liu.seSök publikationer i DiVA
123 1 - 50 av 138
rss atomLänk till träfflistan
Permanent länk
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • oxford
  • Annat format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annat språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
  • Soames, Kieron
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Lind, Jonas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Detecting Cycles in GraphQL Schemas2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (högskoleexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    GraphQL is a database handling API created by Facebook, that provides an effective al-ternative to REST-style architectures. GraphQL provides the ability for a client to spec-ify exactly what data it wishes to receive. A problem with GraphQL is that the freedomof creating customized requests allows data to be included several times in the response,growing the response’s size exponentially. The thesis contributes to the field of GraphQLanalysis by studying the prevalence of simple cycles in GraphQL schemas. We have im-plemented a locally-run tool and webtool using Tarjan’s and Johnson’s algorithms, thatparses the schemas, creates a directed graph and enumerates all simple cycles in the graph.A collection of schemas was analysed with the tool to collect empirical data. It was foundthat 39.73 % of the total 2094 schemas contained at least one simple cycle, with the averagenumber of cycles per schema being 4. The runtime was found to be on average 11 mil-liseconds, most of which consisted of the time for parsing the schemas. It was found that44 out of the considered schemas could not be enumerated due to containing a staggeringamount of simple cycles. It can be concluded that it is possible to test schemas for cyclicityand enumerate all simple cycles in a given schema efficiently.

  • Disputation: 2019-05-24 13:00 Berzeliussalen, Linköping
    Tobieson, Lovisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Neurokirurgiska kliniken US.
    Surgically Treated Intracerebral Haemorrhage: Pathophysiology and Clinical Aspects2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Mortality and morbidity of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is excessively high, and the case fatality rate has not improved in the last decades. Although surgery for ICH can be life-saving, no positive effect on functional outcome has been found in large cohorts of ICH patients. Increased understanding of the pathophysiology of ICH is needed to develop improved treatment strategies.

    In 17 ICH patients, paired cerebral microdialysis (CMD) catheters were inserted in the perihaemorrhagic zone (PHZ) and in normal uninjured cortex at time of surgery. Despite normalisation of cerebral blood flow, a persistent metabolic crisis indicative of mitochondrial dysfunction was detected in the PHZ. This metabolic pattern was not observed in the uninjured cortex.

    CMD was also used to sample proteins for proteomic analysis. A distinct proteome profile that changed over time was found in the PHZ when compared to the seemingly normal, uninjured cortex. However, protein adsorption to CMD membranes, which may interfere with concentration measurements, was substantial.

    Surgical treatment of 578 ICH patients was analysed in a nation-wide retrospective multi-centre study in Sweden over five years. Patients selected for surgery had similar age, pre-operative level of consciousness and co-morbidity profiles, but ICH volume and the proportion of deep-seated ICH differed among the six neurosurgical centres. Furthermore, there was variability in the post-operative care, including the use and duration of intracranial pressure monitoring, cerebrospinal fluid drainage and mechanical ventilation.

    In conclusion, the results of this thesis show that:

    (i) Despite surgical removal of an ICH a metabolic crisis caused by mitochondrial dysfunction, a potential future therapeutic target, persists in the perihaemorrhagic zone.

    (ii-iii) CMD is a valuable tool in ICH research for sampling novel biomarkers using proteomics, which may aid in the development of improved therapeutic interventions. However, caveats of the technique, such as protein adsorption to the CMD membrane, must be considered.

    (iv) The nation-wide study illustrates similar clinical features in patients selected for ICH surgery, but substantial variability in ICH volume and location as well as neurocritical care strategies among Swedish neurosurgical centres. Development of refined clinical guidelines may reduce such intercentre variability and lead to improved functional outcome for ICH patients.  

    Delarbeten
    1. Persistent Metabolic Disturbance in the Perihemorrhagic Zone Despite a Normalized Cerebral Blood Flow Following Surgery for Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Persistent Metabolic Disturbance in the Perihemorrhagic Zone Despite a Normalized Cerebral Blood Flow Following Surgery for Intracerebral Hemorrhage.
    Visa övriga...
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that reduced cerebral blood flow (CBF) and/or energy metabolic disturbances exist in the tissue surrounding a surgically evacuated intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). If present, such CBF and/or metabolic impairments may contribute to ongoing tissue injury and the modest clinical efficacy of ICH surgery.

    OBJECTIVE: To conduct an observational study of CBF and the energy metabolic state in the perihemorrhagic zone (PHZ) tissue and in seemingly normal cortex (SNX) by microdialysis (MD) following surgical ICH evacuation.

    METHODS: We evaluated 12 patients (median age 64; range 26-71 yr) for changes in CBF and energy metabolism following surgical ICH evacuation using Xenon-enhanced computed tomography (n = 10) or computed tomography perfusion (n = 2) for CBF and dual MD catheters, placed in the PHZ and the SNX at ICH surgery.

    RESULTS: CBF was evaluated at a mean of 21 and 58 h postsurgery. In the hemisphere ipsilateral to the ICH, CBF improved between the investigations (36.6 ± 20 vs 40.6 ± 20 mL/100 g/min; P < .05). In total, 1026 MD samples were analyzed for energy metabolic alterations including glucose and the lactate/pyruvate ratio (LPR). The LPR was persistently elevated in the PHZ compared to the SNX region (P < .05). LPR elevations in the PHZ were predominately type II (pyruvate normal-high; indicating mitochondrial dysfunction) as opposed to type I (pyruvate low; indicating ischemia) at 4 to 48 h (70% vs 30%) and at 49 to 84 h (79% vs 21%; P < .05) postsurgery.

    CONCLUSION: Despite normalization of CBF following ICH evacuation, an energy metabolic disturbance suggestive of mitochondrial dysfunction persists in the perihemorrhagic zone.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Oxford University Press, 2018
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Neurologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150994 (URN)10.1093/neuros/nyy179 (DOI)29788388 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2018-09-10 Skapad: 2018-09-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-17
    2. Dynamic protein changes in the perihaemorrhagic zone of Surgically Treated Intracerebral Haemorrhage Patients
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Dynamic protein changes in the perihaemorrhagic zone of Surgically Treated Intracerebral Haemorrhage Patients
    Visa övriga...
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, artikel-id 3181Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The secondary injury cascades exacerbating the initial brain injury following intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) are incompletely understood. We used dual microdialysis (MD) catheters placed in the perihaemorrhagic zone (PHZ) and in seemingly normal cortex (SNX) at time of surgical ICH evacuation in ten patients (range 26-70 years). Routine interstitial MD markers (including glucose and the lactate/pyruvate ratio) were analysed and remaining microdialysate was analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS). Two time intervals were analysed; median 2-10 hours post-surgery (time A) and median 68-76 hours post-ICH onset (time B). Using 2-DE, we quantified 232 +/- 31 different protein spots. Two proteins differed between the MD catheters at time A, and 12 proteins at time B (p amp;lt; 0.05). Thirteen proteins were significantly altered between time A and time B in the SNX and seven proteins in the PHZ, respectively. Using nLC-MS/MS ca 800 proteins were identified out of which 76 were present in all samples. At time A one protein was upregulated and two downregulated, and at time B, seven proteins were upregulated, and four downregulated in the PHZ compared to the SNX. Microdialysis-based proteomics is feasible for study of secondary injury mechanisms and discovery of biomarkers after ICH.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biokemi och molekylärbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155569 (URN)10.1038/s41598-019-39499-2 (DOI)000459897600115 ()30816204 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Stroke Association (STROKE-Riksforbundet); ALF Grants of Region Ostergotland

    Tillgänglig från: 2019-03-26 Skapad: 2019-03-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-17
    3. Differences in neurosurgical treatment of intracerebral haemorrhage: a nation-wide observational study of 578 consecutive patients
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Differences in neurosurgical treatment of intracerebral haemorrhage: a nation-wide observational study of 578 consecutive patients
    Visa övriga...
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Neurochirurgica, ISSN 0001-6268, E-ISSN 0942-0940Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Supratentorial intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) carries an excessive mortality and morbidity. Although surgical ICH treatment can be life-saving, the indications for surgery in larger cohorts of ICH patients are controversial and not well defined. We hypothesised that surgical indications vary substantially among neurosurgical centres in Sweden.

    Objective

    In this nation-wide retrospective observational study, differences in treatment strategies among all neurosurgical departments in Sweden were evaluated.

    Methods

    Patient records, neuroimaging and clinical outcome focused on 30-day mortality were collected on each operated ICH patient treated at any of the six neurosurgical centres in Sweden from 1 January 2011 to 31 December 2015.

    Results

    In total, 578 consecutive surgically treated ICH patients were evaluated. There was a similar incidence of surgical treatment among different neurosurgical catchment areas. Patient selection for surgery was similar among the centres in terms of patient age, pre-operative level of consciousness and co-morbidities, but differed in ICH volume, proportion of deep-seated vs. lobar ICH and pre-operative signs of herniation (p < .05). Post-operative patient management strategies, including the use of ICP-monitoring, CSF-drainage and mechanical ventilation, varied among centres (p < .05). The 30-day mortality ranged between 10 and 28%.

    Conclusions

    Although indications for surgical treatment of ICH in the six Swedish neurosurgical centres were homogenous with regard to age and pre-operative level of consciousness, important differences in ICH volume, proportion of deep-seated haemorrhages and pre-operative signs of herniation were observed, and there was a substantial variability in post-operative management. The present results reflect the need for refined evidence-based guidelines for surgical management of ICH.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer, 2019
    Nyckelord
    Intracerebral haemorrhage, Surgery, Guidelines, Craniotomy, External ventricular drain, Intraventricular haemorrhage
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Kirurgi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156370 (URN)10.1007/s00701-019-03853-0 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-17 Skapad: 2019-04-17 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-17
  • Disputation: 2019-05-17 09:00 Hasselquistsalen, Linköping
    Ward, Liam
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för barns och kvinnors hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Sex differences in atherosclerosis and exercise effects2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death globally, with atherosclerosis being the main cause of cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the blood vessel wall, which over time will cause thickening and hardening of the vessel wall. Atherosclerosis can result in catastrophic vascular events, such as myocardial infarction and stroke. There are distinct sex differences in CVD mortality at different ages, before menopause women have a lower mortality of CVD in comparison to men, which equalises after menopause. In addition to sex differences in the incidence of CVD, there are also distinct sex differences in the phenotype of atherosclerotic plaques, with men generally developing more severe and vulnerable plaques that are at risk of rupture.

    This thesis aimed to investigate the sex differences in atherosclerosis, in particular how the proteome and pathophysiology differs. In addition, we sought to investigate the potential benefit of an exercise programme, in reducing CVD risks, using a randomised controlled trial including postmenopausal women.

    Sex differences in atherosclerosis were first investigated via proteomic analysis of human carotid endarterectomy samples. Initially, five intraplaque biopsies were taken from distinct atheroma regions, including; internal control, fatty streak, plaque shoulder, plaque centre, and fibrous cap. Protein extracts from these biopsies were subjected to analysis by mass spectrometry. The novel sampling method was successful in reducing the effect of plaque heterogeneity, a limitation in previous proteomic studies of atherosclerosis, and a number of previously unreported proteins were identified in human carotid atheroma. In addition to this, with the inclusion of multivariate statistical modelling, it was found that 43 proteins significantly discriminated the carotid atheroma between men and women. These proteins were grouped by function, and it was found that atheroma from men was associated with the increased abundance of inflammatory response proteins, including phospholipase-A2 membrane associated and lysozyme C, and atheroma from women was associated with increased abundance of blood coagulation, complement activation, and transport proteins, notably including; antithrombin-III, coagulation factor XII, and afamin. In addition, differences were also ii observed in the abundance of iron metabolism related proteins. These sex differences were further expanded upon from a pathophysiological perspective. Immunohistochemistry stainings of ferritin and transferrin receptor 1 were found significantly increased in the atheroma from men. Moreover, the levels of plasma haemoglobin were also significantly increased in men and were associated with the development of more vulnerable and severe plaque types. The more vulnerable and severe plaque types were also associated with significantly greater macrophage infiltration. In summary, these results are indicative of men developing atheroma with greater inflammation that are more vulnerable, due to increased iron and inflammatory proteins and macrophage infiltration, whereas atheroma from women develop with less inflammation and a more stable phenotype.

    The randomised controlled clinical trial aimed at investigating the effects of resistance training (RT), over a 15-week period, in postmenopausal women. Plasma samples were obtained at week-0 and week-15 of the study period, and analyses were performed primarily using a series of immunoassays. Results showed that women participating in RT, with good compliance, were associated with significant decreases in plasma levels of ferritin, lipids, and inflammatory adipokines. These results suggest that the use of regular RT may be a beneficial intervention in reducing the levels of body iron, lipids, and inflammation, all of which are risk factors for the development of CVD. However, validation studies are required in a larger cohort of postmenopausal women, in addition to the inclusion or complementary studies in middle-aged men.

    In summary, the works included in this thesis further expand on the current knowledge of sex differences in atherosclerosis, and also provides information on the potential of an exercise intervention to beneficially reduces the effects of known risk factors of CVD.

    Delarbeten
    1. Distinctive proteomic profiles among different regions of human carotid plaques in men and women
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Distinctive proteomic profiles among different regions of human carotid plaques in men and women
    Visa övriga...
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, nr 26231Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The heterogeneity of atherosclerotic tissue has limited comprehension in proteomic and metabolomic analyses. To elucidate the functional implications, and differences between genders, of atherosclerotic lesion formation we investigated protein profiles from different regions of human carotid atherosclerotic arteries; internal control, fatty streak, plaque shoulder, plaque centre, and fibrous cap. Proteomic analysis was performed using 2-DE with MALDI-TOF, with validation using nLC-MS/MS. Protein mapping of 2-DE identified 52 unique proteins, including 15 previously unmapped proteins, of which 41 proteins were confirmed by nLC-MS/MS analysis. Expression levels of 18 proteins were significantly altered in plaque regions compared to the internal control region. Nine proteins showed site-specific alterations, irrespective of gender, with clear associations to extracellular matrix remodelling. Five proteins display gender-specific alterations with 2-DE, with two alterations validated by nLC-MS/MS. Gender differences in ferritin light chain and transthyretin were validated using both techniques. Validation of immunohistochemistry confirmed significantly higher levels of ferritin in plaques from male patients. Proteomic analysis of different plaque regions has reduced the effects of plaque heterogeneity, and significant differences in protein expression are determined in specific regions and between genders. These proteomes have functional implications in plaque progression and are of importance in understanding gender differences in atherosclerosis.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biokemi och molekylärbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129495 (URN)10.1038/srep26231 (DOI)000376554600001 ()27198765 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Heart Lung Foundation; Linkoping University Hospital Research foundation; Swedish Institute; China Scholarship Council

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-06-20 Skapad: 2016-06-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-17
    2. Proteomics and multivariate modelling reveal sex-specific alterations in distinct regions of human carotid atheroma
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Proteomics and multivariate modelling reveal sex-specific alterations in distinct regions of human carotid atheroma
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Biology of Sex Differences, ISSN 2042-6410, Vol. 9, artikel-id 54Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundAtherosclerotic lesions are comprised of distinct regions with different proteomic profiles. Men and women develop differences in lesion phenotype, with lesions from women generally being more stable and less prone to rupture. We aimed to investigate the differences in proteomic profiles between sexes, including distinct lesion regions, to identify altered proteins that contribute to these differences observed clinically.MethodsCarotid endarterectomy samples (ten men/ten women) were obtained, and intraplaque biopsies from three distinct regions (internal control, fatty streak and plaque) were analysed by tandem-mass spectrometry. Multivariate statistical modelling, using orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis, was used to discriminate the proteomes between men and women.ResultsMultivariate discriminant modelling revealed proteins from 16 functional groups that displayed sex-specific associations. Additional statistics revealed ten proteins that display region-specific alterations when comparing sexes, including proteins related to inflammatory response, response to reactive oxygen species, complement activation, transport and blood coagulation. Transport protein afamin and blood coagulation proteins antithrombin-III and coagulation factor XII were significantly increased in plaque region from women. Inflammatory response proteins lysozyme C and phospholipase A2 membrane-associated were significantly increased in plaque region from men. Limitations with this study are the small sample size, limited patient information and lack of complementary histology to control for cell type differences between sexes.ConclusionsThis pilot study, for the first time, utilises a multivariate proteomic approach to investigate sexual dimorphism in human atherosclerotic tissue, and provides an essential proteomic platform for further investigations to help understand sexual dimorphism and plaque vulnerability in atherosclerosis.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    BMC, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Afamin; Atherosclerosis; Lysozyme C; Mass spectrometry; Serine protease inhibitors; Vulnerability
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicinsk genetik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153822 (URN)10.1186/s13293-018-0217-3 (DOI)000454616000001 ()30594242 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Heart Lung Foundation; Torsten and Ragnar Soderbergs Foundation; Stroke Foundation; Olle Engkvist Foundation; Swedish Gamla Tjanarinnor Foundation; Linkoping University Hospital Research Fund

    Tillgänglig från: 2019-01-11 Skapad: 2019-01-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-17
    3. Carotid Atheroma From Men Has Significantly Higher Levels of Inflammation and Iron Metabolism Enabled by Macrophages
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Carotid Atheroma From Men Has Significantly Higher Levels of Inflammation and Iron Metabolism Enabled by Macrophages
    Visa övriga...
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Stroke, ISSN 0039-2499, E-ISSN 1524-4628, Vol. 49, nr 2, s. 419-425Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Purpose-Men differ from women in the manifestation of atherosclerosis and iron metabolism. Intraplaque hemorrhage and hemoglobin (Hb) catabolism by macrophages are associated with atherosclerotic lesion instability. The study aims were to investigate sex differences in (1) lesion severity in relation to blood Hb, (2) iron homeostasis in human carotid plaques, and (3) macrophage polarization within atheroma. Methods-The carotid artery samples from 39 men and 23 women were immunostained with cell markers for macrophages, smooth muscle cells, ferritin, and TfR1 (transferrin receptor 1), which were further analyzed according to sex in relation to iron, Hb, and lipids in circulation. Additionally, samples of predefined regions from human carotid atherosclerotic lesions, including internal controls, were used for proteomic analysis by mass spectrometry. Results-Male patients, compared with women, had larger necrotic cores and more plaque rupture, which were associated with higher levels of Hb. Atheroma of male patients had significantly higher levels of Hb in circulation and CD68 macrophages, ferritin, and TfR1 in lesions. CD68 macrophages were significantly correlated with ferritin and TfR1. Plaques from male patients comparatively possessed higher levels of inflammatory macrophage subsets, CD86 (M1) and CD163 (M2), but lower levels of STF (serotransferrin) and HPX (hemopexin). Conclusions-Male patients with carotid atheroma had more advanced and ruptured lesions associated with significantly higher levels of inflammatory macrophage infiltration and high iron stores in the blood and in their plaques. These findings help to understand sex differences and iron metabolism in atherosclerosis and factors related to atheroma progression.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2018
    Nyckelord
    atherosclerosis; ferritins; hemoglobins; hemopexin; macrophages; male
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Neurologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-144876 (URN)10.1161/STROKEAHA.117.018724 (DOI)000422928000035 ()29284736 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation; Torsten and Ragnar Soderbergs Foundation; Stroke Foundation; Olle Engkvist Foundation; Swedish Gamla Tjanarinnor Foundation; Linkoping University; Linkoping University Hospital Research Fund

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-02-09 Skapad: 2018-02-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-17
  • Pettersson, Albin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap.
    Engelska som kommandospråk inom marina operationer i den svenska Försvarsmakten2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten undersöks brukandet av engelska med NATO-standard inom den svenska militärens marina verksamheter. Anställda inom olika organisationer har intervjuats om hur det parallella brukandet av engelska med vanliga arbetsuppgifter påverkar deras förmåga att verka till önskad effekt. De intervjuade vittnar alla om en kännbar problematik gällande hur språket ska användas enligt gällande direktiv och att många problemen berör; hur språket påverkar verksamheten gällande stress, ger upphov till kommunikationsproblem, uppgifters tidsåtgång ökar och att tolkningssvårigheter uppstår, även om deras personliga arbetsuppgifter inte alltid påverkas direkt. Även möjligheter till att göra karriär påverkas negativt när språklig kompetens prioriteras och sätts mot yrkeskompetens, vilket riskerar att över tid ge en oerfarnare organisation när äldre medarbetare ej besitter samma språkliga kompetens. Olika förslag ges för hur man ska hantera engelska inom verksamheten i framtiden.

