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• Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
Elever och kunskaper om energi: Energiuppfattningar av elever i grundskolans senare år2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Läroplanen i grundskolan har flera betoningar på att energi ska vara del av undervisningen och de kunskaper somelever ska ta med sig vidare i livet. Vilka uppfattningar finns om energi som begrepp vad gäller oförstörbarhet, flöde,omvandling? Lägger elever vikt vid de energiproblem som samhället har och anser de att läromedel har varit till hjälpatt delge kunskaper om energi? Med utgångspunkt i energifrågor har en enkätstudie gjorts där elever i grundskolanssenare år fått en frågeenkät att svara på. Resultatet visar att flertalet elever har förståelse för energibegrepp, flöde ochomvandling med större missförstånd runt energins statiska och oförstörbara natur. Många vardagsföreställningarförekommer dock, t ex kring kyla och atomenergi, där även samhälle och media använder begrepp ur en ickevetenskapligsynvinkel. Vikten av tillgång på energi i form av elektricitet anses som mycket viktig bland elever menknappt hälften verkar intresserade av försörjning och framtida problem inom energiområdet.

• Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
Lgr11 i fokus: En läromedelsanalys av två läroböcker i matematik från årskurs 12016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Detta är en läromedelsanalys gjord på två läroböcker i matematik för årskurs 1. Böckerna är Prima matematik och Matte eldorado. Avsikten till läromedelsanalysen är att undersöka böckernas innehåll, vilka kunskaper och förmågor som förmedlas, och jämföra det med det som Lgr11 tar upp som centralt innehåll i matematik för årskurs 1-3. För att jämföra matematikböckernas innehåll användes ett analysverktyg i form av en tabell.

Förmågorna som undersöktas var begreppslig förmåga, problemlösningsförmåga, färdighetskunnande, matematisk språk, argumentationsförmåga och positiv inställning i matematik inom kunskaperna aritmetik/taluppfattning, geometri, algebra, statistik & sannolikhetslära och samband & förändringar.

Resultatet presenteras bok för bok och i diskussionsdelen diskuteras böckernas likheter och skillnader.

De två matematikböckerna är ganska olika i utseende och hur de har utformat uppgifterna. De stora skillnaderna innehållsmässigt rör problemlösningsförmåga och positiv inställning till matematik där Matte eldorado har fler uppgifter om dessa förmågor. Däremot har båda läroböckerna uppgifter inom samtliga kunskapsområden. Stutsatsen är att både Prima matematik och Matte eldorados innehåll ger elever möjligheten att lära sig de kunskaper och utveckla de förmågor som Lgr11 ser som centrala att lära sig.

• Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
En kvalitativ studie om hur vårdnadshavare får formativ information i samband med utvecklingssamtal2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Syftet med detta examensarbete är att genom semistrukturerade intervjuer samt observationer av utvecklingssamtal belysa hur vårdnadshavare får information med en formativ funktion angående deras barns kunskapsutveckling. Observationerna och intervjuerna har genomförts på en årskurs 6-9 skola i Mellansverige. Totalt sex utvecklingssamtal med fyra olika mentorer observerades under vårterminen 2009. Innehållsanalys har använts för att kategorisera data.

Resultatet visar att det under utvecklingssamtalen tas upp fyra kategorier av information; Socialt samspel, lektionsinnehåll, akademiska prestationer samt övrigt. De akademiska prestationerna har kategoriserats i summativa eller formativa kommentarstillfällen. Formativ bedömning kan delas upp i tre delar; nuläget, strategi samt mål.  Eftersom samma data gällande nuläget kan ha en summativ och formativ funktion användes begreppet ”strategi” för att särskilja dessa. För att data skulle placeras i kategorin formativ information krävdes att kommentarstillfället innehöll en strategi. När det gällde elevernas akademiska prestationer togs summativ information upp vid 35 kommentarstillfällen och vid 14 kommentarstillfällen togs formativ information upp under dessa utvecklingssamtal. De flesta av dessa formativa kommentarstillfällen hade ett (högre) betyg som mål. Vid endast fyra kommentarstillfällen kan man säga att målet beskrev vart eleven är på väg i sitt lärande.

Betydelsen av att mentorer och vårdnadshavare är förberedda inför samtalet diskuteras. Även vilken typ av information som vårdnadshavarna har inför utvecklingssamtalet samt hur de tillgodogör sig denna tas upp.

• Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
How to combat money laundering in Bitcoin?An institutional and game theoretic approach to anti-money laundering prevention measures aimed at Bitcoin2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Money laundering is a growing issue which has in later years emigrated more and more to the digital sphere of Bitcoin. Its pseudonymous nature and unrigorous legal definition has made regulation a difficult challenge. This thesis provides a unique take on the Bitcoin money laundering problematique by using incentive structures in place of forced restrictions. The goal is to create, validate and analyze a game theoretic incentive model which aims to combat money laundering by increasing the transaction costs for money laundering Bitcoin users without affecting the transaction costs for the honest users. The results prove the model to be feasible, leading to the conclusion that its real-world application has the potential to combat money laundering in Bitcoin to a significant degree.

• Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
Ad-hoc Routing in Low Bandwidth Environments2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

AODV (Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector routing), DSDV (Destination-Sequenced Distance-Vector routing), DSR (Dynamic Source Routing), and OLSR (Optimized Link State Routing protocol) are protocols used for routing management in ad-hoc networks. In a specific sensor data network application, nodes need information about the network topology, i.e. the network nodes and the connections between them. OLSR provides nodes with this information, while the three other protocols do not. This thesis investigates how OLSR compares to AODV, DSDV,and DSR in a low bandwidth network scenario. Two cases were analyzed: One where AODV, DSDV, and DSR distribute topology information in the application layer and one where they do not.

The sensor data application was not finished when this thesis project started. Instead, a simplified traffic model of the application was used. In addition to a protocol comparison, this thesis investigates if traffic generated from the model results in high rates of packet loss, assuming low bandwidth conditions. The ns-3 network simulator was used for these investigations.

This thesis shows that AODV outperforms the three other protocols regardless of whether AODV, DSDV, and DSR distribute topology information in the application layer or not. Furthermore, it is shown that running the traffic model in the low bandwidth environment is not possible without high rates of packet loss.

• Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
"Det är inte alls bara att gå runt": Lärarlett lärande på fritidshemmet2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Pedagoger från svenska fritidshem arbetar olika med att leda aktiviteter som syftar till någon form av lärande. Inför denna studie tänkte jag att det nog finns skilda tankar från pedagoger om varför de gör som de gör gällande dessa aktiviteter. I denna studie har syftet varit att lyfta pedagogernas olika tankar och jämföra dem mot varandra och mot tidigare forskning. Källorna bidrar med information om ämnen som fritidshemmets historia och förändringar, informellt lärande och element som kan bidra till välfungerande fritidshem. I studien appliceras ett sociokulturellt perspektiv med fokus på lärande-teorier. Datainsamlingsmetoden bestod av intervjuer med fem pedagoger från tre olika fritidshem. Intervjuerna har transkriberats, kodats, kategoriserats, analyserats och tolkats för att nå resultatet av denna studie. I den avslutande diskussionen påvisas variationerna och likheterna i pedagogernas tankar kring lärarlett lärande på fritidshem. Där tas även potentiella faktorer som kan vara orsak till deras åsikter upp beträffande deras användning av lärarlett lärande. En av slutsatserna som dragits är att pedagoger bör använda sig av både planerade och oplanerade lärandesituationer på fritidshem och se till att locka eleverna till nyfikenhet på lärande.

• Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Introduction: Glocal pharmaceuticalization2016In: Glocal Pharma: International brands and the imagination of local masculinity / [ed] Ericka Johnson, Ebba Sjögren and Cecilia Åsberg, New York: Routledge, 2016, 1-11 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
• Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Conclusions: Glocal pharma and the Swedish Viagra man2016In: Glocal Pharma: International Brands and the Imagination of Local Masculinity / [ed] Ericka Johnson, Ebba Sjögren and Cecilia Åsberg, New YOurk: Routledge, 2016, 99-107 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)

In this book we have been looking at how pharmaceuticals are localized in a specific context: in Sweden, with its well-developed, Northern/Western  medical system and the welfare policies that provide this medical system at very little point-of-contact cost to the majority of people living there.

• Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
Förändrat chefskap i Försvarsmakten- arbetsgivaransvarets kringgångar2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis

Försvarsmakten har genomgått en HR-transformation vilket lett till att cheferna fått ta ett större aktivt arbetsgivaransvar. Studiens syfte är att bidra med kunskap om chefskapets förändrade roll samt förutsättningar som chefer har att utöva chefskap och arbetsgivaransvar i Försvarsmakten.

Studien har en kvalitativ fallstudiedesign och det empiriska materialet baseras på 1163 enkäter och 9 intervjuer med chefer och HR-medarbetare.

Resultatet visar att chefer, HR-medarbetare och förband hanterar sin situation med bristande stöd samt otydligheter inom personalarbetet genom att göra kringgångar. Med hjälp av kringgångarna löses förbandens problem med begränsade medel och verktyg, vilket resulterar i olika arbetssätt. Fyra olika typer av chefskap har identifierats i studien. De olika typer av chefskap och därmed agerande inom arbetsgivaransveret är: operativ kasern, operativ strid, kasernstrateg och stridsstrateg.

• Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Alpha-blockers and a weaker pharmaceutical influence on medical discourse2016In: Glocal Pharma: International Brands and the Imagination of Local Masculinity / [ed] Ericka Johnson, Ebba Sjögren, Cecilia Åsberg, New York: Routledge, 2016, 63-72 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)

This section of this book explores local examples of a pharmaceutical’s ability to influence the treatment of established medical conditions and redefine health problems as issues with a pharmaceutical solution. The previous chapter explored the influence Viagra had on the medical discourse in Sweden. In this chapter, I am again relying on an analysis of the medical discourse in the Swedish-language medical journal Läkartidningen. From it, I have retrieved research articles and debate pages that appear when the journal’s online archive is searched for the Swedish words associated with lower urinary tract symptoms secondary to benign prostate hyperplasia (LUTS/BPH): BPH, prostatahyperplasi and prostatahypertrofi. 1 I have conducted a search for the years between 1990 and 2015, since alpha-blockers started to become a more common treatment method in Europe for LUTS/BPH in the 1990s (EUA 2006, 35) and were registered as a treatment for BPH in Sweden in the early 1990s (Carlsson and Spångberg 1996a, 4549; Hallin 1999, 3520). This time frame mirrors that used for Viagra in the previous chapter.

• Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
Ingen panik: En studie om pedagogers uppfattningar gällande på vilket sätt elever i behov av särskilt stöd påverkas av att IKT införs i lärmiljöer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

ICT can be progressive and inclusive for students with special needs if it becomes a natural part of everyday work at school and if the teachers feel comfortable with the technology. There are both positive and negative effects in students and teachers when introducing ICT in school. When introducing ICT, education is a central key. The good thing is that tasks can be individually tailored without making students feel singled out. This increases the sense of fellowship since everyone is using the same technical and digital devices. ICT also contributes to inclusive teaching. Negative effects may be that students with special needs feel left out if they work with the touchpad on their own. When knowledge of ICT is low, students and teachers may feel stressed by not having enough knowledge and time. Some students feel stressed when ICT increases the pace of execution and submission of assignments. Some teachers experience that not feeling comfortable with  technology also lead to stressful situations with students and their teachers. When students and teachers get time to reflect about the use of ICT tools, the experience of ICT in the learning environment is more positive.

• Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
The Swedish medical discourse: Impotence, erectile dysfunction and Viagra in Läkartidningen2016In: Glocal Pharma: International brands and the imagination of local masculinity / [ed] Ericka Johnson, Ebba Sjögren and Cecilia Åsberg, Routledge, 2016, 51-62 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
• Department of Accounting at Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden.
Department of Accounting at Stockholm School of Economics, Sweden. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Governing by drugs: Conniving patients, beguiled doctors and disciplining drugs2016In: Glocal Pharma: International brands and the imagination of local masculinity / [ed] Ericka Johnson, Ebba Sjögren and Cecilia Åsberg, Routledge, 2016, 15-28 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)

In April 2001, the Swedish government decided to immediately remove Viagra from the public pharmaceutical reimbursement system (Swedish Book of Statutes 2001, 140). All patients who still wanted their use of these pharmaceuticals to be subsidized were henceforth required to submit individual applications for subsidy to the government itself.

This highly publicized and much-debated decision marked a clear break with the established practice whereby prescription drugs that were granted marketing approval were consistently included in the public pharmaceutical benefits scheme. Under this scheme, patients prescribed subsidized drugs paid only a portion of their direct cost. Following the government’s decision, Viagra was still available for purchase in pharmacies by those holding prescriptions, but the patients were now to assume the cost.....

• Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
Design av verktyg för snabb utläsning och analys av flygprovdata från radar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis

The work leading to this thesis was carried out at Saab AB. The purpose of the thesis was to analyse and evaluate a tool for the reading of data from the Saab Gripen radar unit. The tool is still a work in progress.

By utilising several different measurement tools and a set of test files the radar data tool was evaluated with respect to timing performance, and memory usage. The underlying architecture of the tool was also investigated for its sustainability in future development.

The results of these evaluations presented in this report show that the tool leaves a lot to be desired in the areas of time taken and memory usage and as such, future improvements are needed. The architecture is deemed sustainable and suitable for future use.

• Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
Conceptual Design of AM Container for “3D-Printer Cloud” Close to Customer Site: Plant-in-the-box2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

This is a master thesis about the Plant-in-the-box concept. The master thesis is to develop initial requirements and an initial layout to further investigate the concept. Plant-in-the-box in combination with the Vertical Workshop concept are a part of the “Digitalization @ PS”–Initiative, at Siemens, that started in October 2015 and forms a way of portable and flexible workshops. Plant-in-the-box is based on the idea to have a Additive Manufacturing, AM, machine with all its surrounding systems and equipment in a container which can easily be shipped to a new destination if desired. This AM container can then be combined with other containers containing anything from machinery for cutting processing to desktop stations and equipment for climate control. The set of containers are organized in a Vertical Workshop, where the containers can be slipped into a rack which supports the multi-storage workshop with accessibility and the necessary media. The Vertical Workshop can easily be deployed close to customer and as a part of a 3DPrinter Cloud provide a network of  production units placed on strategic locations.

• Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
Hem och skola vägg i vägg: En litteraturstudie om hemmets stöttning för elevers läsutveckling2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att synliggöra hur faktorer i hemmet gör avtryck på elevernas läsutveckling. Studien utgår från utbildningsvetenskaplig forskning om elever i förskoleklass till och med årskurs 6. Analys av vetenskapliga artiklar och rapporter har lett fram till utformandet av teman som berör vårdnadshavarnas hjälp och stöttning, hemmiljöns utformning, den socioekonomiska bakgrunden samt elevers och vårdnadshavares inställning. Avsikten har sedan varit att presentera vilken påverkan dessa faktorer har på läsutvecklingen och läsförmågans olika delar. Det huvudsakliga resultatet visar att det inte är att vårdnadshavarna stöttar utan hur, som är nyckeln till barnets läsutveckling. Mycket läxhjälp har visat sig vara negativt för elevernas läsutveckling. Vårdnadshavare bör istället engagera sig i barnens lärande genom stöttning i form av samtal och diskussion om texter. Tillgång till läsmaterial i hemmet och en omgivning med läsande förebilder lägger grunden för barns kommande läsutveckling och deras inställning till lärande. En avgörande uppgift för hemmet är att förmedla en emotionell närhet med positiv attityd eftersom detta avspeglar sig i stöttningens följder och elevernas tro på sig själva.

• Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
Relationsbrott i det terapeutiska rummet: Terapeutens upplevelse av patientens dissociation2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Syftet med denna kvalitativa studie var att utforska hur psykoterapeuter upplever, påverkas av och hanterar samspelssituationer med patienter som har varit med om svåra livshändelser och som dissocierar under en specifik session. Åtta kvinnliga psykoterapeuter ingick i studien, samtliga yrkesverksamma inom specialiserad traumavård eller psykiatri.

I studien har Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) möjliggjort att mer i detalj ta del av den enskildes upplevelser men även utrymme för att analysera och tolka utifrån ett vidare teoretiserande perspektiv. Analysen och tolkningen av materialet resulterade i tre huvudteman: Upplevelsen av dissociation - relationsbrott i det terapeutiska rummet, Viljan till kontakt - den aktiva relationsupprättande terapeuten samt Relationen som grund - den trygghetsskapande terapeuten.

Resultatet visade på att patienternas psykopatologi men även tidpunkten i behandlingen som terapeuterna hänvisade till hade stor betydelse för hur samspelsmönster utvecklades och vilka interventioner som kom i fokus. De dissociativa relationsbrotten eller identitetsväxlingarna uppmärksammades ofta på en ordlös, kroppslig nivå. Alliansarbetet och den tillitsskapande processen var en central uppgift som mycket av det övriga arbetet vilade på.

• Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Carl Malmsten - furniture studies.
Intervjua Möbler: Ett arbete om tyst kunskap och om att kommunicera hantverk2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis

In this work we investigate how measuring, documentation and manufacturing can be a way of getting a deeper understanding of the craftsmanship.

The documentation- and measuring phase leads us to a better under- standing of how a carpenter could have reasoned, a long time ago, in choosing material, way of construction and manufacturing as well as design. The production drawing increased our understanding of a furnitures construction and how it’s parts are put together.

The manufacturing phase made us understand why he/she had chosen to solve a task in one way and not in another. It gives us the possibility to develop as cabinetmakers as well as being able to communicate our knowledge, inspire and attract interest for the cabinetmaker trade.

To be able to give the common people insight in to the complex process of creating high quality furniture and at the same time, being able to appreciate the value in the items that already exists around them, we found that the most effective media to convince the observer of a furniture’s complex manufacturing is lm in combination with text.

• Public defence: 2016-11-18 13:00 Hasselquistsalen, Linköping
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Aspects of the Pre-Diabetic Perios in Type 1 Diabetes2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by insulin deficiency, due to immune-mediated destruction of beta cells. Current knowledge regarding the period preceding disease onset comes, to a large extent, from studying risk cohorts based on relatives of T1D-patients, as they have an increased disease risk. Among T1D patients in general, however, few have the disease in their immediate family. It is therefore important to study risk cohorts from the general population as well. An ongoing autoimmune reaction can often be seen in the blood long before disease onset, by detection of autoantibodies directed towards beta cell antigens. By autoantibody screening among participants in the ABIS (All Babies in the South-east of Sweden) cohort, we could identify a group of children from the general population with increased risk for T1D, positive for multiple autoantibodies. They were enrolled in a 2-year prospective follow-up aiming to characterize the prediabetic period and to identify factors indicative of progression/non-progression to T1D. We assessed glucose homeostasis and autoantibody titers over time, and searched for risk-biomarkers by analyzing the expression of immune-related genes (Th1-Th2-Th3) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from these children, in comparison to healthy children and newly diagnosed T1D patients. In the same groups we also compared serum micro RNA (miRNA) profiles, knowing that miRNA molecules have desirable biomarker properties. We found that two specific autoantibodies, IA2A and ZnT8A, were detected at higher concentrations in risk-individuals who progressed to overt T1D during or after the follow-up period, compared to those who still have not. We also observed disturbed glucose homeostasis long before onset in the progressors, but it was seen among those who remain symptom free as well. Further, we found support for the possible role of insulin resistance as an accelerator of the disease process. For gene expression and serum miRNA, few differences were observed between risk-individuals and healthy children overall. However, for PBMC gene expression and serum miRNA both, there were associations to beta cell function and glucose homeostasis, and for miRNA also to islet autoantibodies. Although specific profiles for prediction of disease onset or identification of risk-individuals could not be found, these results are interesting and deserve to be evaluated further. As part of another sub-study within ABIS, the effects of physical activity on glucose homeostasis were assessed in healthy schoolchildren. The level of physical activity, measured by pedometers, was related to insulin resistance and beta cell-stress, and decreased physical activity was associated with increased insulin resistance and load on the insulin-producing beta cells, already at school-age.

