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  • Mutailifu, Kalibeinuer
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies.
    Water and Wastewater Management in the Mega City Istanbul: A General Analysis from a Supply-Demand-Reuse Perspective2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a population of over 13 million, Istanbul is one of the biggest city in Europe. The possible increase of population in the future may bring serious problems of water supply after a few decades. Therefore, it is crucial to look for good solutions to problems and potential challenges in water supply and water demand. This paper intended to investigate the currently existing problems in water and wastewater management practices in Istanbul from a supply-demand-reuse perspective; and to look for possible opportunities for a future improvement in order to achieve a sustainable urban water management system in Istanbul by promoting its wastewater management system. In this paper, two interviews of professionals, and a survey in Istanbul city area were conducted for obtaining gather primary data. Analysis of relative literatures is applied for grasping an accurate picture of water and wastewater management in Istanbul. According to the study, authorities are making great efforts to meet the ever increasing demand for water. From a supply-demand-reuse management perspective, Istanbul is still at the stage of supply management with sufficient wastewater treatment. However, there is not much sign of a demand management model, as inadequate effort has been devoted to controlling the increase of water demand. Although reuse management may still be a distant goal for Istanbul to achieve, a good preparation can be started by promoting and further improving the current wastewater management system, as wastewater reuse, if properly managed, will be the best solution that will lead to achieving long-term benefits.

  • Rydfalk, Henrietta
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Colour Image Search for Graphical Design Inspiration2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis project aims to develop a search algorithm which uses the colour information in uncompleted graphical work to find inspirational images that utilizes similar colour schemes. The dominant colours are separated from the image, and those are used to find other images with similar palettes in a database. The system is intended as part of an inspirational mood board, and the user case this project is based on handles the design of a book cover, and the selection of images used to be searched through consists entirely of book covers. The development is done in OpenCV and C++, using the k-means cluster method. The results are inconsistent, and while the fault in the system is known, it has yet to be mended.

  • Scherman, Isabelle
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    Kullmar, Evelina
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    Patienters och fysioterapeuters upplevelser av fysioterapeutisk behandling vid endometrios: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In Sweden approximately 200.000 women have been diagnosed with endometriosis. Endometrial-like tissue is growing outside the uterus. The development of endometriosis could be multifactorial, caused by retrograde menstruation combined with hormonal factors, heredity and a weakened local immune system. Common symptoms are different variations of pain, infertility and decreased quality of life. The purpose of the treatment is to ensure a good level of functioning with manageable symptoms. Physical therapy is highly recommended when treating endometriosis.

    Purpose: To investigate the experiences of physical therapy treatment in endometriosis according to patients and physiotherapists.

    Method: Six semi-structured interviews were conducted, of which three were including patients with endometriosis and three were including physiotherapists. The data was analyzed through qualitative content analysis.

    Results: The analysis resulted in four main categories: “Adaptation based on the individual patient”, “Purpose and effect of the treatment”, “Emotional experiences and factors that contribute to power and hope” and “The role of the physiotherapist”. The physical therapy was perceived as focusing on the patient´s needs. It was unanimously agreed that the treatment reduced symptoms and could engender delight mingled with terror, but also hope. The physical therapy treatment was found to provide safety and assistance.

    Conclusion: Physical therapy in endometriosis can be experienced as valuable for reducing pain and muscle tension and for providing coping strategies in everyday life. The physiotherapist was found to be able to make the patients feel heard, seen and helped.

  • Changa Zetterström, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences.
    Hasselblad, Theodor
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences.
    Fysioterapeuters upplevelser av Basal Kroppskännedom som behandling vid posttraumatiskt stressyndrom: En kvalitativ intervjustudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric diagnosis as a result of an exposure to an earlier traumatic experience. Basic Body Awareness Therapy (BBAT) is a physiotherapeutic treatment where the purpose is to make the patient more aware of their own body. Earlier studies have investigated the effects and experiences of the BBAT as treatment for PTSD but the physiotherapist’s perspective in the field have not yet been investigated. 

    Purpose: To investigate physiotherapist’s experiences of Basic Body Awareness Therapy as treatment for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Method: Qualitative interview study. Seven physiotherapist’s with therapeutic competence in BBAT were interviewed using semi-structured interview. Qualitative content analysis where used to analyse data. 

    Results: Three categories and ten subcategories where identified. Approaches and roles between patient and physiotherapist described experiences of the interaction between the physiotherapist and patient. The physiotherapist’s strategy and treatment described reasoning about evaluation and treatment of patients. BBAT:s function as a treatment described experiences of the patient group, BBAT:s role as treatment together with other therapies and experiences of the situation in the health-care system for PTSD today. 

    Conclusion: BBAT is described by physiotherapist’s as a respectful and adaptable method to implement in treating post-traumatic issues. There is an experienced need in using the body as a starting point in order to process and manage trauma. BBAT can be used as a complement or first-line treatment in treating patients with PTSD.

  • Heina, Christin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    Stenberg, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    Aktiv återhämtning hos tävlingssimmare: En jämförelse mellan aktiv återhämtning med och utan simfenor2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: It is common among swimmers to use fins during active recovery. There is limited research about how fins decrease blood lactate, pulse, rating of perceived exertion and evaluation of leg and arm exertion. 

    Objective: The study compared active recovery in relation to blood lactate, pulse, rating of perceived exertion and evaluation of leg and arm exertion while swimming with and without short fins.  

    Method: A cross-over pilot study was designed in which 11 swimmers took part. Blood lactate, pulse, rating of perceived exertion and evaluation of leg and arm exertion were examined on two test days during which the swimmers swam 100 meters freestyle max followed by a 10-minute active recovery with or without fins, depending on test day.  

    Results: Ten swimmers completed the study. No significant difference was found between test days 1 and 2 for pulse, blood lactate, Borg RPE and Borg CR10. Eight out of ten participants had lower blood lactate when they used fins during active recovery than when they did not. A minor correlation between blood lactate and Borg RPE and Borg CR10 was indicated by the data, but not strong enough to ensure a correlation. 

    Conclusion: No significant difference between active recovery with and without fins was found. Additional studies with a larger study population are necessary for more reliable results.  

  • Ajanic, Semir
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Lärares upplevelse av vad som kännetecknar ett gott ledarskap2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Anledningen till att denna studie utforma sig var mina funderingar om att ledarskapet i klassrummet är beroende av hur man bemöter eleverna. Genom en semistrukturerad intervjustudie ska fyra verksamma lärare få uttrycka sina föreställningar och upplevelser kring vad som kännetecknar ett gott ledarskap och dess olika beståndsdelar. Hela studien och studiens resultat bygger på att samla data om lärares upplevelser kring frågeställningarna. Studien ses ur ett fenomenologiskt perspektiv och analyseras med inspiration från the grounded theory. Dessa två metoder passar bra ihop då de vill fånga undersökningsdeltagarnas upplevelser av ett fenomen och dess olika aspekter.

    Utifrån informanternas upplevelser beskrivs olika aspekter på fenomenet relationellt ledarskap och strategier för relationsarbetet. I denna studie kommer du att få ta del av informanternas beskrivningar av olika aspekter på relationellt ledarskap och vilka relationella strategier de säger att de använder. Aspekterna som berör och kopplas till det relationella ledarskapet är: Föredömlig, social, personlig, anpassningsbar, auktoritativ och ämneskunnig.

    I studiens resultat presenteras deras upplevelser och kopplas till olika teorier kring ledarskap och relationsskapande i klassrummet. I stora drag visar denna studie att informanterna upplever att lärare som främjar relationer både mellan eleverna och mellan dem själva och eleverna utövar ett gott ledarskap eller ”lärarskap”.

  • Hammarström, Fanny
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Läroböckers påverkan på elevers begreppsbilder av likhetstecknet: En kvantitativ innehållsanalys om algebraiska standard- och icke-standardekvationers förekomst i läroböcker2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien består av en kvantitativ innehållsanalys som åskådliggör förekomsten samt skillnaderna i förekomsten av algebraiska standard- och icke-standardekvationer i en läromedelserie anpassad för årskurs 7-9. Resultaten diskuteras i förhållande till Sfards teoretiska ramverk som beskriver hur begreppsbilder utvecklas hos individer samt forskning som fastställt att algebraiska icke-standardekvationer, framförallt icke-standardekvationer med operationer i både V.L. (vänster led) och H.L. (höger led), lämpar sig bra för att utveckla elevers förståelse för likhetstecknets relationella betydelse och således elevers strukturella begreppsbild av likhetstecknet.

    Resultatet i föreliggande studie pekar på att läroboken för årskurs 7 till största del innehåller algebraiska standardekvationer vilket kan hindra elevernas utveckling till en strukturell och istället bidra till en operationell begreppsbild av likhetstecknet. Läroboken för årskurs 8 innehåller stor del icke-standardekvationer vilken kan främja elevers utveckling till en strukturell begreppsbild av likhetstecknet. Läroboken för årskurs 9 innehåller få standard- och icke-standardekvationer vilket kan hindra elever, som inte besitter förståelse för likhets- tecknets relationella betydelse, att utveckla en strukturell begreppsbild av likhetstecknet.

  • Goblé, Eléonore
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Taint analysis for automotive safety using the LLVM compiler infrastructure2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Software safety is getting more and more important in the automotive industry as mechanical functions are replaced by complex embedded computer systems. Errors  during development can lead to accidents and threaten users’ lives. The safety level of the software must therefore be monitored through Automotive Safety Integrity Levels (ASILs), according to the standard ISO 26262. This thesis presents the development of a static taint analysis tool using the LLVM compiler infrastructure in order to identify safety-critical components and analyze their dependencies in automotive software. The aim was to provide a useful visualization tool to help safety engineers in their work and save time during development. It was concluded that this static taint analysis tool can facilitate and improve the precision of the ASIL decomposition of automotive software.

  • Pettersson, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Petersson, Nils
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Software and Systems.
    Systematically uncovering mutants in testing safety critical software: Using symbolic execution on surviving mutants from mutation testing2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates how symbolic execution and constraint solving can be used for detecting equivalent and non-equivalent mutants in mutation testing. The presented method proposes a driver implementation, realized as a plugin for Dextool, to differentiate original and mutated code from each other by executing both versions symbolically using KLEE. The method was tried on a number of code examples, uncovering equivalent and non-equivalent mutants successfully. It was concluded that detection of equivalent and non-equivalent mutants was possible and relevant for mutation testing, but with limitations in terms of scalability and applicability due to increasing amount of side effects, path explosion and certain functions not being suitable for symbolic execution.