  • Disputation: 2019-05-31 13:00 Hugo Theorell, Norra Entrén, Linköping
    Ziegler, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för kardiovaskulär medicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för medicinsk bildvetenskap och visualisering, CMIV.
    Improving Assessments of Hemodynamics and Vascular Disease2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Blood vessels are more than simple pipes, passively enabling blood to pass through them. Their form and function are dynamic, changing with both aging and disease. This process involves a feedback loop wherein changes to the shape of a blood vessel affect the hemodynamics, causing yet more structural adaptation. This feedback loop is driven in part by the hemodynamic forces generated by the blood flow, and the distribution and strength of these forces appear to play a role in the initiation, progression, severity, and the outcome of vascular diseases.

    Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) offers a unique platform for investigating both the form and function of the vascular system. The form of the vascular system can be examined using MR-based angiography, to generate detailed geometric analyses, or through quantitative techniques for measuring the composition of the vessel wall and atherosclerotic plaques. To complement these analyses, 4D Flow MRI can be used to quantify the functional aspect of the vascular system, by generating a full time-resolved three-dimensional velocity field that represents the blood flow.

    This thesis aims to develop and evaluate new methods for assessing vascular disease using novel hemodynamic markers generated from 4D Flow MRI and quantitative MRI data towards the larger goal of a more comprehensive non-invasive examination oriented towards vascular disease. In Paper I, we developed and evaluated techniques to quantify flow stasis in abdominal aortic aneurysms to measure this under-explored aspect of aneurysmal hemodynamics. In Paper II, the distribution and intensity of turbulence in the aorta was quantified in both younger and older men to understand how aging changes this aspect of hemodynamics. A method to quantify the stresses generated by turbulence that act on the vessel wall was developed and evaluated using simulated flow data in Paper III, and in Paper V this method was utilized to examine the wall stresses of the carotid artery. The hemodynamics of vascular disease cannot be uncoupled from the anatomical changes the vessel wall undergoes, and therefore Paper IV developed and evaluated a semi-automatic method for quantifying several aspects of vessel wall composition. These developments, taken together, help generate more valuable information from imaging data, and can be pooled together with other methods to form a more comprehensive non-invasive examination for vascular disease.

    Delarbeten
    1. Visualizing and quantifying flow stasis in abdominal aortic aneurysms in men using 4D flow MRI
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Visualizing and quantifying flow stasis in abdominal aortic aneurysms in men using 4D flow MRI
    Visa övriga...
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ISSN 0730-725X, E-ISSN 1873-5894, Vol. 57, s. 103-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine methods for visualizing and quantifying flow stasis in abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) using 4D Flow MRI. Methods: Three methods were investigated: conventional volumetric residence time (VRT), mean velocity analysis (MVA), and particle travel distance analysis (TDA). First, ideal 4D Flow MRI data was generated using numerical simulations and used as a platform to explore the effects of noise and background phase-offset errors, both of which are common 4D Flow MRI artifacts. Error-free results were compared to noise or offset affected results using linear regression. Subsequently, 4D Flow MRI data for thirteen (13) subjects with AAA was acquired and used to compare the stasis quantification methods against conventional flow visualization. Results: VRT (R-2 = 0.69) was more sensitive to noise than MVA (R-2 = 0.98) and TDA (R-2 = 0.99) at typical noncontrast signal-to-noise ratio levels (SNR = 20). VRT (R-2 = 0.14) was more sensitive to background phase-offsets than MVA (R-2 = 0.99) and TDA (R-2 = 0.96) when considering a 95% effective background phase-offset correction. Qualitatively, TDA outperformed MVA (Wilcoxon p amp;lt; 0.005, mean score improvement 1.6/5), and had good agreement (median score 4/5) with flow visualizations. Conclusion: Flow stasis can be quantitatively assessed using 4D Flow MRI. While conventional residence time calculations fail due to error accumulation as a result of imperfect measured velocity fields, methods that do not require lengthy particle tracking perform better. MVA and TDA are less sensitive to measurement errors, and TDA generates results most similar to those obtained using conventional flow visualization.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2019
    Nyckelord
    Abdominal aortic aneurysm; Hemodynamics; 4D flow MRI; Flow stasis
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicinsk laboratorie- och mätteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154524 (URN)10.1016/j.mri.2018.11.003 (DOI)000458096100012 ()30445146 (PubMedID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-20 Skapad: 2019-02-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-17
    2. Age-Related Vascular Changes Affect Turbulence in Aortic Blood Flow
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Age-Related Vascular Changes Affect Turbulence in Aortic Blood Flow
    Visa övriga...
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, artikel-id 36Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Turbulent blood flow is implicated in the pathogenesis of several aortic diseases but the extent and degree of turbulent blood flow in the normal aorta is unknown. We aimed to quantify the extent and degree of turbulece in the normal aorta and to assess whether age impacts the degree of turbulence. 22 young normal males (23.7 +/- 3.0 y.o.) and 20 old normal males (70.9 +/- 3.5 y.o.) were examined using four dimensional flow magnetic resonance imaging (4D Flow MRI) to quantify the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), a measure of the intensity of turbulence, in the aorta. All healthy subjects developed turbulent flow in the aorta, with total TKE of 3-19 mJ. The overall degree of turbulence in the entire aorta was similar between the groups, although the old subjects had about 73% more total TKE in the ascending aorta compared to the young subjects (young = 3.7 +/- 1.8 mJ, old = 6.4 +/- 2.4 mJ, p amp;lt; 0.001). This increase in ascending aorta TKE in old subjects was associated with age-related dilation of the ascending aorta which increases the volume available for turbulence development. Conversely, age-related dilation of the descending and abdominal aorta decreased the average flow velocity and suppressed the development of turbulence. In conclusion, turbulent blood flow develops in the aorta of normal subjects and is impacted by age-related geometric changes. Non-invasive assessment enables the determination of normal levels of turbulent flow in the aorta which is a prerequisite for understanding the role of turbulence in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2018
    Nyckelord
    turbulent kinetic energy (TKE); turbulent blood flow; aortic blood flow; aortic dilation; normal values; 4D flow MRI; phase contrast MRI
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Fysiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145129 (URN)10.3389/fphys.2018.00036 (DOI)000423400000001 ()29422871 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2013-6077, 2014-6191]; Swedish Heart and Lung foundation [20140398]; Kangwon National University [D1001179-01-01]; Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) - Ministry of Education [2016R1A6A3A03006337]

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-02-19 Skapad: 2018-02-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-17
    3. Assessment of Turbulent Flow Effects on the Vessel Wall Using Four-Dimensional Flow MRI
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Assessment of Turbulent Flow Effects on the Vessel Wall Using Four-Dimensional Flow MRI
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine, ISSN 0740-3194, E-ISSN 1522-2594, Vol. 77, nr 6, s. 2310-2319Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To explore the use of MR-estimated turbulence quantities for the assessment of turbulent flow effects on the vessel wall. Methods: Numerical velocity data for two patient-derived models was obtained using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for two physiological flow rates. The four-dimensional (4D) Flow MRI measurements were simulated at three different spatial resolutions and used to investigate the estimation of turbulent wall shear stress (tWSS) using the intravoxel standard deviation (IVSD) of velocity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) estimated near the vessel wall. Results: Accurate estimation of tWSS using the IVSD is limited by the spatial resolution achievable with 4D Flow MRI. TKE, estimated near the wall, has a strong linear relationship to the tWSS (mean R(2=)0.84). Near-wall TKE estimates from MR simulations have good agreement to CFD-derived ground truth (mean R-2=0.90). Maps of near-wall TKE have strong visual correspondence to tWSS. Conclusion: Near-wall estimation of TKE permits assessment of relative maps of tWSS, but direct estimation of tWSS is challenging due to limitations in spatial resolution. Assessment of tWSS and near-wall TKE may open new avenues for analysis of different pathologies. (C) 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    WILEY, 2017
    Nyckelord
    phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging; wall shear stress; turbulence; turbulent kinetic energy; aorta
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Medicinsk bildbehandling
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-138232 (URN)10.1002/mrm.26308 (DOI)000401270900022 ()27350049 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council; National Supercomputer Centre [SNIC2014-11-22]

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-06-14 Skapad: 2017-06-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-17
  • Petersen, Nikiforos
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Statsvetenskap.
    The Common European Asylum System: Challenges and Opportunities in Greece. A Case Study2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 80 poäng / 120 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis aims to investigate decision-making and policy implementation in the European Union, specifically regarding the Common European Asylum System (CEAS) and to compare how the political intention corresponds to the reality of its implementation, using the example of Greece. Europe’s ability to handle migration and refugee flows has been severely tested in recent years due to the large number of people fleeing wars in Central Asia and the Middle East.

    The CEAS constitutes a fairly modern endeavor compared to other regional programs concerned with refugee protection but it has not yet made a significant improvement in how refugees are treated. At the same time, Greece has been in an acute socio-economic crisis since at least 2010.

    European integration has traditionally been subject to theoretical analysis through Moravcsiik’s Liberal Intergovernmentalism and various forms of formalism. This thesis has tried to apply Historical Institutionalism to explain certain facets of the CEAS and the recent and on-going ‘refugee’ crisis. In combination with other theories, Institutionalism can contribute to an understanding of recent forces towards further integration and divergence in the European Union.

  • Almlöf, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Affärsrätt. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Internationella Handelshögskolan i Jönköping.
    Per-Olof, Bjuggren
    Ratio - Näringslivets forskningsinstitut, Stockholm.
    What Matters in Design of Corporate Law2017Övrigt (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    For the corporate business model to be successful, it is important to align the interests of thosewho control and finance the firm. Corporate law has here an important task to fulfill. It offers alegal framework that can facilitate for parties to conclude mutually preferable agreements atlow transaction costs. The purpose of the paper is to show how to design corporate law to fulfillthis task. A two-dimension model that simultaneously considers both regulation intensity andthe level of default of the corporate law is presented. Earlier literature treats these dimensionsseparately. By adding a transaction cost perspective to our model, we assess different regulatorytechniques and examine how legislation can help corporations by offering a standard contractthat lowers transaction costs of contracting. This can be achieved through a legislation thatcovers most contingencies and take the heterogeneity of firms into consideration. Furthermore,default rules or standards of opt-out character should be combined with other regulatorytechniques with lower transaction costs such as opt-in alternatives and menus.

  • Disputation: 2019-05-09 09:15 Planck, Fysikhuset, Linköping
    Sundman, Ann-Sofie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Dog behaviour: Intricate picture of genetics, epigenetics, and human-dog relations2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Dogs, Canis familiaris, share the lives of humans all over the world. That dogs, and the behavior of dogs, are of interest to many is therefore no surprise. In this thesis, the main aim has been to identify factors that affect dogs’ behaviours.

    The dog, Canis familiaris, is our first domesticated animal. Since domestication, various types of dogs have developed through adaptation to an environment shared with humans and through our selective breeding, resulting in a unique variation in morphology and behaviour. Although there is an individual variation in the behaviour of dogs, there is also a difference between breeds. Moreover, selection during the last decades has split some breeds into divergent types. Labrador and golden retrievers are divided into a common type, for show and companionship, and a field type, for hunting. By comparing the breed types, we can study the effects of recent selection. In Paper I, we investigate differences in general behavioural traits between Labrador and golden retriever and between common and field type within the two breeds by using results from the standardized behaviour test Dog Mentality Assessment. There were differences between breeds and types for all behavioural traits. However, there was also an interaction between breed and type. Thus, a common/field-type Labrador does not behave like a common/field-type golden retriever. Even though they have been selected for similar traits, the selection has affected the general behavioural traits differently in the two breeds.

    In paper II, we were interested in dogs’ human-directed social skills. Dogs have a high social competence when it comes to humans. Two experiments commonly used to study these skills are the problem-solving test, where dogs’ human-directed behaviours when faced with a problem are measured, and the pointing test, where dogs are tested on how well they understand human gestures. We compared the social skills of German shepherds and Labrador retrievers, and of common- and field-type Labradors. Labradors were more successful in the pointing test and German shepherds stayed closer to their owners during the problem solving. Among Labrador types, the field type had more human eye contact than the common type. Importantly, when comparing the two experiments, we found no positive correlations between the problem-solving test and the pointing test, suggesting that the two tests measure different aspects of human-directed social behaviour in dogs.

    A previous study has identified two suggestive genetic regions for human-directed social behaviours during the problem-solving test in beagles. In paper III, we show that these SNPs are also associated to social behaviours in Labrador and golden retrievers. Moreover, the Labrador breed types differed significantly in allele frequencies. This indicates that the two SNPs have been affected by recent selection and may have a part in the differences in sociability between common and field type.

    The behaviour of dogs cannot simply be explained by genetics, there is also an environmental component. In paper IV, we study which factors that affect long-term stress in dogs. Long-term cortisol can be measured by hair samples. We found a clear synchronization in hair cortisol concentrations between dogs and their owners. Neither dogs’ activity levels nor their behavioural traits affected the cortisol, however, the personality of the owners did. Therefore, we suggest that dogs mirror the stress level of their owners.

    The mediator between genes and the environment is epigenetics, and one epigenetic factor is DNA methylation. In paper V, we compared methylation patterns of wolves and dogs as well as dog breeds. Between both wolves and dogs and among dogs there were substantial differences in methylated DNA regions, suggesting that DNA methylation is likely to contribute to the vast variation among canines. We hypothesize that epigenetic factors have been important during domestication and in breed formation.

    In this thesis, I cover several aspects on how dogs’ behaviours can be affected, and paint an intricate picture on how genetics, epigenetics, and human-dog relations forms dog behaviour.

