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  • Skill, Karin (Editor)
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change.
    Hansson, Per-Olof (Editor)
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Digitalisering av lärares undervisning: Översikt och exempel från examensarbeten vid ämneslärarprogrammet i samhällskunskap2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna publikation är en del av rapportserien DINO – Digitalisering i nya offentligheter. Syftet med rapportserien är att publicera tidiga forskningsresultat som handlar om samhällets digitalisering i vid mening, och särskilt det som sker inom och i relation till offentliga verksamheter.

    Digitaliseringen av skolan handlar om ett offentligt sammanhang i allra högsta grad. Och bland lärarstudenterna som vi handleder på ämneslärarprogrammet i samhällsvetenskap har kraven på att arbeta med digitala verktyg och att ha digital kompetens fångat mångas intresse och uppmärksamhet. Vi vill därför ge en inblick i den kunskap som skapas kring temat i den här rapporten. Rapporten vänder sig till en intresserad allmänhet, men även forskare och universitetslärare som undervisar lärarstudenter, lärarstudenter som står i startgroparna för att skriva examensarbeten, samt aktiva lärare som vill få inblick i kollegors utmaningar och tillvägagångssätt när det gäller digitaliseringen och användningen av digitala verktyg i undervisningen.

    I rapporten vill vi dela med oss av relevanta sätt att studera och förstå hur lärare i grundskola och på gymnasiet kan undervisa med digitala verktyg, hur studenterna kan arbeta för att fånga detta, samt visa på resultat som framkommit ur examensarbetena.

  • Holmberg, Kaj
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Optimal proportional representation2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In a democratic proportional election system, it is vital that the mandates in the parliament are allocated as proportionally as possible to the number of votes the parties got in the election. We formulate an optimization model for allocation of seats in a parliament so as to minimize the disproportionality. By applying separable programming techniques, we obtain an easily solvable problem, and present a method for solving it optimally. The obtained solution is the feasible solution that has the minimal disproportionality (with the measure chosen), even in the presence of a parliament threshold, which is not always the case for the practical procedures used in many countries. We apply the approach to real life data from the last three elections in Sweden, and show that the result is better, i.e. more proportional, than what was obtained with the modified Sainte-Laguë method, which is presently used. A natural suggestion would be to use our method instead.

    We also consider the issue about constituencies, and suggest a procedure, based on the same kind of optimization problem, for allocating mandates in the constituencies, without changing the overall allocation with respect to parties. The numbers of mandates for the constituencies are based on the number of votes given, not on estimated numbers of inhabitants entitled to vote. This removes the need for compensatory mandates, and makes the question about sizes of the constituencies less important.

  • Olsson, Per-Magnus
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmberg, Kaj
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Optimization . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Exploiting parallelization and synergy in derivative free optimization2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Real life optimization often concerns difficult objective functions, in two aspects, namely that gradients are unavailable, and that evaluation of the objective function takes a long time. Such problems are often attacked with model building algorithms, where an approximation of the function is constructed and solved, in order to find a new promising point to evaluate. We study several ways of saving time by using parallel calculations in the context of model building algorithms, which is not trivial, since such algorithms are inherently sequential. We present a number of ideas that has been implemented and tested on a large number of known test functions, and a few new ones. The computational results reveal that some ideas are quite promising.

  • Linde, Måns
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Applied Thermodynamics and Fluid Mechanics.
    Economic and Environmental Benefits of the ORC and the Willingness to Invest: A case study from a wastewater treatment plant and a small-scale combined heat and power plant2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, as many other European countries, centralized large-scale electricity production has traditionally been used to meet the electricity and heat demand. During recent years however, small-scale producers have gained more ground and contributes more to the total electricity generation. Industrial systems such as sewage plants and small-scale district heating plants both have potential thermal power sources available and utilizing this to generate electricity could be an important contribution towards increasing the ratio and effectiveness of renewable energy sources and reduce the primary energy supply. The potential of the Organic Rankine Cycle has been acknowledged by many, with commercial development increasing exponentially during the recent decades. Unlike the traditional Rankine cycle which uses water as a working fluid, the ORC uses a refrigerant with a lower evaporation temperature, which makes it possible to produce electricity from heat of lower temperatures.