1. Low C-peptide levels and decreased expression of TNF and CD45 in children with high risk of type 1 diabetes
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Low C-peptide levels and decreased expression of TNF and CD45 in children with high risk of type 1 diabetes
2013 (English)In: Clinical Immunology, ISSN 1521-6616, E-ISSN 1521-7035, Vol. 148, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Type 1 diabetes (T1D) patients have numeral and functional defects in peripheral immune cells, but the pre-diabetic period is fairly uncharacterized. Our aim was to analyze expression of immunological markers in T1D high risk children and relate it to clinical/immunological parameters. Children from ABIS (All Babies in Southeast Sweden) with greater than= 2 diabetes related autoantibodies were considered at high risk. Age-matched controls and new-onset T1D patients were included. Expression of genes related to immune cell function and different arms of the immune system was assessed in peripheral blood mononuclear cells using PCR array. Risk children had lower TNF and CD45, and although there were few differences between the groups, expression of many genes differed when comparing children with regard to residual insulin secretion. Hence, expression of immune related genes seemed related not only to the autoimmune process but rather to residual beta-cell function, which was decreased already during the pre-diabetic phase.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
##### Keyword
Type 1 diabetes; Gene expression; PBMC; T1D high risk; T1D autoantibodies; PCR array
##### National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96458 (URN)10.1016/j.clim.2013.03.011 (DOI)000320427300002 ()
Available from: 2013-08-23 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2016-10-19
2. Physical Activity, Blood Glucose and C-Peptide in Healthy School-Children, a Longitudinal Study
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical Activity, Blood Glucose and C-Peptide in Healthy School-Children, a Longitudinal Study
2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 6, e0156401- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Aim To further elucidate the relationship between physical activity and several risk factors for development of diabetes (glucose, C-peptide and obesity) over time. Methods A prospective longitudinal study where physical activity was measured on 199 children from Kalmar and Linkoping at age 8, and the same 107 children from Linkoping again at age 12. Anthropometric data was collected and blood was analyzed for C-peptide and f-glucose. The children in the study were representative for the general Swedish child population, and on an average lean. Results High physical activity was related to lower C-peptide at age 8 and 12. This correlation was especially pronounced in boys, who also were more physically active than girls at both time points. The association seen at 8 years of age was similar at age 12 in most children. Children with higher BMI Z-Score had a higher fasting C-peptide (age 12) but linear regression showed that children with more steps per day were less likely to have a higher fasting C-peptide irrespective of BMI. Longitudinal follow-up showed that a decrease in physical activity increased insulin resistance and beta-cell load. Conclusions Already in young children, physical activity improves insulin sensitivity and decreases the need of C-peptide over time. This seems to become even more pronounced with increasing age when children are followed longitudinally. Low physical activity increases the load on insulin producing beta-cells, might increase the risk for both type 1- and 2 diabetes.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2016
Pediatrics
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130132 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0156401 (DOI)000377561000012 ()27270732 (PubMedID)
##### Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Child Diabetes Foundation (Barndiabetesfonden); Novo Nordisk Foundation; Research Council of South-east Sweden (FORSS); Swedish Research Council [K2005-72X-11242-11A]; ALF/County Council of Ostergotland

Available from: 2016-07-12 Created: 2016-07-11 Last updated: 2016-10-19
• Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
Method Development for Heat Transfer Predictions in Channel Flows: An efficient CFD approach for ribbed stationary channels2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Gas turbines are today used in numerous industrial and aeronautical applications. To increase the specific power output and efficiency, a high turbine inlet gas temperature is desired. The high temperature leads to the need of cooling critical components in the hot gas path. Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, SIT AB, in Finspång manufactures gas turbines where the internal cooling of critical components is done through serpentine channels. To utilize the cooling air as efficiently as possible, vortex creating objects are placed inside the channel which result in higher heat transfer. To compute the heat transfer in the channel, correlation based approaches that will give a uniform value for an entire channel are often used.

This thesis contains two parts. First, investigating how an automated CAE process can be developed that is able to be incorporated into the SIT AB CAE process of today and with a future vision of a, basically, "one-click-CFD" approach for non-generic geometries. Secondly, how CFD simulations for predicting heat transfer levels inside the cooling channels with high accuracy and that captures local features of heat transfer can be performed.

The suggested CAE approach involves the CAD-tool NX for geometry creation and for managing an entire CFD project the ANSYS software Workbench, combined with ANSYS Meshing for generation of computational grid, CFX-pre and CFX for pre-processing and solving and CFD-post for post-processing. This approach is suggested for generic geometries due to the simplicity in incorporating it into existing CAE processes. For the future vision of non-generic geometries, the inhouse developed project manager Concept is suggested. It allows for customized coupling between a broader range of available software tools.

To validate the CFX model and to investigate how the CFD calculations should be performed, two cases were set up, one where the CFD model and the inhouse code was compared to experimental data of a generic geometry and one where the CFD model and the inhouse code were compared at engine-like conditions. The results for the experimental case resulted in heat transfer coefficients from the CFD model that were 30% off from experimental data, and the inhouse code maximum deviation was 10%. Compared to previous numerical studies this was considered to be of acceptable accuracy, and the location of data extraction points were considered to cause the deviation in the CFD model. For the engine-like case both CFD and inhouse code predicted the heat transfer level as expected. The simulations were performed in steady state mode on automatically generated meshes with the SST-Reattachment turbulence model. The Reynolds number varied from 10 000 to 80 000 and the meshes were around 4-10M elements in size.

• Public defence: 2016-11-16 13:15 TEMCAS, Building T, Linköping
Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Lisboa, Portugal.
Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Escola Nacional de Saúde Pública, Lisboa, Portugal.
The Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) approach as a framework for business involvement in health promotion in the welfare state2016Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)

• Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.. Department of Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.. Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Department of Neurology, Karolinska Institutet, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden..
Study of Autophagy and Microangiopathy in Sural Nerves of Patients with Chronic Idiopathic Axonal Polyneuropathy.2016In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 9, StartPage-EndPage p., e0163427Article in journal (Refereed)

Twenty-five percent of polyneuropathies are idiopathic. Microangiopathy has been suggested to be a possible pathogenic cause of chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP). Dysfunction of the autophagy pathway has been implicated as a marker of neurodegeneration in the central nervous system, but the autophagy process is not explored in the peripheral nervous system. In the current study, we examined the presence of microangiopathy and autophagy-related structures in sural nerve biopsies of 10 patients with CIAP, 11 controls with inflammatory neuropathy and 10 controls without sensory polyneuropathy. We did not find any significant difference in endoneurial microangiopathic markers in patients with CIAP compared to normal controls, though we did find a correlation between basal lamina area thickness and age. Unexpectedly, we found a significantly larger basal lamina area thickness in patients with vasculitic neuropathy. Furthermore, we found a significantly higher density of endoneurial autophagy-related structures, particularly in patients with CIAP but also in patients with inflammatory neuropathy, compared to normal controls. It is unclear if the alteration in the autophagy pathway is a consequence or a cause of the neuropathy. Our results do not support the hypothesis that CIAP is primarily caused by a microangiopathic process in endoneurial blood vessels in peripheral nerves. The significantly higher density of autophagy structures in sural nerves obtained from patients with CIAP and inflammatory neuropathy vs. controls indicates the involvement of this pathway in neuropathy, particularly in CIAP, since the increase in density of autophagy-related structures was more pronounced in patients with CIAP than those with inflammatory neuropathy. To our knowledge this is the first report investigating signs of autophagy process in peripheral nerves in patients with CIAP and inflammatory neuropathy.

• Public defence: 2016-11-18 09:00 Hugo Theorellsalen, Linköping
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Assessment of microvascular and metabolic responses in the skin2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

The general aim of this project was to develop experimental in vivo models that allow for minimally invasive investigations of responses in the skin to microvascular and metabolic provocations. The cutaneous microvasculature has emerged as a valuable model and been proposed to mirror the microcirculation in other organs. Dysfunction in the cutaneous microcirculation has thus been linked to systemic diseases such as hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Models for investigating skin responses could facilitate the understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms as well as effects of drugs.

In the first study, three optical measurement techniques (laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF), laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) and tissue viability imaging (TiVi)) were compared against each other and showed differences in their ability to detect microvascular responses to provocations in the skin. TiVi was found more sensitive for measurement of noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction, while LSCI was more sensitive for measurement of vascular occlusion. In the second study, microvascular responses in the skin to iontophoresis of vasoactive drugs were found to depend on the drug delivery protocol. Perfusion half-life was defined and used to describe the decay in the microvascular response to a drug after iontophoresis. In the third study, the role of nitric oxide (NO) was assessed during iontophoresis of insulin. The results showed a NO-dependent vasodilation in the skin by insulin. In the fourth study the vasoactive and metabolic effects of insulin were studied after both local and endogenous administration. Local delivery of insulin increased skin blood flow, paralleled by increased skin concentrations of interstitial pyruvate and lactate, although no change in glucose concentration was observed. An oral glucose load resulted in an increased insulin concentration in the skin paralleled by an increase in blood flow, as measured using the microdialysis urea clearance technique, although no changes in perfusion was measured by LSCI.