    Delarbeten
    1. Similar recent selection criteria associated with different behavioural effects in two dog breeds
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Similar recent selection criteria associated with different behavioural effects in two dog breeds
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Genes, Brain and Behavior, ISSN 1601-1848, E-ISSN 1601-183X, Vol. 15, nr 8, s. 750-756Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Selection during the last decades has split some established dog breeds into morphologically and behaviourally divergent types. These breed splits are interesting models for behaviour genetics since selection has often been for few and well-defined behavioural traits. The aim of this study was to explore behavioural differences between selection lines in golden and Labrador retriever, in both of which a split between a common type (pet and conformation) and a field type (hunting) has occurred. We hypothesized that the behavioural profiles of the types would be similar in both breeds. Pedigree data and results from a standardized behavioural test from 902 goldens (698 common and 204 field) and 1672 Labradors (1023 and 649) were analysed. Principal component analysis revealed six behavioural components: curiosity, play interest, chase proneness, social curiosity, social greeting and threat display. Breed and type affected all components, but interestingly there was an interaction between breed and type for most components. For example, in Labradors the common type had higher curiosity than the field type (F1,1668 = 18.359; P < 0.001), while the opposite was found in goldens (F1,897 = 65.201; P < 0.001). Heritability estimates showed considerable genetic contributions to the behavioural variations in both breeds, but different heritabilities between the types within breeds was also found, suggesting different selection pressures. In conclusion, in spite of similar genetic origin and similar recent selection criteria, types behave differently in the breeds. This suggests that the genetic architecture related to behaviour differs between the breeds.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Inc., 2016
    Nyckelord
    Behavioural genetics, behavioural test, dog behaviour, dogs, golden retriever, heritability, Labrador retriever, selection
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi Zoologi Etologi Genetik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-132746 (URN)10.1111/gbb.12317 (DOI)000393079000007 ()27520587 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: research council, Formas; Advanced Research Grant from the European Research Council (ERC) [322206]

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-11-22 Skapad: 2016-11-22 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-17Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Understanding of human referential gestures is not correlated to human-directed social behaviour in Labrador retrievers and German shepherd dogs
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Understanding of human referential gestures is not correlated to human-directed social behaviour in Labrador retrievers and German shepherd dogs
    Visa övriga...
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Animal Behaviour Science, ISSN 0168-1591, E-ISSN 1872-9045, Vol. 201, s. 46-53Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Dogs are known to excel in interspecific communication with humans and both communicate with humans and follow human communicative cues. Two tests commonly used to test these skills are, firstly, the problem-solving paradigm, and, secondly, following human referential signals, for example pointing. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether dogs that seek more human contact in an unsolvable problem-solving paradigm also better understand human communicative cues in a pointing test. We also assessed between- and within-breed variation in both tests. 167 dogs were tested and were of the breeds German shepherd dog and Labrador retriever. The Labradors were separated into the two selection lines: common type (bred for show and pet) and field type (bred for hunting). A principal component analysis of behaviours during the problem solving revealed four components: Passivity, Experimenter Contact, Owner Contact and Eye Contact. We analysed the effect of these components on success rate in the pointing test and we found no effect for three of them, while a negative correlation was found for Owner Contact (F(1,147) = 6.892; P = 0.010). This was only present in common-typed Labradors. We conclude that the ability to follow a pointing cue does not predict the propensity for human-directed social behaviour in a problem-solving situation and suggest that the two tests measure different aspects of human-directed social behaviour in dogs.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Human-dog communication, Human-directed social behaviour, Pointing test, Problem-solving test, German shepherd dogs. Labrador retrievers
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biologiska vetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145542 (URN)10.1016/j.applanim.2017.12.017 (DOI)000430774800007 ()2-s2.0-85039704233 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: European Research Council (ERC) [322206]

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-03-05 Skapad: 2018-03-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-17Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Sociality genes are associated with human-directed social behaviour in golden and Labrador retriever dogs
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Sociality genes are associated with human-directed social behaviour in golden and Labrador retriever dogs
    Visa övriga...
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 6, artikel-id e5889Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Dogs have human-directed social skills that allow them to communicate and cooperate with humans. We have previously identified two loci on chromosome 26 associated with human contact-seeking behaviors during an unsolvable problem task in laboratory beagles (Persson et A, 2016). The aim of the present study was to verify the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in additional dog breeds. We also studied how the allele frequencies have changed during domestication and recent selection. Methods: Dogs of two breeds, 61 golden retrievers and 100 Labrador retrievers, were phenotyped and genotyped, and 19 wolves were genotyped. The Labrador retrievers were divided into common and field type by pedigree data to make it possible to study the effects of recent selection. All dogs were tested in an unsolvable problem task where human-directed social behaviors were scored. DNA from dogs (buccal swabs) and wolves (blood or brain tissue) was analyzed for genotype on two of the previously identified SNP markers, BICF2G630798942 (SNP1) and BICF2S23712114 (SNP2), by pyrosequencing. Results: There was genetic variation for SNP1 in both dog breeds whereas the wolves were fixed for this polymorphism, and for SNP2 there was variation in both dogs and wolves. For both SNPs, Labrador retriever types differed significantly in allele frequencies. We found associations between SNPs and human-directed social behavior in both dog breeds. In golden retrievers, SNP I was associated with physical contact variables, for example, with the duration of physical contact with the owner (F-2,F-56 = 4.389, p = 0.017). SNP2 was associated with several behavioral variables in both breeds, among others owner gazing frequency in both golden retrievers (F-2,F-55 = 6.330, p = 0.003) and Labradors (F-1,F-93 = 5.209, p = 0.025). Discussion: Our results verify the association between the previously identified SNPs and human-directed social behavior scored in an unsolvable problem task. Differences in allele frequencies suggest that these loci have been affected by selection. The results indicate that these genomic regions are involved in human-directed social behavior in not only beagles but in other dog breeds as well. We hypothesize that they may have been important during dog domestication.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    PEERJ INC, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Genetics; Dog genetics; Dog behavior; Human-dog communication; Human-directed social behavior; Golden retrievers; Labrador retrievers; Wolf; Domestication; Behavior genetics
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Evolutionsbiologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153536 (URN)10.7717/peerj.5889 (DOI)000452327000008 ()30416887 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|European Research Council (ERC) [322206]

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-12-20 Skapad: 2018-12-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-17
  • Disputation: 2019-05-09 10:15 Nobel (BL32), B-huset, Linköping
    Ghosh, Arpan
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Matematik och tillämpad matematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Mathematical modelling of flow through thin curved pipes with application to hemodynamics2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The problem of mathematical modelling of incompressible flows with low velocities through narrow curvilinear pipes is addressed in this thesis. The main motivation for this modelling task is to eventually model the human circulatory system in a simple way that can facilitate the medical practitioners to efficiently diagnose any abnormality in the system. The thesis comprises of four articles.

    In the first article, a two-dimensional model describing the elastic behaviour of the wall of a thin, curved,  exible pipe is presented. The wall is assumed to have a laminate structure consisting of several anisotropic layers of varying thickness. The width of the channel is allowed to vary along the pipe. The two-dimensional model takes the interactions of the wall with any surrounding material and the  fluid  flow into account and is obtained through a dimension reduction procedure. Examples of canonical shapes of pipes and their walls are provided with explicit systems of differential equations at the end.

    In the second article, a one-dimensional model describing the blood flow through a moderately curved, elastic blood vessel is presented. The two-dimensional model presented in the first paper is used to model the vessel wall while linearized Navier-Stokes equations are used to model the  flow through the channel. Surrounding muscle tissues and presence of external forces other than gravity are taken into account. The model is again obtained via a dimension reduction procedure based on the assumption of thinness of the vessel relative to its length. Results of numerical simulations are presented to highlight the influence of different factors on the blood flow.

    The one-dimensional model described in the second paper is used to derive a simplified one-dimensional model of a false aneurysm which forms the subject of the third article. A false aneurysm is an accumulation of blood outside a blood vessel but confined by the surrounding muscle tissue. Numerical simulations are presented which demonstrate different characteristics associated with a false aneurysm.

    In the final article, a modified Reynolds equation, along with its derivation from Stokes equations through asymptotic methods, is presented. The equation governs the steady flow of a fluid with low Reynolds number through a narrow, curvilinear tube. The channel considered may have large curvature and torsion. Approximations of the velocity and the pressure of the fluid inside the channel are constructed. These approximations satisfy a modified Poiseuille equation. A justification for the approximations is provided along with a comparison with a simpler case.

    Delarbeten
    1. A TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF THE THIN LAMINAR WALL OF A CURVILINEAR FLEXIBLE PIPE
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A TWO-DIMENSIONAL MODEL OF THE THIN LAMINAR WALL OF A CURVILINEAR FLEXIBLE PIPE
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Quarterly Journal of Mechanics and Applied Mathematics, ISSN 0033-5614, E-ISSN 1464-3855, Vol. 71, nr 3, s. 349-367Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We present a two-dimensional model describing the elastic behaviour of the wall of a curved flexible pipe. The wall has a laminate structure consisting of several anisotropic layers of varying thickness and is assumed to be much smaller in thickness than the radius of the channel which itself is allowed to vary. Our two-dimensional model takes the interaction of the wall with any surrounding or supporting material and the fluid flow into account and is obtained via a dimension reduction procedure. The curvature and twist of the pipes axis as well as the anisotropy of the laminate wall present the main challenges in applying the dimension reduction procedure so plenty of examples of canonical shapes of pipes and their walls are supplied with explicit systems of differential equations at the end.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150869 (URN)10.1093/qjmam/hby009 (DOI)000441808700006 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Russian Foundation of Basic Research [18-01-00325]

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-09-06 Skapad: 2018-09-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-16
    2. A one dimensional model of blood flow through a curvilinear artery
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>A one dimensional model of blood flow through a curvilinear artery
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Mathematical Modelling, ISSN 0307-904X, E-ISSN 1872-8480, Vol. 63, s. 633-643Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    We present a one-dimensional model describing the blood flow through a moderately curved and elastic blood vessel. We use an existing two dimensional model of the vessel wall along with Navier-Stokes equations to model the flow through the channel while taking factors, namely, surrounding muscle tissue and presence of external forces other than gravity into account. Our model is obtained via a dimension reduction procedure based on the assumption of thinness of the vessel relative to its length. Results of numerical simulations are presented to highlight the influence of different factors on the blood flow. (C) 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Blood flow; Curvilinear vessel; Asymptotic analysis; Dimension reduction; Numerical simulation
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Strömningsmekanik och akustik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151627 (URN)10.1016/j.apm.2018.07.019 (DOI)000444362800034 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Russian Foundation of Basic Research [18-01-00325]

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-10-09 Skapad: 2018-10-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-16
  • Mårtensson, Åsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Andersson, Per
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    A recruiter, a matchmaker, a firefighter: Swedish vocational teachers’ relational work2019Ingår i: Nordic Journal of Vocational Education and Training, E-ISSN 2242-458X, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 89-110Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A central part of Swedish vocational teachers’ work concerns their students’ work-based learning (WBL). The focus of this article is the character of the relational work carried out by teachers of vocational education and training (VET) concerning WBL. The qualitative study is based on 15 interviews with teachers on the upper-secondary level Child and Recreation, Building and Construction, and Handicraft programmes. The study is based on a situated learning perspective, and uses the concepts of community of practice, broker and boundary crossing. The findings highlight three central aspects of VET teachers’ relational work with WBL: recruiting workplaces for WBL, matchmaking between students and workplaces, and ‘firefighting’ to prevent and deal with problems that occur during WBL periods. The study contributes to the understanding of the work of VET teachers, as they cross the blurred boundaries between school and working life and strive to create a good learning environment for all students during WBL periods.

  • Fredman, Josefin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Flinge, Lilian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Utomhusmatematik- är det inne?: – En litteraturstudie om hur lärare och elever upplever utomhusmatematik och dess inverkan på elevers motivation.2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utomhuspedagogik har haft störst genomslagskraft i matematiken. Denna litteraturstudie syftar till att undersöka hur lärare och elever i förskoleklass och årskurs 1-3 upplever utomhusmatematik och vilken inverkan utomhusmatematik kan ha på elevers motivation. Detta har undersökts genom att samla in, analysera och granska vad tidigare forskning visar. Studierna som utgör resultatet har hämtats via UniSearch och ERIC samt genom manuell sökning. Resultatet av litteraturstudien visar på en positiv inställning hos både lärare och elever vad det gäller utomhusmatematik. Vidare visar studien att elevers motivation ökar tack vare denna undervisningsmetod.

  • Wernberg, Max
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Security and Privacy of Controller Pilot Data Link Communication2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Newly implemented technologies within the aviation lack, according to recent studies, built in security measures to protect them against outside interference. In this thesis we study the security and privacy status of the digital wireless Controller Pilot Data Link Communication (CPDLC) used in air traffic management alongside other systems to increase the safety and traffic capacity of controlled airspaces. The findings show that CPDCL is currently insecure and exposed to attacks. Any solutions to remedy this must adhere to its low levels of performance. Elliptical Curve Cryptography, Protected ACARS and Host Identity Protocol have been identified as valid solutions to the system’s security drawbacks and all three are possible to implement in the present state of CPDLC.

  • Grabmüller, Sandra
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Kommunikations- och transportsystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lagerstyrning för datorer ute ifält2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10,5 poäng / 16 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Detta examensarbete har genomförts på MSB och handlar om att ta fram ett förslag på lagerstyningen för datorer ute i fält till MSB.

  • Sandqvist Wedin, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teknisk biologi.
    Optimization of Acidic Degradation of Hyaluronic Acid using Design of Experiments2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Hyaluronic acid (HA) is an unbranched polysaccharide consisting of the repeating disaccharide unit β(1→4)-GlcA-β(1→3)-GlcNAc and is a naturally occurring biopolymer in bacteria and vertebras. HA is predominantly found in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and the in vivo function of HA can vary depending on molecular weight (Mw) for instance high Mw HA is reported to be anti-angiogenic while low Mw HA induces angiogenesis. HA is a popular component for hydrogels such as dermal fillers. HA is commonly used in dermal fillers. However, other materials, such as other polymers, can be used as well. The project goal was to investigate different degradation processes for production of target Mw HA. Alkaline and acidic degradation processes in combination with increased temperatures seemed as the most promising methods. Degradation tests performed both in aqueous solution as well as heterogeneously in ethanol were evaluated. The acidic degradation in aqueous solution was proven to have the largest degradation constant. Both a robustness test as well as a Design of Experiments (DoE) was performed to investigate the influence different factors had on the degradation speed. The investigated factors were HA concentration, HCl concentration and temperature. Temperature and HCl concentrations proved to be the most influencing factors and a model was developed in the DoE software MODDE to describe how the factors influenced the degradation constant. The model was established as a good significant model with a Q2 value of 0.998 and relative standard deviation (RSD) value of 0.022 after a logarithmic transformation was performed as well as a simplification of the model by excluding some of the factor interactions. The acidic degradation method also proved to be a highly robust method which easily could be used to produce target Mw HA.

  • Mollet, Jelke
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Wahlinder Stål, Tina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Undervisning i förskolan: Ett definitionsträsk2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studie är att undersöka hur pedagoger i förskolan, det vill säga barnskötare och förskollärare, resonerar kring begreppet undervisning. Studien ämnar svara på frågorna hur pedagoger reflekterar kring undervisningsbegreppet samt hur undervisning kan ske i förskolan enligt pedagogerna. Studien utgår från ett social konstruktionistiskt perspektiv och vi har samlat in material genom kvalitativa intervjuer med tio förskolepedagoger som sedan analyserats genom en kvalitativ tematisk analys med hjälp av framework.

    Resultatet av studien visar att pedagogerna är villiga att ta upp det nya begreppet med undervisning i förskolan och diskuterar vad det innebär i en förskolekontext. Våra informanter uppvisar ingen skolifieringsskräck som tidigare forskning visat på. Studien visar även på att det råder en viss begreppsförvirring mellan undervisning och lärande. Begreppen anses ibland synonyma och ibland ges begreppen olika definitioner. Vi kan genom studien dra slutsatser om vikten av begreppsdefinitioner så att begrepp inte urholkas. Genom pedagogernas resonemang framkommer att de ser sin utbildning och vidare kompetensutveckling som en viktig aspekt för att kunna bedriva undervisning i förskolan.

    Framtida forskning kan fokusera på en begreppsdefinition av lärande och undervisning och hur begreppen kan särskiljas. Det är även möjligt att studera vad som kännetecknar spontan undervisning i förskolan och när den kan ske. Pedagoger har ett behov av att kunna identifiera när undervisning sker så att inte allt blir undervisning och begreppet därmed urholkas.

  • Eilert, Pernilla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för datavetenskap, Artificiell intelligens och integrerade datorsystem.
    Learning behaviour trees for simulated fighter pilots in airborne reconnaissance missions: A grammatical evolution approach2019Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Fighter pilots often find themselves in situations where they need to make quick decisions. Therefore an intelligent decision support system that suggests how the fighter pilot should act in a specific situation is vital. The aim of this project is to investigate and evaluate grammatical evolution paired with behaviour trees to develop a decision support system. This support system should control a simulated fighter pilot during an airborne reconnaissance mission. This thesis evaluates the complexity of the evolved trees and the performance, and robustness of the algorithm. Key factors were identified for a successful system: scenario, fitness function, initialisation technique and control parameters. The used techniques were decided based on increasing performance of the algorithm and decreasing complexity of the tree structures. The initialisation technique, the genetic operators and the selection functions performed well but the fitness function needed more work. Most of the experiments resulted in local maxima. A desired solution could only be found if the initial population contained an individual with a BT succeeding the mission. However, the implementation behaved as expected. More and longer simulations are needed to draw a conclusion of the performance based on robustness, when testing the evolved BT:s on different scenarios. Several methods were studied to decrease the complexity of the trees and the experiments showed a promising variation of complexity through the generations when the best fitness was fixed. A feature was added to the algorithm, to promote lower complexity when equal fitness value. The results were poor and implied that pruning would be a better fit after the simulations. Nevertheless, this thesis suggests that it is suitable to implement a decision support system based on grammatical evolution paired with behaviour trees as framework.

  • Halilic, Senija
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för radiologiska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Kämmerling, Nina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för radiologiska vetenskaper. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Värdet av DT-buköversikt som primär undersökning vid akut buksmärta2016Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att se hur stor andel av de patienter som genomgått DT-BÖS vid akut påkomna buksymptom som behöver genomgå kompletterande undersökning, samt vilken diagnos som ställdes vid den kompletterande undersökningen. Vilka frågeställningar besvarar DT-BÖS vid akut påkommen buksmärta? Vilka frågeställningar motiverar annan  undersökning som förstahandsundersökning?

