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  • Weisner, Angelica
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    Does Asellus aquaticus change its pigmentation when given different types of food?2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When an animal’s pigmentation matches the background across various types of environments, it is potentially an example of cryptic pigmentation, most likely as a response to natural selection by visually oriented predators. One example of cryptic pigmentation is phenotypic plasticity, meaning that an organism can exhibit different phenotypes in different environments. The freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticusliving in stands of reeds tends to have darker pigmentation than individuals living amongst lighter-coloured stoneworts, which has been suggested to result from visual predation. A recent study showed, however, that pigmentation in A. aquaticus is partly plastic, influenced by the nutritional composition in their diet. Here, I performed a laboratory experiment on A. aquaticusto see if the nutritional composition in stoneworts decreases pigmentation. Isopods were provided with a diet of either decaying leaves or stoneworts. The experiment took place over four weeks and pigmentation and growth were analysed at 0, 15 and 31 days. I found that pigmentation in A. aquaticusincreased significantly on both diets. And, there was no difference between both diets in amount of change in pigmentation. The fact that isopods that were feeding on stoneworts did not become lighter to match their background colour preferably depend on a high nutritional composition in the provided food, considering they also more than doubled their weight. In other words, phenotypic plasticity due to different diets between habitats is not the explanation to lighter coloured isopods living amongst stoneworts. However, these results do not exclude that differences can arise over a longer time or differs between different species of stoneworts. 

  • Markström, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Persson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Medarbetarundersökning som styrmedel: En kvalitativ studie om hur resultatet från en medarbetarundersökning kopplas samman med övriga styrmedel2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the report is to investigate how the results from employee survey is linked to other management control instruments in an organization. This was investigated through two research questions that concerned how this link looks and what factors may affect its priority. The report has used an inductive approach where a qualitative analysis was used to get an in-depth picture of the leaders’ perspective in the field.

    The result shows that an employee survey is one of the most important management control instruments in the organization. The results of the survey are linked to other instruments through an organizational balance where the most important instruments, including the employee survey, are interdependent. The aim of conducting the employee survey for the studied company is thus to get prosperous and productive employees, thus making the company achieve its goals. Factors that influence the prioritization of the survey are mainly how the follow-up work is done and the interval in which the surveys are performed. The departmental situation also affects how a leader chooses to prioritize the employee survey as a management control instrument.

  • Janselius, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Viktor
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Incitamentssystem, vägen att gå för nå motiverade medarbetare?: En flerfallsstudie om hur incitamentssystem som styrmedel upplevs av medarbetare med avseende på motivation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to motivate employees has always been an important question in all kind of companies. One way the create motivation among the employees is to use incentive systems, both monetary and non-monetary. There are no clear answers in previous theories what kind of incentive system that perceives as the most effective in terms of motivated employees. For example, some research has shown that monetary incentives such as bonus is an effective way to motivate employees in the short term, while others disagree. Accordingly, the purpose of the study is to describe and analyze how employees perceive current incentive systems in terms of motivation. To fulfill this purpose, we have done a qualitative multiple case study in two specific companies. The empirical material has been collected by interviews. The research question in the thesis is as follows:

    • How are incentive systems perceived by employees in different line of businesses in terms of motivation?

    The empirical results show that non-monetary incentives have a significant impact on employees' motivation in both case studies. Furthermore, the monetary incentives perceived important as well in both case studies, but the empirical result indicated that monetary incentives didn’t follow the same consistent thread as it did in the non-monetary incentives: one of the case study perceived the monetary incentives as more important in terms of motivation than the other. 

  • Cullberg, Adrian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Olsson, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Borta låg men hemma lägst: Importprisernas roll för inflationen i Sverige2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trots minusränta, kvantitativa lättnader och positiv BNP-tillväxt är inflationen i Sverige 2012 till 2016 närmast obefintlig. Liknande mönster visar sig i stora delar av världen där inflationen under återhämtningen efter den globala finanskrisen 2008 inte beter sig som förväntat. En anledning till den låga inflationen anses bland annat vara att ökad import från låglöneländer, med betydligt lägre prisnivåer än Sveriges, håller tillbaka den svenska inflationen. På global nivå visar forskning att inflationsdynamiken ändras efter den globala finanskrisen och att inflationens känslighet för olika förklaringsvariabler, inklusive importpriserna, ändrar sig. I vissa studier uppvisar importpriserna till och med ett negativt samband med inflationen efter finanskrisen. Syftet med uppsatsen är därför att undersöka hur importpriserna påverkar inflationen och om importprisernas effekt på inflationen ändras efter finanskrisen.

    För att utreda huruvida importpriser faktiskt påverkar inflationen och i vilken grad detta sker ställer vi med hjälp av månadsdata över förväntad inflation och arbetslöshetsgap upp en modell baserad på Phillipssambandet som vi utökar med importpriser. Vi kommer fram till att importpriserna har en effekt på inflationen och att sambandet är positivt under hela mätperioden. Våra resultat visar att importpriserna är en viktig del av inflationen; under perioden 2017 till 2018 består inflationen till en tredjedel av ökningen i importpriserna. För att undersöka om sambandet förändras i återhämtningsfasen efter finanskrisen introduceras en indikatorvariabel för finanskrisen och en för år 2012 och framåt. Trots tidigare studier som visar på en förändrad effekt av importpriserna efter den globala finanskrisen så finner vi ingen förändring av effekten i och med, eller efter, finanskrisen.

  • Friberg, Marc
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Examining the Effects of Stress on Tourniquet Application in a Layperson and Professional Civilian Population2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every year, approximately 3000 people die as the result of physical trauma in Sweden (Gedeborg, Chen, Thiblin, & Byberg, 2012). Many of these deaths occurs outside of the hospital and are preventable, including some caused by hemorrhage. One hemorrhage control device is the tourniquet which can be used in a civilian pre-hospital setting. The effects of stress on a laypersons tourniquet application ability is unknown and to date only one study have examined the effects of stress on tourniquet application in a military population (Schreckengaust, Littlejohn, & Zarow, 2014). The purpose of this study was to investigate how the performance of two first aid interventions, tourniquet application and cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), is affected by stress in immediate (layperson) and first (professional) responders. A total of 55 participants followed a brief educational program about hemorrhage control. Their ability to apply a tourniquet and perform CPR was tested in a calm classroom scenario and a stressful scenario, which consisted of paintball fire and an obstacle course. Stress was assessed through subjective reports of stress, physiological heart rate and heart rate variability measurements, and subjective workload and with a secondary task. The results showed differences of elicited stress reaction between the conditions and groups. Tourniquet and CPR performance was moderately affected by stress. Participants across all groups experienced more stress reactions during the stressful scenario, and laypersons did experience more stress reactions than professional first responders. In conclusion, the method did make participants experience more stress reactions in terms of psychological, physiological and performance adaptations in the stressful scenario. However, the results need to be replicated and a list of suggested improvements are given, such as: examining the fidelity of the scenarios, validating the tourniquet application assessment method, and examining the relationship between tourniquet application performance and self-assessed performance.

  • Mrad, Mona
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Transfer Printing and Cellulose Based substrates for modern Textile Printing2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Digital printing technology is a technique that has been growing since the 1990s and has a high growth potential when it comes to using different ink types and transfer printing techniques. In comparison to screen printing, digital transfer printing techniques have shown to consume less ink and water and are therefore considered to be a more environmentally friendly alternative for textile printing. Therefore, a digital printing technique called sublimation transfer printing was studied in this thesis. In a sublimation transfer printing process, an image is printed on a paper and then the image is transferred to a textile by using heat and pressure. Suitable coating of the paper surface has shown to improve the printing properties on the paper and therefore the paper samples used in the thesis were coated with three different coating formulas. The coating formulas used in this thesis were polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) of a type A, PVOH A with ground calcium carbonate (GCC) and PVOH type B with GCC. PVOH A has a higher degree of hydrolysis than PVOH B. Results showed that there was no significant difference between optical densities between textiles and paper samples of different coat weights and coating formulas. The colour bleeding and colour penetration decreased in the printed paper samples for PVOH A + GCC and PVOH B + GCC when the coat weight increased, and the porosity of the coating decreased to some extent. As a conclusion, paper samples coated with PVOH A + GCC with coat weights above 15 g/m2 showed to give the best properties since the colour bleeding was minimal in those printed coated paper samples.

  • Carlén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Nylander, Eva
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Åström Aneq, Meriam
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping.
    Gustafsson, Mikael
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Cardiology in Linköping.
    ST/HR variables in firefighter exercise ECG - relation to ischemic heart disease2019In: Physiological Reports, E-ISSN 2051-817X, Vol. 7, no 2, article id e13968Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Exercise electrocardiography (ExECG) is regularly performed by Swedish firefighters by law. Heart rate-corrected analysis of ST segment variables (ST/HR) has shown improved prediction of ischemic heart disease (IHD) compared to ST depression alone. This has not previously been extensively studied in asymptomatic persons with a low probability of IHD. We therefore evaluated the predictive performance of ST/HR analysis in firefighter ExECG. ExECG was studied in 521 male firefighters. During 8.4 ± 2.1 years, 2.3% (n = 12) were verified with IHD by catheterization or myocardial scintigraphy (age 51.5 ± 5.5 years) and were compared with firefighters without imaging proof of IHD (44.2 ± 10.1 years). The predictive value of ST depression, ST/HR index, ST/HR slope, and area and rotation of the ST/HR loop was calculated as age-adjusted odds ratios (OR), in 10 ECG leads. Predictive accuracy was analyzed with receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis. ST/HR index ≤-1.6 μV/bpm and ST/HR slope ≤-2.4 μV/bpm were associated with increased IHD risk in three individual leads (all OR > 1.0, P < 0.05). ST/HR loop area lower than the fifth percentile of non-IHD subjects indicated IHD risk in V4, V5, aVF, II, and -aVR (P < 0.05). ST depression ≤-0.1 mV was associated with IHD only in V4 (OR, 9.6, CI, 2.3-40.0). ROC analysis of each of these variables yielded areas under the curve of 0.72 or lower for all variables and leads. Clockwise-rotated ST/HR loops was associated with increased risk in most leads compared to counterclockwise rotation. The limited clinical value of ExECG in low-risk populations was emphasized, but if performed, ST/HR analysis should probably be given more importance.