The thesis concludes that when studying skin microvascular responses, the choice of measurement technique and the drug delivery protocol has an impact on the measurement results, and should therefore be carefully considered. The thesis also concludes that insulin has metabolic and vasodilatory effects in the skin both when administered locally and as an endogenous response to an oral glucose load. The vasodilatory effect of insulin in the skin is mediated by nitric oxide.

1. Non-Invasive Measurement of Skin Microvascular Response during Pharmacological and Physiological Provocations
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-Invasive Measurement of Skin Microvascular Response during Pharmacological and Physiological Provocations
2015 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 8, 1-15 p., e0133760Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Introduction Microvascular changes in the skin due to pharmacological and physiological provocations can be used as a marker for vascular function. While laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) has been used extensively for measurement of skin microvascular responses, Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging (LSCI) and Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) are novel imaging techniques. TiVi measures red blood cell concentration, while LDF and LSCI measure perfusion. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare responses to provocations in the skin using these different techniques. Method Changes in skin microcirculation were measured in healthy subjects during (1) iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and noradrenaline (NA), (2) local heating and (3) post-occlusive reactive hyperemia (PORH) using LDF, LSCI and TiVi. Results Iontophoresis of SNP increased perfusion (LSCI: baseline 40.9 +/- 6.2 PU; 10-min 100 +/- 25 PU; pless than0.001) and RBC concentration (TiVi: baseline 119 +/- 18; 10-min 150 +/- 41 AU; p = 0.011). No change in perfusion (LSCI) was observed after iontophoresis of NA (baseline 38.0 +/- 4.4 PU; 10-min 38.9 +/- 5.0 PU; p = 0.64), while RBC concentration decreased (TiVi: baseline 59.6 +/- 11.8 AU; 10-min 54.4 +/- 13.3 AU; p = 0.021). Local heating increased perfusion (LDF: baseline 8.8 +/- 3.6 PU; max 112 +/- 55 PU; pless than0.001, LSCI: baseline 50.8 +/- 8.0 PU; max 151 +/- 22 PU; pless than0.001) and RBC concentration (TiVi: baseline 49.2 +/- 32.9 AU; max 99.3 +/- 28.3 AU; pless than0.001). After 5 minutes of forearm occlusion with prior exsanguination, a decrease was seen in perfusion (LDF: p = 0.027; LSCI: pless than0.001) and in RBC concentration (p = 0.045). Only LSCI showed a significant decrease in perfusion after 5 minutes of occlusion without prior exsanguination (pless than0.001). Coefficients of variation were lower for LSCI and TiVi compared to LDF for most responses. Conclusion LSCI is more sensitive than TiVi for measuring microvascular changes during SNP-induced vasodilatation and forearm occlusion. TiVi is more sensitive to noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction. LSCI and TiVi show lower inter-subject variability than LDF. These findings are important to consider when choosing measurement techniques for studying skin microvascular responses.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2015
Physiology
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121109 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0133760 (DOI)000359492800006 ()26270037 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-09-07 Created: 2015-09-07 Last updated: 2016-10-19
2. Modeling Perfusion Dynamics in the Skin During Iontophoresis of Vasoactive Drugs Using Single-Pulse and Multiple-Pulse Protocols
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modeling Perfusion Dynamics in the Skin During Iontophoresis of Vasoactive Drugs Using Single-Pulse and Multiple-Pulse Protocols
2015 (English)In: Microcirculation, ISSN 1073-9688, E-ISSN 1549-8719, Vol. 22, no 6, 446-453 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Objective: After iontophoresis of vasoactive drugs into the skin, a decrease in perfusion is commonly observed. We delivered vasoactive drugs by iontophoresis using different delivery protocols to study how these affect this decrease in perfusion as measured using LDF. Methods: We measured skin perfusion during iontophoresis of (ACh), MCh, andNAusing a single pulse or separate pulses at different skin sites, and during repeated delivery of ACh at the same site. Results: Perfusion half-life was 6.1 (5.6-6.6) minutes for ACh and 41 (29-69) minutes for MCh (p less than 0.001). The maximum response with multiple pulses of ACh iontophoresis was lower than with a single pulse, 30 (22-37) PU vs. 43 (36-50) PU, p less than 0.001. Vasoconstriction to NA was more rapid with a single pulse than with multiple pulses. The perfusion half-life of ACh decreased with repeated delivery of ACh at the same site-first 16 (14-18), second 5.9 (5.1-6-9) and third 3.2 (2.9-3.5) minutes, p less than 0.001. Conclusions: The drug delivery protocol affects microvascular responses to iontophoresis, possibly as a result of differences in the dynamics of local drug concentrations. Perfusion half-life may be used as a measure to quantify the rate of perfusion recovery after iontophoresis of vasoactive drugs.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa Healthcare / Wiley: 12 months, 2015
##### Keyword
microcirculation; iontophoresis; acetylcholine; metha choline; noradrenaline; skin
##### National Category
Clinical Medicine
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121138 (URN)10.1111/micc.12211 (DOI)000359676500002 ()26016387 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-09-08 Created: 2015-09-08 Last updated: 2016-10-19
3. The Microvascular Response to Transdermal Iontophoresis of Insulin is Mediated by Nitric Oxide
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Microvascular Response to Transdermal Iontophoresis of Insulin is Mediated by Nitric Oxide
2013 (English)In: Microcirculation, ISSN 1073-9688, Vol. 20, no 8, 717-723 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

ObjectiveInsulin has direct effects on blood flow in various tissues, most likely due to endothelial NO production. We investigated whether insulin delivered to the skin by iontophoresis increases microvascular perfusion and whether this effect is partly or completely mediated by the release of NO. MethodsIn healthy subjects, regular insulin and monomeric insulin were delivered to the skin by cathodal iontophoresis. The skin was pretreated either with L-NAME or control solution (PBS) using anodal iontophoresis. Microvascular responses were measured using laser Doppler flowmetry. ResultsA dose-dependent increase in perfusion was observed during iontophoresis of regular and monomeric insulin. The maximum perfusion was significantly elevated compared with control after PBS (regular insulin 53.6 (12.7-95.6) PU vs. 4.2 (3.4-4.8) PU, p = 0.002; monomeric insulin 32.6 (8.9-92.6) PU vs. 5.9 (3.4-56.0) PU, p = 0.03). The microvascular response to insulin was abolished after L-NAME (regular insulin: 25.6 (11.6-54.4) PU vs. control: 4.7 (2.9-11.5) PU, p = 0.15; monomeric insulin 10.9 (5.4-56.8) PU vs. control: 4.7 (2.9-11.5) PU, p = 0.22). ConclusionsThe main finding is that iontophoresis of insulin induces a dose-dependent vasodilation in the skin, which could be suppressed after pretreatment with a NO synthase inhibitor. This suggests that vasodilation in the skin after iontophoresis of insulin is mediated by the NO pathway.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-BLACKWELL, 111 RIVER ST, HOBOKEN 07030-5774, NJ USA, 2013
##### Keyword
insulin, transdermal iontophoresis, endothelial function, vasodilation
##### National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102080 (URN)10.1111/micc.12071 (DOI)000326607600008 ()
##### Note

Funding Agencies|Linkoping University||County Council of Ostergotland||

Available from: 2013-12-02 Created: 2013-11-29 Last updated: 2016-10-19
• Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Department of History, Tourism and Media.
Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Department of History, Tourism and Media.
De kanske tror att jag är terrorist: En analys av gränsöverskridande resande bland människor med utländsk bakgrund i Sverige2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This study aims to highlight Swedish citizens with foreign backgrounds which have experienced discrimination and racialization in global travel.  The study analyzed whether Swedes with a foreign background may experience some of the Western World travel privileges when travelling abroad. It also analyzes the differences in international travel between Swedish tourists without a foreign background and Swedish tourists with a foreign background. The study starts from a postcolonial perspective. The methodology used in the study is a qualitative study, in which seven Swedes with foreign backgrounds were interviewed for the collection of material analyzed from a discourse analytical perspective. The result shows that Swedes with a foreign background see themselves as privileged in global travel. Through the Swedish passport, they have had the opportunity to travel. However, they have found their freedom restricted to a certain extent. Several of the respondents have repeatedly been discriminated in their travels, which they believe is based on their origin. This type of discrimination is based on post-colonialism, where we and them, black and white, are seen as each other contrasts which create upper and lower orders.

• Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
Gameful learning through The Lens of Intrinsic Skill Atoms2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Creating applications and systems that effectively motivate users is very important both in business and education. Using design practises from game development in non- game settings to exploit its ability to engage players has become increasingly more popular in recent time to attract and encourage users. This study examines how to effectively and systematically develop an application using a method based in both game design and inter- action design to develop a learning application for programming. The results demonstrates the strengths of the applied iterative prototyping and powerful design tools of the specific method in a smaller scale project as well as the weaknesses of the vague description of tool usage with risk of derailing in the design steps.

• Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
Implementation och användbarhet av en spelbutik i en applikation2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis

Det här examensarbetet grundar sig i området datateknik och är utfört på Linköpings Universitet. Examensarbetet kretsar kring det matematiska pusselspelet Entanglement som är baserat på Christer Fuglesangs barnböcker om rymden. Spelet är fortfarande i utvecklingsstadiet. Tanken är att Entanglement skall vara en gratis applikation.  Därmed var behovet av att implementera någon typ av funktion som leder till avkastning. Under examensarbetets gång har en fallstudie och en kravframtagning utförts där andra redan befintliga avkastningsfunktioner har granskas i applikationer samt krav har tagits fram. Detta gav upphov till den virtuella butik som Entanglement nu använder sig av. Spelet är baserat på böckernas design och därav kommer även butiken använda sig utav material taget från böckerna. Då spelet är skrivit med hjälp av ramverket Phaser kommer även skapandet av butiken ske med hjälp av Phaser. Resultatet från examensarbetet kommer att vara en fungerande virtuell butik med design från Christer Fuglesangs böcker. Även så kommer användartester att utföras för att ligga till grund i bedömningen om butiken presterar utefter kundens önskemål och krav och för att se om spelet uppnår användbarhet.

• Public defence: 2016-11-17 09:00 Graniten, Linköping
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
Tinnitus in Patients with Sensorineural Hearing Loss: Management, Quality of Life and Treatment Strategies2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)

Approximately 15% of Swedish people experience tinnitus, but only 2.4% experience severe problems. Treatment modalities for tinnitus vary, but the most common treatment is counseling. The majority of patients with tinnitus report some degree of hearing loss, and hearing aids have been used for many years in patients who suffer from both tinnitus and hearing impairment. The aim of the present thesis was to investigate disease management, determine quality of life and identify treatment strategies for patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss.

The first two studies described here are retrospective, descriptive studies of patients who sought care for tinnitus and hearing loss at two Ear-Nose-Throat (ENT) clinics in Östergötland County, Sweden, during the years 2004 - 2007. Study I showed that 70% of the cohort had tinnitus; however, many did not initially receive a diagnosis of tinnitus. Information about vertigo, heredity for hearing loss and tinnitus, diabetes history, cardiovascular disease history and other factors related to health was often missing from the patients’ medical records. The results could show that the overall scores using the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) were higher in female patients than in male patients. Although it is likely that hearing aids would be beneficial for the majority of these patients, 314 (44%) of the 714 total patients had hearing aids. Furthermore, the outcomes from study II demonstrated that a majority of the patients (61%) who were dissatisfied with the care they had obtained had no hearing aids. This finding may indicate that the fitting of hearing aids is an important treatment for patients with both tinnitus and hearing loss.

Studies III and IV were prospective studies. Data collection was based on patients who sought care for tinnitus and/or hearing loss at the ENT clinic in Linköping during 2012-2013. In study III, 92 patients were divided into two groups: one group contained individuals with both tinnitus and hearing loss, and the other group contained patients with only hearing loss. The patients were assessed using the Reading Span test, the Hearing in Noise Test (HINT) and three questionnaires (the THI, the Hearing Handicap Inventory for Elderly and the Pittsburg Sleep Quality Index) at baseline and follow-up. The results from the age-matched subgroups (n=30+30) generated from the full clinical groups (46+46) showed significantly improved Reading Span test performance and sleep quality in patients with both tinnitus and hearing loss. Similar results were observed in our full clinical population (n=46+46). However, the interpretation of this finding is difficult due to age differences between the groups. In conclusion, hearing aid fitting had a significantly positive impact on working memory capacity and sleep quality in patients with both tinnitus and hearing loss compared with patients with only hearing loss.

In study IV, a brief Motivational Interviewing (MI) guide was integrated into the hearing rehabilitation process for 23 patients with both tinnitus and hearing loss, and they were compared against a control group (n=23) of patients with both tinnitus and hearing loss who underwent traditional hearing rehabilitation. The results showed that the patients who received the brief MI guide required fewer visits to complete their hearing rehabilitation compared with the patients in the control group. In addition, there was a significant difference in THI scores between the groups, which indicated that the intervention reduced tinnitus annoyance more in the MI group. Furthermore, both groups showed higher scores at follow-up compared with baseline on the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) scale, which indicated that both approaches showed a positive effect on hearing aid satisfaction.

Study V was a retrospective, descriptive study that focused on a part of a Stepped Care model and included patients who participated in half-day tinnitus information meetings from 2004 to 2011 in the audiology clinic at Linköping University Hospital. A total of 426 tinnitus patients with complete questionnaires (the THI and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, HADS) were included in the study. The results showed significant decreases in scores on the THI and the anxiety module of the HADS before and after the information session. However, there were no statistically significant changes in the depression module of the HADS.

In conclusion, this thesis underscores the importance of hearing impairment, cognitive variables and motivational procedures in the management of tinnitus. Multidisciplinary group information needs to be further validated.

1. A cohort study of patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss in a Swedish population
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A cohort study of patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss in a Swedish population
2013 (English)In: Auris, nasus, larynx, ISSN 0385-8146, E-ISSN 1879-1476, Vol. 40, no 1, 41-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe a large cohort of patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in Sweden, and also to explore the possibility of finding potential possible differences between various diagnoses within SNHL. It is also of great interest to see how a multidisciplinary team was used in the different subgroups and the frequency of hearing aids use in patients with tinnitus.

METHODS: Medical records of all patients who had received the diagnosis SNHL in Östergötland County, Sweden between 2004 and 2007 were reviewed. Patients between 20 and 80 years with tinnitus and a pure tone average (PTA) lower than 70dB HL were included in the study. Patients were excluded from the analyses if they had a cochlear implantation, middle ear disorders or had a hearing loss since birth or childhood. The investigators completed a form for each included patient, covering background facts, and audiograms taken at the yearly check up.

RESULTS: Of a total 1672 patients' medical record review, 714 patients were included. The majority of patients (79%) were in the age group over 50 years. In male patients with bilateral tinnitus, the PTA for the left ear was significantly higher than for the right ear. The results regarding the configuration of hearing loss revealed that 555 patients (78%) had symmetric and 159 (22%) asymmetric hearing loss. Retrocochlear examinations were done in 372 patients and MRI was the most common examination. In all patients, 400 had no hearing aids and out of those 220 had unilateral tinnitus and 180 patients had bilateral tinnitus. 219 patients had a PTA>20dB HL and did not have any hearing aid. Results demonstrated that the Stepped Care model was not used widely in the daily practice. In our study, patients with bilateral-, unilateral hearing loss or Mb Ménière were the most common patients included in the Stepped Care model.

CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of patients with SNHL and tinnitus, despite their hearing loss only 39% had hearing aids. It was observed that the medical record review often showed a lack of information about many background factors, such as; patients' general health condition, which could be a quality factor that needs improvement. Our results show that the Stepped Care model could be an effective option for providing a better access for tinnitus-focused treatment, although the number of patients in this study who were included in the Stepped Care model was low.

##### National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81411 (URN)10.1016/j.anl.2012.05.005 (DOI)22652486 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-13 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
2. Quality of life in patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality of life in patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss
2014 (English)In: B-ENT, ISSN 1781-782X, Vol. 10, no 1, 41-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in patients with tinnitus and SNHL, to investigate patients’ mental and physical health and to measure the level of satisfaction concerning the care experienced by the patients.

Methods: Three questionnaires related to patients` physical and psychological health, were mailed to 714 Swedish patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss.

Results: Female patients had significantly higher Tinnitus Handicap Inventory scores than male patients. Patients who were satisfied with the care they obtained had significantly higher PTA. It was found that the satisfied group had significantly lower THI-scores. In the dissatisfied group, 61% of patients had no hearing aids compared to 42% in the satisfied group.

Conclusion: Our cohort of patients estimated their life quality and general health at a good level almost 4.5 years after their first report of tinnitus. Another finding was that 47% of patients were not satisfied with the treatment they obtained. In the dissatisfied group, 61% of patients had no hearing aids. Further research is required to find an approach that could motivate patients with both tinnitus and hearing impairment to use hearing aids.

##### Keyword
Tinnitus, Sensorineural hearing loss, Questionnaire, Quality of life
##### National Category
Clinical Medicine
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81412 (URN)000334566200007 ()24765828 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-13 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
3. Working Memory, Sleep, and Hearing Problems in Patients with Tinnitus and Hearing Loss Fitted with Hearing Aids
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Working Memory, Sleep, and Hearing Problems in Patients with Tinnitus and Hearing Loss Fitted with Hearing Aids
2016 (English)In: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, ISSN 1050-0545 (Print); 2157-3107 (Online), 1-11 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
##### Abstract [en]

Background: Tinnitus is a common condition and there is a need to evaluate effects of tinnitus management in relation to moderating factors such as degree of hearing loss. As it is possible that tinnitus influences concentration, and thus is likely to disturb cognitive processing, the role of cognitive functioning also needs to be investigated.

Purpose: To compare a group of patients with sensorineural hearing loss and tinnitus to a control group with only sensorineural hearing loss (and no tinnitus). To investigate working memory, sleep, and hearing problems measured before and after hearing rehabilitation.

Research Design: A prospective study.

Study Sample: The sample consisted of 100 patients, 50 with hearing loss and tinnitus, and 50 controls with hearing loss but no tinnitus. All patients were between 40 and 82 yr old and had a pure-tone average (PTA; average of 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) ,70 dB HL.

Intervention: Patients were tested before and after rehabilitation with hearing aids with regard to their working memory capacity, sleep quality, hearing problems, speech recognition, and tinnitus annoyance.

Data Collection and Analysis: Eight patients dropped out of the study. Thus, a total of 92 patients were included for analysis, with 46 in each group. As a consequence of unplanned age and PTA differences between the groups, an age-matched subsample (n 5 30 1 30) was selected for further analysis. Tests including the Reading Span, Hearing-in-Noise Test (HINT), Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI), Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE), and Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) were administered before and after hearing aid rehabilitation.