  • Disputation: 2019-05-10 10:15 ACAS, Linköping
    Lawrence, Akvile
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Energy Management for Improving Energy Efficiency in the Pulp and Paper Industry: Success Factors for Strengthening Drivers and Overcoming Barriers2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Industriell energieffektivitet behöver förbättras för att förbättra det årliga resutatet och för att stärka konkurrenskraften i företag. Massa- och pappersindustrin (MoP) är en av de fem mest energiintensiva industrierna med en andel på 5.6% av den globala energianvändningen, enligt IEA (Internationella Energimyndigheten), vilket gör branschen till en nyckelsektor vad gäller förbättrad energieffektivitet. MoP är inte mindre viktigt i Sverige där användningen omfattar ~52% av den totala industriella energianvändningen, antal anställda >20000 och där en minskning av den årliga energianvändningen med 1% motsvarar uppskattade besparingar på ~218 MSEK årligen. Energiledning (EL) är ett sätt att förbättra energieffektiviteten (EE). Emellertid tillämpas inte energiledning fullt ut och ibland inte alls, även om forskning visar på möjligheterna att minska energianvändningen med 5,5 – 19,4 % årligen. Detta leder till ett så kallat energieffektivitetsgap – skillnaden mellan den optimala och den nuvarande graden av energieffektivitet. Varför existerar då detta energieffektivitetsgap? Vad är drivkrafterna och vilka är hindren för att använda energiledning fullt ut, och på så sätt förbättra energieffektiviteten? Vad är framgångsfaktorerna för att uppmuntra / förstärka drifkrafter och överbrygga /minska hindren? Vilka praktiska rekommendationer kan göras som skulle kunna leda till förbättrad energieffektivitet? Information som har extraherats från historisk och nuvarande tillgänglig data har bland annat studerats med hjälp av multivariat data analys (MDA). Denna doktorsavhandling syftar till att presentera ny kunskap i syfte att bidra till att förbättra energieffektiviteten i MoP. Den internationella forskningen som fokuserat på EL i MoP har som utgångspunkt att detta sker främst via teknik, trots att EL också innebär andra aspekter än EL via teknik, t.ex. EL via proaktiv användning av tekniken. Detta resultat indikerar existerandet av ett kunskaps-gap gällande EL i MoP. En studie med fokus på MoP i Sverige har påvisat skillander mellan de olika typerna av bruk – massabruk, pappersbruk och integrerade bruk, dvs. massa- och pappersbruk. Integrerade bruk verkar mäta energiprestanda på ett mer sofistikerat sätt än massa- och pappersbruk. Emellertid visar resultat också på att svenska MoP arbetar regelbundet och kontinuerligt med EL. Utöver de topprankade upplevda drivkrafterna som var ekonomirelaterade och hindren som var organisationsrelaterade, så var de kunskapsrelaterade drivkrafterna och -hindren rankade som de mest viktiga. Den höga rankningen av kunskapsrelaterade drivkrafter och hinder, tillsammans med resultat att oftast bara några få utvalda anställda utbildas inom EL, indikerar att komunikationen mellan den anställda som blivit utvald för utbildning och anställda som arbetar direkt inom produktionen, t.ex. operatörer, tillsammans med absorptiv kapacitet för EL skulle kunna förbättras. Dessutom, visar forskningen att användning av MDA framgångsrikt kan tydligare identifiera ej tidigare studerade / identifierade relationer mellan faktorer som påverkar energianvändningen, t.ex. att företag med mindre bra ekonomi och med mindre erfarenhet av EL tenderade att spara mer el än de andra företag som också deltog i det frivilliga avtalet PFE (Programmet för energieffektivisering i energiintensiv industri). Vidare, visar resultatet att specifik energianvändning, också benämnt specifik energikonsumtion (SEC), som är ett vanligt förekommande energi-nyckeltal för att mäta energieffektivitet, bör användas med större försiktighet och med större transparens för att säkerställa att jämförelser av energieffektivitet inte ger felaktiga resultat. Framgångsfaktorer för EL för att förbättra energieffektivitet, kan summeras i en modell, – ”4M för energieffektivitet”: Mind - tänk på (var medveten), Measure – mäta och åtgärda, Monitor - övervaka, Manage - styra/förvalta. Med ”4M för energieffektivitet” som utgångspunkt föreslås att alla fyra aspekterna genomförs samtidigt för att uppnå bästa möjliga förbättring av resultat och för att verktyget med framgång ska kunna tillämpas inom andra sektorer än MoP.

    Delarbeten
    1. Drivers, Barriers, and Success Factors for Improving Energy Management in the Pulp and Paper Industry
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Drivers, Barriers, and Success Factors for Improving Energy Management in the Pulp and Paper Industry
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 10, nr 6, artikel-id 1851Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Successful energy management is a way to achieve energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry (PPI), which is important for assuring energy supply security, for increasing economic competitiveness, and for mitigating greenhouse gases. However, research shows that although energy use within PPI can be reduced by 5.5-19.4% per year, some of this by energy management practices, energy management is not always implemented. Why is this so? What are the barriers to, and drivers of implementation? How can the barriers be overcome? A systematic review of barriers and drivers in energy management in the PPI within peer-reviewed scientific articles suggests that the world-wide events that affect energy supply, volatility, and use seemingly also affect the number and frequency of research articles on energy management in the PPI. The perception of energy management in the PPI seems to be dominated by the understanding that it can mostly be achieved through technological improvements aiming to improve energy efficiency. The main driver of energy management was shown to be economic conditions: high and unstable energy prices, followed by drivers such as the need to remain internationally competitive, collaboration and energy management systems. Meanwhile, examples of the most important barriers are technical risks, lack of access to capital, lack of time and other priorities, and slim organization. The success factors for enhancing drivers and overcoming barriers were continuous energy accounting, energy-related collaboration, energy-efficiency programmes, and benchmarking. Altogether, success factors for energy management for improved energy efficiency could be summarized in the 4M frameworkthe 4M for energy efficiency: mind, measure, monitor, and managethat could be used as the energy management memory-tool that could lead to improved energy efficiency in other sectors as well.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    MDPI, 2018
    Nyckelord
    energy management; energy efficiency; pulp and paper industry; barriers; drivers; ISO 50001; success factors
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Energisystem
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151523 (URN)10.3390/su10061851 (DOI)000436570100163 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency [2015-002143]; Division of Energy Systems in the Department of Management and Engineering at Linkoping University

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-09-24 Skapad: 2018-09-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-12
    2. Effects of firm characteristics and energy management for improving energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effects of firm characteristics and energy management for improving energy efficiency in the pulp and paper industry
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 153, s. 825-835Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI) must increase energy efficiency to remain competitive on the global market, which has experienced entries from countries with cheaper energy and raw material supplies. Interactions among variables for energy use, production, energy management, electricity price and firm characteristics (FC), in different types of mills, i.e., pulp, paper and integrated mills, in Sweden from 2006 to 2015 indicate that correlations among the studied variables were different in different types of mills. This difference between types of mills seemed to originate partly from varying accessibility to production residue that could be used for energy. For all types of mills, variation of electricity prices did not correlate significantly with energy efficiency during the study period. The studied FC were firms age, number of employees, number of companies in company group, net sales and profit for the year. Energy efficiency was more affected by the variables characterizing energy and production compared to the variables representing FC. This study also suggested presence of possible discrepancies between FC that were perceived as barriers to energy management towards energy efficiency, according to previous studies, and what was shown by the data combining variables representing energy use, production and FC. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Energy efficiency; Specific energy; Pulp and paper industry; Firm characteristics; Energy intensive industry; Energy management
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Energisystem
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150880 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2018.04.092 (DOI)000436651100074 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-09-06 Skapad: 2018-09-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-12
    3. Drivers, barriers and success factors for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Drivers, barriers and success factors for energy management in the Swedish pulp and paper industry
    Visa övriga...
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 223, s. 67-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Research has revealed the existence of an energy-efficiency gap – the difference between optimal and actual energy end-use, suggesting that energy efficiency can be improved. Energy management (EnM) is a means for improving industrial energy efficiency. However, due to various barriers, the full potential of EnM is not realised. Several studies have addressed drivers and barriers to energy efficiency but few to EnM. This study aims to identify EnM practices, the most important perceived drivers and barriers for EnM, and relations among them in the energy-intensive Swedish pulp and paper industry (PPI), which has the longest experience internationally of practising EnM systems, and has worked according to the standards since 2004. Our results show that, altogether, the PPI works regularly and continuously with EnM, with a clear division of responsibilities. The highest maturity for EnM practices was for energy policy, followed by organization, investments, and performance measurement. The study also shows that communication between middle management and operations personnel has potential for improvement. The most important categories of drivers were economic, whereas for barriers they were organizational. Nevertheless, knowledge-related barriers and drivers were amongst the most important, suggesting that the absorptive capacity for energy issues could be improved.

    Nyckelord
    Barriers, Drivers, Success factors, Energy management, Energy efficiency, Pulp and paper industry
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Energisystem
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156271 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.03.143 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-10 Skapad: 2019-04-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-12
    4. Effects of monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics on electricity saving in energy-intensive industry
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effects of monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics on electricity saving in energy-intensive industry
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 240, s. 499-512Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Our study looked at the extent to which firm characteristics such as total firm capital affect electricity saving in energy-intensive industry in Sweden from 2007 to 2015. Specifically, the most influential variables for systematic variation in electricity saving in the energy-intensive companies participating in Sweden’s voluntary programme for improving energy efficiency in energy-intensive industry (the PFE) were studied by analysing monetary investment, payback time and firm characteristics. Monetary investment and payback time influenced electricity savings during the PFE more than firm characteristics, with monetary investment being most influential. Nevertheless, the total systematic variation in firm characteristics may account for ∼16% of the systematic variation in electricity saving, where ∼74% (32 of 43) of the studied firm characteristics seemed to merit further investigation and where ∼49% (21 of 43) of firm characteristics appeared most influential. The most influential firm characteristics were total firm capital, stock turnover ratio, machinery, short-term liabilities per turnover ratio and goodwill. The overall results showed that firm characteristics can influence a firm’s energy-saving activities and indicated a tendency for more energy savings in companies that were financially weaker or had done less work to improve energy efficiency prior to the PFE.

    Nyckelord
    Energy efficiency, Energy saving, Energy intensive industry, Energy management, Firm characteristics, Voluntary agreement
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Energisystem
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156280 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2019.02.060 (DOI)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-11 Skapad: 2019-04-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-12
    5. Specific Energy Consumption/Use (SEC) in Energy Management for Improving Energy Efficiency in Industry: Meaning, Usage and Differences
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Specific Energy Consumption/Use (SEC) in Energy Management for Improving Energy Efficiency in Industry: Meaning, Usage and Differences
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 12, nr 2, artikel-id 247Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although several research studies have adopted specific energy consumption (SEC) as an indicator of the progress of improved energy efficiency, publications are scarce on critical assessments when using SEC. Given the increasing importance of monitoring improved industrial energy efficiency and the rising popularity of SEC as an energy key performance indicator (e-KPI), an in-depth analysis and problematization on the pros and cons of using SEC would appear to be needed. The aim of this article is to analyse SEC critically in relation to industrial energy efficiency. By using SEC in the pulp and paper industry as an example, the results of this exploratory study show that although SEC is often used as an e-KPI in industry, the comparison is not always straightforward. Challenges emanate from a lack of information about how SEC is calculated. It is likely that SEC is an optimal e-KPI within the same study, when all deployed SECs are calculated in the same way, and with the same underlying assumptions. However, before comparing SEC with other studies, it is recommended that the assumptions on which calculations are based should be scrutinized in order to ensure the validity of the comparisons. The paper remains an important contribution in addition to the available handbooks.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    MDPI, 2019
    Nyckelord
    specific energy consumption; specific energy use; specific energy; SEC; energy management; energy efficiency; industry; energy use; manufacturing
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Energisystem
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155606 (URN)10.3390/en12020247 (DOI)000459743700048 ()
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency [40537-1]; Swedish Environmental Protection Agency [802-0082-17]; Division of Energy Systems at the Department of Management and Engineering, Linkoping University

    Tillgänglig från: 2019-03-21 Skapad: 2019-03-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-12
  • Gagiu, Răzvan-Florin-Rainer
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Abin, Kakkattil Paulose
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Maskinkonstruktion.
    Modeling and Simulation of novel Environmental Control System for a combat aircraft2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (masterexamen), 20 poäng / 30 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    The present thesis deals with the analysis of Environmental Control System (ECS) as a part of the aircraft conceptual design. The research focuses on developing methods for modelling, simulation and optimization of current and future cooling technologies suitable for aircraft applications. The work started with a pre-study in order to establish the suitability of different cooling technologies for ECS application. Therefore, five technologies namely, Bootstrap (BS), Reverse-Bootstrap (RBS), vapour cycle system (VCS), magnetic cooling (MC) and thermo-electric cooling (EC), were assessed from a theoretical point of view by the method of benchmarking. This resulted into the selection of three most suitable technologies that were further modelled and simulated in Dymola. In order to compare the optimum designs for each technology, the models were optimized using the modeFRONTIER software. The comparison was performed based on the optimum ratio of maximum power of cooling and minimum fuel penalty. The results showed that VCS has the “best” performances compared to BS and RBS. In addition to the active technologies, passive cooling methods such as liquid cooling by means of jet-fuel and poly-alpha-olefin were considered to address high heat transfer rates. In order to apply the cooling technologies in the ECS, concept system architectures were formulated using the functional analysis. This led to the identification of basic functions, components and sub-systems interaction. Based on the comparison carried out previously and the functional analysis, two ECS architectures were developed. Design optimization procedure was applied further in order to assess each concept and also to study the differences between the two concept architectures. The results depict the complex interaction of different key parameters of the architectures and their influence on the outcome. The study culminated with a proposed methodology for formulation of systems architecture using information from the optimization results and a robust functional analysis method. To sum up, the thesis proposes a simulation-based optimization method that allows inclusion of ECS system in aircraft conceptual design phase. The study also proves the complexity of the conceptual design stage for ECS architectures which highly influences the design of the combat aircraft.

  • Disputation: 2019-04-26 13:15 Domen, Visualiseringscenter C, Norrköping
    Grelsson, Bertil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för systemteknik, Datorseende. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Vision-based Localization and Attitude Estimation Methods in Natural Environments2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the last decade, the usage of unmanned systems such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), Unmanned Surface Vessels (USVs) and Unmanned Ground Vehicles (UGVs) has increased drastically, and there is still a rapid growth. Today, unmanned systems are being deployed in many daily operations, e.g. for deliveries in remote areas, to increase efficiency of agriculture, and for environmental monitoring at sea. For safety reasons, unmanned systems are often the preferred choice for surveillance missions in hazardous environments, e.g. for detection of nuclear radiation, and in disaster areas after earthquakes, hurricanes, or during forest fires. For safe navigation of the unmanned systems during their missions, continuous and accurate global localization and attitude estimation is mandatory.

    Over the years, many vision-based methods for position estimation have been developed, primarily for urban areas. In contrast, this thesis is mainly focused on vision-based methods for accurate position and attitude estimates in natural environments, i.e. beyond the urban areas. Vision-based methods possess several characteristics that make them appealing as global position and attitude sensors. First, vision sensors can be realized and tailored for most unmanned vehicle applications. Second, geo-referenced terrain models can be generated worldwide from satellite imagery and can be stored onboard the vehicles. In natural environments, where the availability of geo-referenced images in general is low, registration of image information with terrain models is the natural choice for position and attitude estimation. This is the problem area that I addressed in the contributions of this thesis.

    The first contribution is a method for full 6DoF (degrees of freedom) pose estimation from aerial images. A dense local height map is computed using structure from motion. The global pose is inferred from the 3D similarity transform between the local height map and a digital elevation model. Aligning height information is assumed to be more robust to season variations than feature-based matching.

    The second contribution is a method for accurate attitude (pitch and roll angle) estimation via horizon detection. It is one of only a few methods that use an omnidirectional (fisheye) camera for horizon detection in aerial images. The method is based on edge detection and a probabilistic Hough voting scheme. The method allows prior knowledge of the attitude angles to be exploited to make the initial attitude estimates more robust. The estimates are then refined through registration with the geometrically expected horizon line from a digital elevation model. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first method where the ray refraction in the atmosphere is taken into account, which enables the highly accurate attitude estimates.

    The third contribution is a method for position estimation based on horizon detection in an omnidirectional panoramic image around a surface vessel. Two convolutional neural networks (CNNs) are designed and trained to estimate the camera orientation and to segment the horizon line in the image. The MOSSE correlation filter, normally used in visual object tracking, is adapted to horizon line registration with geometric data from a digital elevation model. Comprehensive field trials conducted in the archipelago demonstrate the GPS-level accuracy of the method, and that the method can be trained on images from one region and then applied to images from a previously unvisited test area.

    The CNNs in the third contribution apply the typical scheme of convolutions, activations, and pooling. The fourth contribution focuses on the activations and suggests a new formulation to tune and optimize a piecewise linear activation function during training of CNNs. Improved classification results from experiments when tuning the activation function led to the introduction of a new activation function, the Shifted Exponential Linear Unit (ShELU).