  • Högberg Mårder, Thérèse
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering.
    Modelling breast cancer pathology reports using SNOMED CT and openEHR2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With a longer-living population and an increase in cancer incidence the health care’s workload has increased over the past decade. The treatment process of a cancer patient is dependant on clinical information collected and communicated from the pathology department. With a standardised and structured pathology report the information communicated can become easier to interpret and will fa- cilitate the search for important parameters.

    This master thesis aims to develop a template prototype to replace four static free-text templates used in the area of breast cancer pathology at the pathology department at Region Östergötland. The end product was intends to store docu- mented information in a structured manner through structured data, in order to obtain semantic interoperability.

    Semantic interoperability means that different systems are able to communicate with each other in such a way that the information is handled and interpreted equally by the systems. By using certain standards such as openEHR archetypes and SNOMED CT concepts, the data becomes uniform and unambiguous. When that is achieved, information can be sent more easily between systems such as patient health data if an individual moves between different cities where the hos- pitals have different medical records systems.

    The result of the master thesis is a single template that incorporates all the parts from the four static templates currently used at Region Östergötland. To avoid a large and cumbersome template for the end-user the template is built with con- ditions that changed the appearance of the template while it is being filled in, making it dynamic.

  • Mo Eriksson, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Dunström, Hampus
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Measuring Architectural Degeneration: In Systems Written in the Interpreted Dynamically Typed Multi-Paradigm Language Python2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Architectural degeneration is an ever-present threat to software systems with no exception based on the domain or tools used. This thesis focus on the architectural degeneration in systems written in multi-paradigm run-time evaluated languages like Python. The focus on Python in this kind of investigation is to our knowledge the first of its kind; thus the thesis investigates if the methods for measuring architectural degeneration also applies to run-time evaluated languages like Python as believed by other researchers. Whom in contrast to our research have only researched this phenomenon in systems written in compiled languages such as Java, C, C++ and C#. In our research a tool PySmell has been developed to recover architectures and identify the presence of architectural smells in a system. PySmell has been used and evaluated on three different projects Django, Flask and PySmell itself. The results of PySmell are promising and of great interest but in need of further investigating and fine-tuning to reach the same level as the architectural recovery tools available for compiled languages. The thesis presents the first step into this new area of detecting architectural degeneration in interpreted languages, revealing issues such as that of extracting dependencies and how that may affect the architectural smell detection.

  • Tandberg, Tandberg
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Magnusson, Elliot
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Dahlin, Gustav
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Johansson, Isabelle
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Papalelas Kantola, Philip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Hansson, Wilhelm
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Köhler, William
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Navigerbar e-handel för äldre2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    An estimated 46% of the Swedish population above the age of 75 never uses Internet, and one of the main reasons is experienced complicated and hard to understand technology [1]. The purpose of this study was to investigate how an e-commerce website can be developed which is percieved as navigable by elderly users. Theory and guidelines about usability were used to guide the creation of enkelhandel.se, which improved its usability through-out the study with the help of iterative testing on elderly users. Metrics used to measure usability included time to complete a specific onsite task and satisfaction with the shopping experience. Experienced usability was measured with qualitative response from test users and the time taken for test users to complete given tasks. The results of this study suggest that by changing factors of the user experience, the perceived usability with focus on navigability of an e-commerce could be improved for elderly users. The biggest changes included the use of a linear navigational structure in place of the traditional hierarchical structure and removal of the scroll function in favor of a vertical swipe function.

  • Alkhalil, Mohamad
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Effect of eWOM on consumers purchasing decision making process2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People in the past were trying to get information through libraries, magazines or marketing agencies that were created specifically to attract consumers. In the age of the Internet people have been able to communicate with each other around the world after it was one-way communication in the pre-Internet age. Two-way communication has led to the creation of a product purchase website that encourages people to share and publish their views. Today, people looking for the best and most satisfying purchase option that makes multiple alternatives available. Online reviews can increase or decrease the life of these alternatives in the decision-making process. Due to the importance of online reviews in a person's decision, this study aims to investigate and evaluate how and whether online reviews affect the person's decision-making process. The problem is mainly about people's opinion of online reviews, and why they use them, the impact of the electronic word of mouth versus the word of mouth, to what extent online reviews are used to make potential decisions for consumers. In order to obtain the results of the study, focus group were conducted with four of semi-structured interviews.  In order to obtain the results of the study, interviews were conducted with the focus group as well as a number of semi-structured interviews. The results showed the dominance of online reviews of a person's decision. Study participants believe that it is good to rely on online reviews to obtain information, while at the same time believing that these reviews do not affect the final outcome but can affect the details of the product or service to be purchased.

  • Onkhaw, Yata
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Fedorova, Natalia
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering.
    Cross-cultural Comunication in International Organizations2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Problem: While the multinational teams consisting of members from different nationalities,backgrounds and cultures have advantages of diversity in the workplace, the differencesbetween team members can also pose the challenges. Our study focuses on InformationTechnology (IT) project teams in organizations located in Sweden. The rapid growth oftechnology and IT sector, increasing demand in IT professionals, and the knowledge ofwriting universal code allow people to work internationally regardless of citizenship.Therefore, the workforce in the IT sector is rapidly growing and diversifying — it ischaracterized by teams consisting of different nationalities. However, these differences incultures, languages and nationalities can complicate the communication processes betweenthe team members. Therefore, efficient cross-cultural communication within a team isessential for team collaboration and performance.

    Purpose: The study aims to find the significant issues in the process of adaptation to the newculturally diverse environment faced by immigrant professionals in IT project teams. Thestudy mainly focuses on an individual level, consequently expanding it to a collective level,as the related challenges refer to collaboration among the team members.

    Method: The study was conducted by interviewing immigrant professionals who have beenworking in IT project teams in the companies, located in Sweden. The participants belong tosix different nationalities and have worked in Sweden for approximately 2-8 years. They areall male aged between 30-33 years old. After the interviews, we can present findings, whichdemonstrate the points of similarity and difference.

    Conclusion: Technology, which is a significant factor in IT projects, constantly changes, andtherefore, IT project teams that work with innovation require high adaptability to explore newopportunities. That makes effective coordination and communication essential. In theculturally diverse team, managers should manage global mindset and cultural intelligence forindividuals to help team members in adaptation process. Cross-cultural training should beprovided to the migrant professionals in the team to avoid miscommunication based oncultural differences, hence overcoming challenges.

  • Björk, Kim
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Engdahl, Amanda
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    På vilka sätt kan lärare hjälpa elever i matematiksvårigheter?: En litteraturstudie2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are opportunities for students in mathematical difficulties to reach the school’s requirements in mathematics if theyreceive help in form of effective interventions. Therefore, it is of intrest to investigate which teaching methods areinlcluded in effective interventions.The questions for this literature study are:• In what ways can teachers support students in mathematical difficulties?o What teaching methods have shown to be beneficial for students in mathematical difficulties?o What forms of representation do teachers use to support students in mathematical difficulties?• How does teaching methods and reprepresentations influence the mathematical abilities of students?The result shows that effective inteventions include verbal and written instructions (using visual support), computersupport, laboratory teaching and self-assessment, as well as various combinations of the mentioned interventions. Theeffectiveness of an intervention is measured by means of effect size. All articles included in this literature study have inmeta-analyzes been considered to have a large effect size.

  • Wahlgren, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Kraft, Billy
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Energy Systems.
    Kategorisering och energikartläggning av flerbostadshus byggda 1945 eller tidigare: En analys av energieffektiviseringspotentialen hos historiska byggnader i Vasastaden, Linköping2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    With the increased energy usage and its affect on the environment the European Union (EU) has issued climate and environment goals which will oversee countries energy saving potential. These goals focus on several areas including the energy usage within buildings. The purpose of this thesis is to categorize and analyze the energy saving potential for buildings constructed 1945 or earlier. The building stock in focus consists of 73 apartment buildings in Vasastaden, Linköping. The buildings were all chosen with Boverket’s database within building characteristics GRIPEN. The method consisted of stocktaking via location visits, categorizing and performing simulations on the buildings. The fictive buildings were based on the categorized building stock. They were modelled and simulated with the help of IDA Indoor Climate and Energy (IDA ICE). With the results of the energy usage a greater understanding of energy saving potential was obtained.

    The result of the categorization displayed that typical buildings in Vasastaden are buildings out of brick, fully detached (no adjoining walls), specifically with 3 floors. The fictive buildings have an calculated energy usage of 102-144 kWh/m2,year and have an energy saving potential within ranges of 17-41% compared to the building regulations set by Boverket (BBR). The building stock obtained an calculated energy usage of 804-3 515 MWh/m2,year.

    GRIPEN displayed several inaccuracies compared with the collected data from the location visits which proves that more frequent updates in databases such as GRIPEN are of high significance.

  • Lewenhaupt, Hugo
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Optimizing the Number of Time-steps Used in Option Pricing2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Calculating the price of an option commonly uses numerical methods and can becomputationally heavy. In general, longer computations result in a more precisresult. As such, improving existing models or creating new models have been thefocus in the research field. More recently the focus has instead shifted towardcreating neural networks that can predict the price of a given option directly.This thesis instead studied how the number of time-steps parameter can beoptimized, with regard to precision of the resulting price, and then predict theoptimal number of time-steps for other options. The number of time-stepsparameter determines the computation time of one of the most common models inoption pricing, the Cox-Ross-Rubinstein model (CRR). Two different methodsfor determining the optimal number of time-steps were created and tested. Bothmodels use neural networks to learn the relationship between the input variablesand the output. The first method tried to predict the optimal number oftime-steps directly. The other method instead tried to predict the parameters ofan envelope around the oscillations of the option pricing method. It wasdiscovered that the second method improved the performance of the neuralnetworks tasked with predicting the optimal number of time-steps. It was furtherdiscovered that even though the best neural network that was found significantlyoutperformed the benchmark method, there was no significant difference incalculation times, most likely because the range of log moneyness and pricesthat were used. It was also noted that the neural network tended tounderestimate the parameter and that might not be a desirable property of asystem in charge of estimating a price in the financial sector.