    This thesis has through reading literature and plant visits analyzed the effect of implementing an operation strategy at two different plants where ORCs has been installed. One wastewater treatment plant in Norrköping and one combined heat and power plant in Ronneby, Sweden. The operation strategy includes moving production of electricity to high demand hours as well as analyzing options for increasing the efficiency at the plants. In addition, this thesis also includes a questionnaire made in order to analyze what obstacles and motivations that affect the willingness to invest in ORC technology in Sweden.

    The result from this provides useful information for future work in order to see an increased establishment of the ORC on the Swedish market.The results show that by implementing an operation strategy at plant Norrköping the avoided electricity and heat cost from installing the ORC could be increased by 47% and the avoided emissions increased by 436%. For plant Ronneby the avoided electricity cost could be increased by 8% and the avoided emissions increased by 31%.

    The questionnaire shows that different plants have different prerequisites and viewpoints when it comes to investing in ORC technology. This can for example be differences in budget for investments, the workload of the employees or if there is available fuel to run the ORC. From this finding it becomes clear that if one wish to see an increase in ORC technology in today’s industry, it becomes vital to look at each individual plant and assess the situation from there. However, a trend shows that the reduced electricity cost and the reduction in global emissions are two strong motivations for heat plants and wastewater treatment plants to invest in ORC systems.

  • Keevallik, Leelo
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ogden, Richard
    University of York, United Kingdom.
    Sounds on the margins of language at the heart of interaction2020In: Research on Language and Social Interaction, ISSN 0835-1813, E-ISSN 1532-7973, Vol. 53, no 1, p. 1-18Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    What do people do with sniffs, lip-smacks, grunts, moans, sighs, whistles, and clicks, where these are not part of their language’s phonetic inventory? They use them, we shall show, as irreplaceable elements in performing all kinds of actions—from managing the structural flow of interaction to indexing states of mind and much more besides. In this introductory essay we outline the phonetic and embodied interactional underpinnings of language and argue that greater attention should be paid to its nonlexical elements. Data are in English and Estonian.

  • Busk, Tomas
    Linköping University, Department of Electrical Engineering, Automatic Control.
    Blind Channel Equalization for Shortwave Digital Radio Communications2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the concept of Blind Channel Equalization has been examined and algorithms suitable to blindly equalize the channel are presented and evaluated on simulated data. The concept of blind equalization is to equalize a communica- tions channel without relying on a training sequence or pilot tone, which may be either unknown to the receiver or not exist at all. In total, seven blind equaliza- tion algorithms have been implemented, these are the: lms-cma (Constant Modu- lus Algorithm), rls-cma, mma (Multi Modulus Algorithm), rca (Reduced Constel- lation Algorithm), cna-6 (Constant Norm Algorithm), lms-dfe (Decision Feedback Equalization) and rls-dfe. The equalizers are designed as adaptive fir-filters that are recursively updated by either an lms- or rls-algorithm, according to a cost function specified by the chosen algorithm with the aim to appoximate the inverse h−1 of the communications channel h. Thanks to the recursive update the algorithms can easily be implemented either in offline or online systems.

    The results show that the rls-algorithms offer shorter convergence times and over all better performance than its lms counterparts. If the signal constellation is known by the receiver in advance the rls-dfe offers the best channel tracking ability, resulting in the lowest symbol error rate.The rls-cma offers the roughly the same mseR -performance (mean square error from the equalizer output to the closest radius of the constellation points) but it lacks the ability to handle the doppler shift as well as the rls-dfe does. The results also show that the mma, cna-6 and rca-algorithms do not offer any better performance than the more commonly used and studied lms-cma algorithm.