    Delarbeten
    1. Efficient 7D Aerial Pose Estimation
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Efficient 7D Aerial Pose Estimation
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2013 IEEE Workshop on Robot Vision (WORV), IEEE , 2013, s. 88-95Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A method for online global pose estimation of aerial images by alignment with a georeferenced 3D model is presented.Motion stereo is used to reconstruct a dense local height patch from an image pair. The global pose is inferred from the 3D transform between the local height patch and the model.For efficiency, the sought 3D similarity transform is found by least-squares minimizations of three 2D subproblems.The method does not require any landmarks or reference points in the 3D model, but an approximate initialization of the global pose, in our case provided by onboard navigation sensors, is assumed.Real aerial images from helicopter and aircraft flights are used to evaluate the method. The results show that the accuracy of the position and orientation estimates is significantly improved compared to the initialization and our method is more robust than competing methods on similar datasets.The proposed matching error computed between the transformed patch and the map clearly indicates whether a reliable pose estimate has been obtained.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    IEEE, 2013
    Nyckelord
    Pose estimation, aerial images, registration, 3D model
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Elektroteknik och elektronik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89477 (URN)10.1109/WORV.2013.6521919 (DOI)000325279400014 ()978-1-4673-5646-6 (ISBN)978-1-4673-5647-3 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    IEEE Workshop on Robot Vision 2013, Clearwater Beach, Florida, USA, January 16-17, 2013
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-02-26 Skapad: 2013-02-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-12
    2. Probabilistic Hough Voting for Attitude Estimation from Aerial Fisheye Images
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Probabilistic Hough Voting for Attitude Estimation from Aerial Fisheye Images
    2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Image Analysis: 18th Scandinavian Conference, SCIA 2013, Espoo, Finland, June 17-20, 2013. Proceedings / [ed] Joni-Kristian Kämäräinen and Markus Koskela, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013, s. 478-488Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    For navigation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), attitude estimation is essential. We present a method for attitude estimation (pitch and roll angle) from aerial fisheye images through horizon detection. The method is based on edge detection and a probabilistic Hough voting scheme.  In a flight scenario, there is often some prior knowledge of the vehicle altitude and attitude. We exploit this prior to make the attitude estimation more robust by letting the edge pixel votes be weighted based on the probability distributions for the altitude and pitch and roll angles. The method does not require any sky/ground segmentation as most horizon detection methods do. Our method has been evaluated on aerial fisheye images from the internet. The horizon is robustly detected in all tested images. The deviation in the attitude estimate between our automated horizon detection and a manual detection is less than 1 degree.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2013
    Serie
    Lecture Notes in Computer Science, ISSN 0302-9743, E-ISSN 1611-3349 ; 7944
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Elektroteknik och elektronik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98066 (URN)10.1007/978-3-642-38886-6_45 (DOI)000342988500045 ()978-3-642-38885-9 (ISBN)978-3-642-38886-6 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    18th Scandinavian Conferences on Image Analysis (SCIA 2013), 17-20 June 2013, Espoo, Finland.
    Projekt
    CIMSMAP
    Tillgänglig från: 2013-09-27 Skapad: 2013-09-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Highly Accurate Attitude Estimation via Horizon Detection
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Highly Accurate Attitude Estimation via Horizon Detection
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Field Robotics, ISSN 1556-4959, E-ISSN 1556-4967, Vol. 33, nr 7, s. 967-993Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Attitude (pitch and roll angle) estimation from visual information is necessary for GPS-free navigation of airborne vehicles. We propose a highly accurate method to estimate the attitude by horizon detection in fisheye images. A Canny edge detector and a probabilistic Hough voting scheme are used to compute an approximate attitude and the corresponding horizon line in the image. Horizon edge pixels are extracted in a band close to the approximate horizon line. The attitude estimates are refined through registration of the extracted edge pixels with the geometrical horizon from a digital elevation map (DEM), in our case the SRTM3 database, extracted at a given approximate position. The proposed method has been evaluated using 1629 images from a flight trial with flight altitudes up to 600 m in an area with ground elevations ranging from sea level up to 500 m. Compared with the ground truth from a filtered inertial measurement unit (IMU)/GPS solution, the standard deviation for the pitch and roll angle errors obtained with 30 Mpixel images are 0.04° and 0.05°, respectively, with mean errors smaller than 0.02°. To achieve the high-accuracy attitude estimates, the ray refraction in the earth's atmosphere has been taken into account. The attitude errors obtained on real images are less or equal to those achieved on synthetic images for previous methods with DEM refinement, and the errors are about one order of magnitude smaller than for any previous vision-based method without DEM refinement.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    John Wiley & Sons, 2016
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Elektroteknik och elektronik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108212 (URN)10.1002/rob.21639 (DOI)000387925400005 ()
    Anmärkning

    At the date of the thesis presentation was this publication a manuscript.

    Funding agencies: Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems, VINNOVA [NFFP5 2013-05243]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research [RIT10-0047]; Swedish Research Council within the Linnaeus environment CADICS; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

    Tillgänglig från: 2014-06-26 Skapad: 2014-06-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-12Bibliografiskt granskad
    4. Improved Learning in Convolutional Neural Networks with Shifted Exponential Linear Units (ShELUs)
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Improved Learning in Convolutional Neural Networks with Shifted Exponential Linear Units (ShELUs)
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: 2018 24th International Conference on Pattern Recognition (ICPR), IEEE, 2018, s. 517-522Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Exponential Linear Unit (ELU) has been proven to speed up learning and improve the classification performance over activation functions such as ReLU and Leaky ReLU for convolutional neural networks. The reasons behind the improved behavior are that ELU reduces the bias shift, it saturates for large negative inputs and it is continuously differentiable. However, it remains open whether ELU has the optimal shape and we address the quest for a superior activation function.We use a new formulation to tune a piecewise linear activation function during training, to investigate the above question, and learn the shape of the locally optimal activation function. With this tuned activation function, the classification performance is improved and the resulting, learned activation function shows to be ELU-shaped irrespective if it is initialized as a RELU, LReLU or ELU. Interestingly, the learned activation function does not exactly pass through the origin indicating that a shifted ELU-shaped activation function is preferable. This observation leads us to introduce the Shifted Exponential Linear Unit (ShELU) as a new activation function.Experiments on Cifar-100 show that the classification performance is further improved when using the ShELU activation function in comparison with ELU. The improvement is achieved when learning an individual bias shift for each neuron.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    IEEE, 2018
    Serie
    International Conference on Pattern Recognition
    Nyckelord
    CNN, activation function
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan elektroteknik och elektronik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151606 (URN)10.1109/ICPR.2018.8545104 (DOI)000455146800087 ()978-1-5386-3787-6 (ISBN)
    Konferens
    24th International Conference on Pattern Recognition, ICPR 2018, Beijing, China, 20-24 Aug. 2018
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Wallenbergstiftelserna
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies:  Wallenberg AI, Autonomous Systems and Software Program (WASP) - Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Research Council [2014-6227]

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-09-27 Skapad: 2018-09-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-12
  • Arklid, Charlotte
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik.
    Fernqvist, August
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    En litteraturstudie om hur visuellt stöd främjar elever problemlösningsförmåga2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetet är en systematisk litteraturstudie och syftar till att undersöka vilken effekt diagram och bilder har på elevers problemlösningsförmåga. Det utvalda temat anser vi är viktigt eftersom många elever har svårt för problemlösning som helhet men även dess olika processer. Processerna innebär att; förstå problemet, ta ut viktig information, beräkna samt val av strategi. Därför granskades tidigare arbeten för att få en bredare kunskap om hur vi i framtiden kan underlätta för eleverna i arbetet med problemlösning. Problemlösning är även ett centralt område i läroplanenen där detnämns i det centrala innehållet, syftet samt förmågorna. Urvalet av artiklar gjordes genom manuell sökning och databassökning. I arbetet gjordes även avgränsningar, alla undersökningarna skulle vara granskade och fokusera på åldersspannet årskurs ett tillsex. Resultatet tyder i huvudsak på att diagram och bilder främjar elevernas kunskapsutveckling. De granskade artiklarna visar även att lärarna saknar tillräcklig förståelse för användning av visuella hjälpmedel i samband med problemlösning. Av den anledningen blir undervisningen till viss del bristande.

  • Hanqvist, Karolina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Frisk, Sara
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Arbetssätt för skrivutveckling: En litteraturstudie som belyser arbetssätt för skrivundervisning samt effekter på skrivutvecklingen för årskurserna F–32019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att undersöka vilka arbetssätt lärare kan använda sig av för att undervisa i skrivande, samt vilka effekter elevernas skrivutveckling kan få av skrivundervisningen.

     

    Det här arbetet baserades på informationen från 11 artiklar som analyserades och sammanställdes. Dessa hittades i databaserna UniSearch samt ERIC med relevanta sökord och avgränsningar.

     

    Resultatet visar fem exempel på arbetssätt lärare kan använda sig av för att undervisa i skrivande. Dessa var att arbeta med autentiska uppgifter, elevnära uppgifter, modellering, multimodala verktyg samt ett aktivt samarbete mellan individer. Arbetssätten och metoderna ledde fram till olika effekter inom elevers skrivutveckling, vilket kategoriserades i fem teman. Det som påverkades var skrivintresset, strukturen, innehållet, skriftspråket samt handskriften.

     

    Analysen av resultatet indikerade att det är viktigt att lärare har en utgångspunkt och ett syfte de förhåller sig till i deras undervisning. Med andra ord planera vilket arbetssätt de ska använda sig av för att nå ut till klassen. Elever lär på olika sätt och därmed behövs en variation mellan flera olika arbetssätt, för att nå alla individer och alla aspekter inom skrivande.

  • Berlitz, Fanny
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Soulaka, Nataline
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hur andraspråkselever tar sig an problemlösningsuppgifter: Svårigheter i utförandet av problemlösningsuppgifter för andraspråkselever och vilka stöd de kan få för att öka förståelsen2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att ta reda på vilka svårigheter som kan uppstå i problemlösning för elever som har svenska som andraspråk. För att ta reda på detta ställdes frågorna: “vilka svårigheter stöter elever med utländsk bakgrund på vid problemlösningsuppgifter?”  samt “vilket stöd kan de eleverna få i sitt lärande?” För att kunna svara på frågeställningarna utfördes en systematisk litteraturstudie och 12 artiklar har granskats och analyserats. När resultaten av artiklarna sammanställdes kunde vi komma fram till att det oftast handlar om en svårighet och att det finns fler sätt att stötta eleverna i utvecklingen. Det är huvudsakligen språkliga problem som eleverna stöter på, med detta menas både förståelse för enstaka ord och förståelsen av sammanhanget i uppgiften. Vad det gäller stöd beskrivs det främst fyra riktlinjer man kan förhålla sig till; 1) språkligt stöd, 2) laborativt material, 3) tydliga instruktioner och 4)  strategier och kontexten i uppgiften.

  • Zeijlon, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Winqvist, Olivia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Spel som utvecklar taluppfattning i matematikundervisningen: Utformningen av digitala spel och brädspel samt undervisningens organisation kring dessa – en litteraturstudie2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie är en litteraturstudie med syftet att analysera och studera vad forskning visar gällande hur digitala spel och brädspel i undervisningen kan bidra till utvecklingen av elevers taluppfattning. Studien undersöker spelens konstruktion och undervisningens organisation kring dessa. Insamlingen av data gjordes genom databassökning och manuell sökning. Detta område är väsentligt då taluppfattning är grunden till matematikämnet och att undervisningen bör vara varierad och inte begränsad till läroböcker. Resultatet visar att digitala spel bör ha en anpassbar progression och att eleverna bör få pröva sig fram till rätt svar. Brädspel bör vara talbrädspel där talen är linjärt ordnade och grupperade enligt tiobassystemet. Resultatet visar också att reglerna är väsentliga för elevernas lärande. Båda typen av spel bör åtföljas med scaffolding från en lärare så att eleverna kan befinna sig i den proximala utvecklingszonen. Slutligen visade det sig att både digitala spel och brädspel kan vara motiverande för eleverna, men läraren bör undersöka spelens konstruktion och ge eleverna scaffolding för att spelen ska bli väl integrerade i undervisningen.

  • Lexén, Rebecka
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Kindå, Siri
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Samverkan i förskolan: Förskollärares perspektiv på samverkan med vårdnadshavare med andra modersmål än svenska2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vår studie handlar om samverkan med vårdnadshavare som talar andra modersmål än svenska. I studien visar vi på den komplexitet som samverkansarbete innebär för fem förskol-lärare som arbetar på olika förskolor i en stor stad i Mellansverige. Studien har genomförts inom ett socialkonstruktionistiskt ramverk, genom kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer. Syftet med studien har varit att synliggöra förskollärares uppfattningar kring samverkan med vårdnadshavare som talar andra modersmål än svenska. De förskollärare vi har intervjuat har uttryckt både positiva och negativa uppfattningar om samverkan med vårdnadshavare med andra modersmål än svenska. Vår studies resultat visar en mångfacetterad bild av samver-kansarbete mellan hem och förskola. Vidare visar vår studie en stor kontrast mellan olika för-skollärares attityder och uppfattningar kring samverkan med vårdnadshavare med andra mo-dersmål än svenska, och att detta i sin tur skulle kunna påverka samverkansarbetet. Resultatet av vår studie visar även att avsaknaden av översatta styrdokument får negativa konsekvenser för förskollärares möjligheter att förmedla förskolan syfte och uppdrag till vårdnadshavare som inte talar svenska som modersmål. Våra resultat pekar på att förskollärares kulturella kompetens och förmåga att arbeta interkulturellt har stor påverkan på hur de uttrycker sig om samverkan med vårdnadshavare med andra modersmål än svenska.

  • Eldelin, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och litteratur. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Tunnelbanans poetik. Rum, plats och intertextualitet i Malte Perssons Underjorden2018Ingår i: Samlaren: tidskrift för svensk litteraturvetenskaplig forskning, ISSN 0348-6133, E-ISSN 2002-3871, Vol. 139, s. 178-220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    A Poetics of the Underground: Space, Place and Intertextuality in Malte Persson’s Underjorden (Tunnelbanans poetik. Rum, plats och intertextualitet i Malte Perssons Underjorden)

    The descent to the underworld in search of wisdom or to regain something or someone lost is a classic topos of literary history. In the context of urbanization and the technological transformation of society of the last two centuries, literary underworlds have often been re-imagined as actual and material subterranean spaces like subways, catacombs or sewers. In modernist poetry, for example, the descent to the underworld — rethought as an underground of modern transportation — has served as a spatial point of departure for reflections on poetics, on the poet’s conflictual relationship to the literary past and to his or her own society. Staged as a collection of sonnets on the Stockholm metro, Malte Persson’s Underjorden (2011) can be read as a contemporary take on this modern metamorphosis of the underworld. It can also be put forward as an example of a recurring tendency in the last few decades to link writing and literature to various urban and semi-public spaces of transit and transport, a tendency which poses significant challenges to Romantically infused ideas of literary creation as a place-bound, domestic, private and solitary activity. In this article, Persson’s Underjorden is discussed as an example of how a poetics of the underground is reflected and reconfigured in the Information Age. With perspectives from spatial theory and intertextual analysis, it is argued that two classic myths of poetic creation are contrasted and associated with underground space in Persson’s sonnet collection. Rather than opting for one of them, the self-reflective speaker of Underjorden remains playfully undecided on which side to take: is the contemporary poet a modern Orpheus or genius, creating original poetry, or an imitator, copyist and sampler, pouring from the boundless storehouse of literature?

  • Pettersson, Sandra
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Blomqvist, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier.
    Att undervisa om kontroversiella och aktuella samhällsfrågor för elever i årskurs F-3: En analys av forskning2018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna konsumtionsuppsats är en systematiskt strukturerad litteraturstudie. Studien utgår från tre valda frågeställningar som vi besvarar genom analyser av litterärt material följt av en diskussion med avslutande slutsats. Det analyserade materialet innefattar svenska såväl som internationella studier.

    I dagens samhälle har i princip varje elev tillgång till sociala medier på ett eller annat sätt. Detta innebär att de på internet kan läsa om aktuella händelser, kontroversiella frågor och andra ämnen som kan komma att påverka elevernas synsätt på omvärlden. Hur tas detta in i undervisningen? Syftet med denna uppsats är att undersöka hur kontroversiella och aktuella frågor framställs i undervisningen på lågstadiet. Elever i låga åldrar bildar genom olika medier egna uppfattningar om sin omvärld och behöver därför ges stöd i skolan för att förstå hur samhället fungerar.

  • Ternström, Ellenor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Manniche, Beatrice
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Särbegåvade elever i matematikundervisningen: En litteraturstudie om hur särbegåvade elever kan identifieras, karaktäriseras och utmanas2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med arbetetär att studera och analyseraaktuell forskning om särbegåvade elever i matematikundervisningen. Arbetet riktar in sig på hur lärare kan identifiera, karaktärisera och utmana särbegåvade elever i undervisningen. Genom en litteraturstudie har åtta olika artiklars resultat sammanställtsför att ge grundskolelärare en bild av hur området ser ut idag. Datainsamling utfördes med hjälp av databasen Unisearch tillsammans med manuell sökning i Google Scholar. Arbetet visar att särbegåvade elever inte är en homogen elevgrupp men att det finns typiska egenskaper som karaktäriserar dem. Resultatet avslöjar också de utmaningar som lärarna står inför i identifieringen av särbegåvade samt brister i särbegåvade elevers undervisning. Det framkommer även att undervisningsmodellen som skolan idag domineras av har en väldigt central roll i arbetets resultatoch varför vissa brister uppenbarar sig.

  • Myhrén, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Palmqvist, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Spel i matematikundervisningen: effekterna på elevers lärande och vikten av scaffolding2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här studien har varit att granska effekterna av spel på elevers lärande. Dels hur spel som metod påverkar elevers lärande, men också vilken roll scaffolding vid spelande har för lärandet. För att ta fram artiklarna som den här studien baserats på, har en kvalitativ litteraturstudie genomförts. Artiklarna som behandlas har tagits fram både genom digitala och analoga sökningar. Avgränsningar och urval har gjorts efter valda ramar. Resultatet visade att det finns många fördelar med spel som undervisningsmetod för elevernas lärande. Dessa fördelar är att det kan öka elevers intresse, motivation och självförtroende i och för matematik som kan leda till en ökad lust att lära som kan leda till större matematiska framgångar i framtiden. Elever utvecklar även matematiska kunskaper genom att spela spel, men inte nödvändigtvis mer än genom traditionella metoder. Särskilt lågpresterande elever gynnades av spel som metod. Forskningen har även visat att lärarens scaffolding är avgörande för elevens framgång.

  • Karlsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Bååth, Ellen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Undervisningsmetoder i problemlösning: Hur olika undervisningsmetoder i problemlösning påverkar elevers matematiska kunskaper2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie behandlar problemlösning med fokus på lärarens val av undervisningsmetod i syfte att utveckla elevers matematiska kunskaper. Vi har uppmärksammat brister i nyttjandet av strategier i problemlösning hos elever i årskurs F-3. Studiens syfte är därför att bidra med vad tidigare forskning om problemlösningsundervisning har resulterat i och jämföra dessa resultat med varandra. För att undersöka detta har tidigare forskning granskats genom en systematisk litteraturstudie. De databaser som använts för att finna tidigare forskningsstudier är ERIC, UniSearch samt SwePub. Resultatet av studien visar att en väl genomtänkt undervisningsmetod i problemlösning är av stor vikt för elevers kunskaper i matematik. Genom resultatet framkommer även att en god problemlösningsförmåga underlättar för elevers fortsatta matematikutveckling.