  • Sten, Sofie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Commercial and Business Law.
    Rättsliga aspekter av arbetstagarens privata elanvändning på arbetsplatsen: Mot bakgrund av ett ökat antal elfordon2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den tekniska utvecklingen har gjort oss alltmer beroende av tillgången på el, inte minst när vi väljer att färdas med elbil eller elcykel. El kan med hänsyn till sina säregna egenskaper inte utan vidare kategoriseras som fast eller lös egendom. Mycket talar för att ett funktionalistiskt synsätt som ger vid handen att el, mer precist själva rätten att använda el, är lös egendom. Oavsett egendomsklassificeringen kostar elanvändning pengar. Den arbetstagare som använder sin arbetsgivares el för att ladda ett elfordon åsamkar således arbetsgivaren en kostnad.

    I relation till arbetsgivaren är arbetstagaren skyldig att vara lojal, vilket följer av den okodifierade men väl etablerade principen om lojalitetsplikt. Lojalitetsplikten innebär att arbetstagaren ska värna om arbetsgivarens namn, egendom och intressen och avhålla sig från sådant beteende som kan skada arbetsgivaren. I uppsatsen konstateras att det finns fler skäl som talar förän motatt det skulle utgöra ett lojalitetsbrott att ladda sitt elfordon på arbetsgivarens bekostnad. Den arbetstagare som begår ett lojalitetsbrott riskerar att bli uppsagd, avskedad eller skadeståndsskyldig. Respektive sanktion kräver iakttagande av ett antal faktorer och sannolikheten att bli uppsagd eller avskedad på grund av att ha laddat sitt elfordon på jobbet är mycket låg, förutsatt att arbetsgivaren inte har reglerat frågan explicit. Sannolikheten att råka ut för sanktioner har visat sig vara låg även i Tyskland. Enligt tysk arbetsrättspraxis är den tyska motsvarigheten till avsked, “außerordentlicher Kündigung”, en oproportionerlig sanktion när arbetstagaren har laddat sitt elfordon på arbetsplatsen. I övrigt framkommer inga avsevärda skillnader mellan svensk och tysk rätt vad gäller arbetstagarens skyldigheter gentemot sin arbetsgivare och arbetsgivarens sanktionsmöjligheter. Möjligtvis anas ett strängare synsätt i tysk rätt med avseende på “min och din” egendom. I Tyskland är det nämligen ett brott att använda någon annans eluttag med uppsåt att tillägna sig el.

    Om det uppstår en sak-eller personskada till följd av att arbetstagaren laddar ett elfordon på arbetsplatsen kommer sannolikt arbetsgivaren att få betala för skadan. Detta följer av det s.k. kallade principalansvaret, vilket förutsätter att laddningen kanan ses ha skett i tjänsten. Mot bakgrund av förarbetsuttalanden samt vad arbetsgivaren erfarenhetsmässigt har att förutse anses så vara fallet. Som arbetsgivare är det möjligt att genom proaktiva åtgärder hantera många men inte alla risker som är förenade med att ha arbetstagare i sin tjänst. I uppsatsen framkommer att arbetsgivarens möjlighet att hantera de kostnader och skaderisker som arbetstagarens privata elanvänding är förenat med består i att utfärda ensidiga arbetsgivarregleringar i form av policies. Den arbetsgivare som vill specifikt reglera kostnaden har möjlighet att göra ett schablonmässigt avdrag på arbetstagarens lön.

  • Lundgren Lodetti, Mathilda
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Log-diversity and abundance of dead wood dependent bracket fungi and bryophytes, a comparison between spruce woodland key habitats and adjacent production forests in Östergötland, Sweden.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Dead wood in forests are essential habitat for a wide range of fungal, insects, lichens and bryophyte species. The main threat to dead wood dependent species is lack of substrate, which aggravates their ability to reach and colonize a new substrate. Inventories of woodland key habitats (WKHs) is a method to map forests with high biological value in Sweden, and these areas may benefit dead wood dependent species. The aim of this study was to compare spruce dominated WKHs with adjacent production spruce forests (APFs), regarding (1) log diversity, (2) log characteristics and (3) abundance of selected species on logs. The study was conducted in Östergötland County in Sweden, seven spruce WKHs (≥ 60% spruce) and seven APFs of three different types (two clear-cuts, two dominated by trees < 20 cm and three dominated by trees > 20 cm) were investigated. Data of eight wood dependent species (three bryophytes and five bracket fungi), log diversity, six log characteristics and two environmental factors were collected. In a total area of 4.27 ha, 210 logs (105 logs in WKH and APF each) were studied and the results show that there were significantly higher amount of coarse logs, distribution area of species, number of logs/ha, diameter, decay class and humidity inside WKHs compared with APFs. The total distribution area of species was approximately 85% larger in WKHs. Bark cover was slightly less in WKHs and sun exposure was significantly higher and humidity was lower in clear-cuts. According to the current study, WKHs are important for conservation of wood depending species due to the higher amount and diversity of coarse dead wood. Furthermore, it is necessary to put aside larger amount of coarse dead wood inside production forests, together with changed logging techniques to increase the suitable substrate for dead wood dependent species.

  • Lindqvist, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Weurlander, Maria
    Department of Learning in Engineering Sciences, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden; CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wernerson, Annika
    CLINTEC, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Boundaries as a coping strategy: emotional labour and relationship maintenance in distressing teacher education situations2019In: European Journal of Teacher Education, ISSN 0261-9768, E-ISSN 1469-5928Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ABSTRACTStudent teachers have to cope with distressing emotions during teacher education. Coping is important in relation to both attrition and bridging the gap between being a student teacher and starting work. The data consist of semi-structured interviews with 25 student teachers, which were analysed using a constructivist grounded theory framework. The aim of the current study was to examine student teachers? perspectives on distressing situations during teacher education, as well as how boundaries were established as a way of coping with emotions related to these situations. The findings show that the student teachers? main concern was to make sense of the imbalance between resources and the demands placed by distressing situations. As a coping strategy, student teachers established professional boundaries linked to emotional labour and relationship maintenance.

  • Syssner, Josefina
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Centre for Municipality Studies – CKS. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Varför längtar vi till skogen?2018Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    VARFÖR LÄNGTAR VI TILL SKOGEN? är en bildsvit och en samling röster om skogen. Här förenas längtan efter fjällskogar, myrmarker och nordisk blandskog med längtan efter lugn och stillhet, samhörighet och frihet, rörelseglädje, adrenalin och arbetsvilja. I boken ger jägare, skogsbrukare, orienterare, naturguider och andra med skogen i hjärtat sina personliga perspektiv på just skog. Josefina Syssner fångar skogens mångfald och föränderlighet i enkla och stundtals naivistiska teckningar i blyerts och tusch.

    JOSEFINA SYSSNER är forskare och författare. Hon har gett ut tre monografier, varit redaktör för sex antologier och publicerat en lång rad vetenskapliga artiklar och rapporter. Syssner har varit forskningsledare i flera stora forskningsprojekt och är en flitigt anlitad föreläsare. Hennes forskning handlar framförallt om lokal utveckling, politik och planering och om landsbygdens framtid. I den här boken publicerar hon för första gången ut en del av sin omfattande bildproduktion - en bildsvit om skogen i blyerts och tusch.

  • Persson Proos, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Enabling Digital Twins: A comparative study on messaging protocols and serialization formats for Digital Twins in IoV2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis, the trade-offs between latency and transmitted data volume in vehicle-to-cloud communication for different choices of application layer messaging protocols and binary serialization formats are studied. This is done with the purpose of getting enough performance improvement to enable delay-sensitive Intelligent Transport System (ITS) features, and to reduce data usage in mobile networks. The studied protocols are Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP), Advanced Message Queuing Protocol (AMQP) and Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT), and the serialization formats studied are Protobuf and Flatbuffers.  The results show that CoAP — the only User Datagram Protocol (UDP) based protocol — has the lowest latency and overhead while not being able to guarantee reliable transfer. The best performer that can guarantee reliable transfer is MQTT. For the serialization formats, Protobuf is shown to have three times smaller serialized message size than Flatbuffers and also faster serialization speed. Flatbuffers is the winner in the case of memory use and deserialization time, which could make up for the poor performance in other aspects of data processing in the cloud. Further, the implications of these results in ITS communication are discussed suggestions made into future research topics.

  • Lind, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    En kvalitativ explorativ studie för framtagande av lämplig funktionalitet hos internettjänster för behandling av social ångest2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En tanke som ligger till grund för denna studie är de svårigheter som en person med social ångest kan ha inför att söka hjälp hos en kurator eller terapeut, detta då hjälpsökandet i sig kan innebära en stor social utmaning. Ett potentiellt sätt att närma sig en lösning till detta är användandet av olika former av digitala hjälpmedel, som kan tillgås av vem som helst som har tillgång till mobil eller dator, som kan agera som ett underlättande steg till att exempelvis bättre förstå sina problem och söka och hitta hjälp via internet. Denna kvalitativa studie ämnar utforska behov, erfarenheter och åsikter kring behandling av social ångest i koppling till internetanvändning utifrån perspektivet hos dem som upplever social ångest, genom tematisk analys av enkätsvar. Således uppfylls syftet bakom studien som är att lägga en grund för hur internettjänster kan utformas på lämpligt sätt för att möjliggöra och underlätta behandling för personer med social ångest/fobi. Det studien ämnar besvara är; vilka tjänster och funktioner på internet för behandling av social ångest är behövda och efterfrågade och vilka problem och frågeställningar behöver i sin tur lösas och besvaras för att dessa tjänster och funktioner ska göras tillgängliga? Den slutliga tematiska analysen visar sammanfattningsvis att det bland personer med sociala svårigheter kan finnas ett behov och efterfrågan gällande möjligheter till förbättrad digital vårdkontakt, att man som person med sociala svårigheter överlag har en positiv inställning till olika former av chatt och samtal i behandlings- och stödsyfte via internet och att olika former av individanpassningar av internetförmedlade behandlingar efter en individs unika behov och mål kan vara ett lämpligt sätt att hitta rätt behandling. Vidare uppstår nya spår för framtida forskning och utredningar som kan vara intressanta utifrån studiens resultat; att pröva olika varianter och mäta effekt av individanpassad vård förmedlad via internet, utreda hur man kan skapa förbättrad (säker) digital vårdkontakt samt utreda hur innovativa effektiva behandlingslösningar bättre kan nå ut till den som efterfrågar den.