    When the receiver incorrectly assumes the signal constellation, it can identify the correct constellation. Test results show that the rls-cma is especially good at amplitde recovery, while the rls-dfe is suitable to recover the phase of the signal. Lastly the rca is useful to recover psk-4 modulated signals as its cost function match the psk-4 constellation.

  • Esguerra, John Laurence
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    ASSESSING THE ECONOMIC POTENTIAL OF LANDFILL MINING: REVIEW AND RECOMMENDATIONS2019In: DETRITUS, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 8, p. 125-140Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As landfill mining (LFM) gains public attention, systematic assessment of its economic potential is deemed necessary. The aim of this review is to critically analyze the usefulness and validity of previous economic assessments of LFM. Following the life cycle costing (LCC) framework, (i) the employed methods based on goal and scope, technical parameters and data inventory, and modelling choices were contrasted with respect to (ii) the synthesized main findings based on net profitability and economic performance drivers. Results showed that the selected studies (n=15) are mostly case study-specific and concluded that LFM has a weak economic potential, hinting at the importance of favorable market and regulation settings. However, several method issues are apparent as costs and revenues are accounted at different levels of aggregation, scope and scale-from process to sub-process level, from private to societal economics, and from laboratory to pilot-scale, respectively. Moreover, despite the inherent large uncertainties, more than half of the studies did not perform any uncertainty or sensitivity analyses posing validity issues. Consequently, this also limits the usefulness of results as individual case studies and as a collective, towards a generic understanding of LFM economics. Irrespective of case study-specific or generic aims, this review recommends that future assessments should be learning-oriented. That is, uncovering granular information about what builds up the net profitability of LFM, to be able to systematically determine promising paths for the development of cost-efficient projects.

  • Einhaupl, Paul
    et al.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium; Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium; Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    DEVELOPING STAKEHOLDER ARCHETYPES FOR ENHANCED LANDFILL MINING2019In: DETRITUS, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 8, p. 109-124Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding the perspectives of different stakeholders on emerging technological concepts is an important step towards their implementation. Enhanced Landfill Mining (ELFM) is one of these emerging concepts. It aims at valorizing past waste streams to higher added values in a sustainable manner. Yet, assessment of ELFM mainly focusses on environmental and private economic issues, and societal impacts are rarely analyzed. This study uses semi-structured interviews to build understanding for different ELFM practitioners and researchers and develops five stakeholder archetypes for ELFM implementation: the Engaged Citizen, the Entrepreneur, the Technology Enthusiast, the Visionary and the Skeptic. The archetypes outline major differences in approaching ELFM implementation. The stakeholder perceptions are put into context with existing literature, and implications for ELFM implementation and future research are discussed. Results show that differences in regulatory changes and technology choices are affected by different stakeholder perspectives and more research is needed to balance inner- and inter-dimensional conflicts of ELFMs sustainability. The developed archetypes can especially be helpful when evaluating social impacts, whose perception often depends on opinion and is difficult to quantify.