  • Löfsten, Hans
    et al.
    Department of Technology Management and Economics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Klofsten, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Cadorin, Eduardo
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Science Parks and talent attraction management: university students as a strategic resource for innovation and entrepreneurship2020In: European Planning Studies, ISSN 0965-4313, E-ISSN 1469-5944, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper aims to expand our understanding of talent attraction management in Science Parks with a specific interest in university students/alumni as a human and strategic resource. The underlying rationale is how the links with universities can be supported and how the Science Park management can contribute to successful relationships with universities and university students/alumni, in order to develop tenant firms and the park itself. A questionnaire was sent out in 2018–120 parks. This study includes 25 variables, and four significant regression models are presented. The main finding is that Science Park talent attraction activities act as a mediating variable, which affects the informal and formal partnerships between students and firms/universities as well as how the park management can contribute to successful relationships. By attracting students, tenant firms can have a positive impact on their performance as well as Science Park development.

  • Peterson, Anders
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wahlborg, Magnus
    Railway Traffic and sale, Trafikverket, Borlänge.
    Häll, Carl Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schmidt, Christiane
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kordnejad, Behzad
    Transportplanering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Warg, Jennifer
    Transportplanering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Johansson, Ingrid
    Transportplanering, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Joborn, Martin
    Systems Engineering, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Gestrelius, Sara
    Systems Engineering, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Törnquist Krasemann, Johanna
    Department of Computer Science, Blekinge tekniska högskola, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Josyula, Sai Prashanth
    Department of Computer Science, Blekinge tekniska högskola, Karlskrona, Sweden.
    Palmqvist, Carl-William
    Transport Systems and Logistics, Lund University, Sweden.
    Lidén, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Linköping, Sweden.
    Deliverable D 3.1: Analysis of the gap between daily timetable and operational traffic2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Fr8Rail II/Work-Package 3 Real-time network management and improved methods for timetable planning addresses the problem to improve capacity and punctuality in the railway system by developing concepts and methods for tactical planning and operational traffic. In this report the state-of-the-art has been summarised.

    The aim of the project is to:

    • Propose concepts and methods that improve the annual and short-term timetable planning.
    • Demonstrate how the proposed timetable planning concepts improve the prerequisites for real-time network management.
    • Develop methods and tools that can reduce inefficiencies in real time network management.

    An important aspect is to improve the coordination between yards/terminals and the line network, and between Infrastructure Manager, Yard Managers, and freight Rail Undertakings.

    We motivate our research by the current situation in Sweden, which is characterised by low on-time performance for freight trains, dense and heterogenous traffic on the major railway lines, and a rigid annual timetabling process, which is non-suitable for short-term changes. We believe that better tools for network planning and management on tactical and operational level can help to connect planning and operational processes.

    Aiming for improvements of the operational traffic, there is a need for systematic development of methods applied at several planning horizons, based on both simulation and optimization techniques. Close to operation fast methods are needed, for example, based on meta-heuristics.

    The maintenance planning process and improvement potential have been described. This is a new piece of the puzzle and it is important to close the gap between timetable planning and operational traffic. The different planning processes at the Infrastructure Manager, the Rail Undertakings and the Maintenance Contractors should be aligned.

    When developing new approaches for computational decision-support tools for real-time network management, it is important — but very challenging — to evaluate and benchmark with existing software tools. We also observe that the research stream on computational decision-support and algorithm development for railway traffic management has not yet been sufficiently merged with the corresponding research stream focusing on aspects of human computer interaction.

  • Haage Ekelund, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Kesselmark, Lina
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Bibliotekets betydelse för läsning: Skol/folkbibliotekets aktiviteter och hjälpmedel riktade till elever i läs och skrivsvårigheter på låg och mellanstadiet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med detta arbete är att undersöka vilka aktiviteter och hjälpmedel folkbibliotek och skolbibliotek erbjuder elever i läs- och skrivsvårigheter på låg- och mellanstadiet, i syfte att stödja dem i deras läs- och skrivutveckling. Den metod som använts har varit kvalitativ studie med semistrukturerad intervju. Urvalet är ett strategiskt bekvämlighetsurval bestående av yrkeskategorierna skolbibliotekarier, folkbibliotekarier, lärare, bemanningspersonal på Skoldatatek, skolbibliotekssamordnare samt biblioteksutvecklare. Intervjuerna har spelats in, transkriberats, kodats och analyserats.

    I arbetets bakgrund behandlas centrala begrepp. Dessa är: allmänna biblioteksväsendet, skolbibliotek, UNESCO´s skolbiblioteksmanifest, skolbibliotek som funktion, myndigheter och intresseorganisationer  med uppdrag som rör skolbibliotek samt speciallärare. De teoretiska perspektiv som behandlas i uppsatsen är det relationella perspektivet och inkluderingsperspektivet. Den tidigare forskningen är indelad i tre områden. Dessa är: Läsning - en grundläggande färdighet, Främjande aktiviteter samt Tidigare forskning om skolbibliotek.

    Huvudresultatet av studien visar att Legimus och lättläst litteratur är de hjälpmedel som  folk- och skolbibliotek riktar specifikt till i läs- och skrivsvårigheter på låg- och mellanstadiet. Vidare att lagen om skolbibliotek är otydlig och att det saknas kunskap kring skolbibliotekets funktion samt likvärdighet gällande bemanning, lokaler och utbud. Samarbetet mellan skolbibliotekarier och andra yrkeskategorier, inte minst speciallärare, nätverk för kunskapsförmedling, tid, pengar och skolans ledning är, enligt informanterna, avgörande faktorer för skolbibliotekets verkan. Lärares kunskaper om hjälpmedel påverkar om de brukas av elever i läs- och skrivsvårigheter. Skoldatatek, vilka ansvarar för förmedling av desamma, önskar kunskapsförmedlare på varje enhet, så att hjälpmedlen kommer närmare brukarna och hjälpen kan erbjudas tidigare. Motivationsskapare till lustläsning tillsammans med läsförståelse, informationssökning och källkritik, anses vara skolbibliotekariers viktigaste funktion.

  • Erlingsson, Gissur Ó
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS.
    Får sammanläggningsidén stöd i forskningen?2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Låt mig inleda med en personlig betraktelse. Ända sedan jag började läsa samhällsvetenskapliga ämnen på universitetsnivå i början av 1990-talet, har frågan om kommunstrukturen varit av ett mina största intresseområden – definitivt det som hållit mitt intresse under längst tid. Med tanke på dagens debattklimat finns anledning att påminna om att mycket av diskussionen under 1990-talets mitt präglades av en vurm för en återgång till det nära, till det småskaliga.

    Nu var detta möjligen inte så underligt. Efter att Sverige genomfört omfattande, och föga folkligt populära, sammanläggningsreformer under perioden 1952–1974 – då antalet kommuner sjönk från 2498 till 278 – växte en motreaktion fram. Med tanke på att de borgerliga partier som tog över regeringsmakten 1976 motsatte sig tvångssammanläggningarna socialdemokraterna beslutade om år 1968, var det bara närmast följdriktigt att 1976 års regering aviserade att man skulle behandla ansökningar om kommundelningar positivt. Och så när de borgerliga partierna på nytt vann regeringsmakten 1991, deklarerades återigen att man såg positivt på lokala initiativ till kommundelning....

  • Wirzén, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Lindgren, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Department of Child Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    ‘It shouldn’t just be these kinds of sunshine stories’: social workers’ discussion of ‘past difficulties’ as a key theme in adoption assessment interviews2020In: European Journal of Social Work, ISSN 1369-1457, E-ISSN 1468-2664Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the Hague Convention on Intercountry Adoption, the receiving state must determine that prospective parents are suited to adopt, and it is up to each State Party to identify the criteria and methods by which suitability is determined. The present study focuses on social workers’ accounts of the assessment practice, and offers insight into the complexity of the assessment task as well as what is expected and required of adoption applicants. More precisely, it explores why talking about past difficulties and crises is considered to be crucial when assessing prospective adoptive parents. The analysis of social workers’ discussions of their work demonstrates how ‘talking about difficulties’ in assessment interviews serves two primary institutional purposes, as it relates to both the examination of suitability for parenthood and the credibility of the assessment per se. Furthermore, the study points to how social workers’ professional discourse on the significance of past experiences holds and reproduces the ideal of a reflective confessing subject, the hallmark of a therapeutic culture.

  • Högstedt, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences.
    How Physiotherapists Promote Physical Activity at Long-term Care Facilities for Older Adults: A cross-sectional mixed methods study2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Even though physical activity is important for older people living in long-term care facilities (LTCFs), many spend most of their time in sedentary activities. How physiotherapists, with competence in physical activity, promote physical activity for residents and how work experience and employment context affect physical activity promotion have not been described.

    Purpose: To describe how physiotherapists approach physical activity promotion for residents of LTCFs for older adults.

    Method: A cross-sectional study was performed using a digital survey sent via professional networks, to physiotherapists at LTCFs in Sweden. Participants were recruited via convenience sampling. Qualitative data were analysed through manifest inductive content analysis. Quantitative data were summarised descriptively for the whole group. Between-group comparisons were also made for work experience and employment context.

    Results: Ninety-seven survey responses were analysed from physiotherapists from half of the counties in Sweden. Eighty-eight percent of the responses were from women. Five categories emerged from the qualitative analysis: (1) Knowledge for active daily living; (2) Adapting to present circumstances and priorities; (3) Methods for exercise and staying active in daily living; (4) Actions and adjustments for the resident; and (5) Communication to promote activity. There were no significant differences between the compared groups.

    Conclusion: Physiotherapists at LTCFs for older adults used a range of measures to promote physical activity for residents, and to support the facility in promoting physical activity. Work experience and employment context did not influence how physiotherapists approached promoting physical activity in this study.

  • Magnusson, Per
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Chemistry.
    Nilsen, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Schedvin, Göran
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Health Care Analysis. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    D-vitaminanalyser i primärvård måste användas ändamålsenligt [Appropriate use of vitamin D assessments in primary health care]: Ny strategi i Östergötland för införande och uppföljning av analyser gav bra resultat [Impact of new strategies for the introduction and follow-up of analyses in Östergötland]2019In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 116, p. 1-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Systematic reviews and meta-analyses have shown that there is little justification for vitamin D supplements to prevent infections, cancer and cardiovascular disease. Despite the limited evidence of effectiveness, the total number of ordered serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) tests has increased considerably in recent years. There seems to be an overuse of this test that does not provide meaningful benefit for patients. A passive introduction of new tests leads generally to a slow initiation of value-based diagnostics, as well as overuse and underuse of diagnostic tests. In this study, in Region Östergötland, we applied a »Choosing wisely« model that reversed a rising trend of 25(OH)D tests and reduced the number of unnecessary tests. The findings point to the need for strategic plans for introducing new analyses and approaches to counteract misuse of laboratory diagnostics. We recommend »Choosing wisely« models for the introduction of new analyses to facilitate appropriate laboratory diagnostics and to counteract long-term overuse.