  • Castillo Ellström, Oskar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    Andersson, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Machine Design.
    A Guideline for Conducting Form Analysis of Branded Products: The Development of a Design Guideline Framework for Product-Producing Companies in a Brand Management Context2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis presents the research and development of a framework for creating design guidelines, aimed towards product-producing companies as a part of a brand extension strategy. The thesis answers two research questions:

    RQ1: What strategies could be used to analyze visual form and product design as a part of a brand extension strategy for a product-producing company?

    RQ2: How can an existing visual brand identity be utilized during the product development process and redefined for new product categories?

    The thesis is divided into a literature review and a case application of the presented theories on a real-world product development process. The literature review includes three central frameworks. Firstly, a theoretical framework including theories regarding brand management, product design and form, design syntactics and product architecture is introduced. The theoretical framework also includes product modularity which is specifically included for the case application. These theories are used to create a form analysis framework, which is the second element of the literature review. The third element of the literature review is a framework for how to create design guidelines, based on explicit and implicit design features. The design guideline framework is built from insights and theories found in literature used throughout the literature review.

    The case application focuses on the development of a new concept and design guidelines for a modular Autonomous Mobile Robot (AMR) for a case company. The case application utilizes the created theoretical frameworks for a real-world product development process. The created concept envisions the visual brand language of the case company, while also serving as the foundation for the design guideline development.

    The form analysis framework is used to understand product design and form on already existing products within a product category. A total of six analyses are introduced, all with their own respective focus on different fields of study and area of application. The form analysis framework investigates three areas of application: Internal and external factors as well as the existing product family of a company. Applying the form analysis framework to the case show that these methods are suitable for analyzing the visual form of products.

    By examining the internal factors of the case company, such as analyzing existing products and prior design guidelines, a format for key design principles can be created. Based on these design principles and insights from the form analysis, the visual brand identity can be transferred to a new product category and described through redefined design guidelines. Findings show that certain design features, such as color and usage of logotype, are the most suitable for acting as identity carriers. Utilizing these can bring cohesiveness to a product portfolio. It can be concluded that the use of explicit and implicit design features is a viable way to holistically describe and articulate product design.

  • Ihs Håkansson, Ellinor
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Hur kan en chatbot implementeras som ett hjälpmedel för supporttekniker?: En förstudie för att undersöka möjligheten att implementera en chatbot i en industriell verksamhet.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med det projekt som beskriv i denna uppsats är att undersökta möjligheterna med att implementera en chatbot i Siemens verksamhet. Fokuset för chatboten skulle vara att den på något sätt skulle implementeras som ett hjälpmedel för supportteknikerna på Siemens. Supportteknikerna arbetar dygnet runt med kundärenden som kommer in rörande deras maskiner. Därmed behöver supportteknikerna ibland hitta dokumentation och information kring dessa maskiner för att kunna ge rekommendationer till kund om hur det eventuella problemet ska lösas. I denna studie gjordes en litteraturundersökning kring chatbotar i allmänhet, tekniken kring chatbotar idag och hur en chatbot bör designas. Dessutom genomfördes en datainsamling i form av kontextuella intervjuer som sedan strukturerades till ett affinitetsdiagram. Detta affinitetsdiagram var i sin tur grunden för den persona och det kontextscenario som skapades. Affinitetsdiagrammet och de kontextuella intervjuerna beskrivs i mer detalj i arbetet skrivet av Linn Olsson (2019). Utifrån personan, kontextscenariot, affinitetsdiagrammet samt bakgrundslitteraturen skapades en uppsättning krav. Dessa var krav kring hur chatboten skulle se ut och fungera. Det som eftersöktes mest var något som kopplade samman alla system de använde sig av för att hitta information kring de olika maskinerna, samt en enklare sökfunktion för att hitta specifik dokumentation kring ett visst taggnamn. Kraven blev sedan poängsatta och prioriterade av supporttekniker på Siemens. De prioriterade kraven var utgångspunkten i designandet av en prototyp av en chatbot. Detta implementerades sedan i en interaktiv prototyp. Den prototyp som skapades är ett första utkast på hur en chatbot skulle kunna se ut för just uppgiften att hitta specifik information. Denna uppgift var som tidigare nämnts något de uttryckte sig vara i störst behov av. Detta förslag på användningsområde för en chatbot i Siemens system hade troligtvis underlättat supportteknikernas arbete i ganska stor grad. Det minskar tiden de lägger på att försöka hitta informationen så att de snabbare kan lösa kundärenden. Det här visar på att det finns möjligheter att implementera en chatbot i deras system. Dock krävs ytterligare undersökningar kring exakt vad för information supportteknikerna vill åt, samt hur det ska möjliggöras att de kan få tag på denna information, för att kunna implementera en chatbot. Dessutom skulle de behöva undersöka fler uppgifter som denna chatbot skulle vara användningsbar för. Detta för att chatboten får ett större användningsområde och kan på så vis få en större avgränsning från att likna en begränsad sökmotor. På så vis skulle detta vara ytterligare argument för att en chatbot bör implementeras.

  • Johansson, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Sjöholm, Christoffer
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    User Preferences of Application Attributes During Product Browsing: An Investigation of Customer Experience in Fashion E-Commerce2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a fast-changing retail environment, including hard competition and demanding consumers, the customer experience of the purchasing service is crucial to gain a competitive advantage. Since consumers are to some extent moving from offline to online, and from desktop shopping to purchasing clothing in a mobile application, there is a need for investigating consumers expectations of their experience of a mobile application. The existing and performance of attributes and functions determines the satisfaction of the user experience, which is why it is reasonable to investigate expectations concerning attributes.

    The finding and classification of quality attributes in mobile applications in the fashion industry was the main goal of this thesis. Attributes were found using a qualitative study including 16 interviews, where respondents field tested already existing applications. The reasonability to further investigate these attributes was confirmed by a literature research. After finding 35 relevant attributes, these were investigated and analysed using the Theory of Attractive Quality and a 5-level Kano questionnaire.

    The analysis was conducted using the Theory of Attractive Quality, classifying attributes according to the Kano chart of evaluation. Further, each attribute was analysed using tools such as better/worse diagrams and self-stated importance values. The classification results from the questionnaire were that “Choose product size” was categorised as Must-Be, “Loading speed” as One-Dimensional, eight quality attributes were combinations of classifications, and 25 were classified as Indifferent. A number of 510 respondents answered the questionnaire.

    The classification of attributes implies that customers are rather indifferent to attributes during their shopping experience. However, further analysis concludes that even though many attributes are classified as Indifferent, many attributes need to be considered, according to the better/worse values and diagrams, which are useful regarding resource allocation.

    According to the classification and better/worse diagrams, one can distinguish a difference between genders: male respondents proved to be more indifferent to their shopping experience than females. Analysis of the data also shows a difference between age groups. The two youngest age groups including respondents born in 1990-1994 and 1995-2000, had higher better and worse values, implying that younger people expect more from their shopping user experience.

    Conclusively, this report resulted in an overview of consumers’ expectations regarding their experience when shopping in a fashion mobile application. The Theory of Attractive Quality is a useful method when measuring perceived and expected quality; however, each investigative occasion demands different method setup, adjusting for specific attribute types, as well as business. Some improvements can be made regarding the Theory of Attractive Quality, increasing the chances of a better result.

  • Eskilsson, Niklas
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Magnuson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management.
    Åtgärder för en effektivare intern materialförsörjning: Genomlysning av förbättringsområden för lager till slutmontering av gruvmaskiner med fördjupning inom frekvensläggning – en studie vid Epiroc Rock Drills AB2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Epiroc has had a long period of strong growth, where several efficiency projects have been implemented to increase production volume in order to meet market demand. A variant of Lean production has been implemented over several years – called The Way We Produce by Epiroc. A large part of that change has been the implementation of sequenced flow-oriented assembly with just-in-time sequenced material deliveries to the assembly floor. This, in turn, has increased the requirements for the warehouse Logistic Center (LC) and management has now begun to investigate ways to improve efficiency at LC. Hence, the aim of the study is to develop realistic improvement proposals for the logistics operations at Logistics Center of Epiroc Rock Drills AB at Örebro to increase efficiency and delivery reliability.

    The study has been conducted in two phases; the identification phase and the in-depth phase. During the identification phase, a mapping of the current situation in LC was carried out, where the basis for the survey is based on interviews, observations and analyzes. Through a root cause analysis, with the goal of finding sources of inefficiency, nine areas of improvement could be identified, one of which would be chosen for further investigation in the in-depth phase. The areas of improvement were evaluated with an effect-input matrix to choose the area of improvement that provides the greatest efficiency potential in relation to the expected effort. The analysis model for the effect-input matrix was the eight wastes of Lean based on Petersson et al. (2015), its expected impact on efficiency and the expected complexity of an implementation. The result of the root cause analysis gave article classification as the primary area of improvement, where the measure is an alternative slotting strategy to minimize the movement time between storage locations.