  • Hernandez Parrodi, Juan Carlos
    et al.
    Renewi Belgium SA NV, Belgium; Univ Leoben, Austria.
    Lucas, Hugo
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Gigantino, Marco
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Switzerland.
    Sauve, Giovanna
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Esguerra, John Laurence
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Einhaupl, Paul
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium; Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    Vollprecht, Daniel
    Univ Leoben, Austria.
    Pomberger, Roland
    Univ Leoben, Austria.
    Friedrich, Bernd
    Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Germany.
    Van Acker, Karel
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Krook, Joakim
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Svensson, Niclas
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Van Passel, Steven
    Univ Antwerp, Belgium.
    INTEGRATION OF RESOURCE RECOVERY INTO CURRENT WASTE MANAGEMENT THROUGH (ENHANCED) LANDFILL MINING2019In: DETRITUS, ISSN 2611-4127, Vol. 8, p. 141-156Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Europe has somewhere between 150,000 and 500,000 landfill sites, with an estimated 90% of them being "non-sanitary" landfills, predating the EU Landfill Directive of 1999/31/EC. These older landfills tend to be filled with municipal solid waste and often lack any environmental protection technology. " Doing nothing", state-of-theart aftercare or remediating them depends largely on technical, societal and economic conditions which vary between countries. Beside " doing nothing and landfill aftercare, there are different scenarios in landfill mining, from re-landfilling the waste into "sanitary landfills" to seizing the opportunity for a combined resource-recovery and remediation strategy. This review article addresses present and future issues and potential opportunities for landfill mining as an embedded strategy in current waste management systems through a multi-disciplinary approach. In particular, three general landfill mining strategies are addressed with varying extents of resource recovery. These are discussed in relation to the main targets of landfill mining: (i) reduction of the landfill volume (technical), (ii) reduction of risks and impacts (environmental) and (iii) increase in resource recovery and overall profitability (economic). Geophysical methods could be used to determine the characteristics of the landfilled waste and subsurface structures without the need of an invasive exploration, which could greatly reduce exploration costs and time, as well as be useful to develop a procedure to either discard or select the most appropriate sites for (E)LFM. Material and energy recovery from land-filled waste can be achieved through mechanical processing coupled with thermochemical valorization technologies and residues upcycling techniques. Gasification could enable the upcycling of residues after thermal treatment into a new range of eco-friendly construction materials based on inorganic polymers and glass-ceramics. The multi-criteria assessment is directly influenced by waste- and technology related factors, which together with site-specific conditions, market and regulatory aspects, influence the environmental, economic and societal impacts of (E)LFM projects.

  • Alriksson-Schmidt, Ann
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Jarl, Johan
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rodby-Bousquet, Elisabet
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Vastmanland Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Josenby, Annika Lundkvist
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Westbom, Lena
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Himmelmann, Kate
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stadskleiv, Kristine
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Sweden.
    Ödman, Pia
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Physiotherapy. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Svensson, Ingrid
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Antfolk, Christian
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Malesevic, Nebojsa
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Jeglinsky, Ira
    Arcada Univ Appl Sci, Finland.
    Saha, Sanjib
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Hagglund, Gunnar
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Improving the Health of Individuals With Cerebral Palsy: Protocol for the Multidisciplinary Research Program MOVING ON WITH CP2019In: JMIR Research Protocols, ISSN 1929-0748, E-ISSN 1929-0748, Vol. 8, no 10, article id e13883Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most common early onset disabilities globally. The causative brain damage in CP is nonprogressive, yet secondary conditions develop and worsen over time. Individuals with CP in Sweden and most of the Nordic countries are systematically followed in the national registry and follow-up program entitled the Cerebral Palsy Follow-Up Program (CPUP). CPUP has improved certain aspects of health care for individuals with CP and strengthened collaboration among professionals. However, there are still issues to resolve regarding health care for this specific population.

    Objective: The overall objectives of the research program MOVING ON WITH CP are to (1) improve the health care processes and delivery models; (2) develop, implement, and evaluate real-life solutions for Swedish health care provision; and (3) evaluate existing health care and social insurance benefit programs and processes in the context of CP.

    Methods: MOVING ON WITH CP comprises 9 projects within 3 themes. Evaluation of Existing Health Care (Theme A) consists of registry studies where data from CPUP will be merged with national official health databases, complemented by survey and interview data. In Equality in Health Care and Social Insurance (Theme B), mixed methods studies and registry studies will be complemented with focus group interviews to inform the development of new processes to apply for benefits. In New Solutions and Processes in Health Care Provision (Theme C), an eHealth (electronic health) procedure will be developed and tested to facilitate access to specialized health care, and equipment that improves the assessment of movement activity in individuals with CP will be developed.

    Results: The individual projects are currently being planned and will begin shortly. Feedback from users has been integrated. Ethics board approvals have been obtained.

    Conclusions: In this 6-year multidisciplinary program, professionals from the fields of medicine, social sciences, health sciences, and engineering, in collaboration with individuals with CP and their families, will evaluate existing health care, create conditions for a more equal health care, and develop new technologies to improve the health care management of people with CP.