  • Jidesjö, Anders
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Implementering av hållbar förskola och skola: Lärares professionella lärande utifrån elevers behov för lärande i Linköpings kommun2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport beskrivs resultat från ett projekt som genomförts i Linköpings kommun 2015-2018, som handlar om implementering av perspektivet lärande för hållbar utveckling i förskola och skola. Projekten som genomförts har ingått i en design, där lärare och skolledning fick formulera relevanta utvecklingsområden de ville arbeta med, för att sedan ansöka om medel för att realisera målsättningarna. De utvecklingsområden som formulerades skulle anknyta till perspektivet lärande för hållbar utveckling. På så vis arbetade olika förskolor och skolor med olika områden och aktiviteter, som under processerna som tillskapades erbjöds stöd av olika slag. Stödfunktioner kunde exempelvis handla om föredrag, material av olika slag, möten med olika resurspersoner samt organiserat processtöd. Syftet med detta upplägg var att tillåta olika verksamheter att arbeta utifrån behov, men inte släppa processerna till enskilda enheter. Rätt stöd behöver komma in vid rätt tillfälle.

    Tre studier genomfördes under 2018 för att följa upp och samla in de empiriska material, som ligger till grund för resultaten i denna rapport. All personal i ledningsfunktion på samtliga förskolor och skolor i projektet, fick besvara en enkät. På några utvalda förskolor och skolor genomfördes fokusgruppsintervjuer med förskollärare, lärare och personal i fritidshem, samt besök, för att observera konkret verksamhet.

    Resultaten indikerar ett antal olika inriktningar. Personal i ledningsfunktion rankar många områden som viktiga för att åstadkomma lärande för hållbar utveckling. Frågor som handlar om att utvecklingsarbetet bidrar till att utveckla undervisning som genomförs utanför förskola och skola, rankas lägre. De verkar inte heller anse att föräldrars engagemang utgjort viktiga inslag eller att organisationsförändringar varit betydelsefulla i arbetet med att implementera lärande för hållbar utveckling. Resultat från fokusgrupperna med personal i förskola och skola kunde organiseras i sju tematiska områden: Delaktighet och involvering, Medvetenhet och förhållningssätt, Relationer till samhälle och natur: Viktigt för lärandet, Relationer mellan det lokala och globala, Om de olika dimensionerna: Socialt, ekologiskt och ekonomiskt, Kontinuitet, anpassningar och organisation, samt Betydelse av bra material och konkreta aktiviteter som fungerar, rätt i tid. Resultat från besök i förskola och skola visar att det finns tydliga inslag av att använda samhällsliv och naturkontakter som utgångspunkter i undervisningsmiljöerna, det finns tydliga inslag av barn- och elevinflytande, liksom handlingskompetens och kritiskt tänkande.

    Resultaten är inordnade i en diskussion som anknyter till forskningens utveckling inom lärares professionsutveckling. Diskussionen ger en fördjupad framställning kring framför allt organisation, förhållningssätt och ledarskap. Diskussionen lyfter fram behov av ett antal synvändor med fokus på betydelse av att tydligt involvera barns och elevers behov för lärande, som utgångspunkt för lärares professionella lärande. Genom3tillämpning av perspektivet adaptiv expertis skildras hur viktigt det är att alla lager som ingår i en utbildningsorganisation tillser att varierade kapaciteter finns tillgängliga när olika behov uppstår. Det handlar om att inblandade aktörer förstår sina roller, i relation till gemensamma processer, som är inriktade mot att hålla elevers lärande i centrum för att tillsammans utforma de förutsättningar som är nödvändiga.

  • Tibajev, Andrey
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, REMESO - Institute for Research on Migration, Ethnicity and Society. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Linking Self-Employment Before and After Migration: Migrant Selection and Human Capital2019In: Sociological Science, E-ISSN 2330-6696, Vol. 6, p. 609-634Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In linking self-employment before and after migration, the often-cited home-country self-employment hypothesis states that immigrants who come from countries with large self-employment sectors are themselves more likely to have been self-employed and hence have a higher propensity for self-employment in their destination country. Using Swedish data, this study shows that the first part of the hypothesis, that origin-country average rates of self-employment can be used to approximate individual experience, is false; but the second part, the connection between self-employment before and after migration, is true if the measurement is done on the individual level. Migrants who have been self-employed before migration accumulate entrepreneurial human capital, making future self-employment a more desirable labor market alternative vis-a-vis wage employment. But because of migrant selection, this association cannot be captured by aggregate measures, and this is the reason why the home-country self-employment hypothesis, although intuitive, has underperformed in previous empirical tests.

  • Brodén Gyberg, Veronica
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University.
    Mobjörk, Malin
    Climate Change and Risk Programme, Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI).
    Framing and Responding to Climate-related Security Risks in Swedish Development Cooperation2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Societies worldwide are increasingly facing security challenges posed by climate change. The impacts of climate change exacerbate existing vulnerabilities and undermine human security, and the most detrimental effects are seen in already fragile contexts. Development organizations are key in addressing and mitigating climate-related security risks due to the importance of preventive measures. Such organizations are conceptualizing and integrating security risks posed by climate change, but the work is often done in silos. This paper contributes to the burgeoning research on the integration of climate-related security risks by organizations, with a case study on how the Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) is framing and developing its responses. The study shows that although Sida prioritizes the integration of environment and climate with conflict on a general policy level, there are some challenges when translating the policy into practice. The analysis identifies ambiguities with regard to concepts used and tensions between expert and general knowledge. There are several initiatives at Sida on different levels with the aim to integrate climate and conflict. However, there seems to be room for increased collaboration on operationalization, which could enable even deeper levels of integrated work.

  • Muthana, Fairuz
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Centre for Gender Studies.
    Honour-based violence and help-providers in Finland - What are the help providers doing to help women of colour seeking help and how do they conceptualize other important collaborators?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Although Finland is deemed to be a female-friendly country, it has been criticized for the inability to eradicate violence committed specifically against women. According to the Finnish League for Human Rights, – who work closely with immigrant women suffering from honour-based violence, which is the type of violence focused on in this paper – Finnish social workers nor police are well equipped to deal with women suffering from honour-based violence. Hence, the purpose of this research is to analyse how help-providers and other important collaborators work in practice as well as analyse it from a multi-theoretical perspective. With the aid of the interviews conducted with five help-providers and thematic analysis, I was able to reach a conclusion, which highlighted how the help provided fluctuates between different groups in question. Also, the help provided is very dependent on the competency of the help-providers, which lacks in many aspects due to various intersectional factors.

  • Andersson, Yvonne
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Att kämpa över trösklar: En intervjustudie om hur speciallärare motiverar elever att ta sig vidare ur motgångar i läsinlärningen2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka hur speciallärare motiverar elever att kämpa för att ta sig förbi de hinder som finns i läsutvecklingen. Jag har utgått från frågeställningarna Hur gör speciallärare för att motivera elever som kämpar med sin läsning? och Vilken typ av motivation används för att stötta eleverna att kämpa vidare med sin läsning? Jag har gjort en kvalitativ intervjustudie där jag analyserat det insamlade materialet genom en tematisk analys. Initialt har jag kodat data från fem intervjuer med speciallärare i årskurserna 1-6. I det insamlade materialet har jag sökt teman, i vilka jag funnit mönster som visar hur de fem speciallärarna beskriver att de motiverar sina elever i läsinlärningen. Några av speciallärarna beskriver vissa svårigheter med att motivera eleverna. Alla speciallärare beskriver dock mestadels tillfällen då de lyckats. Jag har i min analys fokuserat på de lyckade resultaten, men jag beskriver även under vissa teman de svårigheter som framkommit i intervjuerna. Min analys resulterade i två perspektiv med två teman i varje perspektiv. I perspektivet Eleven i fokus fann jag temana Bygga relationer som grund för motiverande samtal och Anpassa material. I perspektivet Miljön i fokus fann jag temana Samarbeta med klasslärare och Samarbeta med föräldrar. Min slutsats är att goda relationer är avgörande för gynnsam motivation i läsinlärningen. Genom goda relationer kan speciallärarna samtala framåtsyftande med eleverna, i de motiverande samtalen. Speciallärarna beskriver, explicit eller implicit, att de använder både inre och yttre motivation i läsundervisningen. Vidare framträder att samarbete, samt att eleverna får befinna sig i sin proximala utvecklingszon, är av särskild vikt för att motivera elever att sträva vidare med sin läsning.

  • Bäckström, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Hallonqvist, Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    A three-phase user study evaluating the integration of a generalized playback bar for a branched video player2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When watching interactive branched video, the viewer is given the opportunity to tailor the storyline of the video playback. This type of video puts the users in control of their viewing experiences and provides content creators with great flexibility how to personalize the viewing experience for individual viewers. When it comes to regular linear videos, the concept of having a playback bar visually presenting the playback is a well established implementation used for most (if not all) video players, but for interactive branched videos, that is not the case. Instead, most branched video implementations are typically custom-made on a per-video basis (e.g., see custom-made Netflix and BBC movies) and do not use a playback bar.

    With the goal to fill this void, a branched video player with a generalized playback bar that visualizes the tree-like video structure was developed in 2018 by students of the Information Technology program at Linköping University and will be made public with a publication in the near future. Within the preparatory work prior to making this branched video player public, this project included a three-phase user study, where we evaluated the playback bar and its implemented features and compared the video player with alternative designs.

    With this thesis, we highlight the value of a branched video playback bar and provide interesting insights into how it, and other design customization features, may best be integrated into a branched video player. Furthermore, we present an improved version of the video player in which the new implementations are based on, and motivated by, the results from the user study. Finally, we describe how further investigations may be done to evaluate the improved version of the video player.

  • Axén, Linus
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Determinants of audit fees and the management of corporate disclosures2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Ever since Simunic (1980), a great deal of research has examined the pricing of auditing services. The absence of proprietary audit cost data forces most researchers to use audit fee models linking theoretical concepts to observable data. In order to make audit pricing more transparent, there is a need to examine the determinants of audit fees with regard to, for example, different organizational forms, institutional settings, and governance mechanisms. Regarding corporate disclosures, most prior research has investigated various determinants, although little field-based research has focused on the actual disclosure process. By focusing on disclosure practices, it is possible to explore the role of essential actors involved in the preparation of annual reports. The overall aim of this thesis is twofold: first, to explore theoretically salient influences on audit fees by analyzing the effects of client business risk, municipal ownership, and the content of internal audit disclosures, and second, to improve our understanding of how companies manage their corporate disclosures.

    This thesis consists of a compilation of four papers and a comprehensive summary. The specific aim of each paper and current knowledge of the phenomenon under study have formed the basis for the methodological choices (interviews, content analysis, and regression analysis). The empirical material consists mainly of publicly available data from annual reports and of interviews with managers of listed companies, audit firms, and communication agencies. Given the twofolded aim of this thesis, evidence is provided that: (i) the determinants of audit fee cutting and relative audit fee pressure are considerably different, especially with regard to different client business risk factors; (ii) municipal companies are paying significantly lower audit fees than equivalent private companies; (iii) there is a considerable heterogeneity in internal auditing disclosures, and companies with more transparent firm-specific disclosures related to internal auditing pay lower audit fees than do those not providing such disclosures; and (iv) the management of corporate disclosure within the annual report is heavily influenced by the knowledge, skills, and personal characteristics of the project manager.