    During the in-depth phase, the current article classification and frequency setting were examined by synthesis of an alternative model for the classification of articles and storage locations based on an in-depth literature study. To investigate whether an alternative classification can increase efficiency, an evaluation model was developed that models the movement time from historical data from pick lists. It was used to test which combination of sizes for the article classes gave the smallest possible total movement time. A combination of 60/30/10% (A/B/C) gave the lowest total movement time for a picking history of 15 months with a reduction corresponding to 33% (1760 h) compared to the current situation. Furthermore, an alternative sorting of the pick lists for the vertical lift modules and pallet racking was examined with the evaluation model, which gave a reduction of 4% and 11% respectively. Finally, various forms for the zones were examined for the classification of storage locations in pallet rack W3, where the delivery site is located three-quarter way into the pallet rack. A center of gravity for the for the A-class placed between the entrance and the delivery point gave the best simulation result.

    In summary, the article classification improvement area was established with the greatest realizable efficiency potential with the least effort based on the root cause analysis. Epiroc is recommended to implement the classification model with three classes of size 60/30/10 % (A/B/C) of the accumulated number of picking rows, and to implement that alternative sorting of pick rows on picklists for pallet racking.

  • Bennet, Tobias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Bergmark, William
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Claesson, Susanna
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Holte, Erika
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Järvinen, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    Svenska hushålls fosforfotavtryck2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Phosphorus is a vital element that is currently being consumed in an unsustainable manner. The element is crucial to humanity's food supply systems. In this study, the amount of phosphorus required to meet an average Swedish household's annual consumption was calculated. The method for the report was based on a literature study along with calculations. The data collection was structured into five categories and 15 subcategories, each representing an influx of phosphorus to Swedish households. The study found that, based on these subcategories, the total phosphorus footprint for Swedish households' annual consumption is 16.36 kg. Food consumption accounts for the largest proportion of this footprint and amounts to 14.23 kg. Wool is the subcategory for which the highest concentration of phosphorus is consumed for each weight unit. Wool consumes about 0.43 kg of phosphorus for every kg of product. The report also examines and discusses various scenarios for how much phosphorus that could be saved if Swedish households were to follow a certain type of diet. Furthermore, a comparison was made between the phosphorus footprint of this report and other studies. The Swedish household's phosphorus footprint in this report is considerably higher than the corresponding phosphorus footprint in other studies. It is therefore important to consider the different definitions that the different studies use for their respective phosphorus footprint.

  • Jarnehammar, Linn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology.
    DNA sampling using different tissues from the butterfly species Vanessa cardui2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The fundamental challenge to prevent species from going extinct is difficult but of grave importance. Halting species from going extinct minimizes the loss of biodiversity. One way of researching biodiversity is by studying species on a genetic level. This creates a dilemma as studying species genetically often requires using destructive sampling and is not desirable or even allowed when studying threatened species. Thus, there is a necessity for alternate sampling methods. In this study both non-lethal and lethal methods were used to gather tissues from the butterfly species Vanessa cardui. The DNA extractions turned out to give varying amounts of DNA, but it was successfully extracted from all the different tissue types. Amplifiable DNA was successfully gained using PCR and confirmed using gel electrophoresis. Existing and newly designed primers for multi-copy genes were used and several of them gave amplifiable DNA. Even if amplifiable DNA has been obtained in other studies, using various tissues, it turned out to only work with a live butterfly’s body in this study.

  • Isaksson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    The impact of the antidepressant fluoxetine on personality traits in the isopod Asellus aquaticus2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pharmaceuticals that end up in our aquatic environment continue to increase. In recent years, serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRI) have increased in usage as it is considered safer than other substances to treat depression.  Fluoxetine (Prozac) is a widely used anti-depressant that commonly leak out after human use to aquatic environments. Although widely spread, the impact of fluoxetine on aquatic animals in is poorly investigated. The objective of this study was to see if fluoxetine impacts the behaviour of freshwater isopod Asellus aquaticus. Asellus aquaticus were exposed to an ecologically relevant concentration of fluoxetine for 28 days. Through a series of behavioural assays designed to measure the personality traits boldness, activity, exploration and escape behaviour, Asellus aquaticus responses were investigated. A. aquaticus can differ greatly in phenotype, from non-pigmentation to dark pigmentation. Further objective was therefore to investigate if pigmentation correlated with any of the measured behavioural responses, due to potential across-reaction between serotonergic and melatoneric systems. I found that fluoxetine reduced boldness, but had no effect on activity, exploration or escape behaviour. Furthermore, I observed no correlation between pigmentation and behaviour measured in fluoxetine exposed, or control animals. These results indicate that fluoxetine at low levels  affect boldness of wild A. aquaticus but no other personality traits explored. However, other research contradicts these results and show that fluoxetine can affect a range of behaviours. Taken together fluoxetine can have ecological impact on aquatic environments. Hence, our residual pharmaceuticals can have ranging effects.

  • Amanda, Jaber
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Evaluating the Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS)2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Team Resilience Assessment Method for Simulation (TRAMS) is an instrument that consist of several measurements, such as team-member exchange, workload, the TRAMS observation protocol etc. This thesis researches the observation protocol. The TRAMS protocol is an assessment method for resilience in simulation games. The aim of this protocol is to support the identification of resilience strategies used and developed by the participants in a simulation game. It is a challenge to assess resilience in teams and that is why the TRAMS protocol has been developed. The scenario of the simulation games is a disruption for 10 days in the card payment system. During the simulation games, the participants work in teams and have to try to cope with the disruption in the card payment system. During the course of this study, 14 simulation games have been conducted with seven different teams. Each of the simulation games has been executed during one whole day, and the participating teams have in total played two games each. During every simulation game there were three observers equipped with the TRAMS protocol. To interpret the data collected with the TRAMS protocol, two methods have been used: transcription and thematic analysis. As a result, guidelines and design changes was formed. In addition, results showed that the distribution and frequency of observations of resilience strategies made were similar, that the observations noted by the observers were similar, and lastly eight themes from the data collection could be extracted: Coordinate and collaborate, Payment options, Cash circulation, Safety, Fuel and transportation, Inform, communicate and the media, Hoarding and rationing, Vulnerable groups. In conclusion, the TRAMS protocol is still under development and 15 more simulation games are planned to be conducted within the ongoing CCRAAAFFTING project. However, the protocol has been applied in this study´s 14 simulation games so far, and the similarities in how the observers filled in the protocol and how similar the observations were, indicate that it hopefully can develop into a recognized research tool in the future. 

  • Karlsson, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Climate change beliefs and attitudes relationship to informational influences and demographic factors2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of the biggest challenges for the modern society is that of climate change. Despite the growing accumulation of scientific evidence that points towards a strong need for action to be made regarding anthropogenic (human made) climate change, there is a lack of unity in what actions are needed and an outspread passivity amongst both establishments and the public. The reason behind this is attributed to lack of belief in anthropogenic climate change, and lack of pro-environmental attitudes amongst the public. Furthermore, these issues have been found to relate to identity related beliefs and attitudes that conflict with pro-environmental beliefs and attitudes, where political orientation has proven to be a strong factor. One way of dealing with these issues could be through informational influences. By presenting people to information shaped in different ways, one could increase the belief in anthropogenic climate change and pro-environmental attitudes. This study examined the relationship between three different informational influences, and its potential effect on climate change beliefs and attitudes. Furthermore, this study examined the relationship between demographic factors such as age, gender and political orientation with regards to their potential effect on climate change beliefs and attitudes. 449 participants completed a survey with intent to measure the potential effects informational influences and demographic factors had on climate change beliefs and attitudes. Despite that indications where found, no significant results could be identified for the informational influences. All demographic factors had some significant effect on climate change beliefs or attitudes, where political orientation was the strongest influencing factor. This relates to earlier research and further implications were discussed for future studies.

  • Uddfors, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    Martinsson Åberg, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Production Economics.
    EMQ-modellen: En övergripande modell för att estimera illikviditetsrabatten2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The marketability discount (DLOM) is a controversial discount that has often led to conflict in valuation. DLOM is derived from a lack of marketability and the problem lies in the fact that DLOM is not observable and also considered subjective. Furthermore, DLOM depends on multiple often unique factors, which means that the discount can differ greatly from case to case. DLOM can assume values ranging from negative values and up to as much as 90%, which means that the company's final value to a great extent depends on this discount. Thus, it becomes relevant to determine a reasonable level of this discount based on scientific literature and practice.

    The case company for this study, PwC, has requested a new model to estimate DLOM. The reason behind the request is that the Swedish Tax Agency and customers of the case company have increased its effort on controlling whether estimates of DLOM have been carried out in a correct and arguably manner. Currently, the case company claims that the subject has been given a lack of attention in the industry, which is why an update of their current methodology for estimating DLOM is critical for their continued work.

    Aim: The aim of this report is to create and analyze a model, based on validity and practical feasibility, which estimates the marketability discount.

    Completion: Due to the fact that the discount is not observable creates a need for identifying proxies for the discount and an understanding of the connection between these and DLOM. An extensive literature study together with a case study on the case company has been made in order to achieve this. A model is then developed based on this and triangulation. The model is then used on four valuation cases, provided by the case company. After that follows an analysis of the methodology of the case company, the model of this study and a comparison between these two.

    Findings: The EMQ-model is a model that is based on three methods for estimating DLOM. The three methods are an empirical method, a mathematical method and a qualitative method. Two possible intervals for DLOM is created based on company-specific data by the empirical and mathematical method. These intervals are then weighted together into one interval with respect to the restriction period for the holding to be valued. Finally, qualitative factors that provide a definite value are investigated within the interval of DLOM. The three methods are chosen based on considering the factors affecting DLOM. The model is also created to enable adaptability to each specific valuation case.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-12 09:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Vahdat Shariatpanahi, Aida
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    The Importance of Macrophages, Lipid Membranes and Seeding in Experimental AA Amyloidosis2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Amyloidosis is a group of protein misfolding diseases caused by tissue deposition of fibrillary protein aggregates termed amyloid. Amyloid A (AA) amyloidosis is a systemic form of amyloidosis that occurs as a complication of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, familial Mediterranean fever and chronic infections, such as tuberculosis. AA amyloid is derived from the precursor protein serum amyloid A and is deposited in several organs preferably kidneys, liver and spleen. AA amyloidosis can be induced in mice by long standing inflammatory stimulation and concurrent administration of tissue extracts of AA amyloid, referred to as amyloid enhancing factor (AEF), reduces the time for amyloid deposition in the marginal zone of the spleen from 5 weeks to 2 days. The general aim of this thesis was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the development of AA amyloid in the mouse model of AA amyloidosis.

    Amyloid was induced in inflamed mice by injection of AEF and amyloid toxicity to splenic macrophages was investigated. We found that the marginal zone macrophages were very sensitive to amyloid formation and increasing amyloid load caused progressive depletion of these cells, whereas red pulp macrophages and metallophilic marginal zone macrophages appeared unaffected. To clarify the role of splenic macrophages in amyloidogenesis, macrophages were depleted by clodronate containing liposomes. We displayed that in the absence of splenic macrophages, especially marginal zone macrophages, amyloid formation was delayed implying a crucial role of macrophages in amyloid formation.

    The effect of lipid membranes on amyloid formation was studied and we showed that liposomes exhibited an amyloidogenic effect in inflamed mice although not as powerful as AEF. Following the fate of the liposomes, we showed that liposomes were rapidly cleared by uptake in the spleen and liver and colocalized with lysosomes. A tentative mechanism might be that accumulation of liposomes in lysosomes interfere with the SAA degradation process facilitating amyloid formation.

    Finally the conformational properties of two AEF (AEF1 and AEF2) preparations were studied using conformation sensitive luminescent-conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs). We found that AEF1 and AEF2 displayed significantly different ultrastructure as well as conformation and consequently induced different cytotoxicity in vitro. Inducing amyloid formation in inflamed mice by AEF1 and AEF2 revealed that the polymorph of the amyloid aggregates was replicated in vivo.

    In summary, the results obtained in this thesis indicate an important role for macrophages for the formation of amyloid. The existence of amyloid strains has long been an in vitro finding, but the finding that AEF ultrastructure drives the morphology of newly formed amyloid in vivo opens up for new studies that can help us to understand the formation of homologous and heterologous fibrils. Thus, the fundamental mechanisms of various amyloid diseases are similar and the results presented in the thesis can increase the understanding of other amyloid diseases.

    List of papers
    1. Depletion of Spleen Macrophages Delays AA Amyloid Development: A Study Performed in the Rapid Mouse Model of AA Amyloidosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depletion of Spleen Macrophages Delays AA Amyloid Development: A Study Performed in the Rapid Mouse Model of AA Amyloidosis
    2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 11, p. e79104-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    AA amyloidosis is a systemic disease that develops secondary to chronic inflammatory diseases Macrophages are often found in the vicinity of amyloid deposits and considered to play a role in both formation and degradation of amyloid fibrils. In spleen reside at least three types of macrophages, red pulp macrophages (RPM), marginal zone macrophages (MZM), metallophilic marginal zone macrophages (MMZM). MMZM and MZM are located in the marginal zone and express a unique collection of scavenger receptors that are involved in the uptake of blood-born particles. The murine AA amyloid model that resembles the human form of the disease has been used to study amyloid effects on different macrophage populations. Amyloid was induced by intravenous injection of amyloid enhancing factor and subcutaneous injections of silver nitrate and macrophages were identified with specific antibodies. We show that MZMs are highly sensitive to amyloid and decrease in number progressively with increasing amyloid load. Total area of MMZMs is unaffected by amyloid but cells are activated and migrate into the white pulp. In a group of mice spleen macrophages were depleted by an intravenous injection of clodronate filled liposomes. Subsequent injections of AEF and silver nitrate showed a sustained amyloid development. RPMs that constitute the majority of macrophages in spleen, appear insensitive to amyloid and do not participate in amyloid formation.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Public Library of Science, 2013
    National Category
    Medical and Health Sciences
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-102982 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0079104 (DOI)000327254700092 ()
    Note

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|GTW5343|County Council of Ostergotland Magnus Bergvalls research foundation||Ingrid Svenssons research foundation||Broderna Karlssons research foundation||Hildur Pettersons research foundation||

    Available from: 2014-01-09 Created: 2014-01-09 Last updated: 2019-08-15
    2. Lipid membranes accelerate amyloid formation in the mouse model of AA amyloidosis
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lipid membranes accelerate amyloid formation in the mouse model of AA amyloidosis
    Show others...
    2019 (English)In: Amyloid: Journal of Protein Folding Disorders, ISSN 1350-6129, E-ISSN 1744-2818, Vol. 26, no 1, p. 34-44Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: AA amyloidosis develops as a result of prolonged inflammation and is characterized by deposits of N-terminal proteolytic fragments of the acute phase reactant serum amyloid A (SAA). Macrophages are usually found adjacent to amyloid, suggesting their involvement in the formation and/or degradation of the amyloid fibrils. Furthermore, accumulating evidence suggests that lipid membranes accelerate the fibrillation of different amyloid proteins.

    Methods: Using an experimental mouse model of AA amyloidosis, we compared the amyloidogenic effect of liposomes and/or amyloid-enhancing factor (AEF). Inflammation was induced by subcutaneous injection of silver nitrate followed by intravenous injection of liposomes and/or AEF to accelerate amyloid formation.

    Results: We showed that liposomes accelerate amyloid formation in inflamed mice, but the amyloidogenic effect of liposomes was weaker compared with AEF. Regardless of the induction method, amyloid deposits were mainly found in the marginal zones of the spleen and coincided with the depletion of marginal zone macrophages, while red pulp macrophages and metallophilic marginal zone macrophages proved insensitive to amyloid deposition.

    Conclusions: We conclude that increased intracellular lipid content facilitates AA amyloid fibril formation and show that the mouse model of AA amyloidosis is a suitable system for further mechanistic studies.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Taylor & Francis, 2019
    Keywords
    Amyloid; liposomes; lipid membrane; macrophages; AA amyloidosis
    National Category
    Medical Biotechnology (with a focus on Cell Biology (including Stem Cell Biology), Molecular Biology, Microbiology, Biochemistry or Biopharmacy)
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157278 (URN)10.1080/13506129.2019.1576606 (DOI)000466218300001 ()30929476 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85063746690 (Scopus ID)
    Note

    Funding Agencies|County Council of Ostergotland; Magnus Bergvalls Research Foundation; Broderna Karlssons Research Foundation; K. Molins Minnesfond and Hildur Pettersons Research Foundation

    Available from: 2019-06-12 Created: 2019-06-12 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
  • Alhola, Sini
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Unraveling interaction between tinnitus symptoms, cognitive abilities, and mental disorders2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Based on the former studies, there is evidence of tinnitus being associated with performance on cognitive ability tests (for example Andersson et al. 2009, Hallam et al. 2004). The topic of my bachelor thesis was to unravel how depression, stress and anxiety connected with tinnitus symptoms are related to cognitive abilities such as verbal fluency, inhibition ability and working memory capacity. In order to fill an existing gap of knowledge, the relationship of different severity of stress caused by tinnitus symptoms as measured with Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and cognitive abilities and depression and anxiety symptoms was emphasized.

    The experiment group was divided into two subgroups, those with lower and higher level of perceived tinnitus severity and the differences in test scores between groups were investigated with one-way analysis of variance. As a result, significant differences between the two tinnitus patient groups were found in the level of performance in inhibition task where participants were asked to give the font color of congruent color - word pair as an answer. It was also studied whether there were correlations between perceived severity of tinnitus symptoms, depression and anxiety symptoms, working memory capacity and inhibition ability. As a result of correlation analysis, this study confirmed the connection between tinnitus symptoms and anxiety and depression symptoms found in previous studies, and a significant correlation was found between THI scores and anxiety symptoms, and THI scores and C inhibition test scores where the participant was asked to name the font color from incongruent color-word pairs. The results of this study suggest that there is a connection between the level of perceived tinnitus severity and the ability to name font color of incongruent color - word pair. The current study found no evidence about the connection between THI scores and other cognitive abilities as well as anxiety and depression symptoms, even though the THI scores correlated with both anxiety symptom scores and with the reaction times of an inhibition task where the participants were asked to point out the font color from incongruent color - word pairs.

  • Public defence: 2019-09-09 10:00 ACAS, A-huset, Linköping
    Farhad, Nandita
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Industrial Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Supply Chain Governance for Social Sustainability: A Study of the Ready-Made Garment Industry in Bangladesh2019Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This PhD thesis approaches the phenomenon of supply chain governance for social sustainability in the ready-made garment industry in Bangladesh. This research is based on a study of eight large multinational corporations (e.g. clothing brands and retailers) and their ready-made garment suppliers. The purpose of this research is to understand how supply chain governance mechanisms and governance structures improve social sustainability performance when stakeholders are engaged.

    The study identifies four main governance systems, namely, market-based, hierarchical controlbased, collaborative multi-stakeholder-based and relational cross-sectoral-based. These governance systems are employed in the supply chain by the multinational corporations in combination with different stakeholders, such as suppliers, multi-stakeholder-initiatives, and non-government organisations. The study focuses on the challenges faced by the multinational corporations to ensure social sustainability, whilst at the same time, incorporating suppliers’ viewpoints on the consequences of different governance systems for social sustainability.

    This research shows the choice of governance structures from market-based, hierarchy-based, collaboration-based and relational-based depend on the cost of managing relationships with the stakeholders and potential risks of governance in a given situation. An effective governance structure for a multinational corporation in a particular context is determined by how well the structure supports governance mechanisms to reduce associated transaction risks that results from potential opportunistic behaviour of the suppliers. In this research, it is argued that governance structure provides the platform for practicing a set of governance mechanisms.