  • Wislander, Matilda
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Åhgren, Emma
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Matematiksvårigheter och digitala verktyg: Litteraturstudie om digitala verktyg och betydelsen av lärarens digitala kompetens för elever i matematiksvårigheter2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna konsumtionsuppsats har som syfte att undersöka hur digitala verktyg och lärares digitala kompetens kan bidra med en bättre matematikundervisning för elever i matematiksvårigheter. Litteraturöversikt har även som syfte att ge framtida lärarstudentersamt lärare en uppfattning av hur digitala verktyg kan öka effektiviteten på undervisningen för elever i matematiksvårigheter. Studien kommer behandla forskning med syn på både elevers samt lärarens perspektiv med en avgränsning på grundskolans tidiga åldrar.

    De olika fördelarna som kommer presenteras i studien är hur digitala verktyg kan bidrar med en individanpassad undervisning samt en strukturerad utvecklingsplan för elever i matematiksvårigheter att nå målen.

  • Wahlroth, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Linder, Madeleine
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Matematik, en genusfråga?: Hur pedagogers förhållningssätt till genus i matematikundervisning påverkar eleven2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna systematiska litteraturstudie var syftet att skapa en förståelse för hur pedagoger i grundskolans tidiga år förhåller sig till genusskillnader inom matematikundervisningen. Således var syftet att undersöka hur pedagogers förhållningssätt påverkar eleverna. I diskussionsdelen har även diskuterats, utifrån resultatet, hur pedagoger bör förhålla sig gentemot genus för att motverka de eventuella effekterna hos eleverna. Detta har varit grundläggande då det var av vikt att pedagoger är medvetna om problematiken om genusskillnaderna som råder i skolans matematikundervisning redan i skolans tidiga år. Detta konsumtionsarbete har grundats i artiklar hämtade från databaserna UniSearch, ERIC, MathEduc Database samt GoogleScolar. Resultatet visade att pedagoger hade ett förhållningssätt som gynnade det manliga könet i större utsträckning än det kvinnliga könet. Resultatet visade även att pojkar gavs mer uppmärksamhet och tanke än vad flickorna fick. I följd av detta påverkades elevernas motivation, självbild, självkänsla samt självförtroende.

  • Kusljugic, Sabina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Carlén, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Utomhus- och/eller inomhusmatematik.: – En litteraturstudie om lärares samt elevers syn på demöjligheter och hinder som uppstår vid användning av utomhuspedagogik i matematikundervisningen.2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna studie behandlar vilka fördelar och nackdelar lärare och elever upplever vid användning av utomhuspedagogik i matematikundervisningen. Vi har uppmärksammat att lärare väldigt sällan använder sig av skolgården och andra områden utomhus i sin undervisning för elever i årskurs F-3. Studiens syfte är att bidra med vad tidigare forskning i området har visat för resultat samt att jämföra dessa resultat med varandra. Vid undersökning av detta område har tidigare forskning granskats genom en systematisk litteraturstudie. De databaser som använts för att finna tidigare forskningsstudier är UniSearch och ERIC. Resultatet av studien visar att det finns många olika anledningar till att lärare sällan använder sig av utomhuspedagogik. Men att det är ett ganska uppskattat tillvägagångssätt i undervisningen av främst elever men också lärare när de känner sig trygga på området.

  • Sällberg, Lovisa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hugoh, Rebecca
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Att göra inferenser: Faktorer och undervisningsmetoder som påverkar inferensförmågan2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens kommunikationssamhälle är det nödvändigt att kunna förstå texter för att ta del av samhällets information. Läsförståelse är därmed en grundläggande förutsättning för att klara sig i samhället. Syftet med denna studie är att ta reda på vilka faktorer som har betydelse för inferensinlärning och hur vi som lärare på lågstadiet kan undervisa om inferenser. Tolv artiklar har analyserats genom en systematisk innehållsanalys. Enligt vår analys är ordförråd, arbetsminne och läsflyt olika faktorer som påverkar elevers inferensinlärning. Undervisningsmetoder som är framgångsrika i inferensundervisningen är sökning av ledtrådar, textanpassning, textsamtal och reflektion. Vår slutsats av litteraturstudien är att många elever klarar av att göra inferenser om de får rätt förutsättningar. Hur lärare anpassar undervisningen utifrån elevers förutsättningar påverkar elevers inferensförmåga. Den här studien bidrar till förståelse om vad inferenser är och hur lärare kan undervisa om det.

  • Andersson, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Frank, Lisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Hur kan läsutvecklingen underlättas för elever med dyslexi?: En sammanfattande analys av hur lärare kan arbeta för att stötta elever med dyslexi i deras läsutveckling2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 240 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    En av de grundläggande kunskaperna alla elever ska kunna efter en avslutad skolgång är att läsa. Det är skolans uppgift att se till att det sker. Ett särskilt ansvar finns då hos varje lärare att stötta och hjälpa elever med lässvårigheter. Vi ansåg därav att det var av stor vikt att undersöka hur lärare kan göra just det. Syftet med den här studien är att beskriva hur lärare kan främja läsutvecklingen för elever som har eller ligger i riskzonen för dyslexi. Vi har genomfört en strukturerad litteraturstudie där vi har analyserat elva vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultatet visade att färdighetsträning i fonologi i kombination med till exempel läsförståelse eller ordigenkänning är mycket effektiv. Resultatet visade också att arbete i små homogena grupper eller en-till-en-undervisning, elev och lärare, är de mest framgångsrika lärmiljöerna. Den här studien bidrar till en grund för den nyfikne läraren eller föräldern som vill lära sig mer om hur hen kan hjälpa de elever som har eller befinner sig i riskzonen för dyslexi.

  • Ljunggren, Fridah
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Klingberg, Lisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Att förebygga avkodningssvårigheter: Hur kan lärare arbeta för att förebygga avkodningssvårigheter?2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Lärare bör anpassa sin undervisning för att förebygga avkodningssvårigheter redan i förskoleklass för att elever senare ska uppnå kunskapskraven för årskurs tre. Lärare behöver vara medvetna om hur elevers läsutveckling fortgår och anpassa sin undervisningefter den. Vår systematiska litteraturstudie lyfter vikten av att utnyttja undervisningstiden på ett sätt som främjar elevernas avkodning. Studien syftar till att besvara frågeställningen: Hur kan lärare genom sin undervisning förebygga avkodningssvårigheter?

    Resultatet av de granskade artiklarnas studier visar olika arbetsmetoder som lärare kan använda sig av samt alternativa sätt för lärarna att kartlägga eleverna på i klassrummet. Detta eftersom det inte alltid finns möjlighet till en-till-en-undervisning. Exempel på arbetsmetoder som tas upp i arbetet är arbete med manipulativ bokstavsträning samt nonsensord. Anledningen till att dessa arbetsmetoder lyftes var på grund av deras betydelse för elevers senare avkodning. En god avkodningsförmåga visar sigha stor betydelse för elevers grundläggande läsning och den påverkas mycket av såväl elevernas fonologiska medvetenhet som förståelse. Därför är det av stor vikt att läraren har rätt kompetens för att förebygga avkodningssvårigheter och kan hjälpa eleverna i deras läsutveckling.

  • Edenström, Sara
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap. 1995.
    Landestorp, Frida
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Högläsning som pedagogiskt verktyg: En litteraturstudie om hur lärare kan använda högläsning samt hur det kan påverka elevernas lärande2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (yrkesexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna litteraturstudie är att ta reda på hur lärare kan arbeta med högläsning samt hur det kan påverkaelevernas lärande.

    Arbetet startade med en sökningsprocess där specifika sökord valdes ut för att hitta relevanta artiklar som en hjälp till att besvara uppsatsens syfte. Även avgränsningar användes för att antalet artiklar som skulle granskas blev hanterbart. Resultatet visade att lärarens planering är en viktig grund för en framgångsrik högläsning. Den interaktiva högläsningen var den som gav flest positiva resultat av de olika arbetssätten och var mest framstående i de studier vi tagit del av. Modellering och repetition av texter var andra gynnsamma arbetssätt inom arbetet med högläsning. Elevernas ordkunskap var det som visades utvecklas mest med hjälp av arbete med högläsning.Det visade sig även att elevernautveckladesin läs-och hörförståelse samt sin muntliga förmåga. Diskussioner i samband med högläsningen bidrog till ett tryggare klassrumsklimat där tankar och känslor delades.Vissa forskare kunde även se ett ökat engagemang hos eleverna,bland annat när defickvaramer involverade i högläsningen.Vår slutsats är att högläsning kan vara ett effektfullt pedagogiskt verktyg. Dock bör de olika arbetssättenkombineras föratt få en ultimatoch varierandeundervisning som är anpassad för atttillgodose alla elevers skilda behov.

  • Nordvall, Henrik
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Wieslander, Malin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och didaktik. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    When Gender Training Backlashes: Participants’ Resistance and the Fragility of Commonsensical Feminism2019Ingår i: Adult Education Quarterly, ISSN 0741-7136, E-ISSN 1552-3047, s. 1-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Feminist educators often encounter different forms of resistance from both maleand female participants. This article uses a neo-Gramscian theoretical perspective todiscuss the importance of considering this resistance when analyzing the relationshipbetween pedagogical design and outcomes. The study draws on survey data andparticipant observation from a case study of a workshop designed to raise awarenessof gender issues. The results from a before-and-after survey show that the workshophad the opposite effect to the one intended in terms of changes in the participants’perceptions of gender. Having a “failed case” as the center of attention, the articlesheds light on the fragility of mainstream discourse on gender equality and thedilemmas of engaging in a struggle over common sense.

  • Lozano Lopez, Paula
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    The Pedagogy of Emotions: Exploring Emotional Education in a Swedish Nature-Based Preschool: Building Affective Bonds with Nature2018Självständigt arbete på avancerad nivå (magisterexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has widely approached the benefits and potentials of nature contact and outdoor education on children’s emotional development. There is however little evidence on teachers’ approach and educational methods on emotional education in nature. This paper investigates the potentials of outdoor education for children’s development of emotional competences by exploring in which ways emotional education is included within the didactic methodologies in a Swedish “I Ur Och Skur” nature-based preschool. Through an ethnographic approach the author identified three main educational methods by which emotional education is included within the daily teaching in the outdoors: emotional expressiveness, direct sensory experience with nature and affective social interaction. This study contributes in two main ways: first, it shows how educators approach and include emotional learning in nature spaces as a mean to help children engage affectively with their social and natural world. Second, it highlights and illustrates the potentials of outdoor and emotional education in young children.

  • Disputation: 2019-05-10 13:00 Granitsalen, Linköping
    Bahlmann, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för läkemedelsforskning. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Anestesi- och intensivvårdskliniken US.
    Goal-directed fluid therapy during major abdominal surgery2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Both hypo- and hypervolemia increase the risk for postoperative complications after major abdominal surgery. Fluid needs vary amongst patients depending on differences in preoperative dehydration, intraoperative physiology and surgical characteristics. Goal-directed fluid therapy (GDFT) aims to target the right amount of fluid administration in each patient by evaluating the effect of fluid boluses on haemodynamic parameters such as stroke volume. It has been shown to reduce postoperative morbidity and is generally recommended for high-risk surgery. The overall aim of this thesis was to evaluate whether more simple devices for GDFT result in clinical benefit, thus facilitating the application of GDFT in more patients.

    Aim: To compare performance and clinical benefit of pleth variability index (PVI), a noninvasive, easy-to-use device for GDFT, with the reference method of oesophageal Doppler; to evaluate methods for measuring preoperative dehydration and its effect on fluid handling by the body; and to confirm the expected clinical benefits of GDFT in patients undergoing oesophageal resection, a high risk procedure.

    Methods: In Studies I-III 150 patients scheduled for open abdominal surgery of at least 2 hrs were randomised to GDFT with either PVI or oesophageal Doppler. In the first half of the cohort, both monitors were connected to compare intraoperative performance. In 30 patients preoperative dehydration was analysed. In study IV 64 patients undergoing oesophageal resection were randomised to GDFT using pulse contour analysis or standard treatment.

    Results: The concordance between PVI and oesophageal Doppler for indicating the need for and effect of a fluid bolus was low, and both had only limited capacity to predict the effect of a fluid bolus. Both methods resulted in comparable amounts of fluid being administered and similar clinical outcome. Preoperative dehydration was limited but did impact on fluid handling. Patients receiving GDFT during oesophageal resection received more fluid and more dobutamine compared to controls, but this did not result in any clinical benefit.

    Conclusions: There are methodological issues as well as uncertainties about the clinical benefit of GDFT. We cannot recommend a strict application of any GDFT strategy, but suggest that its components should be incorporated in a more encompassing assessment of a patient’s fluid needs. The measurement, impact and treatment of preoperative dehydration need to be further clarified.

    Delarbeten
    1. Agreement between Pleth Variability Index and oesophageal Doppler to predict fluid responsiveness
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Agreement between Pleth Variability Index and oesophageal Doppler to predict fluid responsiveness
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 60, nr 2, s. 183-192Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Optimisation of stroke volume using oesophageal Doppler is an established technique to guide intraoperative fluid therapy. The method has practical limitations and therefore alternative indices of fluid responsiveness, such as ventilator-induced variation in the pulse oximetric signal (Pleth Variability Index (PVI)) could be considered. We hypothesised that both methods predict fluid responsiveness in a similar way. Methods: Seventy-five patients scheduled for open major abdominal surgery were randomised to fluid optimisation using fluid bolus algorithms based on either PVI (n = 35) or Doppler (n = 39). All patients were monitored with both methods; the non-guiding method was blind. Primary endpoint was the concordance between the methods to predict fluid responsiveness. We also analysed the ability of each method to predict a stroke volume increase &gt;= 10% after a fluid bolus, as well as the accumulated intraoperative bolus fluid volume. Results: PVI indicated a need for fluid in one-third of the situations when Doppler did so, Cohens kappa = 0.03. A fluid bolus indicated by the PVI algorithm increased stroke volume by &gt;= 10% in half the situations. The same was found for the Doppler algorithm. The mean total bolus volume given was 878 ml when the fluid management was governed by PVI compared to 826 ml with Doppler (P = 0.71). Conclusion: PVI-and Doppler-based stroke volume optimisations agreed poorly, which did not affect the amount of fluid administered. None of the algorithms showed a good ability to predict fluid responsiveness. Our results do not support the fluid responsiveness concept.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Hälsovetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124622 (URN)10.1111/aas.12632 (DOI)000368139700006 ()26373826 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care, Linkoping University Hospital; County Council of Ostergotland

    Tillgänglig från: 2016-02-09 Skapad: 2016-02-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-10
    2. Dehydration and fluid volume kinetics before major open abdominal surgery
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Dehydration and fluid volume kinetics before major open abdominal surgery
    2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-5172, E-ISSN 1399-6576, Vol. 58, nr 10, s. 1258-1266Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Assessment of dehydration in the preoperative setting is of potential clinical value. The present study uses urine analysis and plasma volume kinetics, which have both been validated against induced changes in body water in volunteers, to study the incidence and severity of dehydration before open abdominal surgery begins. Methods: Thirty patients (mean age 64 years) had their urine analysed before major elective open abdominal surgery for colour, specific weight, osmolality and creatinine. The results were scored and the mean taken to represent a dehydration index. Thereafter, the patients received an infusion of 5ml/kg of Ringers acetate intravenously for over 15min. Blood was sampled for 70min and the blood haemoglobin concentration used to estimate the plasma volume kinetics. Results: Distribution of fluid occurred more slowly (Pless than0.01) and the elimination half-life was twice as long (median 40min, not significant) in the 11 patients (37%) diagnosed to be moderately dehydrated as compared with euhydrated patients. The dehydration index indicated that the fluid deficit in these patients corresponded to 2.5% of the body weight, whereas the deficit in the others was 1%. In contrast, the 11 patients who later developed postoperative nausea and vomiting had a very short elimination half-life, only 9min (median, Pless than0.01). These patients were usually euhydrated but had microalbuminuria (Pless than0.03) and higher natriuresis (Pless than0.01). Conclusions: The degree of dehydration before major surgery was modest as evidenced both by urine sampling and volume kinetic analysis.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Wiley-Blackwell, 2014
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Anestesi och intensivvård
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112464 (URN)10.1111/aas.12416 (DOI)000343826500010 ()25307711 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|County Council of Ostergotland [LiO-314271, LiO-357621]

    Tillgänglig från: 2014-11-28 Skapad: 2014-11-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-10Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Pleth variability index or stroke volume optimization during open abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Pleth variability index or stroke volume optimization during open abdominal surgery: a randomized controlled trial
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: BMC Anesthesiology, ISSN 1471-2253, E-ISSN 1471-2253, Vol. 18, artikel-id 115Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The impact of Goal Directed Fluid Therapy (GDFT) based on the non-invasive Pleth Variability Index (PVI) on clinical outcome after abdominal surgery has only sparingly been explored. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of intraoperative GDFT guided by PVI to a control group using esophageal Doppler on the incidence of complications and length of hospital stay after major abdominal surgery. We hypothesized that there would be no difference between the groups. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial in a Swedish university hospital between November 2011 and January 2015; 150 patients scheduled for open abdominal surgery lasting 2 h or more were included. Exclusion criteria included hepatic resection or severe cardiac arrhythmia. The patients were randomized 1: 1 to either the intervention group or the control group. The intervention group received intraoperative GDFT by administering fluid boluses of 3 ml/kg tetrastarch aiming at a PVI value below 10%, while GDFT in the control group aimed for optimization of stroke volume as assessed with esophageal Doppler. Blinded observers assessed complications until postoperative day 30 using pre-defined definitions, as well as length of hospital stay. Results: One hundred and-fifty patients were randomized and 146 patients were available for the final data analysis. Median duration of surgery was 3 h. A total of 64 complications occurred in the PVI group (N = 74) and 70 in the Doppler group (N = 72) (p = 0.93). Median (IQR) length of stay was 8.0 (8.0) days in the PVI group and 8.0 (9.5) in the Doppler group (P = 0.57). Conclusions: No difference in clinical outcome, as defined by number of postoperative complications, and length of hospital stay, was found when goal directed fluid therapy was applied using PVI as an alternative to esophageal Doppler. PVI appears to be an acceptable alternative to esophageal Doppler for goal directed fluid therapy during major open abdominal surgery.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    BMC, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Doppler ultrasonography; Fluid therapy; Laparotomy; Photoplethysmography; Stroke volume; Complications
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Anestesi och intensivvård
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150857 (URN)10.1186/s12871-018-0579-4 (DOI)000442038200002 ()30121072 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Department of Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, University Hospital Linkoping, Sweden; Region Ostergotland

    Tillgänglig från: 2018-09-06 Skapad: 2018-09-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-10
    4. Goal-directed therapy during transthoracic oesophageal resection does not improve outcome: Randomised controlled trial
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Goal-directed therapy during transthoracic oesophageal resection does not improve outcome: Randomised controlled trial
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: European Journal of Anaesthesiology, ISSN 0265-0215, E-ISSN 1365-2346, Vol. 36, nr 2, s. 153-161Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Goal-directed therapy (GDT) is expected to be of highest benefit in high-risk surgery. Therefore, GDT is recommended during oesophageal resection, which carries a high risk of postoperative complications.