    List of papers
    1. Does municipal ownership affect audit fees?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does municipal ownership affect audit fees?
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Journal of Management and Governance, ISSN 1385-3457, E-ISSN 1572-963XArticle in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    This study analyses whether municipal ownership affects and determines audit fees. Our model of the determinants of audit fees was tested on data from 249 Swedishmunicipal and 240 private corporations within the real estate industry, thus extendingthe study of audit fees to hybrid organizations. The statistical analysis was followedup with interviews of five partners from five different audit firms. The resultof the study shows that municipal corporations are paying significantly lower auditfees than equivalent private corporations. This finding is primarily explained bylower perceived business risk and by the fact that municipalities are able to pushprices by coordinating procurements of audit services.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2018
    Keywords
    Audit fees, Business risk, Hybrid organizations, Municipal ownership, Reputation risk
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152255 (URN)10.1007/s10997-018-9438-4 (DOI)
    Available from: 2018-10-24 Created: 2018-10-24 Last updated: 2020-02-03
    2. Exploring the association between the content of internal audit disclosures and external audit fees: Evidence from Sweden
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Exploring the association between the content of internal audit disclosures and external audit fees: Evidence from Sweden
    2018 (English)In: International Journal of Auditing, ISSN 1090-6738, E-ISSN 1099-1123, Vol. 22, no 2, p. 285-297Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to explore the content of internal audit (IA) disclosures in annual reports and explain the relationship between IA disclosures and external audit fees. A content analysis of the IA disclosures made it possible to generate inductive categories that were used as a basis for statistical analysis. The findings show a large variation in disclosure practices, and only a small portion of all disclosures contain firm‐specific information related to IA. Evidence is provided that the use of an IA function (IAF) is associated with higher external audit fees. However, companies that disclose firm‐specific information related to IA pay lower audit fees than those not providing this disclosure. Overall, the results of this study indicate that firm‐specific IA disclosures most likely represent actual investments in IA and can be used as a proxy for IAF quality.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2018
    Keywords
    Audit fees, corporate governance, disclosure, internal audit
    National Category
    Business Administration
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150157 (URN)10.1111/ijau.12120 (DOI)000437065800011 ()2-s2.0-85050096265 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2018-08-14 Created: 2018-08-14 Last updated: 2020-02-03Bibliographically approved
  • Lenz, Silas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Information Coding.
    Evaluation of the Messaging Layer Security Protocol: A Performance and Usability Study2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Secure messaging protocols have seen big improvements in recent years, with pairwise messaging now being possible to perform efficiently with high security guarantees and without requiring both participants to be online at the same time. For group messaging the solutions have either provided lower security guarantees or used highly inefficient implementations in terms of computation time and data usage, with pairwise channels between all group members, limiting the possible applications. Work is now ongoing to introduce the Messaging Layer Security (MLS) protocol as an efficient standard with high security guarantees for messaging in big groups.

    This thesis examines whether current MLS implementations live up to the promised performance properties and compares them to the popular Signal protocol. In general the performance results of MLS are promising and in line with expectations, providing improved performance compared to the Signal protocol as group sizes increase. Two proof of concept applications are created to prove the viability of using MLS in realistic scenarios, one for video calls and one for mobile messaging.

  • Public defence: 2020-02-27 10:15 Systemet, B-Building, Linköping
    Becirovic, Ema
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Communication Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On Massive MIMO for Massive Machine-Type Communications2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To cover all the needs and requirements of mobile networks in the future, the predicted usage of the mobile networks has been split into three use-cases: enhanced mobile broadband, ultra-reliable low-latency communication, and massive machine-type communication. In this thesis we focus on the massive machine-type communication use-case which is intended to facilitate the ever increasing number of smart devices and sensors.

    In the massive machine-type communication use-case, the main challenges are to accommodate a huge number of devices while keeping the battery lives of the devices long, and allowing them to be placed in far-away locations. However, these devices are not concerned about other features such as latency, high data rate, or mobility.

    In this thesis we study the application of massive MIMO (multiple-input multiple-output) technology for the massive machine-type communication use-case. Massive MIMO has been on the radar as an enabler for future communication networks in the last decade and is now firmly rooted in both academia and industry. The main idea of massive MIMO is to utilize a base station with a massive number of antennas which gives the ability to spatially direct signals and serve multiple devices in the same time- and frequency resource.

    More specifically, in this thesis we study A) a scenario where the base station takes advantage of a device's low mobility to improve its channel estimate, B) a random access scheme for massive machine-type communication which can accommodate a huge number of devices, and C) a case study where the benefits of massive MIMO for long range devices are quantified. The results are that the base station can significantly improve the channel estimates for a low mobility user such that it can tolerate lower SNR while still achieving the same rate. Additionally, the properties of massive MIMO greatly helps to detect users in random access scenarios and increase link-budgets compared to single-antenna base stations.  

    List of papers
    1. DETECTION OF PILOT-HOPPING SEQUENCES FOR GRANT-FREE RANDOM ACCESS IN MASSIVE MIMO SYSTEMS
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>DETECTION OF PILOT-HOPPING SEQUENCES FOR GRANT-FREE RANDOM ACCESS IN MASSIVE MIMO SYSTEMS
    2019 (English)In: 2019 IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ACOUSTICS, SPEECH AND SIGNAL PROCESSING (ICASSP), IEEE , 2019, p. 8380-8384Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, we study an active user detection problem for massive machine type communications (mMTC). The users transmit pilot-hopping sequences and detection of active users is performed based on the received energy. We utilize the channel hardening and favorable propagation properties of massive multiple- input multipleoutput (MIMO) to simplify the user detection. We propose and compare a number of different user detection methods and find that using non- negative least squares (NNLS) is well suited for the task at hand as it achieves good results as well as having the benefit of not having to specify further parameters.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE, 2019
    Series
    International Conference on Acoustics Speech and Signal Processing ICASSP, ISSN 1520-6149
    Keywords
    massive MIMO; machine type communication; compressed sensing
    National Category
    Signal Processing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160640 (URN)000482554008124 ()978-1-4799-8131-1 (ISBN)
    Conference
    44th IEEE International Conference on Acoustics, Speech and Signal Processing (ICASSP)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|ELLIIT; Swedish Research Council (VR)Swedish Research Council

    Available from: 2019-10-11 Created: 2019-10-11 Last updated: 2020-02-03
    2. How Much Will Tiny IoT Nodes Profit from Massive Base Station Arrays?
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>How Much Will Tiny IoT Nodes Profit from Massive Base Station Arrays?
    2018 (English)In: 2018 26TH EUROPEAN SIGNAL PROCESSING CONFERENCE (EUSIPCO), IEEE COMPUTER SOC , 2018, p. 832-836Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we study the benefits that Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices will have from connecting to a massive multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) base station. In particular, we study how many users that could be simultaneously spatially multiplexed and how much the range can be increased by deploying massive base station arrays. We also investigate how the devices can scale down their uplink power as the number of antennas grows with retained rates. We consider the uplink and utilize upper and lower bounds on known achievable rate expressions to study the effects of the massive arrays. We conduct a case study where we use simulations in the settings of existing IoT systems to draw realistic conclusions. We find that the gains which ultra narrowband systems get from utilizing massive MIMO are limited by the bandwidth and therefore those systems will not be able to spatially multiplex any significant number of users. We also conclude that the power scaling is highly dependent on the nominal signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in the single-antenna case.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    IEEE COMPUTER SOC, 2018
    Series
    European Signal Processing Conference, ISSN 2076-1465
    National Category
    Signal Processing
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154134 (URN)10.23919/EUSIPCO.2018.8553057 (DOI)000455614900168 ()978-90-827970-1-5 (ISBN)
    Conference
    European Signal Processing Conference (EUSIPCO)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR); ELLIIT

    Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2020-02-03
  • Public defence: 2020-02-28 10:15 K3, Kåkenhus, Norrköping
    Shiran Chaharsoughi, Mina
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hybrid Plasmonics for Energy Harvesting and Sensing of Radiation and Heat2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The special optical properties of subwavelength metallic structures have opened up for numerous applications in different fields. The interaction of light with metal nanostructures leads to the excitation of collective oscillations of conduction-band electrons, known as plasmons. These plasmon excitations are responsible for the high absorption and high scattering of light in metallic nanostructures. High absorption of light and the subsequent temperature increase in the nanostructures make them suitable as point-like heat sources that can be controlled remotely by light.

    The research presented in this thesis focuses on the development and studies of hybrid devices that combine light-induced heating in plasmonic nanostructures with other materials and systems. Particular focus is put on hybrid organic-inorganic systems for applications in energy harvesting as well as in heat and radiation sensing. Harvesting energy from light fluctuations was achieved in a hybrid device consisting of plasmonic gold nanodisk arrays and a pyroelectric copolymer. In this concept, fast and efficient light-induced heating in the gold nanodisks modulated the temperature of the pyroelectric layer, which could be used to extract electrical energy from fluctuations in simulated sunlight.

    Integrating plasmonic nanostructures with complementary materials can also provide novel hybrid sensors, for monitoring of temperature, heat flux and radiation. In this thesis work, a hybrid sensor was designed based on the combination of a plasmonic gold nanohole layer with a pyroelectric copolymer and an ionic thermoelectric gel. The gold nanohole arrays acted both as broadband light absorbers in the visible to near-infrared spectral range of the solar spectrum and also as one of the electrodes of the sensor. In contrast to the constituent components when used separately, the hybrid sensor could provide both fast and stable signals upon heat or radiation stimuli, as well as enhanced equilibrium signals.

    Furthermore, a concept for heat and radiation mapping was developed that was highly sensitive and stable despite its simple structure. The concept consisted of a gel-like electrolyte connecting two separated metal nanohole electrodes on a substrate. Resembling traditional thermocouples, this concept could autonomously detect temperature changes but with several orders of magnitudes higher sensitivity. Owing to its promising sensing properties as well as its compatibility with inexpensive mass production methods on flexible substrates, such concept may be particularly interesting for electronic skin applications for health monitoring and for humanoid robotics. Finally, we improved the possibilities for the temperature mapping of the concept by modifying the structure from lateral to vertical form. Similar to the lateral device, the vertical temperature sensor showed high temperature sensitivity and stability in producing signals upon temperature changes.