Results: There were no between-group differences at baseline in the full sample (n 5 92), with the exception of the THI (p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.002), on which the hearing loss and tinnitus group had significantly higher scores. Pre/post changes were significant for both groups on the Reading Span, and HHIE. However, these improvements were significantly larger for the patients in the hearing loss and tinnitus group on the Reading Span test (p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.001). Patients with tinnitus and hearing loss also exhibited significantly improved THI scores at follow-up, compared to baseline ( p, 0.001). We conducted the same analyses for the age-matched subsample (n 5 30 1 30). For the baseline data, only the THI (p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.015) difference remained significant. With regard to the pre/post changes, we found the same differences in improvement in Reading Span ( p , 0.001) and the PSQI (p , 0.015) as in the full sample.

Conclusions: Patients with tinnitus benefited from hearing aid rehabilitation. The observed differences in cognitive function were unexpected, and there were larger score improvements on the Reading Span test in the hearing loss and tinnitus group than in the hearing loss group. Patients with tinnitus and hearing loss may receive extra benefit in terms of cognitive function following hearing aid rehabilitation.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Ingenta, 2016
##### Keyword
sensorineural hearing loss; hearing aids; tinnitus; working memory capacity
##### National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Neurology Otorhinolaryngology Psychology
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132160 (URN)10.3766/jaaa.16023 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-10-19 Created: 2016-10-19 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
4. Motivational Interviewing as an Adjunct to Hearing Rehabilitation for Patients with Tinnitus: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Motivational Interviewing as an Adjunct to Hearing Rehabilitation for Patients with Tinnitus: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial.
2016 (English)In: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology, ISSN 2157-3107, Vol. 27, no 8, 669--676 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
##### Abstract [en]

PURPOSE: To test the effects of a brief motivational interviewing (MI) program as an adjunct to hearing aid rehabilitation for patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss.

RESEARCH DESIGN: This was a pilot randomized controlled trial.

STUDY SAMPLE: The sample consisted of 50 patients aged between 40 and 82 yr with both tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss and a pure-tone average (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kHz) < 70 dB HL. All patients were first-time hearing aid users.

INTERVENTION: A brief MI program was used during hearing aid fitting in 25 patients, whereas the remainder received standard practice (SP), with conventional hearing rehabilitation.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: A total of 46 patients (N = 23 + 23) with tinnitus were included for further analysis. The Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and the International Outcome Inventory for Hearing Aids (IOI-HA) were administered before and after rehabilitation. THI was used to investigate changes in tinnitus annoyance, and the IOI-HA was used to determine the effect of hearing aid treatment.

RESULTS: Self-reported tinnitus disability (THI) decreased significantly in the MI group (p < 0.001) and in the SP group (p < 0.006). However, there was greater improvement in the MI group (p < 0.013). Furthermore, the findings showed a significant improvement in patients' satisfaction concerning the hearing aids (IOI-HA, within both groups; MI group, p < 0.038; and SP group, p < 0.026), with no difference between the groups (p < 0.99).

CONCLUSION: Tinnitus handicap scores decrease to a greater extent following brief MI than following SP. Future research on the value of incorporating MI into audiological rehabilitation using randomized controlled designs is required.

##### Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Reston: American Academy of Audiology, 2016
##### National Category
Other Medical Sciences
##### Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131111 (URN)10.3766/jaaa.15126 (DOI)000381957200006 ()27564444 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-09-09 Created: 2016-09-09 Last updated: 2016-10-19Bibliographically approved
• Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre.
Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Eriksholm Research Centre. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research.
Cognitive hearing aids? Insights and possibilities2014In: Mechanics of Hearing: Protein to Perception: Proceedings of the 12th International Workshop on the Mechanics of Hearing / [ed] K. Domenica Karavitaki and David P. Corey, Melvilla, New York: American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2014, Vol. 1703, 3 p.090001-1-090001-4 p.Conference paper (Refereed)

The working memory plays an important role in successfully overcoming adverse listening conditions andshould consequently be considered when designing and testing hearing aids. A number of studies have established therelationship between hearing in noise and working memory involvement, but with the Sentence-final Word Identificationand Recall (SWIRL) test, it is possible to show that working memory is also involved in listening under favorableconditions and that noise reduction has a positive influence in situation with very little noise. Although the capacity of theworking memory is a finite individual size, its involvement can differ with fatigue and other factors and individualizationof hearing aids should take this into account to obtain the best performance. A way of individually adapting hearing aidsis based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here we present the possibilities that arise from usingEEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG that can be explored for individualization ofhearing aids. Such an adaptation could be done based on changes in the electrical activity of the brain (EEG). Here wepresent the possibilities that arise from using EEG and show that ear-mounted electrodes is able to record useful EEG thatcan be explored for individualization of hearing aids.

• Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering.
Visualization and Quantification of Helical Flow in the Aorta using 4D Flow MRI2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis

Due to the complex anatomy of the heart, heart valves and aorta, blood flow in the aorta is known to be complex and can exhibit a swirling, or helical, flow pattern. The purpose of this thesis is to implement methods to quantify and visualize both the speed of helicity, referred to as the helicity density, and the direction of helicity, which is measured by the localized normalized helicity. Furthermore, the relationship between helicity and geometrical aorta parameters were studied in young and old healthy volunteers. Helicity and geometrical parameters were quantified for 22 healthy volunteers (12 old, 10 young) that were examined using 4D Flow MRI. The relation between helicity and the geometry of the aorta was explored, and the results showed that the tortuosity and the diameter of the aorta are related to the helicity, but the jet angle and flow displacement do not appear to play an important role. This suggests that in healthy volunteers the helical flow is primarily affected by the geometry of the aorta, although further trials should be performed to fully characterize the effects of aortic geometry. The results also show that the helicity changes with age between the two age groups and some of the geometrical parameters also has a significant difference between the age groups.

• Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
Functional testing of an Android application2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis

Testing is an important step in the software development process in order to increase the reliability of the software. There are a number of different methods available to test software that use different approaches to find errors, all with different requirements and possible results. In this thesis we have performed a series of tests on our own mobile application developed for the Android platform. The thesis starts with a theory section in which most of the important terms for software testing are described. Afterwards our own application and test cases are presented. The results of our tests along with our experiences are reviewed and compared to existing studies and literature in the field of testing. The test cases have helped us find a number of faults in our source code that we had not found before. We have discovered that automated testing for Android is a field where there are a lot of good tools, although these are not often used in practice. We believe the app development process could be improved greatly by regularly putting the software through automated testing systems.

• Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
Skapande i relation till hållbar konsumtion: Hur människor som arbetar med skapande i form av hantverk uppfattar och förhållersig till hållbar utveckling2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

För att svara på frågeställningarna om hur nuvarande och tidigare studenter på kandidatprogrammet Slöjd, hantverk och formgivning vid Linköpings universitet, som arbetar med skapande i form av hantverk, uppfattar och förhåller sig till hållbart skapande och hållbar konsumtion har materialet från fokusgruppsintervjuerna delats in i fyra kategorier. Dessa kategorier är Hållbar design, Hållbara produktionsmönster, Hållbara konsumtionsmönster och Stödjande system. För att sammanfatta det som framkommit i analysen är alla deltagare i de båda grupperna förvånansvärt överens om vad hållbar utveckling innebär för dem i deras skapande arbete. Det finns vissa uppfattningar som skiljer sig och resulterar i olika arbetssätt, till exempel om produkten ska gå att bruka eller om budskapet i produkten prioriteras. En annan uppfattning som skiljer sig mellan grupperna är anpassningen till kunder. Fokusgrupp 2 som har påbörjat sitt arbetsliv inom området finner en drivkraft i att förhålla sig till kundernas önskemål samtidigt som de förhåller sig till ett hållbart skapande.

Det uppstår ett dilemma gällande skapande och hållbar konsumtion. Förutsatt att människor som arbetar med skapande i form av hantverk har för avsikt att försörja sig, åtminstone till viss del, på sitt skapande arbete innebär det att produkterna måste säljas och konsumtion uppstår. För att kunna arbeta hållbart krävs en minskning av användandet av resurser, naturen måste kunna återskapa materialen i samma takt som de används (Thorpe 2008:36). Det krävs då att produkterna har kvalitet och en lång livslängd, men även att de har ett värde som får konsumenter att göra avvägande och begrundade beslut i vad de köper.

• Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
En studie kring utvecklingen av webbapplikationen Appening2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

This report covers the development of a web application which aims to answer the question “How shall a web application that offers a market for buying happenings, performed by amateur performers, be designed to make it usable?”. The process was started by researching relevant theory, this theory was the basis of the implementation which commenced subsequently. The report includes chapters on user habits on web application, development with the agile software development framework Scrum as well as technical aspects such as structure, database and design. The result was a functional web application with a well-regarded design that was in tune with several aspects of the compiled theory. Lastly the conclusion of the report is that several of the implemented aspects of the web application further helps to attain a user-friendly web application which fosters a willingness to purchase.

• Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
Extension of EnergyBox for LTE networks2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis

With the steady increase in the use of mobile technologies, studying the energy consumption of mobile applications becomes more interesting. In this thesis, the energy consumption of such applications connected to Long Term Evolution (LTE) cellular networks is studied. Using physical measurements on a mobile device, this thesis aims at characterizing the energy consumption due to communication of a mobile device connected to an LTE network in order to extend EnergyBox. EnergyBox is a tool that estimates the communication energy of mobile devices using packet traces as input.

We perform systematic experiments which exercise the LTE network interface of a mobile device while measuring the consumed power. Using the resulting data and a literature review of the operation of the LTE interface an energy model for LTE is developed. The model is then implemented in EnergyBox. The evaluation of the model is performed by comparing the accuracy of the energy model to physical measurements using five different packet traces from different mobile applications. The results show that the model integrated in EnergyBox provides an average accuracy of between 90% and 100%.

• Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Enrolling men, their doctors and partners: Individual and collective responses to erectile dyspunction2016In: Glocal Pharma: International brands and the Imagination of Local masculinity / [ed] Ericka Johnson, Ebba Sjögren, Cecilia Åsberg, London, New York: Routledge, 2016, 1, 75-87 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)

This chapter examines how men, their doctors and their partners are enrolled by the Pfizer-sponsored website for potential Swedish Viagra customers. We read this enrolment as an example of how new techno-social identities are created by a drug, in this case, Viagra. The Swedish-language site www.potenslinjen.se2 (in English, ‘potency hotline’) is framed as a source of information for laypeople concerned about erectile dysfunction.3 We have examined how the site’s text and imagery address different audiences in the construction of the Swedish Viagra man. Our analysis builds on existing literature about the promotion of Viagra which addresses the construction of erectile dysfunction (ED) and masculinity in other national contexts, and we therefore make mention of alternative images and readings in other contexts throughout our analysis. Like previous critical studies of Viagra (Fishman and Mamo 2001; Marshall 2006; Tiefer 2006; Vares and Braun 2006), we are examining the construction of an ideal user of Viagra, but we also discuss the way the enrolment of doctors and partners serves to position ED in the man and define its treatment as a solitary act of taking a pill while simultaneously involving the other actors to help the medicine function.

• Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Viagra Selfhood: Pharmaceutical advertising and the visual formations of Swedish masculinity2016In: Glocal Pharma: International Brands and the Imagination of Local Masculinity / [ed] Ericka Johnson, Ebba Sjögren, Cecilia Åsberg, New York: Routledge, 2016, 1, 88-98 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)

In this chapter, we will investigate the visual confguration of what we term a  Swedish Viagra imaginary, a cultural phantasy landscape that produces and repro- duces certain subject positions of great interest for feminists and other scholars invested in social change. More precisely, we interrogate a set of key images pre- sented by the Pfzer-sponsored website for potential Swedish Viagra customers with erectile dysfunction in order to explore how this particular Viagra imaginary provides reference points for shared and collective identities. We explore here the  visual formation, and the naturalization, of the nationally shaped masculinity of the potential consumers of Viagra at a Swedish-language site, www.potenslinjen.se/,  the same site discussed in Chapter 6. This site is produced by the pharmaceutical 2 company Pfzer for the explicit purpose of providing the Swedish public with health  information on erectile problems.

• Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
Estimating Time to Repair Failures in a Distributed System2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis

To ensure the quality of important services, high availability is critical. One aspect to be considered in availability is the downtime of the system, which can be measured in time to recover from failures. In this report we investigate current research on the subject of repair time and the possibility to estimate this metric based on relevant parameters such as hardware, the type of fault and so on. We thoroughly analyze a set of data containing 43 000 failure traces from Los Alamos National Laboratory on 22 different cluster organized systems. To enable the analysis we create and use a program which parses the raw data, sorts and categorizes it based on certain criteria and formats the output to enable visualization. We analyze this data set in consideration of type of fault, memory size, processor quantity and at what time repairs were started and completed. We visualize our findings of number of failures and average times of repair dependent on the different parameters. For different faults and time of day we also display the empirical cumulative distributionfunction to give an overview of the probability for different times of repair. The failures are caused by a variety of different faults, where hardware and software are most frequently occurring. These two along with network faults have the highest average downtime. Time of failure proves important since both day of week and hour of day shows patterns that can be explained by for example work schedules. The hardware characteristics of nodes seem to affect the repair time as well, how this correlation works is although difficult to conclude. Based on the data extracted we suggest two simple methods of formulating a mathematical model estimating downtime which both prove insufficient; more research on the subject and on how the parameters affect each other is required.

• Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies.
Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies. Utrecht University, Gender Studies. Utrecht University, School of Liberal Arts.
Speculative before the turn: Re-introducing feminist materialist performativity2015In: Cultural Studies Review, ISSN 1446-8123, E-ISSN 1837-8692, Vol. 21, no 2, 147-172 p., http://dx.doi.org/10.5130/csr.v21i2.4324Article in journal (Refereed)

Before the trains of thought have been firmly laid down, we ask in this article about the very nature and histories of the speculative of the speculative-materialist turn. We do this from the intertwined interfaces of curious feminist materialisms, foregrounding sexual difference, post-positivist critique and posthumanist performativity such as is being done in various strands of feminist theory today (new materialist feminism, new feminist science studies, feminist posthumanities etc.). The question of speculation plays a constitutive role in feminist critique and in several new or neo-materialist traditions. In fact, many interesting materialisms—Marxism, French feminism—can be named ‘speculative’. We argue that in spite of what the recent ‘speculative turn’ professes, speculative materialisms have a complex genealogy. Speculation functions transversally in a materialist genealogy (dis)-connecting the archive of feminist approaches in particular. In order to be able to imagine a different (feminist) world we need to think through a stifled and sexually differentiated present from which a qualitative shift and political breakthrough can be formulated, and hopefully achieved. However, in what is currently called ‘speculative realism’ or ‘object-oriented ontologies’ neither speculation nor the speculative are reflected upon as a heritage from and alliance with feminist and politically materialist positions. What are the onto-epistemological stakes of this body of work? And what ethico-political horizons are drawn here? We stand speculative before such turn.

• Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work.
Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work. Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Social Work.
Utan förståelse blir det inte mycket till hjälp...: En studie om hur profesionella inom Kriminalvården beskriver sin förståelse av intellektuellt funktionsnedsatta klienter och arbetet med denna målgrupp.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Inom såväl den svenska politiken som i internationell forskningen har det framkommit en oro avseende intellektuellt funktionsnedsatta individers situation inom Kriminalvården. Exempelvis har det inom politiken påpekats att det råder en brist på studier gällande funktionsnedsatta klienter inom den svenska Kriminalvården. Vidare har det konstaterats att ett flertal förbättringar kan behövas för att myndigheten ska kunna möta dessa individer på ett bättre sätt. Den oro som beskrivs kan uppfattas vara befogad, då även ett flertal internationella studier har visat på hur flera länders straffrättsliga system inte är anpassade efter intellektuellt funktionsnedsatta klienter. Exempelvis uppges att programverksamheten inte är anpassad efter klientgruppen samt att de professionella saknar kunskap om funktionsnedsättningen och därför inte kan bemöta dessa individer på ett adekvat sätt.

Syftet med denna studie är att analysera (1) hur professionella inom Kriminalvården beskriver och reflekterar kring sin förståelse av intellektuellt funktionsnedsatta klienter, (2) hur de professionella anser att deras förståelse av klienterna påverkar det återfallsförebyggande arbetet, (3) hur det återfallsförebyggande arbetet gentemot klientgruppen kan förbättras. För att studiens syfte skulle kunna uppnås använde vi oss av kvalitativ metod. Vi genomförde semistrukturerade intervjuer med sju professionella inom Kriminalvården. Genom att sedan göra en kvalitativ innehållsanalys av det empiriska materialet fann vi fem teman: ”Intellektuellt funktionsnedsatta klienter är inte som andra” ”Både en ovanlig och vanlig klientgrupp”, ”Struktur, möten och insatser”, ”Inte speciellt jättebra” och ”Utan förståelse blir det inte mycket till hjälp”. Empirin analyserades med utgångspunkt i socialkonstruktivismen och begreppen roller, det sociala kunskapsförrådet och typifieringsscheman. I analysen använde vi oss även av de observationsteoretiska begreppen distinktioner och blinda fläcken.

Resultatet i studien visar att de professionella beskrev intellektuellt funktionsnedsatta klienter som individer med en begränsad förmåga till förståelse. Angående klientgruppens förekomst inom Kriminalvården gav de professionella en varierad bild. Klienterna beskrevs som så väl vanliga som ovanliga. Vidare upplevde flera av de professionella att de hade en bristande kunskap om funktionsnedsättningen samt att de saknade ett kunskapsstöd från Kriminalvårdens sida. Informanternas erfarenheter av klientgruppen var att verksamhetens struktur inte alltid sammanfaller väl med dessa klienters behov och att en förståelse för klienten är vitalt för det återfallsförebyggande arbetet. Ett förbättringsområde vi kan se utifrån resultatet är att professionella får ta del av utbildning om intellektuell funktionsnedsättning.

• Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
Interaktiv programmiljö för kryptoanalys2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis

Det är sedan länge känt, både bland företag och i den akademiska världen, att det krävs strukturerade arbetsmetoder för att lyckas med storskalig programvaruutveckling. Vilka metoder som fungerar bäst är det svårt att göra ett generellt uttalande om eftersom detta till stor del är situationsberoende. Det existerar en ansenlig mängd metoder och processer som finns beskrivna i detalj av deras förespråkare, men ingen metod fungerar felfritt i alla situationer. I den här rapporten beskrivs de metoder en projektgrupp tillämpade under ett kandidatarbete i programvaruutveckling, och konsekvenserna dessa fick för den slutgiltiga produkten.

Gruppen har kommit fram till att värde har skapats för kunden genom att implementera kundens begärda system, en interaktiv webbapplikation. Underhållbarhet har uppnåtts genom att följa en kodstandard, tillämpa parprogrammering och kodgranskningar samt publicera koden som öppen källkod. Att under möten diskutera gruppmedlemmarnas välmående bidrog till bättre sammanhållning och stämning och därmed ett bättre slutresultat. Många av gruppens svårigheter hade lösts om gruppen haft ett dedikerat kontor.

Förhoppningen är att de erfarenheter och den kunskap som gruppen tillgodogjort sig under projektet, och dokumenterat i den här rapporten, ska komma till nytta för både projektmedlemmarna och rapportens läsare.

• Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems.
Utveckling av prototyp för uppmätning av blodflöde med Dopplersensorer2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis

The current most common methods for measuring a blood vessels flow with Doppler technique requires a cable between the patient and measuring instrument. In today’s technology and the progress made in microelectronics have made it possible to manufacture ultrasonic transmitters and receivers, control electronics and antennas small enough for them to be integrated in a probe attached to the blood vessel. In order to read the flow of blood used NFC to securely send the information wireless to a smartphone or a tablet. This ensures that the cable between the patient and the measuring instrument would not be needed and the patient possibility to move would increase. So this thesis was to continue on a prototype using a Raspberry Pi and other medical equipment to approach toward the ultimate objective. So with help of filtering and amplification the target was to reduce noise and amplify the signal so that the correct data was send to the recipient’s smartphone or tablet.

• Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
A Roadmap to Well Posed and Stable Problems in Computational Physics2016In: Journal of Scientific Computing, ISSN 0885-7474, E-ISSN 1573-7691, 1-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

All numerical calculations will fail to provide a reliable answer unless the continuous problem under consideration is well posed. Well-posedness depends in most cases only on the choice of boundary conditions. In this paper we will highlight this fact, and exemplify by discussing well-posedness of a prototype problem: the time-dependent compressible Navier–Stokes equations. We do not deal with discontinuous problems, smooth solutions with smooth and compatible data are considered. In particular, we will discuss how many boundary conditions are required, where to impose them and which form they should have in order to obtain a well posed problem. Once the boundary conditions are known, one issue remains; they can be imposed weakly or strongly. It is shown that the weak and strong boundary procedures produce similar continuous energy estimates. We conclude by relating the well-posedness results to energy-stability of a numerical approximation on summation-by-parts form. It is shown that the results obtained for weak boundary conditions in the well-posedness analysis lead directly to corresponding stability results for the discrete problem, if schemes on summation-by-parts form and weak boundary conditions are used. The analysis in this paper is general and can without difficulty be extended to any coupled system of partial differential equations posed as an initial boundary value problem coupled with a numerical method on summation-by parts form with weak boundary conditions. Our ambition in this paper is to give a general roadmap for how to construct a well posed continuous problem and a stable numerical approximation, not to give exact answers to specific problems.

• Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
Correlation between owner-assessed behaviour characteristics and stress behaviour in dogs2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis

Stress in dogs can contribute to behavioural problems which may lead to rehoming or euthanasia of the dog. The aim of this study was to investigate how dog characteristics correlated to stress, whether it is possible to detect behavioural problems in order to treat the dogs. Twenty-two dogs were evaluated according to their behavioural problem by a veterinarian and a dog trainer. The dogs participated in a behavioural and physiological test, and the results were compared to characteristics gathered by a Canine Behavioural Assessment and Research Questionnaire (C-BARQ), filled in by the dogs’ owners. The result showed that the total amount of stress related behaviour correlated positively to the C-BARQ score for attachment and attention-seeking behaviour and had a tendency of positive correlation to energy level and owner-directed aggression. Both the veterinarian behavioural problem score and trainer behavioural problem score had a tendency of positive correlation to stranger-directed fear. Dogs that, according to the C-BARQ, were found to be very attached and attention-seeking, showed high energy level or owner-directed aggression were likely to show stress related behaviours during the test in my study. By addressing the stress, the behavioural problems may be eased.

• University of Johannesburg, South Africa.
University of Johannesburg, South Africa. Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Purdue University, United States.
Assessment of visualisation skills in biochemistry students2016In: South African Journal of Science, ISSN 0038-2353, E-ISSN 1996-7489, Vol. 112, no 9/10, 1-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

In the field of biochemistry, the use of external representations such as static diagrams and animations has increased rapidly in recent years. However, their effectiveness as instructional tools can be hindered if students lack the visual literacy and cognitive skills necessary for processing and interpreting such representations. We aimed to identify and assess visualisation skills necessary for effective processing of external representations in biochemistry. We used a modified Bloom’s taxonomy to identify the cognitive skills essential for optimal visual literacy, and designed probes based on those skills to develop a test instrument. Student responses to the probes were scored and processed with the Rasch model. This approach enabled us to rate the degree of difficulty of each visualisation skill on a linear logit scale, and to generate a person–item map to measure biochemistry students’ level of visual literacy. The results showed that the identified visualisation skills could be measured reliably, and the Rasch model was effective both for ranking the skills according to level of difficulty and for estimating a student’s relative level of visual literacy.

• Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
Evaluation of live fish as an echolocation enrichment for the bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus)2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis

Bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) kept in zoos and dolphinarias rarely get an outlet for their echolocation abilities as their pool environment is often quite barren. Not much research has been carried out on enrichments promoting echolocation for dolphins in human care. In the present study a setup with live fish was compared to a setup with air-filled floats (providing strong sonar targets, similar to the swim bladders of large fish) and a control setup. A PCL (porpoise click logger) was used to record the echolocation click trains produced by the dolphins and aimed at the three setups. Behavioural data was also collected from video footage. Both the PCL data and all the behavioural observations indicated that the fish setup was more interesting than the float and the control setup, for the dolphins to echolocate towards. However, there were some contradictions with some parameters, where the floats and control seemed to be more interesting. This was probably due to the location of the PCL hydrophone in relation to the floats and fish, and not because the dolphins had a real bigger interest in these setups. To increase the possibility for dolphins to perform more echolocation in human care and increase their welfare, live fish can be recommended as echolocation enrichment.

• Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
Faktorer som påverkar användandet av hälsotjänster2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis

Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka hur användarupplevelse förändras över tid, kopplat till receptplaneringstjänsten Plan Eat Smile. För att undersöka detta har användarintervjuer genomförts samt en enkät skapats och skickats ut till två grupper av användare, en grupp somär aktiva och en grupp som är inaktiva. Genom att jämföra dessa två grupper har målet varit att se vilka aspekter av användande som skiljer dem åt. Resultaten visar inte på någon signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna men av användarintervjuerna kunde vissa tendenser identifieras som visade på att när användares syfte med att använda en tjänst uppfylls behövs ytterligare incitament för att stanna kvar.

• Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Bounds on key equivocation for simple substitution ciphers1979In: IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, ISSN 0018-9448, E-ISSN 1557-9654, Vol. 25, no 1, 8-18 p.Article in journal (Refereed)

The equivocation of the key for a simple substitution cipher is upper and lower hounded, when the message source is memoryless. The hounds are shown to be exponentially tight. The results are compared with random ciphering. It is observed that the exponential behavior of the equivocation of the key is not determined by the redundancy in the message source, but by the symbol probabilities which are closest in a certain sense.

• Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
On the Computation of the Kantorovich Distance for Images1996Report (Other academic)

The Kantorovich distance for images can be defined for grey valued images with equal total grey value. Computing the Kantorovich distance is equivalent to solving a large transportation problem. The cost-function of this transportation problem depends on which distance-function one uses to measure distances between pixels.

In this paper we present an algorithm, which is roughly of the order $\small\mathcal O\text(N^{2.2})$ in case the underlying distance-function is l) the L1 – metric, 2) an approximation of the L2metric or 3) the square of the L2metric, where N is equal to the number of pixels in the two images. The algorithm is based on the classical primal-dual algorithm.

The algorithm also gives rise to a transportation plan from one image to the other and we also show how this transportation plan can be used for interpolation and possibly also for compression and discrimination.

• Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
En studie av kryptering vid satellitkommunikation1982Report (Other academic)

Stormakterna övervakar varandra och den övriga världen med hjälp av ett stort antal spionsatelliter. Det finns många olika typer av rent militära satelliter, men även alla . .

normalt civila satelliter som lämnar information som kan vara av taktisk eller strategisk betydelse och måste betraktas som militära i en konfliktsituation. Som exempel på dessa "halvmilitära" satelliter kan nämnas; vädersatelliter, telesatelliter, navigationssatelliter och fjärranalyserande satelliter typ LANDSAT….

• Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
A Converse to the Sampling Theorem1982Report (Other academic)

Various forms of the sampling theorem assure that any signal x(t) which satisfies a certain bandwidth limitation can be uniquely reconstructed from its values at equally spaced sample points. Inherent in all these results is that the reconstruction is invariant under timeshifts. Our present result is that if such a time shift invariance is required, a certain bandwidth limitation is not only a sufficient but also a necessary condition for reconstruction of a signal from its sample values.

• Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
Multiple Access Schemes for Packet Switching in Radio Channels: An Overview1981Report (Other academic)

For almost a century circuit switching has dominated communication / networks. It was not until the beginning of the 70's as switching cost dropped below communication (bandwidth) costs making packet switching networks feasable. For modern computer communications, circuit switching 1s very wasteful, especially over long distances. This is due to the fact that the datastream from computers and terminals is very bursty, with peak to average ratios up to 2000 to | [5]. If, in a circuit switching environment a high bandwidth channel is used to ensure low delay, this channel will be idle most of ~the time. If we instead use a channel with a bandwidth corresponding to the ~average transmission rate, we will get intolerable delays. The above dilemma arises because the users access the channels randomly. We have no way to tell when the channel will be used, so we assign one channel capable of handling peak rates all the time. This is of course wasteful.

The packet-switching solution to the situation above is based on the law of large numbers, stating that the sum of all demands from a large number of users will fluctuate very little. around its average. This is usually called statistical load averaging. The implication is clear -we should use a single wideband channel, dynamically shared among the users. This has been utilized in packet-switched computer networks. The datastream is divided into packets. When a packet is ready for transmission, it is allocated some time-slot (possibly after some queuing delay) on the shared channel. The allocation of suitable time-slots is here done by the network facilities.

In recent years the use of packet switching in radio channels has been proposed and implemented. 8oth ground radio and satellite channel s have been utilized for packet switching. The radio medium offers several advantages for these applications....