    The study claims that social sustainability governance incorporates three mechanisms with separate outcomes: one consists of buyer-driven control-based mechanisms which include codes of conduct, supplier assessment and monitoring, and supplier training for regular social compliance; the second consists of multi-stakeholder-based governance mechanisms for structural compliance when unexpected problems occur, for example, building collapse, electrical and fire safety risks emerge; and the third comprises cross-sectoral governance mechanisms when the multinational corporations involve with non-government organisations for social development of the garment workers and community by facilitating drinking water, health-hygiene, education, and so on.

    This thesis contributes to the Sustainable Supply Chain Management literature by expanding knowledge of supply chain governance through bringing an understanding of governance mechanisms, governance structures and stakeholder engagements for social sustainability. As the demand for supply chain governance for social sustainability are growing, this thesis can help responsible corporate sourcing managers to develop a deeper understanding of how supply chain governance can affect social sustainability. 

  • McCarthy, Holly
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies.
    Constructed Realities: Framing an inclusive, multicultural Australia’s exclusion of people seeking asylum2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2001, Australia’s increasingly securitised and exclusionary asylum policy has been legitimated through a damaging discourse surrounding people who seek asylum. This discourse, reinforced by successive Australian Prime Ministers, has been instrumental in shaping policies which have a devastating human impact. While political elites across the West are distancing themselves from a discourse of inclusive multiculturalism, Australia continues to celebrate its multicultural success despite the ongoing tension between a rhetoric of inclusion and one justifying exclusion. Since discourse is both productive and reflective of the social world, shaping discourse can be understood as a means to shape reality. This thesis explores how discourse is constructed and reproduced through framing; a discursive practice that influences how certain issues are understood. The texts analysed are those in which Australian Prime Ministers and senior political figures defend policies of exclusion against people who seek asylum by boat as part of a broader policy vision for a Safe, Secure & Free Australia. In order to contrast the frames, narratives and discourses associated with exclusion, communications promoting the policy vision of an inclusive Multicultural Australia have also been analysed. The frames identified in the material reproduce particular narratives which help to maintain the hegemonic position of discourses which present Australia as a humanitarian, welcoming and inclusive multicultural society and situate people who seek asylum by boat as illegal, seeking an unfair advantage, and as a threat to national security. By identifying frames that consistently appear in the messaging of Australian political elites, we can understand how certain narratives have come to be accepted as truth.

  • Röhr, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Hantera det oförutsägbara på järnvägen: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om förenklandet av lokförarnas rapportering av händelser på järnvägen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Trafikstörningar är ett problem på den svenska järnvägen som bidrar till bland annat förseningar. För att kunna arbeta förebyggande mot detta behövs mer fullständiga rapporter av händelser på järnvägen än de som utförs idag. Trafikverket vill undersöka hur ett nytt system för inrapportering kan se ut för att uppnå mer träffsäkra och utförliga rapporteringar. Denna studie har därför, på uppdrag av Trafikverket, undersökt vilka brister och behov som finns i processen för rapportering idag utifrån lokförarens perspektiv. För att utföra detta valdes en kvalitativ ansats innefattande semi-strukturerade intervjuer med lokförare. Därefter utfördes en tematisk analys utifrån data från tre intervjuer. Resultaten visade att brister i processen främst berör återkoppling av rapporteringar till lokförarna och tillvägagångssätten för att ange positionsangivelser. Behoven som uppkom genom studien berörde möjligheter att anteckna via röststyrning, bättre tillvägagångssätt för angivelse av positioner samt återkoppling av tidigare rapporteringar. Resultaten har en betydelse för det fortsatta arbetet inom Trafikverket men även för utformning av liknande system i andra domäner. 

  • Sjöström, Elin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Information Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ett lapptäcke av säkerhetsskydd över Sverige: Utmaningar för civila verksamheter vid applicering av säkerhetsskyddsanalys för stärkt nationell säkerhet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the present day, Information security has become an increasingly important matter due to the growing amount of information being processed as well as the increasing risk for antagonistic events. To build an extensive security protection through executing a fundamental security protection analysis is therefore of great importance for the organisations which are involved with the security of Sweden. This study has investigated the matter through answering two research questions: 1. Which challenges arise when applying security protection analysis for civil organisations in Sweden? and 2. How should these organisations apply security protection analysis to be able to deal with the identified challenges? A qualitative case study was completed to answer these questions with empirical data collected through a document study, semi-structured interviews, and observation. The empirical data were analysed by means of hermeneutic analysis and analysis informed by grounded theory. The result of the study has therefore been produced in three steps. First, through a mapping of the securty protection analysis where the analysis was divided into six main steps: activity analysis, identification of protection value, consequence analysis, security threat assessment, vulnerability analysis, and identification and valuation of security actions. Then, through producing 24 challenges, which were divided into four main areas: national challenges, organisation challenges, governance challenges, and coworker challenges. Finally, through combining the mapping of the security protection analysis and the identified challenges to a joint framework for application of security protection analysis. The konwledge contribution of the performed study is a support and an understanding of the execution of the security protection analysis for civil organisations to reduce the deficiencies in their security protection.

  • Nilsson, Rasmus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Communications and Transport Systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    En bygglogistikanalys av Väsjöprojektet i Sollentuna2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Byggindustrin är reglerad av avtal, överenskommelser och består av flera metoder samt att materialet är beroende av vilken typ av byggnad som ska konstrueras. Varje nytt byggprojekt är en unik produkt på en helt ny plats. Vilket skiljer sig från tillverkningsindustrin, som producerar produkter i fabrik. Från studiens syfte har tre frågeställningar utformats. Metoden som använts för att uppnå syftet och besvara frågeställningar har varit kvalitativ och kvantitativ. Den insamlade data är främst från intervjuer och tidigare studier. Studien har visat att tidigare bygglogistikanalyser saknar eller har otydlig definition av avgörande faktorer och detaljer kring konstruktion av fastigheter samt dess transporter. Analysen av tidigare bygglogistikanalyser har resulterat i antaganden och användbara värden för att utföra en prognos för stadsutvecklingsprojektet Väsjön. Scenarioanalysen visade att projektet generar drygt 240 000 transporter som motsvarar cirka 200 ton koldioxidutsläpp vid bostadsproduktion av 4500 nya bostäder. Analysen visade möjligheten att minska både antalet transporter och utsläpp när olika logistiklösningarna introduceras, såsom en checkpoint- lösning, en terminallösning, en gemensam avfallshantering eller kombination av dem.

  • Maintz, Michaela
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Applied Sciences and Arts Northwestern Switzerland.
    Data representation for fluorescence guided stereotactic brain tumor biopsies: Development and evaluation of a visual and auditory user interface2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective In stereotactic brain tumor biopsies, the combination of real-time fluorescence spectroscopy with the detection of microvascular perfusion using laser Doppler flowmetry provides an improved localization of the brain tumor while decreasing the risk of intra-cranial hemorrhage. The surgeon using the measurement probe is required to view signal values on a screen or usually, when her or his visual focus is directed at the patient, the verbal feedback of a biomedical engineer who is monitoring the measurement signals is needed. In this process possible important information can be overlooked and time is lost. The aim of the thesis was the development a visual and auditory user interface (UI) for use in stereotactic brain tumor biopsies.

    Materials and Methods The system translates the fluorescence intensity of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) into sound and visual indicators that are easy and fast to recognize and transmits warning signals in case of signal error or the detection of microvascular perfusion. The increasing and de-creasing fluorescence values at tumor margins were reproduced to improve the precision of de-tecting varying fluorescence intensities when entering tumor tissue with color gradient models. The algorithm produced five signal values when specific fluorescence intensities were measured and compared at different wavelengths.For the development of the UI, a user-centered design was implemented. The user-, operating room- and safety requirements were gathered by communicating with the biomedical engineers and neurosurgeons who had experience in working with fluorescence guided brain tumor biop-sies. The requirements were considered when designing the UI’s features in LabVIEW and the auditory feedback was generated using OSC (Open Sound Control). The user interface intended to deliver measurement data to the user that triggered a high response accuracy by being easy to understand while inducing high user acceptance. The user interaction and function response accuracy of the visual and auditory interface were evaluated in statistical tests where operating room situations were mimicked. The user acceptance of the UI was evaluated.

    Results Signals for no, low (increasing and decreasing) and high fluorescence indicators, as well as two warning indicators for a blocked signal and vessel occurrence were represented visually and auditorially by the user interface. An intensity/time graph and intensity/wavelength graph, along with the option of recording measurement files and opening saved files allowed the inspec-tion of detailed measurement values. The user study exhibited auditory response accuracy of 95 ± 3% in the intuition test and 91±16% in a memory test. The testing of the response accuracy of the individual signal values displayed accurate responses in 84% to 100% of times a signal was played back. The user acceptance rating of the auditory and visual interface showed no negative results.

    Conclusion A UI was developed to visually and auditorially represent measurement values to a neurosurgeon performing a stereotactic brain tumor biopsy procedure and biomedical engineers monitoring the measurement signals. The visual display was successful in representing data in a way that was easy to understand. The auditory interface showed high response accuracies for the individual tones representing measurement values. The majority of the test subjects per-ceived the signals to be intuitive, easy to understand and easy to remember. The auditory and visual UI showed high user acceptance ratings, indicating that the user interface was useful and satisfactory in its application.

  • Nordendahl, Edward
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Malmstens Linköping University.
    Att formge för befintliga miljöer: Utformning av en kollektion möbler för hotellet Ett Hem2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In my thesis, I wanted to investigate how a design assignment for an existing environment can benefit from theories of site-specific art and sustainability. I investigate this through a case study of the hotel Ett Hem, which leads to the beginning of a collection of furniture design, resulting in two objects.

    The work commences through a meeting with the hotel management, resulting in a list of 12 desirable items. Based on this, I continue with three objects which I have selected and conduct a preliminary study for these. The result is prototypes for two of these objects, a trash can and a valet.