    List of papers
    1. Hybrid Plasmonic and Pyroelectric Harvesting of Light Fluctuations
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid Plasmonic and Pyroelectric Harvesting of Light Fluctuations
    Show others...
    2018 (English)In: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2162-7568, E-ISSN 2195-1071Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    State-of-the-art solar energy harvesting systems based on photovoltaic technology require constant illumination for optimal operation. However, weather conditions and solar illumination tend to fluctuate. Here, a device is presented that extracts electrical energy from such light fluctuations. The concept combines light-induced heating of gold nanodisks (acting as plasmonic optical nanoantennas), and an organic pyroelectric copolymer film (poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene)), that converts temperature changes into electrical signals. This hybrid device can repeatedly generate current pulses, not only upon the onset of illumination, but also when illumination is blocked. Detailed characterization highlights the key role of the polarization state of the copolymer, while the copolymer thickness has minor influence on performance. The results are fully consistent with plasmon-assisted pyroelectric effects, as corroborated by combined optical and thermal simulations that match the experimental results. Owing to the tunability of plasmonic resonances, the presented concept is compatible with harvesting near infrared light while concurrently maintaining visible transparency.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
    Keywords
    Gold nanodisks, Plasmonic heating, Pyroelectric copolymers, Solar energy harvesting
    National Category
    Physical Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148574 (URN)10.1002/adom.201701051 (DOI)000434349300001 ()
    Note

    Funding agencies: Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Research Council [2015-05070]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; AForsk Foundation; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Lin

    Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2020-01-31
    2. Thermodiffusion-Assisted Pyroelectrics-Enabling Rapid and Stable Heat and Radiation Sensing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermodiffusion-Assisted Pyroelectrics-Enabling Rapid and Stable Heat and Radiation Sensing
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 29, no 28, article id 1900572Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Sensors for monitoring temperature, heat flux, and thermal radiation are essential for applications such as electronic skin. While pyroelectric and thermoelectric effects are suitable candidates as functional elements in such devices, both concepts show individual drawbacks in terms of zero equilibrium signals for pyroelectric materials and small or slow response of thermoelectric materials. Here, these drawbacks are overcome by introducing the concept of thermodiffusion-assisted pyroelectrics, which combines and enhances the performance of pyroelectric and ionic thermoelectric materials. The presented integrated concept provides both rapid initial response upon heating and stable synergistically enhanced signals upon prolonged exposure to heat stimuli. Likewise, incorporation of plasmonic metasurfaces enables the concept to provide both rapid and stable signals for radiation-induced heating. The performance of the concept and its working mechanism can be explained by ion-electron interactions at the interface between the pyroelectric and ionic thermoelectric materials.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2019
    Keywords
    heat sensing; ionic thermodiffusion; plasmonic heating; pyroelectric copolymer
    National Category
    Other Materials Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159730 (URN)10.1002/adfm.201900572 (DOI)000478851700007 ()2-s2.0-85064476505 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Swedish Research Council; AForsk Foundation; Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [200900971]

    Available from: 2019-08-19 Created: 2019-08-19 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
  • Trygg, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    "Ost ska vändas inte flyttas!": En antropologisk studie av social rörelse i mindre samhälle.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay is about Ostens  vänner, agroup of Social movement. During the year 2018/2019 they have been active in the community Boxholm in Östergötland. It is a protest group against the closure of Boxholms ost a local cheesemaking industry.

    The industry is going to close and move to another place. This essay addresses the significance of the movement for the individual, the group and society. How Ostens vänner have organized themselves as a group and how it has reflected the history of society in a small industrial community. Contributions in the various areas have been many, but also difficulties that have arisen during the year. The movement has also been active in social media, on Facebook the movement has almost 13,000 members. My empirical material is largely based on the four interviews I have done with my informants. The result shows that social movements can make a difference on different levels, even if the group does not succeed in its goal.

  • Gruvaeus, Axel
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Reko mat: Analys av REKO:s policy och nätverksstruktur ur ett antropologiskt-netnografiskt perspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor level thesis examines policy and network structure for the Swedish food distribution network called REKO. A network which matches local producers with consumers through Facebook. The thesis discusses REKO as a cotemporally example of technoculture under influence of trends such as the digital transformation of social life and longer distances between producer and end consumer. The thesis also describes and discuss how policy is made and recreated in a flat network without legal bodies. The policy analysis shows how “simplicity” is a focal point loaded with different meanings and goals. In the nethnographic part of the study describes the shifting shape of the network. Lastly the thesis puts REKO in a general technocultural context where internet and social media still gets a bigger role for humanity.

  • Björk, Emma
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society.
    Hand i hand mot gemenskap: Invånares deltagande för trygghet och relationsskapande i ett “särskilt utsatt område”2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to examine what residents’ community participation by way of local night patrol for social reassurance and community meetings in a “deprived neighborhood” has to say about integration. Through ethnographic field study and participant observation the study aims to capture the participants’ perspective of the participation, examine what impact the engagement has on the local community as well as what the affects and participation has to say about integration. The empirical material is analyzed and discussed from the basis of relevant theories of community, social boundaries, social reassurance as well as structural respectively social integration. The engagement of the residents aims to increase the feeling of social security and reassurance in the local community, and parallelly it creates forum for language practice and social encounters that goes beyond social and ethnic boundaries. The increasement of personal relationships seems to indirectly lead to a higher level of social reassurance as well as a feeling of solidarity in the community. Structural factors on a macro level, however, seems to work as barriers for the residents’ participation and involvement in a general societal and national fellowship and community.

  • Lidström, Victor
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication.
    Guds dissident: En analys av Dag Sandahls kyrkokritik 1973-20182020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this master thesis the critique of the development within the Church of Sweden, by the Swedish Lutheran minister Dag Sandahl, is examined and analysed. Sandahl is an outspoken critic, and self-described dissident, in the Church of Sweden. He is primarily known for questioning, and being an opponent to, the opening up of the priesthood to women dated 1958 in the Church of Sweden. The source material used consists of monographs with critique of the Church published by Sandahl between 1973 and 2018. The thesis concludes that Sandahl’s critique touches a broad array of themes and occurrences within the life of the Church – primarily the Church of Sweden – such as the Church’s self-understanding as a national church and not part of the Church catholic, a functionalistic view of ministry leading to the ordination of women to the priesthood, the rough treatment of the opposing minority and the politicized General Synod. It is argued that Sandahl’s critique is best understood in terms of lived ecclesiology and ecclesiology proper.

  • Vincent, Judith
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society.
    Mångfald i samhället - universitetet som exempel: En kvalitativ studie om utlandsfödda studenters erfarenheter av att studera vid ett svenskt universitet2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, I have examined how foreign-born students experience studying at a Swedish university. What they have in common is that they originally come from a different country than Sweden, that they study or have studied at a Swedish university and that they speak and understand the Swedish language well. The survey shows how ethnicity and identities are created and made visible in certain situations, and that both the Swedish language and time in Sweden are important factors for understanding norms and codes. The material is collected by me intervjuing individuals that falls under the above discription. Then I have analysed the material and compared it with privious, similar studies.

  • Andersen, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tebring, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Metakognitiva strategier vid lösning av rika matematiska problem: Vilka strategier används och vilka för problemlösningsprocessen framåt?2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattningsvis handlar denna studie om relationen mellan metakognition och matematisk problemlösning.Metakognition betyder kortfattat förmågan att tänka över det egna tänkandet och har visat sig vara en central del avarbete med problemlösning. Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka metakognitiva strategier som elever användervid arbete med rika matematiska problem samt hur dessa påverkar huruvida problemlösningsprocessen förs framåt.Studien bygger på fyra observationer av 13 elever i årskurs åtta som arbetade med rika matematiska problem. Resultatet kodades med hjälp av ett analysverktyg som skapades med stöd i tidigare forskning och studien kom framtill att de vanligaste strategierna som eleverna använde var att identifiera relevant information samt att hitta ”nyckeln”i problemet. Dessa strategier var också de som förde problemlösningsprocessen framåt. Avslutningsvis dras slutsatsenatt elever som lyckas i sin problemlösning använder många olika metakognitiva strategier och att de behärskar detvå vanligaste strategierna, vilket leder till att de kan komma vidare i problemlösningen.

  • Sundberg, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Framtidens statistikundervisning?: En studie om informella statistiska inferenser samt informella inferentiella resonemang2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is, partly, to examine the positive effects of informal statistical inferences (ISI) as well as informal inferential reasoning (IIR) on the development of statistical thinking by students and, partly, to examine how ISI and IIR are defined as well as how they are utilized in current statistical education research. The two databases, ERIC and Unisearch, as well as some manual searching, was used in order to systematically choose the articles used in this study. The results in the chosen articles are compared to Wild and Pfannkuchs (1999) categorization of statistical thinking. To get an overview on the current state of research, the ways in which ISI and IIR are defined as well as utilized are categorized. The characterization of ISI that Makar and Rubin (2009) produced is shown to be prevalent.

  • Skogsmo, Elin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Wikström, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Hur ökar arbetsgivare sina anställdas fysiska aktivitet?: ...och har deras insatser någon teoretisk förankring inom nudging?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Ökande övervikt och fetma är ett stort problem världen över. Genom att förbättra individers hälsa kan kostnaderi miljardbelopp minskas.

    Syfte: Syftet med uppsatsen är att kartlägga arbetsgivares insatser för ökad fysisk aktivitetbland sina anställdasamt att undersöka om det går att förstå eventuella effekter av insatserna mot bakgrund av nudging.

    Metod: Valda metoder är en litteraturgenomgång samt intervjuer med representanter från svenska organisationer.

    Resultat: De vanligast förekommande typerna av insatser för ökad fysisk aktivitet är coachning, aktiviteteroch verktyg för att följa sina framsteg. Detyper av insatser som verkar ge störst ökning av fysisk aktivitet är individanpassning och olika verktygför att följa sina framsteg.

    Slutsats: Utifrån kartläggningen kan det konstateras att många olika slags insatser används, men att endast en liten delav devanligaste typerna av insatser har bevisad effekt.Utifrån studiernas beskrivningar av metod och interventionär det svårt att dra några slutsatser omvilkanudgetteknikereller kombinationer av nudgetekniker som har störst effekt på fysisk aktivitet.Även mer omfattandeindividuellinformation om deltagarna skulle kunna ge bättre förutsättningarför att förklara effekter mot bakgrund av nudging och beteendeekonomi.