  • Sohl, Lena
    Linköping University, Department for Studies of Social Change and Culture, Department of Culture Studies – Tema Q. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Sodertorn Univ, Sweden.
    It Is So Swedish That You Have to Work2019In: NORA: Nordic Journal of Feminist and Gender Research, ISSN 0803-8740, E-ISSN 1502-394X, Vol. 27, no 2, p. 80-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Notions of gender equality are strongly linked to the Swedish self-image. This article explores returning Swedish migrant womens negotiations of heterosexual gender equality ideals based on their experiences of being housewives to middle- and upper-class men with work contracts abroad. From fieldwork conducted within two networks for returning Swedes, the article provides an analysis of the ways in which the women talk about work, gender equality, and domestic workers.The analysis of the womens accounts of gender relations shows that different ways of doing femininity are central in their narratives. By using the concepts emphasized femininity and gender-equal femininity the article highlights the different forms of femininity that can be traced in the womens narratives. Drawing from the empirical examples, it is shown that the women are troubled by Swedish gender equality ideals and express a feeling of not fitting in after returning to Sweden. I suggest that the womens articulations of not fitting in to (imagined) gender-equal Sweden tend to downplay the fact that they still have advantages that assist with fitting in from social positions such as class, whiteness, and (hetero)sexuality: positions which may create space for negotiating social norms in Sweden.

  • Wallin, Marcus B.
    et al.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Campeau, Audrey
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Audet, Joachim
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Bastviken, David
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bishop, Kevin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Kokic, Jovana
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Lundin, Erik
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Lofgren, Stefan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Sweden.
    Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Sobek, Sebastian
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Teutschbein, Claudia
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Grabs, Thomas
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Carbon dioxide and methane emissions of Swedish low-order streams-a national estimate and lessons learnt from more than a decade of observations2018In: LIMNOLOGY AND OCEANOGRAPHY LETTERS, ISSN 2378-2242, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 156-167Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Low-order streams are suggested to dominate the atmospheric CO2 source of all inland waters. Yet, many large-scale stream estimates suffer from methods not designed for gas emission determination and rarely include other greenhouse gases such as CH4. Here, we present a compilation of directly measured CO2 and CH4 concentration data from Swedish low-order streams (> 1600 observations across > 500 streams) covering large climatological and land-use gradients. These data were combined with an empirically derived gas transfer model and the characteristics of a ca. 400,000 km stream network covering the entire country. The total stream CO2 and CH4 emission corresponded to 2.7 Tg C yr(-1) (95% confidence interval: 2.0-3.7) of which the CH4 accounted for 0.7% (0.02 Tg C yr(-1)). The study highlights the importance of low-order streams, as well as the critical need to better represent variability in emissions and stream areal extent to constrain future stream C emission estimates.

  • Maldonado Castaneda, Oscar
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Technology and Social Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Making HPV Vaccines Efficient: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis and the Economic Assemblage of Healthcare in Colombia2018In: Science & Technology Studies, E-ISSN 2243-4690, Vol. 31, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cost-effectiveness analysis is a strategy of calculation whose main objective is to compare for making decisions about the best, the most efficient solution (costs vs benefits) to a particular problem. Cost-effectiveness analysis not only provides a framework to compare healthcare interventions which in practice seem incommensurable; it also performs a set of assumptions regarding the nature of healthcare and individuals behaviour. This article analyses the role of cost-effectiveness analysis as a device to produce value in the introduction of human papillomavirus vaccines to Colombia. In different institutional pathways and decision-making scenarios cost-effectiveness has been the key issue that justified the inclusions and exclusions that such technology entails. Cost-effectiveness justified the definition of girls as the population target and the exclusion of boys from the risks and benefits of this technology. Cost-effectiveness analysis has been a key instrument in the sexualising and desexualising of cervical cancer and human papillomavirus vaccines through the rationalisation of economic benefits.

  • Dyatkin, Boris
    et al.
    Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA; Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA; US Army, MD 20783 USA; US Naval Res Lab, DC 20375 USA.
    Halim, Joseph
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA; