandin E2 in interleukin-1β evoked anorexia is strain dependent
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The involvement of prostaglandin E2 in interleukin-1β evoked anorexia is strain dependent
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    2016 (English)In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139Article in journal (Refereed) In press
    Abstract [en]

    From experiments in mice in which the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesizing enzyme mPGES-1 was genetically deleted, as well as from experiments in which PGE2 was injected directly into the brain, PGE2 has been implicated as a mediator of inflammatory induced anorexia. Here we aimed at examining which PGE2 receptor (EP1–4) that was critical for the anorexic response to peripherally injected interleukin-1β (IL-1β). However, deletion of neither EP receptor in mice, either globally (for EP1, EP2, and EP3) or selectively in the nervous system (EP4), had any effect on the IL-1β induced anorexia. Because these mice were all on a C57BL/6 background, whereas previous observations demonstrating a role for induced PGE2 in IL-1β evoked anorexia had been carried out on mice on a DBA/1 background, we examined the anorexic response to IL-1β in mice with deletion of mPGES-1 on a C57BL/6 background and a DBA/1 background, respectively. We confirmed previous findings that mPGES-1 knock-out mice on a DBA/1 background displayed attenuated anorexia to IL-1β; however, mice on a C57BL/6 background showed the same profound anorexia as wild type mice when carrying deletion of mPGES-1, while displaying almost normal food intake after pretreatment with a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor. We conclude that the involvement of induced PGE2 in IL-1β evoked anorexia is strain dependent and we suggest that different routes that probably involve distinct prostanoids exist by which inflammatory stimuli may evoke an anorexic response and that these routes may be of different importance in different strains of mice.

    Keyword
    Anorexia, Prostaglandin E2, EP receptors, Interleukin-1, Cyclooxygenase-2, Mice
    National Category
    Immunology Cell Biology Pharmacology and Toxicology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132639 (URN)10.1016/j.bbi.2016.06.014 (DOI)27375005 (PubMedID)
    Available from: 2016-11-18 Created: 2016-11-18 Last updated: 2016-11-23Bibliographically approved
  • Public defence: 2016-12-14 09:15 Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bélteky, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chicken domestication: Effects of tameness on brain gene expression and DNA methylation2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Domestication greatly increases phenotypic variation in a short time span, with selection for a single phenotype and a plethora of associated phenotypic changes as an outcome of the process. The domestication process influences the underlying genomic architecture of a species, and the success and speed of the process is likely influenced by it. The main aims of my thesis was to study how domestication affects the brain of chickens: specifically changes in morphology, gene expression, and DNA methylation. Differences in gene expression and DNA methylation between White Leghorn and Red Junglefowl chickens were mapped, and inheritance of these patterns were quantified, indicating a faithful transmission of breed-specific epigenetic markers. Selection on the behavioral trait fearfulness, generated high and low fearful lines of Red Junglefowl. Both the parental population and the fifth selected generation were used for the analyses in this thesis. One experiment studied morphological changes in the brain and other vital organs, and found that relative total brain size increased in high fearful birds, as a consequence of an increase in cerebral hemisphere size in high fearful birds and not in low fearful birds. Also, the relative heart, liver, spleen and testis size increased in high fearful birds, indicating correlated morphological changes with selection for fearfulness. Two additional experiments examined differential gene expression in the hypothalamus and the anterior cerebral hemisphere. The hypothalamus differed in expression of genes with reproductive and immunological functions, whilst the cerebral hemisphere differed in expression of genes related to social behaviors and neurological functions especially those upregulated in low fearful birds.  These results indicate the occurrence of tissue- and species-specific changes in gene expression as overlap with other domestication events were nearly nonexistent. A fourth experiment sought to associate the change in fear levels and gene expression differences with DNA methylation. Chromosomal regions with differential DNA methylation between high and low fearful birds were identified, and genes in these regions had annotated functions relevant to phenotypic differences between the selection lines. This thesis is the first to study the genetic alterations of domestication using the wild ancestor of an already domesticated species to repeat the domestication process selecting against fear of humans. The findings corroborate results from previous comparisons of wild and domestic animals, and further support the theory that rigorous selection for a behavioral trait can cause a cascade of genetic and epigenetic changes facilitating the domestication of a population.

    List of papers
    1. Heritable genome-wide variation of gene expression and promoter methylation between wild and domesticated chickens
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heritable genome-wide variation of gene expression and promoter methylation between wild and domesticated chickens
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    2012 (English)In: BMC Genomics, ISSN 1471-2164, E-ISSN 1471-2164, Vol. 13, no 59Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Variations in gene expression, mediated by epigenetic mechanisms, may cause broad phenotypic effects in animals. However, it has been debated to what extent expression variation and epigenetic modifications, such as patterns of DNA methylation, are transferred across generations, and therefore it is uncertain what role epigenetic variation may play in adaptation. Here, we show that in Red Junglefowl, ancestor of domestic chickens, gene expression and methylation profiles in thalamus/hypothalamus differ substantially from that of a domesticated egg laying breed. Expression as well as methylation differences are largely maintained in the offspring, demonstrating reliable inheritance of epigenetic variation. Some of the inherited methylation differences are tissue-specific, and the differential methylation at specific loci are little changed after eight generations of intercrossing between Red Junglefowl and domesticated laying hens. There was an over-representation of differentially expressed and methylated genes in selective sweep regions associated with chicken domestication. Hence, our results show that epigenetic variation is inherited in chickens, and we suggest that selection of favourable epigenomes, either by selection of genotypes affecting epigenetic states, or by selection of methylation states which are inherited independently of sequence differences, may have been an important aspect of chicken domestication.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    BioMed Central, 2012
    Keyword
    Domestication, gene expression, tiling array, behaviour, methylation
    National Category
    Biological Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-70159 (URN)10.1186/1471-2164-13-59 (DOI)000301440800001 ()
    Note

    funding agencies|Swedish Research Council| 2008-14496-59340-36 |Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning| 221 2007 838 |

    Available from: 2011-08-22 Created: 2011-08-22 Last updated: 2016-11-30Bibliographically approved
    2. Domestication and tameness: brain geneexpression in red junglefowl selected for less fear of humans suggests effects on reproduction and immunology
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Domestication and tameness: brain geneexpression in red junglefowl selected for less fear of humans suggests effects on reproduction and immunology
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    2016 (English)In: Royal Society Open Science, ISSN 2052-3068, E-ISSN 2046-2069, no 3, 160033Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The domestication of animals has generated a set of phenotypicmodifications, affecting behaviour, appearance, physiologyand reproduction, which are consistent across a range ofspecies. We hypothesized that some of these phenotypes couldhave evolved because of genetic correlation to tameness,an essential trait for successful domestication. Starting froman outbred population of red junglefowl, ancestor of alldomestic chickens, we selected birds for either high or lowfear of humans for five generations. Birds from the fifthselected generation (S5) showed a divergent pattern of growthand reproduction, where low fear chickens grew larger andproduced larger offspring. To examine underlying geneticmechanisms, we used microarrays to study gene expressionin thalamus/hypothalamus, a brain region involved in fearand stress, in both the parental generation and the S5. Whileparents of the selection lines did not show any differentiallyexpressed genes, there were a total of 33 genes with adjustedp-values below 0.1 in S5. These were mainly related to spermfunction,immunological functions, with only a few known tobe relevant to behaviour. Hence, five generations of divergentselection for fear of humans produced changes in hypothalamicgene expression profiles related to pathways associated withmale reproduction and to immunology. This may be linked to the effects seen on growth and size of offspring. These results support the hypothesis thatdomesticated phenotypes may evolve because of correlated effects related to reduced fear of humans.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Royal Society Publishing, 2016
    Keyword
    artificial selection, gene expression, microarray, chicken, fearfulness
    National Category
    Ecology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130501 (URN)10.1098/rsos.160033 (DOI)000384411000002 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies:  Research council Formas; Vetenskapsradet; ERC [322206]

    Available from: 2016-08-11 Created: 2016-08-11 Last updated: 2016-11-30
  • Jörgenson, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Culture, Society and Media Production - KSM.
    Jörgenson, Charlotte
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Culture, Society and Media Production - KSM.
    En diskursanalys om museers framtid2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to illustrate and analyze the future visions of museums and what the future visitor of museums will be. This will be done through a discourse analysis supplemented with interviews with persons involved in the museum field. The questions at issue are how the future of museums is discussed, expressed, and described in the future visions of the for this study chosen museum actors. Furthermore this study will look into what role the visitor of museums is going to take in the future of museums. It will also study how museums should conduct themselves to the visitor of future museums. And finally, what do future museums seek to achieve in the future?

    Museums of today are reaching out towards their visitors and hence the museums have gone from being storage for cultural heritage to become active learning environments for the people. Museums seek to achieve a sustainable future in the social-, environmental-, and economical area. Diversity should also be developed within the activities of the museums, both when it comes to qualifications and to work for development in society as a whole. Knowledge of the Swedish society and its history are likely to play a great role in the future of museums seeing that museums can be looked upon as an institution of knowledge. In this respect the cooperation with universities and colleges are of great importance since it gives an increased credibility for the visitor both when it comes to knowledge and research, as well as democracy and diversity.

    In this time of change lies also the change in the role of the visitor. The future visitor of museums will no longer play the passive part of the listener and recipient of information. The future visitor will play a more active role in the process and product of the museums. This change is in part a result of the digital technology that today is a great part of people’s lives. Museums develop the individual visitor’s motivation and involvement in the community as a bridge between the past, the present and a future.