  • Ragnhammar, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Samelius, Ellen
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    The relationship between microcredit and women’s empowerment and well-being: A minor field study in Bangladesh2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bangladesh is one of the poorest countries in the world and women are often subordinated men. As an attempt to reduce poverty and increase women’s empowerment, microcredit has been developed and offered to the poor, mostly to women. Allowing women to be more involved in decision-making processes, ensuring their right to a sense of self-worth and their right to adequate standard of living are of great importance. As are their quality of life in terms of leisure time and household work. However, previous research have showed mixed results and there is not yet any consensual opinion about the role of microcredit. The aim of this thesis istherefore to investigate the impact of microcredit on women’s empowerment and well-being. To do so, we have conducted two studies, one quantitative and one qualitative, in order to provide a deeper understanding and analysis. The effect of microcredit on women’sempowerment and well-being has been studied through the variable length of engagement inthe microcredit program. First, we use OLS regressions to measure women’s empowerment through decision making, and women’s well-being through time allocation and standard of living. In addition to this, we have conducted eight semi-structured interviews with female loan takers in Dhaka. Through the qualitative part we are able to study psychological aspects. Overall, we find no statistical significant relationship between the variable length ofengagement and women’s empowerment and well-being in our quantitative study. However, in our qualitative study we are able to conclude that all women in our sample have experienced some changes since taking the loan and we are also able to conclude that the length ofengagement to some extent positively affects the women’s standard of living.

  • Ivarsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Specialpedagogisk konsultation: Specialpedagogers upplevelser kring framgångsrika samtal2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärare ska erbjuda ledning och stimulans till alla elever (SFS 2010:800) men kan behöva stöttning. En specialpedagog, som genom sin examen har fördjupad kunskap kring specialpedagogik och som kan verka som ”en kvalificerad samtalspartner och rådgivare i pedagogiska frågor” (SFS 2007:638). Lyckad handledning sägs främja inkludering (Sundqvist, von Ahlefeld Nisser & Ström, 2014), varför det är viktigt att handledningen upplevs som positiv. Handledning och konsultation är olika samtalsmodeller med många likheter. Föreliggande studie undersöker hur specialpedagoger uppfattar framgångsrik konsultation mellan specialpedagoger och lärare, samt vad specialpedagogerna beskriver att de kan göra för att främja konsultationen. Fem specialpedagoger deltog i semistrukturerade kvalitativa intervjuer. Resultatet av den tematiska analysen visade att informanterna tyckte att ett tydligt beskrivet problem, förenliga förväntningar samt samverkan kring eleven är kännetecknande för framgångsrik konsultation. Därtill uppgav informanterna att de tyckte sig kunna främja konsultationen genom att skapa tillit till läraren samt använda det egna bemötandet gentemot läraren på ett medvetet sätt. Informanternas upplevelser kring framgångsrik konsultation kan kopplas samman med Sundqvist och Ströms (2015) syn på expertstyrd, deltagarstyrd, samt samverkande konsultation, samt med Gutkins (1999) syn på kollaborativ konsultation med olika grad av föreskrivande inslag. Kopplingar kan även göras till lärarens respektive specialpedagogens syn på de specialpedagogiska perspektiven, avseende det kategoriska respektive det relationella perspektivet (Nilholm, 2007; Persson, 2013). Några slutsatser är att specialpedagogen behöver anpassa konsultationen utifrån lärarens förväntningar, alternera mellan olika roller och samt beakta lärarens perspektiv och kunskap.

  • Prytz, Linnéa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Norman, Ida
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Can the Guarantee Instrument Fight Poverty?: A Minor Field Study in the Morogoro Region in Tanzania2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The role of access to finance for economic development has received extensive attention recently, which has brought the issue to the top of the policy agenda. The growing attention has resulted in several public policy initiatives to encourage access to financial services, especially in low-income countries where credit constraints are severe. The guarantee instrument has the potential of mobilizing finance, lowering borrowing costs and addressing market failures, why PASS with support from Sida has issued a guarantee that targets smallholder farmers in the agricultural sector in Tanzania. The linkages between access to finance, productivity and welfare are supported by abundant evidence in the previous literature, but few studies have examined the productivity and welfare effects of increased access to finance in the context of the guarantee instrument. This study aims to fill the research gap and evaluate the effects of the PASS guarantee by analysing the productivity and welfare effects of increased access to finance for paddy farmers in the Morogoro region in Tanzania. The study is based on 86 structured interviews and the data is analysed by frequency statistics and cross-sectional regressions estimated with OLS.

    The results show that farmers provided with a formal bank loan have higher productivity than non-borrowers and that those who use the business plan in their operations are more productive. This highlights the importance of running the business according to the suggestions in the business plan. Furthermore, financial access has a positive and significant effect on household welfare, meaning that households provided with a loan attain a higher welfare level. The results confirm that the guarantee has positive effects on both productivity and welfare, why it can be considered as an effective tool for poverty reduction.

    Given the results of the study, we suggest that effort to promote financial access should be encouraged by both local governments, international development agencies and NGOs. Furthermore, PASS is recommended to encourage the farmers to use the business plan and provide necessary opportunities to facilitate the use. As the most common reason for not using the business plan is the language barrier, we recommend PASS to offer translation services to increase the productivity of the farmers as well as the probability of repayment. In addition, the results indicate low financial literacy among the farmers, why emphasis to reinforce the understanding of the loan conditions should be prioritised. Finally, the results show that formal education has a significant effect on household welfare, but when considering productivity, formal education is not significant on any level. However, knowledge can be assumed to affect productivity positively, why strategies to increase both formal and informal education, such as business training, should be considered.

  • Wahlström, Rebecka
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Elevers bilder av bråktal: En kvalitativ studie av hur högstadieelever beskriver och resonerar kring bråktal2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta examensarbete är en kvalitativ empirisk studie av högstadieelevers bilder av bråktal, baserad på intervjuer med två fokusgrupper. Totalt har nio elever i årskurs 7 och 9 deltagit i studien. Resultatet presenteras utifrån olika teman funna genom en innehållsanalys, samt utifrån bråkets fem ansikten (Löwing och Kilborn, 2002) och den duala begreppsbilden (Sfard, 1991). I studien visas att eleverna i stor utsträckning relaterar bråktal till procent. Därtill representerar eleverna huvudsakligen bråktal med en uppdelad cirkel. Resultaten exemplifieras med intervjuexcerpter samt elevernas anteckningar och bilder.Studien bygger även vidare på ett tidigare examensarbete där en litteraturstudie gjordes på samma tema (Wahlström, 2018).

  • Mossberg, Lina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Lundgren, Ulrika
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Erfarenheter av hälsosamtalet i Sörmlands hälsoprogram: En intervjustudie utifrån de inbjudna deltagarnas perspektiv2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes increases with unhealthy living habits. One of the district nurse's tasks is to work in health promotion to prevent these diseases. Sörmland's health program is part of a health promotion work and is aimed at 40-, 50-and 60-year-old in the Region of Sörmland.

    Aim: To identify and describe invited participants' experiences of the health dialogue in Sörmland's health program.

    Method: Descriptive design with qualitative approach. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with the help of an interview guide. Ten people who participated in the health dialogue are informants in the present study. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis according to Braun and Clarke.

    Results: The analysis resulted in two overall themes; The participants' experiences of the surrounding factors of the health dialogue and the different dimensions of the health dialogue and its significance. Under each theme, there are two underlying subthemes that depict the result.

    Conclusion: Sörmland's health program as a whole and the health dialogue as part of this are appreciated by those who participate. The health dialogue is perceived as respectful and neutral where the informants describe that they are given time to reflect and gain insight into their living habits and that it creates an increased motivation.

  • Lu, Yi Cheng
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Classifying Liver Fibrosis Stage Using Gadoxetic Acid-Enhanced MR Images2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose is trying to classify the Liver Fibrosis stage using Gadoxetic Acid-EnhancedMR Images. 

    In the very beginning, a method proposed by one Korean group is being examined and trying to reproduce their result. However, the performance is not as impressive as theirs. Then, some gray-scale image feature extraction methods are used. Last but not least, the hottest method in recent years - ConvolutionNeural Network(CNN) was utilized. Finally, the performance has been evaluated in both methods.

    The result shows that with manual feature extraction, the Adaboost model works pretty well that AUC achieves 0.9. Besides, the AUC of ResNet-18 network - a deep learning architecture, can reach 0.93. Also, all the hyperparameters and training settings used on ResNet-18 can be transferred to ResNet-50/ResNet-101/InceptionV3 very well.

    The best model that can be obtained is ResNet-101which has an AUC of 0.96 - higher than all current publications for machine learning methods for staging liver fibrosis.

  • Jakovlev, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Evaluation of Narr8, an automated presentation service2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Narr8 is today a prototype that combines PowerPoint with a written script and creates a new PowerPoint-file that has a sound file added to it where the sound file is a voice that reads the script for you. Scania CV AB is an international company which is located in over 100 countries and have more than 49 000 employees. Scania is currently going through a change where they are trying to implement and capitalize on new ideas, the New Technology group is testing whether there is the possibility of using their own manufactured applications for service within the company. One of these applications is Narr8. This thesis has examined the possibility of making Narr8 an allaround service for the entirety of Scania. By researching the requirements by the users and combining those requirements with PowerPoint-tests that control today’s functionalities, this has given the substrate for an evaluation that analysis what needs to be done with Narr8 for it to be used in the future by all employees at Scania. The conclusion is that Narr8 is appreciated by the few users that exist today and everyone can see the potential in having it as a service, with this result the outcome is that Narr8 has the potential to become a service for Scania, but some areas need to be handled before that happens. The areas are information security, error-handling, simple introduction and the 10-limit slide need to be removed.

  • Zaman, Shaikh Faisal
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Automated Liver Segmentation from MR-Images Using Neural Networks2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Liver segmentation is a cumbersome task when done manually, often consuming quality time of radiologists. Use of automation in such clinical task is fundamental and the subject of most modern research. Various computer aided methods have been incorporated for this task, but it has not given optimal results due to the various challenges faced as low-contrast in the images, abnormalities in the tissues, etc. As of present, there has been significant progress in machine learning and artificial intelligence (AI) in the field of medical image processing. Though challenges exist, like image sensitivity due to different scanners used to acquire images, difference in imaging methods used, just to name a few. The following research embodies a convolutional neural network (CNN) was incorporated for this process, specifically a U-net algorithm. Predicted masks are generated on the corresponding test data and the Dice similarity coefficient (DSC) is used as a statistical validation metric for performance evaluation. Three datasets, from different scanners (two1.5 T scanners and one 3.0 T scanner), have been evaluated. The U-net performs well on the given three different datasets, even though there was limited data for training, reaching upto DSC of 0.93 for one of the datasets.