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to confirm the hypothesis that GDT during oesophageal resection improves outcome compared with standard care.

    DESIGN: A randomised controlled study.

    SETTING: Two Swedish university hospitals, between October 2011 and October 2015.

    PATIENTS: Sixty-four patients scheduled for elective transthoracic oesophageal resection were randomised. Exclusion criteria included colonic interposition and significant aortic or mitral valve insufficiency.

    INTERVENTION: A three-step GDT protocol included stroke volume optimisation using colloid boluses as assessed by pulse-contour analysis, dobutamine infusion if cardiac index was below 2.5 l min m and norepinephrine infusion if mean arterial blood pressure was below 65 mmHg.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The incidence of complications per patient at 5 and 30 days postoperatively as assessed using a predefined list.

    RESULTS: Fifty-nine patients were available for analysis. Patients in the intervention group received more colloid fluid (2190 ± 875 vs. 1596 ± 759 ml, P < 0.01) and dobutamine more frequently (27/30 vs. 9/29, P < 0.01). The median [interquartile range, IQR] incidence of complications per patient 5 days after surgery was 2 [0 to 3] in the intervention group and 1 [0 to 2] in the control group (P = 0.10), and after 30 days 4 [2 to 6] in the intervention group and 2 [1 to 4] in the control group (P = 0.10).

    CONCLUSION: Goal-directed therapy during oesophageal resection did not result in a reduction of the incidence of postoperative complications.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01416077.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2019
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Anestesi och intensivvård
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156264 (URN)10.1097/EJA.0000000000000908 (DOI)000462763800010 ()30431499 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059795456 (Scopus ID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: Linkoping Medical Society

    Tillgänglig från: 2019-04-10 Skapad: 2019-04-10 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-18Bibliografiskt granskad
  • Disputation: 2019-05-08 09:15 ACAS, Linköping
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Effective and efficient design and provision of product-service systems: challenges, opportunities, and solutions2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    The world manufacturing companies operate in is changing. In the past, these companies relied on the design and sale of products. Today, this linear model of business is becoming increasingly insufficient. As customers are more and more focused on their core business, buying and operating machinery and other goods becomes unattractive to them. In response to this, manufacturing companies are expanding their value capture into additional stages of the product lifecycle by providing integrated offerings of products and services — Product-Service Systems (PSSs).

    Designing and providing PSSs is fundamentally different from traditional product sales. Expanding to become a PSS provider is, therefore, challenging for companies with a history of designing and selling products. Departing from this, it is the aim of this thesis to support manufacturing companies in their expansion to effective and efficient design and provision of PSSs. The research reported has both descriptive and prescriptive properties, reflecting the goals of understanding the status quo in manufacturing companies’ practice and providing support based on this.

    To establish a point of departure, the current design and provision of two manufacturing companies expanding their business towards PSSs was investigated. From this, an in-depth understanding of the status quo and a number of challenges emerged.

    Based on this, the research had the goal to contribute to identifying and developing solutions to these challenges, with an initial focus on methods supporting PSS design and provision. However, although methods fitting to the challenges identified exist, they appear to receive limited uptake in manufacturing companies’ practice. In order to improve their practical utility, a structured method is proposed to assist users in both academia and practice in developing methods in a requirements-oriented fashion. The utility of methods in improving the efficiency and effectiveness of PSS design and provision is thereby to be enhanced.

    A particular challenge for manufacturing companies expanding to become PSS providers is the change in how value is captured: Resulting from the extensive involvement throughout the lifecycle, a need for a broader, multidimensional understanding of value capture was identified. However, the manufacturing companies investigated have been found to experience challenges in grasping this change, with a focus on a product sales-centric understanding of value capture remaining prevalent. To support companies towards reaping the benefits of the expansion to PSS design and provision, methods to explore how value is currently created and captured in the use phase and how to enhance the future value capture based on that information in the design phase have been developed and applied. As a result, broadly relevant value dimensions were attained, aiming to facilitate a lifecycle-focused, effective, and efficient design and provision of PSSs.

    Eventually, to broaden the understanding of effective and efficient design and provision of PSSs in practice today, the potential contributions of real-world PSSs to a circular economy were investigated based on an existing framework. The result was ambiguous, indicating both advancements compared to traditional sales and substantial room for improvement, particularly with a focus on the absolute decoupling of economic activity and resource use.

    Based on the synthesis of the research results, manufacturing companies are supported in their expansion to effective and efficient design and provision of PSSs — and towards a promising future.

    Delarbeten
    1. PSS without PSS design: possible causes, effects and solutions
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>PSS without PSS design: possible causes, effects and solutions
    2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Sustainability Through Innovation in Product Life Cycle Design: Part III / [ed] Mitsutaka Matsumoto, Keijiro Masui, Shinichi Fukushige and Shinsuke Kondoh, Singapore: Springer, 2016, 1, s. 233-248Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Product-Service Systems (PSS) are seen as a cornerstone of a future circular economy. However, in order to achieve the desired environmental benefits, the industrial implementation of PSS design is key. This chapter discusses the apparent lack of an adaptation of design processes to PSS or adoption of PSS design methods within companies, which are nevertheless successfully offering PSS. Based on experiences at two companies and under close regard of the relevant literature, possible causes of this lack of method adaptation/adoption are discussed, and the effects this may have are deliberated. Lastly, potential solutions to this issue and ways forward are introduced and reflected upon focusing on the companies.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Singapore: Springer, 2016 Upplaga: 1
    Serie
    EcoProduction, ISSN 2193-4614 ; 2016
    Nyckelord
    Method Adoption; Process Adaptation; EcoDesign; Integrated Product Service Offerings;
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Miljöledning Teknik och teknologier
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130909 (URN)10.1007/978-981-10-0471-1_16 (DOI)9789811004698 (ISBN)9789811004711 (ISBN)
    Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-30 Skapad: 2016-08-30 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-10Bibliografiskt granskad
    2. Designing and providing integrated product-service systems: challenges, opportunities and solutions resulting from prescriptive approaches in two industrial companies
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Designing and providing integrated product-service systems: challenges, opportunities and solutions resulting from prescriptive approaches in two industrial companies
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 56, nr 6, s. 2150-2168Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Due to customer pressure and growing competition, industrial companies are increasingly moving towards providing integrated offerings of products and services (PSS). Despite this trend, literature providing a deep understanding of the challenges associated with this transition is limited, while publications discussing approaches that focus on overcoming these challenges are particularly lacking. This article is based on a multi-case study of two Swedish industrial companies undergoing the transition to designing and providing PSS. It reports on the challenges identified at the case companies as well as opportunities arising from and solutions to these challenges. Subsequent to initial research on the challenges, prescriptive approaches such as a life cycle costing method and a PSS design method were applied in the case companies over an extended time frame. On the one hand, these prescriptive approaches provided both a deeper understanding of the challenges, which include a persistent product centred mindset, a lack of adjustment to changed incentive structures and the separation of product and service design. On the other hand, they also led to effective solutions such as focusing on customer value and introducing a PSS transition facilitator for the design team. These solutions were adapted to the situations in the respective companies and they partly went beyond the prescriptive measures first introduced. Therefore, the article shows the applicability of prescriptive approaches and methods to detect, understand and alleviate the challenges of PSS design and provision. Further, the article provides broadly applicable learning for industrial companies undergoing this process.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Taylor & Francis, 2018
    Nyckelord
    PSS, servitisation, design method, implementation, product–service integration
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Annan maskinteknik
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137904 (URN)10.1080/00207543.2017.1332792 (DOI)000433967100005 ()2-s2.0-85020232003 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Mistra - Stiftelsen för miljöstrategisk forskning, 2014/16Vinnova, Strategic Innovation
    Anmärkning

    Funding agencies: Mistra REES (Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions) programme - Mistra (The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research) [2014/16]; programme for Strategic Innovation - Vinnova (Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovation Systems)

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-06-16 Skapad: 2017-06-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-10Bibliografiskt granskad
    3. Capturing and enhancing provider value in product-service systems throughout the lifecycle: A systematic approach
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Capturing and enhancing provider value in product-service systems throughout the lifecycle: A systematic approach
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Although the transition from product seller to product-service system (PSS) provider implies fundamental changes in both value creation for customers and value capture by the provider, prior research has largely focused on the investigation and enhancement of customer value through PSSs. In contrast, a discussion of the changes in how providers attain value and support to enhance this in industrial practice is lacking at this time. This article presents a systematic, empirically-based approach to analyze and enhance PSS providers’ value capture throughout the lifecycle. This is achieved by two methods provider value analysis (PVA) facilitates a structured assessment of the value capture during the provision of PSSs in the use phase of the lifecycle, while provider value evaluation (ProVa) operationalizes the results of this analysis in the design phase to facilitate an improved value capture in the coming iteration. As the approach was developed in close collaboration with a large-scale PSS provider, the article further reports the results of its application in a case study spanning two years. As a result of using PVA, value dimensions of broad relevance for PSS providers are presented, supported by findings of applying the method at an additional PSS provider. Through the approach presented and case study results attained, the article points out how the design and management of a PSS, focusing on the provider’s value and available benefits throughout the lifecycle, can be enhanced in industry, while extending the academic body of knowledge on the value capture of PSS providers and its implications for PSS design and provision.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Servitization; PSS design; PSS evaluation; PSS value; Provider value; PSS implementation; PSS management
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Miljöledning
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152879 (URN)10.1016/j.cirpj.2018.08.006 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053313953 (Scopus ID)
    Forskningsfinansiär
    Mistra - Stiftelsen för miljöstrategisk forskning, REES
    Tillgänglig från: 2018-11-26 Skapad: 2018-11-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-10Bibliografiskt granskad
  • Tätting, Love
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för Kirurgi, Ortopedi och Onkologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Inflammation in Cancellous and Cortical Bone Healing2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Fractures in humans most commonly occur near the joints, in the metaphyseal bone area mainly consisting of cancellous bone. Despite this, mainly cortical fractures, located in the diaphyseal bone area, have been studied in experimental models of bone healing. It is known from previous studies that the diaphyseal fracture is sensitive to anti-inflammatory treatment, while metaphyseal bone healing is more resistant. The aim of this thesis is to study the inflammatory response to bone trauma in cancellous and cortical bone. A flow cytometric method was established for the purpose of examining the cellular composition of the inflammatory process in models of bone healing

    In paper I the cellular composition of metaphyseal bone healing was studied with flow cytometry. The proximal tibia was traumatized and then studied at day 1, 3, 5 and 10 afterwards and compared to healthy mice. The contralateral proximal tibia was also studied at the same time points to delineate the trauma site specific inflammation. A few changes could be noted that seemed specific to the trauma site in macrophage phenotype development. However, the cellular composition was similar at the trauma site and in the contralateral proximal tibia. This notion of a general skeletal response was confirmed with analysis of the humerus at day 5.

    In paper II a model of cortical bone healing apt for flow cytometry was developed and compared to cancellous bone healing. A furrow was milled along the femoral cortex and the healing bone tissue analyzed. The earliest time point that enough cells were present for flow cytometry was day 3. The cortical and cancellous model of bone healing was compared at day 3 and 5 to study how they evolve in comparison to each other. It was noted that they were similar in cellular composition at day 3, but had diverged at day 5. The cancellous model increased in neutrophilic granulocytes, whereas the cortical model increased in lymphocytes.

    In paper III the cancellous and cortical model were compared under experimental intervention of indomethacin. It is known that indomethacin leads to weakened biomechanical properties in cortical bone healing, but not in cancellous bone healing. The effect on cellular composition with indomethacin was studied with flow cytometry and the extracellular protein profile in the healing bone tissue with mass spectrometry. Unexpectedly, inflammatory monocytes were increased in the cortical model at day 3 with indomethacin, but otherwise the models were similar in cell composition at day 3 and 5. In mass spectrometry there was a large increase in detected proteins at day 3 in the indomethacin exposed cortical model, but otherwise the models were similar. This points to an early and model specific effect of indomethacin. The observed lack of indomethacin-induced effects in cancellous bone healing is in line with the previously noted lack of indomethacin-induced effects on bone weakening. The apparently increased inflammatory activity in the cortical model with indomethacin exposure at day 3 might indicate the healing process to be disturbed and not able to progress from the early proinflammatory state to a more anabolic, anti-inflammatory state.

    In paper IV the effect of macrophage depletion on healing of metaphyseal bone was studied. Clodronate was given for depletion at different time points prior to surgery and the pull-out force of a screw or tissue phenotyping of macrophages was performed a varying number of days after surgery. It was noted that metaphyseal bone healing was to a large extent inhibited by macrophage depletion up to two days after surgery, but not if depletion was done more than two days after surgery. Thus, macrophages seem to be most important during the first two days after trauma in cancellous bone healing. 

    In summary this thesis provide insight to the natural development of bone healing. The findings emphasise that cancellous and cortical bone healing are different entities with differences in the inflammatory process leading to healing.

    Delarbeten
    1. Isolated metaphyseal injury influences unrelated bones A flow cytometric study of tibia and humerus in mice
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Isolated metaphyseal injury influences unrelated bones A flow cytometric study of tibia and humerus in mice
    Visa övriga...
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Orthopaedica, ISSN 1745-3674, E-ISSN 1745-3682, Vol. 88, nr 2, s. 223-230Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Background and purpose - Fracture healing involves different inflammatory cells, some of which are not part of the traditional bone field, such as B-cells and cytotoxic T-cells. We wanted to characterize bone healing by flow cytometry using 15 different inflammatory cell markers in a mouse model of metaphyseal injury, and incidentally discovered a previously unknown general skeletal reaction to trauma. Material and methods - A bent needle was inserted and twisted to traumatize the cancellous bone in the proximal tibia of C57/Bl6 female mice. This is known to induce vivid bone formation locally in the marrow compartment. Cells were harvested from the injured region, the uninjured contralateral tibia, and the humerus. The compositions of the immune cell populations were compared to those in untraumatized control animals. Results - Tibial metaphyseal injury led to substantial changes in the cell populations over time. Unexpectedly, similar changes were also seen in the contralateral tibia and in the humerus, despite the lack of local trauma. Most leukocyte subsets were affected by this generalized reaction. Interpretation - A relatively small degree of injury to the proximal tibia led to systemic changes in the immune cell populations in the marrow of unrelated bones, and probably in the entire skeleton. The few changes that were specific for the injury site appeared to relate to modulatory functions.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2017
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Ortopedi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137410 (URN)10.1080/17453674.2016.1274587 (DOI)000399484400018 ()28128005 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [VR 02031-47-5]; Linkoping University; Ostergotland County Council; European Communitys Seventh Framework Programme (FP7) [279239]

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-05-18 Skapad: 2017-05-18 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-09
    2. Different composition of leucocytes in cortical and cancellous bone healing in a mouse model
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Different composition of leucocytes in cortical and cancellous bone healing in a mouse model
    Visa övriga...
    2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Bone and Joint Research, ISSN 2046-3758, E-ISSN 2352-1872, Vol. 7, nr 12, s. 620-628Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives Cortical and cancellous bone healing processes appear to be histologically different. They also respond differently to anti-inflammatory agents. We investigated whether the leucocyte composition on days 3 and 5 after cortical and cancellous injuries to bone was different, and compared changes over time using day 3 as the baseline. Methods Ten-week-old male C56/B16J mice were randomized to either cancellous injury in the proximal tibia or cortical injury in the femoral diaphysis. Regenerating tissues were analyzed with flow cytometry at days 3 and 5, using panels with 15 antibodies for common macrophage and lymphocyte markers. The cellular response from day 3 to 5 was compared in order to identify differences in how cancellous and cortical bone healing develop. Results Between day 3 and 5, the granulocytes increased in the cancellous model, whereas the lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, NK cells) and monocytes (CD11b+, 14/80+, CD206+, CD14+ ) increased in the cortical model. Conclusion These results suggest an acute type of inflammation in cancellous bone healing, and a more chronic inflammation in cortical healing. This might explain, in part, why cancellous healing is faster and more resistant to anti-inflammatory drugs than are diaphyseal fractures.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    BRITISH EDITORIAL SOC BONE JOINT SURGERY, 2018
    Nyckelord
    Metaphyseal; Diaphyseal; Cortical; Cancellous; Intramembranous; Fracture
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Biomaterialvetenskap
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154731 (URN)10.1302/2046-3758.712.BJR-2017-0366.R2 (DOI)000457234600001 ()30662708 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [VR 02031-47-5]; European Community [279239]