    My conclusion is that the result was very good when considering the existing environment, but whether the theories regarding site-specific art had any major impact is difficult to ascertain. Consideration of sustainability expresses itself through an underlying intention to primarily design objects that withstand visual wear out but also physical wear.

  • Järpehult, Oscar
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lindblom, Martin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Longitudinal measurements of link usage on Twitter2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    As Twitter launched with their unique way of limiting posts to only 140 characters the usage of link shorteners was brought forth. This was the only way to fit long URLs in tweets until Twitter solved this by providing their own integrated link shortener. This study investigates how links are used on Twitter. The study include both care fulldata collection including multiple APIs and analysis of the collected data providing new insight into this topic. It was found that a small set of internet domains account for a large part of the links found in posted tweets. This set of top occurring domains did not necessarily reflect the top domains typically on common internet top lists. When looking at link shorteners in posted tweets we found that “bit.ly” was the most common one. Due to our method of collecting data we had the possibility of looking up the amount of clicks “bit.ly” links had received. We compared the click data to the amount of retweets the tweets containing these links had received and this led to some interesting discoveries regarding the ratio between these two.

  • Olsson, Benjamin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Gumpert Harryson, David
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Eriksson, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Sehlin, Filip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Bladh, Josefin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Sanfridsson, Julia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Li, Xueshan Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Hidén, Oskar
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Jonsson, Ville
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Ökad måluppfyllnad med hjälp av applikationer2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human beings have always had goals which they have tried to reach. With the pace of the technological development, requests for digitalized solutions to problems which previously have been faced without technology increase. This study tests whether a web application could help users to achieve their goals. This was conducted by implementing three functions: Monetary incentive, publication and reminders. The functions’ design and implementations of these are supported by scientific theory. The purpose is to increase the number of users who fulfil their goals, thus helping people to achieve goals, with the help of the three implemented functions. In this study, a user test is conducted with the web application’s functions where the results are based on a test group. The user test results in both quantitative and qualitative data. The results of the study shows that a web application is a possible tool to increase the users’ chances of reaching their goals. This report also presents suggestions for improvement of the functions, which was clarified in the user tests.

  • Moberg, Adam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Jonsson, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Hedén, Felix
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Graf Morin, Harald
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Wester, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Elsässer, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Nilsson, Sara
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Henriksson Välimaa, Simon
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Lennmark, Teodor
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    En undersökning av lyxighet gällande design på en webbapplikation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The luxury segment has been late in its technology adaptation even though e-commerce, and the importance of internet presence, has increased. To succeed the conversion, traders need to know how to keep the customers perception of luxury on a webpage. This report aims to investigate how an e-shop should be designed to be perceived luxurious in terms of design. The question “How should an e-shop be designed to perceived as luxury according to its design?” is answered by developing and designing a web application for self-composed jam giving a luxurious perception. The method used is based on a study investigating homepage design. Several design factors that has a positive effect of customers perception of luxury were identified, whereupon a web application was developed. The web application and conventional one as reference, was individually evaluated on the BLI-scale together and with a Thinking Aloud test. The result showed a significant difference of the average for all dimensions of the BLI scale, where the hypothetically luxurious web application achieved the higher result. The Thinking Aloud test showed that the test page got more comments that pointed to a more luxurious experience, compared to the conventional page. The report concludes that esthetics and an overall impression of uniqueness and quality are important dimensions for the web application to be perceived as luxurious.

  • Eklund, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Videokommunikation mellan äldre vårdtagare och hemtjänst: Ett användarcentrerat designförslag med fokus på äldre vuxna2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det finns idag en problematik med arbetsbelastningen i svensk hemtjänst. Studier visar att personalen upplever mycket stress på arbetet. Samtidigt beräknas antalet personer i 80-års åldern öka från en halv miljon till en miljon mellan år 2018 och 2052, och personalbehovet inom äldreomsorgen antas tredubblas. Med hjälp av videokommunikation är det möjligt att arbetet kan effektiviseras och arbetsbördan underlättas. En grundläggande förutsättning för det är däremot att tekniken inte upplevs som svåranvänd, varken för personal eller för vårdtagare. 

    Studier visar att äldre personer ofta har en längre inlärningprocess, samt mindre erfarenhet av teknik. Sju intervjuer genomfördes med deltagare med en medelålder på 68 år. Intervjuerna analyserades med en tematisk analys där sex olika teman hittades. Temana innefattar Ersättning av korta visiter inom hemtjänst, Tillämpning inom vårdcentralen, Svårigheter, Inkludera anhöriga, Rädslor och Förhållning till teknik. Resultaten från intervjuerna bearbetades sedan till personor, scenarier och användarberättelser. Baserat på detta skapades ett designförslag för hur en minsta gångbar produkt (MVP) för videosamtal mellan vårdgivare och vårdtagare kan se ut. Designförslaget fokuserar på kommunikation mellan hemtjänst och äldre vuxna vårdtagare.

  • Krig, Billy
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Analysis and Optimization of the User Interface for an Effective Altruism Charity Application: Implementing gamification with the purpose to enhance user engagement and increase user retention2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Gamification has previously demonstrated successful results when it comes to increasing the user retention rate in many different sectors. Non-profit charity organisations have for the last 10 years had a retention rate that is below 50%. This thesis investigates the possibility of increasing the user retention rate in the non-profit charity application The Life You Can Save(TLYCS) by implementing gamification. The gamification mechanic that was chosen for implementation was achievements. To measure understandability the Post-Study System Usability Questionnaire was used, the four satisfaction scores of the questionnaire were measured with a number between one and seven. Sven represented the highest number and one represented the lowest number. All four satisfaction scores had an average number that was higher than 6. Because of the previously proved successful results of gamification and a usable implementation of achievements in the mobile application TLYCS the possibility of an increased user retention rate is assessed to be high. 

  • Melbi, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Play for Eco: En kvalitativ intervjuestudie om spelarens upplevelse av ett klimatspel2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 credits / 18 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The average temperature on earth has increased significantly over the last 70 years. 97% of researchers agree that the reason behind this is humans. Despite this overwhelming scientific consensus, there are people who do not believe in global warming but also many who do not act upon this information. A method to overcome the inability to act upon scientific information, is through games that motivate people to reduce their carbon dioxide emissions. The overall aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the players' experience of the climate game Play for Eco. To do this, a qualitative approach including semi-structured interviews was used. The most important results in this study are (1) Play for Eco motivates its players by acting as a source of information for how to live more sustainable, giving insight to an implementation of how technology can convey environmental thinking as well as functioning as a method to lower one's carbon dioxide footprint in a fun way. (2) Play for Eco has problems with; visualizing success, customizing games for different audiences, giving players more feedback after completing missions as well as offering a way for players to communicate with each other. (3) To further motivate their players, Play for Eco needs to; implement a narrative, provide more concrete feedback on how a completed task affects one's climate impact, adapt the game to more experienced players as well as offer a way for the players to communicate with each other.

  • Jonasson, Michael
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Fördomsfulla associationer i en svenskvektorbaserad semantisk modell2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 12 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Word embeddings are a powerful technique where word meaning can be represented by vectors containing actual numbers. The vectors allow  geometric operations that capture semantically important relationships between the words. In this study WEAT is applied in order to examine whether statistical properties of words pertaining to bias can be found in a swedish word embedding trained on a corpus from a swedish newspaper. The results shows that the word embedding can represent several of the IAT documented biases that where tested. A second method, WEFAT, is applied to the word embedding in order to explore the embeddings ability to represent actual statistical properties, which is also done successfully. The results from this study lends support to the validity of both methods aswell as illuminating the issue of problematic relationships between words in word embeddings.

  • Antonov, Vera
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Sterner, Adam
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems.
    Methods for developing visualizations in a non-designer environment: A case study2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Teams consisting of only software developers will occasionally need to develop products that has to be easy to use. User Centered Design (UCD) is one approach to help increase the ease of use of a product and that can be incorporated into the teams’ traditional workflow when needed. The software developer team followed in this thesis had not tried to incorporate UCD into their current workflow when developing such products. So, this thesis looks at how a product designed with an agile/UCD approach differs from a product developed by the software development team’s traditional approach. The two products were designed to solve the same problem. The results show that the product developed with an agile/UCD-approach gave better usability rankings and better external appeal than the one created with the team’s traditional approach. On the other hand, traditional methods constitute a better choice for quick development of products for more technical user groups within the company for example.

  • Andersson, Julia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Hultqvist, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Video quality encoding characterization and comparison2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Adaptive streaming is a popular technique that allows quality adaption for videos based on the current playback conditions. The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how chunks in video files downloaded from YouTube correlate to each other. We investigate how the chunk size characteristics depend on the category and encoding of the video. The main focus is to analyze the chunk sizes of the video, focusing on distinctness between 360$^\circ$ and 2D videos. This is performed using the YouTube API. The videos are downloaded and analysed using youtube-dl and mkv-info. The results show that chunk sizes for adjacent qualities have higher correlation and that videos having a similarity between scenes have higher correlation. In addition, 360$^\circ$ videos differ primarily from regular 2D videos by the amount of qualities used and a generally higher correlation for all qualities.

  • Zedén Yverås, Felix
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Ström, Filip
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    DNS Performance: A study of free, public and popular DNS servers in 20192019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Domain Name System (DNS) is an integral part of making the internet a more human-friendly place. However, it comes with the cost of an added abstraction layer that introduces extra latency in many aspects of the modern computing experience - a great selling point for many DNS services. In this thesis we look at the performance of DNS services and servers through the scope of 51 unique free, public and popular DNS servers. We use a specifically designed tool, DNSHoarder, to collect 714,000 datapoints of 250 different hostnames of varying popularity over seven days. From this data we find most DNS servers to exhibit a similar relative distribution of response times and performance differences between IPv4 and IPv6 to be minor or nonexistent. We also find network distance and quality to have a big effect on the performance of DNS as well as network latency to be a major limiting factor in further DNS performance improvements.