  • Svensson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Integrated Circuits and Systems.
    Robust Sensor Nodes for Smart Savannas: with a specification in water quality2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Project Ngulia is a public-private partnership that aims at developing innovative cost-efficient technical solutions in Ngulia sanctuary, Kenya. The technologies assist KenyaWildlife Service (KWS) with improving the security of rhinoceros. So far they have, amongothers, developed a dashboard showing the status of the sanctuary. This thesis attempts toinstall a LoRaWAN network system containing a server and a gateway, and to develop anappurtenant end-device prototype sampling the pH, conductivity, and temperature of thewater holes in the sanctuary. The plan is for Project Ngulia to, later on, include the samplesfrom the end-device in the dashboard using the LoRaWAN network system. In addition,the thesis attempts to evaluate the advantages and disadvantages of using LoRaWAN inthis use case by both literature studies and by tests during the implementation.The total system was developed according to a model inspired by the NASA engi-neering design process, an iteration of six steps;Identify criteria and constraints,identify theproblem,explore hardware and possibilities,select an approach,build a prototypeandevaluate. TheLoRaWAN network system and the water sample prototype was in every iteration devel-oped on the basis of the design goals of robustness and power consumption.The final prototype was built upon an Arduino Pro Mini 3.3V 8MHz, the LoRa ra-dio transceiver SX1276 and the open source LoRaWAN library calledarduino-lmic version1.5.0+arduino-2. The gateway, however, was build on a Raspberry Pi 3 model B, the opensource library namedpacket ́forwarderand an iC880A concentrator which contains theSX1301 LoRa radio transceiver. The server used was the LoRaServer software. An ad-vantage of LoRaWAN is that the range of the LoRa radio signal seems to cover the waterholes of interest in Ngulia sanctuary quite good with five gateways. Another is that onegateway can handle up to 100 end-devices broadcasting data every 20 minutes or less. Adisadvantage, on the other hand, is the memory occupation the LoRaWAN protocol occu-pies in the end-device, limiting the number of sensors to be connected to each end-device.

  • Larsson, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Design and Evaluation of a User Interface for a Program, Used in a Flight Test Environment of Electronic Warfare Systems, with Regards to Usability in Terms of Low Error Rate2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In todays society the amount of connected devices are increasing. Many of these devices are in need of an interface to enable interaction with users. These devices are built for solving tasks of varying degree of difficulty and the need for user-friendly interfaces are highly relevant. Errors is one attribute that needs to be considered when creating a user interface. Therefore, this thesis project investigates how one can design and evaluate a user interface, which is used in a flight test environment, with regards to usability in terms of low error rate. Based on requirements gathered in the requirements elicitation process together with inspiration from the anchor-based subgoaling design principle, a low-fidelity and a high-fidelity prototype is created. To evaluate these prototypes user testing together with the thinking aloud technique is used. Data regarding the number of errors made by each user, if they complete a task or not and the users general thoughts of the prototypes are also gathered. The whole process of implementation and evaluation is done in an iterative manner. The results show that the users are satisfied with the interface, complete or partially complete each task, make few errors and can recover from the mistakes they make. Based on the results, a conclusion from this thesis can be drawn that by using an iterative design, creating prototypes inspired by the anchor-based subgoaling design principle and conducting user tests together with the thinking aloud technique one can create and evaluate a user interface with regards to usability in terms of low error rate.

  • Engström, Matilda
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Petersson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    När hjärnan arbetar annorlunda: En systematisk litteraturstudie om forskningsresultaten av att inkludera elever med autismspektrumtillstånd i grundskolan2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie syftar till att undersöka svårigheter och positiva effekter av att inkludera elever med autismspektrumtillstånd (AST) i grundskolan. Studien är en systematisk litteraturstudie som hämtat sitt material genom en databasundersökning i ERIC. Resultatet presenteras genom fyra övergripande faktorer som vi valt att benämna beteendemässiga, kognitiva, kommunikativa och sociala aspekter. Dessa aspekter träder fram ur de svårigheter och utvecklingsområden som är vanligt förekommande för individer med AST. Vidare presenteras de resultat som främst kopplas till olika anpassningar under rubriken individanpassning och skolan. Resultatet visar att ett inkluderande arbetssätt kan ge positiva effekter men också skapa svårigheter för elever med AST. Elever med AST gynnas främst socialt av inkludering och de vanligaste svårigheterna återfinns inom de sociala och beteendemässiga aspekterna. Det framgick tydligt att elevernas sociala förmåga utvecklades av att undervisas i en inkluderande miljö, vilket bidrog till att de fick ett större kontaktnät och hade en ökad frekvens av lyckade interaktioner med andra. Elevernas sociala svårigheter resulterade i en del fall att de isolerade sig, exkluderades eller mobbades på skolan. Det framförs att skolans personal och elever behöver en ökad kunskap om neuropsykiatriska funktionsnedsättningar (NPF) som AST och att alla inom skolans sfär behöver verka för en accepterande, trygg och inkluderande skola.

  • Johansson, Emil
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Grönbäck, Daniel
    Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, Department of Mathematics.
    Gymnasieelevers svårigheter med derivata: en systematisk litterturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a systematic literature review that describes and summarizes Upper Secondary students’ difficulties regarding derivatives. Through systematic research, both manually and in databases, several articles were chosen according to certain selection criteria. These articles were then summarized and analyzed. Common features in these articles were put into categories which purpose was to explain students’ difficulties more clearly. The results were discussed partly in connection to Sfard’s theory of operational and structural conceptions. The study shows that students have difficulties in multiple areas concerning derivative. Students experience difficulties with concepts leading up to derivative, such as tangent and rate of change. Furthermore, students have difficulties with the derivative and differentiation. These difficulties are mostly conceptual, for instance lack of understanding of the definition and notation of the derivative. Moreover, students have difficulties to interpret the relationships between the value of the derivative, the graph of the function and the graph of its derivative. Students also have difficulties applying the derivative to problems in physics. A common feature in the results is that students view derivative as a process, therefore lacking a deep understanding of the derivative as a concept. One implication for teachers is not to focus too much solely on procedural knowledge, but rather teach derivative as a whole concept.

  • Ahlbeck, Lars
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Allergy Center.
    Berggren Rygaard, Helena
    Ekholmens Vårdcentral, Linköping.
    Astma lathund: Astma hos barn2019Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Eftersom få läkemedelsstudier utförs på barn är många av dagens läkemedel som ges till barn ofullständigt dokumenterade vad gäller dosering, effekt och säkerhet. Barn får många läkemedel utanför godkänd produktresumé (off-label), som licensläkemedel eller som apoteksberett läkemedel. I brist på vetenskaplig dokumentation har barnläkarna tvingats att utveckla egna behandlingsrekommendationer som vilar på beprövad erfarenhet. Det gör att det kan föreligga skillnader mellan riktlinjer både på lokal och på nationell nivå. Vidare är diagnostiken svårare eftersom lungfunktionstester inte är möjligt på små- och förskolebarn. Våra rekommendationer vilar på referenserna sist i denna lathund.

  • Junerfält, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    Hellberg Eriksson, Carl
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics.
    An Inventory Management Decision Model for Managing Misplaced Spare Parts at Mycronic2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are currently many spare parts in the Mycronic global supply chain which are wrongly stored in various local warehouses, even though the Mycronic stocking policy indicates they should be stored elsewhere. This results in increased inventory carrying costs and decreased inventory turnover ratio. According to employees working with spare parts distribution, there exists no standard procedure for deciding what to do with these spare parts.

    The purpose of this study is to present an inventory management decision model for managing misplaced spare parts, adapted with instructions to fit the Mycronic logistics organisation. The aim of this model shall be to increase inventory efficiency in the Mycronic global spare part supply chain.

    The first step to achieve the purpose was to find relevant theory and to construct the inventory management decision model. For this reason, the fields of inventory management and reverse logistics were studied and described in terms of methods and related costs, among other things. As a result, six different methods for handling misplaced spare parts that would theoretically increase inventory turnover ratio were identified: lateral transshipment, pull-back to the central warehouse, pull-back to cannibalise in the central warehouse, local cannibalisation, scrapping and remain in stock. An inventory management decision model was then created one step at a time, by using the identified methods as end nodes and combining them with theory-based decision nodes necessary to evaluate for each spare part.

    The result of interviews held with Mycronic personnel from various departments provided an insight into what the implementation of the decision model would look like, based on current practices for e.g. sourcing and distribution of spare parts, bookkeeping and inventory management. After analysing the interview results, conclusions were drawn with regards to how each decision node could be evaluated. To determine both the local and global need of a spare part, the conclusion was to use the past year’s demand for high demand spare parts and the average of the past two years of demand for low demand spare parts and let all stock exceeding that number be regarded as excess stock. To determine if a spare part is worth redistributing between local warehouses or returning to the central warehouse, the different activities involved in the different processes were identified and summarised in tables. Thereafter, methods for approximating the related costs were decided. For local cannibalisation, the conclusion was that it was not relevant to include as an option nor as and end node. This led to some modifications being made to the decision model, where certain decision nodes were removed so as to ensure the implement ability and relevance of the decision model.

    The final inventory management decision model suggests keeping any spare part that is needed locally in the local stock. Spare parts that are not needed locally but are needed elsewhere should be sent to where they are needed, provided that it is worth the redistribution costs. In case it is not worth redistributing, it is recommended to pull the spare parts back to the central warehouse if the profit from doing so outweighs the distribution costs. If a spare part is not needed anywhere, the decision model suggests pulling back the spare part to the central warehouse for cannibalisation as long as its subparts are needed, and it is worth the distribution costs. Lastly, if a spare part does not fulfil the requirements for any of the methods mentioned above, the spare part is suggested to be scrapped.

    Based on the conclusions of the study, instructions for evaluating the remaining decision nodes were created. The level of detail of the instructions varies for different decision nodes and also depending on the amount of information retrieved through the interviews. In some cases, the method for evaluating a certain decision node is clearly identified, whereas in other cases further investigation is required.

  • Toros, Richard
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Högstadie- och gymnasieelevers svårigheter med det aritmetiska medelvärdet: En systematisk litteraturstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study is a systematic literary review that aims to answer the following research questions: What mathematicaldifficulties do lower (age 13-16) and upper secondary (age 16-19) students encounter when solving tasks which deals withthe arithmetic mean? And what differences in difficulties can be found between lower and upper secondary students?Answering these questions can produce guidelines for how teachers may prepare their lessons. The study examines previousresearch literature on difficulties within the target group and seven themes of difficulties are identifies. Both directdifficulties in relation to the arithmetic mean, such as “communicating the meaning of the term arithmetic mean” as wellas indirect difficulties, such as “interpret and use diagrams” are detected in the study. The result shows that students at bothlevels have the same difficulties to solve tasks with the arithmetic mean. The proportion of students with difficulties is,however, lower at upper secondary level. Implications for teachers is also brought to light in this study to facilitate thedevelopment of the teaching and learning of the arithmetic mean. One of the implications is that the teaching may includecooperative learning, where students work together in order to improve their understanding within the subject.

  • Public defence: 2020-02-28 09:15 Planck, F Building, Linköping
    Persson, Mia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pawsitive selection: Genetics of dog-human communication2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Through domestication and recent selection, dogs have evolved a unique set of communicative skills to attract and redirect human attention. These social skills have not been seen to the same extent in socialised wolves and are therefore believed to have a significant genetic basis. The process of domestication and breed formation has also had effects on the structure of the dog genome that are favourable for genetic mapping. With a high amount of linkage and long haplotype blocks, fewer genetic markers are needed to find gene-trait associations in dogs than in humans. Dogs serve as an important research model for us since humans and dogs share several diseases, psychiatric disorders and behavioural traits.