    Tillgänglig från: 2019-02-27 Skapad: 2019-02-27 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-09
    3. Temporal role of macrophages in cancellous bone healing
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Temporal role of macrophages in cancellous bone healing
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Bone, ISSN 8756-3282, E-ISSN 1873-2763, Vol. 101, s. 129-133Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Macrophages are important phagocytosing and cytokine producing cells with effects on fracture healing. We used clodronate-containing liposomes to reduce the number of macrophages, in order to study their role in the early phases of cancellous bone healing. Holes were drilled bilaterally into the cancellous bone of the proximal metaphysis of the tibia of 60 mice. A screw was inserted in the hole in the right tibia. The day of surgery was day 0. Clodronate-containing liposomes were injected intraperitoneally as a single injection either day 4 or 1 (before surgery) or day 1 or 3 (after surgery). A control group underwent surgery as above, but received no clodronate. The mice were killed day 7. The mechanical quality of the new formed cancellous bone holding the screw was evaluated by a pull-out test. The contents of the drill hole in the left tibia was analyzed by microCT. Another set of 20 mice received a drill hole in the metaphysis of the right tibia, and were given either clodronate or saline injections days 3 and 2. The animals were killed day 1 and 3. Flow cytometry was used to analyze the composition of macrophage subpopulations in the regenerating tissue. Flow cytometry showed that clodronate injections day 3 and 2 led to a decrease in mature monocytes day 1 together with an increase in immature monocytes. On day 3 this effect had mostly disappeared, suggesting that the effect of the injections lasted 3 to 5 days. Mechanical testing revealed that the injections prior to surgery decreased the strength of the new formed bone, holding the screw, by about half. Bone density in the drill hole was similarly reduced. In contrast, the injections given day I and 3 had smaller and statistically insignificant effects. Since their depletion at later time points failed to produce a significant effect, it seems that the role of macrophages in cancellous bone is most crucial during the first two days after trauma. (C) 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE INC, 2017
    Nyckelord
    Macrophages; Bone healing; Flow cytometry; Cancellous; Metaphysis; Mechanical testing
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Ortopedi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139383 (URN)10.1016/j.bone.2017.04.004 (DOI)000404319300016 ()28414141 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [K2013-52X-02031-47-5]; Linkoping University; Ostergotland County Council [LiO-619221]; European Communitys Seventh Framework Program (FP7) [279239]

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-08-07 Skapad: 2017-08-07 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-09
  • Sklyar, Alexey
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Kowalkowski, Christian
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Sörhammar, David
    Stockholm Business School, Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Tronvoll, Bård
    Inland Norway University of Applied Sciences, Norway; CTF – Service Research Center, Karlstad University, Sweden..
    Resource integration through digitalisation: a service ecosystem perspective2019Ingår i: Journal of Marketing Management, ISSN 0267-257X, E-ISSN 1472-1376Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    As digitalisation increasingly encompasses entire service ecosystems, it modifies resource integration patterns that connect ecosystem actors through strong and weak ties. To clarify how technological development contributes to this change, and how resource integration transforms the service ecosystem, this qualitative case study explores the digitalisation strategy of a market-leading systems integrator in the maritime industry. Based on 40 depth interviews with managers, the findings show how technology increasingly serves as a key operant resource in the transformation of resource integration patterns. The study contributes to ecosystem dynamics research by identifying major differences between the pre-digitalised and digitalised states of a service ecosystem, and demonstrates the dual role of technology in both increasing pattern complexity and facilitating coordination of that complexity.

  • Muhrman, Karolina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Nordmark, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, Socialt arbete. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Nyström, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Pedagogik och vuxnas lärande. Linköpings universitet, Utbildningsvetenskap.
    Från individ till verksamhetsutveckling – för att minska skolavhopp: Slutrapport från utvärderingen av #jagmed2018Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [no]

    Följande slutrapport redovisar resultaten från utvärderingen av mål, resultat och effekter i projektet #jagmed. Vi som har haft i uppdrag att göra utvärderingen är universitetslektor Sofia Nordmark, Institutionen för samhälls- och välfärdsstudier, universitetslektor Karolina Muhrman och universitetslektor Sofia Nyström (projektledare), Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, vid Linköpings universitet. Inom ramen för utvärderingsuppdraget har tidigare en uppstartsrapport och en halvtidsrapport presenterat tillvägagångssätt och processer i #jagmed (Nordmark & Nyström, 2017) och en halvtidsrapport (Muhrman, Nordmark & Nyström, 2017).

    Utvärderingsarbetet inleddes 2016 med inläsning av projektdokument, planer och program. Därefter utvecklades designen för utvärderingen genom urval och precisering av frågeställningar. Kontakter etablerades med läns- och delprojekt och en första datainsamling i form interaktiva workshopar på länsnivå, samt en omgång med intervjuer i de fem projekt som valts ut för fördjupningsstudier genomfördes. Under 2017 genomfördes en enkätundersökning för samtliga projektmedarbetare, en andra omgång av interaktiva workshopar på länsnivå samt två omgångar med intervjuer av projektledare och projektmedarbetare, i de fem fördjupningsprojekten. Under våren 2018 genomfördes en andra enkätundersökning, en tredje omgång med workshopar på länsnivå, ytterligare en intervjuomgång med fördjupningsprojekten samt avslutande intervjuer med de regionala projektledarna. I denna rapport presenteras utvärderingens sammantagna resultat.

    Rapporten inleds med en beskrivning av utvärderingsuppdragets syfte och frågeställningar. Därefter följer en bakgrundsöversikt till #jagmed-projektet, samt tidigare forskning och litteratur kring studieavbrott, skolavhopp, organisering av insatser för att motverka studieavbrott och organisering av utvecklingsprojekt. I rapportens tredje del presenteras de metoder och tillvägagångssätt som har använts för utvärderingen samt en tidsaxel över utvärderingens datainsamling. Vi beskriver också hur återkoppling av resultat har skett under utvärderingen samt vilka avstämningspunkter som har skett med uppdragsgivare och lokala projekt. Därefter följer ett avsnitt där resultat och analys av det insamlade materialet presenteras utifrån syftet med utvärderingen. Avslutningsvis diskuteras resultat och effekter av #jagmed och några avslutande slutsatser kring vad som varit framgångsfaktorer och hinder för projektens arbete.

  • Linders, Viktor
    et al.
    Facultyof, Mechanica, Engineering,Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
    Nordström, Jan
    Linköpings universitet, Matematiska institutionen, Beräkningsmatematik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Frankel, Steven H.
    Facultyof, Mechanica, Engineering,Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel.
    Convergence and stability properties of summation-by-parts in time2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    We extend the list of stability properties satisfied by Summation-By-Parts (SBP) in time to include strong S-stability, dissipative stability and stiff accuracy. Further, it is shown that SBP in time is B-convergent for strictly contractive non-linear problems and weakly convergent for non-linear problems that are both contractive and dissipative

  • Disputation: 2019-05-10 09:00 Hasselquistsalen, Växthuset, Linköping
    Zajdel, Joanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Interactions between the brain and the immune system in pain and inflammation2019Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Reciprocal interactions between the nervous and immune systems have gained a lot of attention in the last two decades, especially after demonstrating that cytokine immunotherapies can induce depression and after describing the inflammatory reflex. A lot of effort has been dedicated to understanding how the signals from the immune system reach the brain and vice versa, and on their role in health and disease. However, it is not well-known which of the brain circuits, receptors and signalling molecules give rise to behavioural and affective changes induced by inflammation, such as reduced food intake and induction of negative mood. Moreover, although it is well established that early life stress leads to an increased risk of developing inflammatory diseases in adulthood, the acute effects of stress on the inflammatory response in childhood are not well described. Using mouse models of systemic and local inflammation, I studied (1) how inflammatory pain elicits negative affect, (2) if CGRPα is necessary for parabrachial-amygdaloid pathway-mediated behaviours associated with pain and inflammation, and finally, (3) what are the effects of stress on the inflammatory process during early life. The results indicate that (1) the negative affect of inflammatory pain is triggered by inhibition of serotonergic neurons of the dorsal raphe nucleus, as a result of prostaglandin E2 binding to EP3 receptors; (2) CGRPα is dispensable for most pain- and inflammation-related protective behaviours; (3) acute stress potentiates the pro-inflammatory cytokine expression after an inflammatory challenge in mouse pups. The phenomena studied here can contribute to understanding how immune system activation induces changes in mood and behaviour common for inflammation and depression.

    Delarbeten
    1. Prostaglandin-mediated inhibition of serotonin signaling controls the affective component of inflammatory pain
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Prostaglandin-mediated inhibition of serotonin signaling controls the affective component of inflammatory pain
    Visa övriga...
    2017 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Clinical Investigation, ISSN 0021-9738, E-ISSN 1558-8238, Vol. 127, nr 4, s. 1370-1374Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Pain is fundamentally unpleasant and induces a negative affective state. The affective component of pain is mediated by circuits that are distinct from those mediating the sensory-discriminative component. Here, we have investigated the role of prostaglandins in the affective dimension of pain using a rodent pain assay based on conditioned place aversion to formalin injection, an inflammatory noxious stimulus. We found that place aversion induced by inflammatory pain depends on prostaglandin E-2 that is synthesized by cyclooxygenase 2 in neural cells. Further, mice lacking the prostaglandin E-2 receptor EP3 selectively on serotonergic cells or selectively in the area of the dorsal raphe nucleus failed to form an aversion to formalininduced pain, as did mice lacking the serotonin transporter. Chemogenetic manipulations revealed that EP3 receptor activation elicited conditioned place aversion to pain via inhibition of serotonergic neurons. In contrast to their role in inflammatory pain aversion, EP3 receptors on serotonergic cells were dispensable for acute nociceptive behaviors and for aversion induced by thermal pain or a kappa opioid receptor agonist. Collectively, our findings show that prostaglandin-mediated modulation of serotonergic transmission controls the affective component of inflammatory pain.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    AMER SOC CLINICAL INVESTIGATION INC, 2017
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Neurovetenskaper
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136568 (URN)10.1172/JCI90678 (DOI)000398183300026 ()28287401 (PubMedID)
    Anmärkning

    Funding Agencies|European Research Council; Swedish Medical Research Council; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Brain Foundation; County Council of Ostergotland; National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS)

    Tillgänglig från: 2017-04-24 Skapad: 2017-04-24 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-08
    2. Acute maternal separation potentiates the gene expression and corticosterone response induced by inflammation
    Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Acute maternal separation potentiates the gene expression and corticosterone response induced by inflammation
    Visa övriga...
    2019 (Engelska)Ingår i: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 77, s. 141-149Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Maternal care is crucial for infants and profoundly affects their responses to different kinds of stressors. Here, we examined how maternal separation affects inflammatory gene expression and the corticosterone response to an acute immune challenge induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 40 µg/kg ip) in mouse pups, 8–9 days old. Maternal separation initially attenuated LPS-induced hypothalamic pro-inflammatory gene expression, but later, at 3 h after immune challenge, robustly augmented such gene expression and increased serum corticosterone levels. Providing the pups with a warm and soft object prevented the separation-induced augmented hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA)-axis response. It also prevented the potentiated induction of some, but not all, inflammatory genes to a similar extent as did the dam. Our results show that maternal separation potentiates the inflammatory response and the resulting HPA-axis activation, which may have detrimental effects if separation is prolonged or repeated.

    Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
    Elsevier, 2019
    Nyckelord
    Lipopolysaccharide, Hypothalamus, Cytokines, Inflammation, Maternal separation, Corticosterone
    Nationell ämneskategori
    Farmakologi och toxikologi Utvecklingsbiologi Medicinsk bioteknologi Immunologi
    Identifikatorer
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154886 (URN)10.1016/j.bbi.2018.12.016 (DOI)30590109 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059128986 (Scopus ID)
    Tillgänglig från: 2019-03-04 Skapad: 2019-03-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-04-08Bibliografiskt granskad
  • Baer, Katharina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Ericson, Liselott
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Krus, Petter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Fluida och mekatroniska system. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Robustness and performance evaluations for simulation-based control and component parameter optimization for a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle2019Ingår i: Engineering optimization (Print), ISSN 0305-215X, E-ISSN 1029-0273, s. 1-19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Simulation-based optimization is a useful tool in the design of complex engineering products. Simulation models are used to capture numerous aspects of the design problem for the objective function. Optimization results obtained can be assessed from various perspectives. In this study, component and control optimization of a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle is used as an application, and different robustness and performance aspects are evaluated. Owing to relatively high computational loads, efficient optimization algorithms are important to provide sufficient quality of results at reasonable computational costs. To estimate problem complexity and evaluate optimization algorithm performance, the definitions for information entropy and the related performance index are extended. The insights gained from various simulation-based optimization experiments and their subsequent analysis help characterize the efficiency of the optimization problem formulation and parameterization, as well as optimization algorithm selection with respect to parallel computation capabilities for further development of the model and optimization framework.

  • Edvardsson, Anna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och litteratur.
    Edlund Gustavsson, Madelene
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för kultur och kommunikation, Avdelningen för språk och litteratur.
    Det kommunikativa klassrummet: Att arbeta med kommunikation i åk 4-62018Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här uppsatsen behandlar det kommunikativa klassrummet och vad det har för eventuella fördelar. Uppsatsen utreder begreppen bundet och fritt tal och hur de påverkar elevers lärande. En annan punkt som utreds är talångest och vilken påverkan det kan ha på eleverna i det kommunikativa klassrummet. Resultatet visar vilka fördelar ett kommunikativt klassrum har. Genom det kommunikativa klassrummet blir eleverna mer aktiva och motiverade. Fokus ligger på eleverna eftersom klassrummet blir mer elevstyrt. Det fria talet, som låte releverna styra talet, är bättre för elevers lärande än det bundna där läraren styr. Ett problem som kan förhindra elevers lärande i det kommunikativa klassrummet är elevers talångest. Talångest påverkas av olika faktorer såsom rädslan att göra fel, dåligt självförtroende, kulturella faktorer och lärarens påverkan på eleverna. Detta kan motarbetas genom att läraren inte hakar upp sig på elevers misstag och att läraren kan skapa ett tryggt klassrum för eleverna.Genom att arbeta med ett kommunikativt klassrum öppnas nya vägar upp för eleven och fokus läggs mer på elevernas tal än på att läsa och skriva.

  • Frank, Sanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Dzebic, Lajla
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande.
    Förstagångsmammor välbefinnande: – Betydelsen av sociala relationer och stöd för nyblivna mammors mentala mående2019Självständigt arbete på grundnivå (kandidatexamen), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudentuppsats (Examensarbete)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förstagångsmammors välbefinnande är ett diskuterat ämne med mycket tidigare forskning bakom sig. Studiens syfte var att undersöka huruvida det finns ett samband mellan förstagångsmammors fysiska och psykiska välbefinnande och olika faktorer som relationer samt stöd från social omgivning och sjukvård med en kvantitativ analysmetod. Enkäter skickades ut till sociala medier och utefter det sammanställdes resultatet via SPSS. Resultatet av denna studie visar att förstagångsmammor är i behov av stöd från sjukvård och social omgivning. En bra relation till framförallt partner och vänner är viktigt för det mentala måendet. Tidigare psykiska besvär, medicinering för psykiska besvär och diagnostisering av personlighetsstörning påvisar en stor risk att drabbas av förlossningsdepression. En besvärlig förlossningsupplevelse kan också bidra till en förlossningsdepression och deltagarna upplevde att de fått bättre information från sjukvården kring de psykiska bieffekterna av att föda barn än de fysiska bieffekterna, något som sa emot tidigare forskning. 

  • Nord, Tomas
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell ekonomi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Hugosson, Mårten
    Företagsekonomi, Akademin Industri och samhälle, Högskolan Dalarna.
    Beslutsstöd för upphandling av gröna byggprojekt2019Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektet ”Beslutsstöd för upphandling av gröna byggprojekt” ingår som ett delprojekt i det strategiska forskningsprogrammet Bioinnovations ”Framtidens biobaserade byggande och boende (FBBB). Delprojektet tar sin utgångspunkt i de marknadsmässiga svårigheter som trä i byggande haft i att uppfattas som ett likvärdigt alternativ till övriga stommaterial. Ett antal kommuner i landet har därför utarbetat  träbyggnadsstrategier för att synliggöra trä som lämpligt stommaterial och ett material som har höga miljömässiga prestanda.

    Syftet med projektet har varit att belysa hur kommunala strategiska handlingsmönster kan påverka utvecklingen till att trä i byggande kommer in som ett likvärdigt byggnadsmaterial. Målet med denna rapport är att utifrån av ett antal strategier, och byggprojekt visa hur framtida upphandlingar kan se ut.

    Tio stycken träbyggnadsprojekt i tre kommuner med träbyggnadsstrategi har valts ut och beskrivits, via insamlad sekundärdata och intervjuer med berörda personer. Urvalet av byggprojekt grundades på att få en bredd av byggnadstyper och upphandlingsformer snarare än skillnader i kommuners handlingar och överväganden i de enskilda projekten.

    Sammanställningen av de tio byggprojektens genomförande visar att förekomsten av kommunala träbyggnadsstrategier har haft en positiv påverkan på introduktion och utveckling av träbyggandet. Detta tillsammans med dynamiken i den regionala/ lokala byggmarknaden. Genom att det finns en målsatt strategi skapar det en tydlighet från kommunalt håll om kommunens ambition och vilja att bygga med trä, vilket är en viktig grund för förändringen som visar sig i sammanställningen. Entreprenörerna har därmed fått incitament att lära sig träbyggande eftersom det skapar en konkurrensfördel. Den kommunala beställaren har en viktig roll i att tolka och förmedla den av politiker antagna träbyggnadsstrategin och skapa en intern förståelse och kompetens om träbyggande. Slutligen visar de  enskilda projektprocesserna på vikten av ett systematiskt lärande och intern spridning av kunskap för lyckade resultat.

    Slutsats: Kommunerna bör beskriv och definiera långsiktiga mål med byggandet i kommunen där trä ska ingå som ett konkurrenskraftigt alternativ i beskrivningen av möjliga lösningar.