    In Paper I, I recorded human-directed social behaviours during a two-minute unsolvable problem task in 500 laboratory beagles. The dogs were living at a breeding facility and had been bred, kept and handled under standardised conditions. Behaviours related to task solving and human-directed contact seeking were separated in a principal component analysis, indicating that the behavioural test can be used to study dog-human interaction. Narrowsense heritability (h2) of the largest principal component related to contact seeking behaviours was estimated to 0.23. This study found a significant genetic basis to the variation seen in human-directed contact seeking behaviours recorded in this population.

    Next, in Paper II, we collected and genotyped the DNA of 190 of the previously tested beagles with an HD Canine SNP-chip. To find genes associated with human-directed contact seeking I performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS), showing one significant and two suggestive single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers on chromosome 26. The significant SNP is located within a gene named SEZ6L, previously associated with autism in human studies. Two adjacent SNPs with suggestive association were found within a gene called ARVCF, which has been associated with schizophrenia. To our knowledge, this was the first genome-wide study to present regions within the dog genome associated with inter-species communication in dogs.

    However, these results could have been unique to this beagle population, so Paper III aimed to verify our previous findings in additional dog breeds. We tested 100 Labrador retrievers and 61 golden retrievers with the same unsolvable problem-task used in Paper I. Their DNA was collected and each individual was genotyped by pyrosequencing on two of the previously identified SNPs. To study the effects of recent selection, the Labrador retrievers were divided into two types. The common type is mainly bred and used for dog shows and as a pet, while the field type is mainly bred and used for hunting purposes. In this study, we found that both markers varied in both dog breeds and was significantly associated with human-directed contact-seeking behaviours. Allele frequencies differed significantly between Labrador retriever types, suggesting that these loci have been affected by recent selection. In conclusion, Paper III verifies the results found in Paper II.

    Finally, in Paper IV we investigated the association between dogs’ human-directed social skills and previously known SNP markers in the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) region. The oxytocin system plays an important role in the formation of social bonds and may therefore also be important in the bond between dogs and humans. Here, we hypothesized that dogs receiving intranasal oxytocin respond differently to the hormone, depending on the receptor type. To investigate this, 60 golden retrievers were genotyped for SNP markers in the OXTR region and tested with the unsolvable problem task used in Paper I and III. An association was found between genotype and social behaviour in response to oxytocin administration. Dogs responded differently to oxytocin treatment, depending on OXTR genotype. In summary, this thesis contributes to the knowledge on genetic influence of interspecies communication in dogs.

    List of papers
    1. Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Human-directed social behaviour in dogs shows significant heritability
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    2015 (English)In: Genes, Brain and Behavior, ISSN 1601-1848, E-ISSN 1601-183X, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 337-344Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Through domestication and co-evolution with humans, dogs have developed abilities to attract human attention, e.g. in a manner of seeking assistance when faced with a problem solving task. The aims of this study were to investigate within breed variation in human-directed contact seeking in dogs and to estimate its genetic basis. To do this, 498 research beagles, bred and kept under standardized conditions, were tested in an unsolvable problem task. Contact seeking behaviours recorded included both eye contact and physical interactions. Behavioural data was summarized through a principal component analysis, resulting in four components: test interactions, social interactions, eye contact and physical contact. Females scored significantly higher on social interactions and physical contact and age had an effect on eye contact scores. Narrow sense heritabilities (h2) of the two largest components were estimated at 0.32 and 0.23 but were not significant for the last two components. These results show that within the studied dog population, behavioural variation in human-directed social behaviours was sex dependent and that the utilization of eye contact seeking increased with age and experience. Hence, heritability estimates indicate a significant genetic contribution to the variation found in human-directed social interactions, suggesting that social skills in dogs have a genetic basis, but can also be shaped and enhanced through individual experiences. This research gives the opportunity to further investigate the genetics behind dogs’ social skills, which could also play a significant part into research on human social disorders such as autism.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    John Wiley & Sons, 2015
    Keywords
    Beagles, canine behaviour, dogs, domestic dog, eye contact, genetics, heritability, human-directed communication, problem-solving, social behaviour
    National Category
    Human Computer Interaction
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117523 (URN)10.1111/gbb.12194 (DOI)000353405000003 ()25703740 (PubMedID)
    Funder
    EU, European Research Council, 1242001390
    Available from: 2015-04-30 Created: 2015-04-30 Last updated: 2020-01-21
    2. Genomic Regions Associated With Interspecies Communication in Dogs Contain Genes Related to Human Social Disorders
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Genomic Regions Associated With Interspecies Communication in Dogs Contain Genes Related to Human Social Disorders
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    2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 33439Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike their wolf ancestors, dogs have unique social skills for communicating and cooperating with humans. Previously, significant heritabilities for human-directed social behaviors have been found in laboratory beagles. Here, a Genome-Wide Association Study identified two genomic regions associated with dog's human-directed social behaviors. We recorded the propensity of laboratory beagles, bred, kept and handled under standardized conditions, to initiate physical interactions with a human during an unsolvable problem-task, and 190 individuals were genotyped with an HD Canine SNP-chip. One genetic marker on chromosome 26 within the SEZ6L gene was significantly associated with time spent close to, and in physical contact with, the human. Two suggestive markers on chromosome 26, located within the ARVCF gene, were also associated with human contact seeking. Strikingly, four additional genes present in the same linkage blocks affect social abilities in humans, e.g., SEZ6L has been associated with autism and COMT affects aggression in adolescents with ADHD. This is, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide study presenting candidate genomic regions for dog sociability and inter-species communication. These results advance our understanding of dog domestication and raise the use of the dog as a novel model system for human social disorders.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Nature Publishing Group, 2016
    National Category
    Genetics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-131644 (URN)10.1038/srep33439 (DOI)000384172800001 ()27685260 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding agencies: European Research Council (ERC) [322206]; Formas

    Available from: 2016-09-30 Created: 2016-09-30 Last updated: 2020-01-21Bibliographically approved
    3. Sociality genes are associated with human-directed social behaviour in golden and Labrador retriever dogs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sociality genes are associated with human-directed social behaviour in golden and Labrador retriever dogs
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    2018 (English)In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 6, article id e5889Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dogs have human-directed social skills that allow them to communicate and cooperate with humans. We have previously identified two loci on chromosome 26 associated with human contact-seeking behaviors during an unsolvable problem task in laboratory beagles (Persson et A, 2016). The aim of the present study was to verify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in additional dog breeds. We also studied how the allele frequencies have changed during domestication and recent selection. Methods: Dogs of two breeds, 61 golden retrievers and 100 Labrador retrievers, were phenotyped and genotyped, and 19 wolves were genotyped. The Labrador retrievers were divided into common and field type by pedigree data to make it possible to study the effects of recent selection. All dogs were tested in an unsolvable problem task where human-directed social behaviors were scored. DNA from dogs (buccal swabs) and wolves (blood or brain tissue) was analyzed for genotype on two of the previously identified SNP markers, BICF2G630798942 (SNP1) and BICF2S23712114 (SNP2), by pyrosequencing. Results: There was genetic variation for SNP1 in both dog breeds whereas the wolves were fixed for this polymorphism, and for SNP2 there was variation in both dogs and wolves. For both SNPs, Labrador retriever types differed significantly in allele frequencies. We found associations between SNPs and human-directed social behavior in both dog breeds. In golden retrievers, SNP I was associated with physical contact variables, for example, with the duration of physical contact with the owner (F-2,F-56 = 4.389, p = 0.017). SNP2 was associated with several behavioral variables in both breeds, among others owner gazing frequency in both golden retrievers (F-2,F-55 = 6.330, p = 0.003) and Labradors (F-1,F-93 = 5.209, p = 0.025). Discussion: Our results verify the association between the previously identified SNPs and human-directed social behavior scored in an unsolvable problem task. Differences in allele frequencies suggest that these loci have been affected by selection. The results indicate that these genomic regions are involved in human-directed social behavior in not only beagles but in other dog breeds as well. We hypothesize that they may have been important during dog domestication.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    PEERJ INC, 2018
    Keywords
    Genetics; Dog genetics; Dog behavior; Human-dog communication; Human-directed social behavior; Golden retrievers; Labrador retrievers; Wolf; Domestication; Behavior genetics
    National Category
    Evolutionary Biology
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153536 (URN)10.7717/peerj.5889 (DOI)000452327000008 ()30416887 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Research Council (ERC) [322206]

    Available from: 2018-12-20 Created: 2018-12-20 Last updated: 2020-01-21
    4. Intranasal oxytocin and a polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene are associated with human-directed social behavior in golden retriever dogs
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intranasal oxytocin and a polymorphism in the oxytocin receptor gene are associated with human-directed social behavior in golden retriever dogs
    Show others...
    2017 (English)In: Hormones and Behavior, ISSN 0018-506X, E-ISSN 1095-6867, Vol. 95, p. 85-93Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The oxytocin system may play an important role in dog domestication from the wolf. Dogs have evolved unique human analogue social skills enabling them to communicate and cooperate efficiently with people. Genomic differences in the region surrounding the oxytocin receptor (OXTR) gene have previously been associated with variation in doge communicative skills. Here we have utilized the unsolvable problem paradigm to investigate the effects of oxytocin and OXTR polymorphisms on human-directed contact seeking behavior in 60 golden retriever dogs. Human-oriented behavior was quantified employing a previously defined unsolvable problem paradigm. Behaviors were tested twice in a repeated, counterbalanced design, where dogs received a nasal dose of either oxytocin or saline 45 min before each test occasion. Buccal DNA was analysed for genotype on three previously identified SNP-markers associated with OXTR. The same polymorphisms were also geno-typed in 21 wolf blood samples to explore potential genomic differences between the species. Results showed that oxytocin treatment decreased physical contact seeking with the experimenter and one of the three polymorphisms was associated with degree of physical contact seeking with the owner. Dogs with the AA-genotype at this locus increased owner physical contact seeking in response to oxytocin while the opposite effect was found in GG-genotype individuals. Hence, intranasal oxytocin treatment, an OXTR polymorphism and their interaction are associated with doge human-directed social skills, which can explain previously described breed differences in oxytocin response. Genotypic variation at the studied locus was also found in wolves indicating that it was present even at the start of dog domestication.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 2017
    Keywords
    Oxytocin; Oxytocin receptor gene; OXTR; Domestic dog; Canine; Wolf; Canis lupus; Behavior genetics; Canine behavior; Social behavior
    National Category
    Other Biological Topics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142438 (URN)10.1016/j.yhbeh.2017.07.016 (DOI)000412863500010 ()28765081 (PubMedID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|European Research Council (ERC) [322206]

    Available from: 2017-10-31 Created: 2017-10-31 Last updated: 2020-01-21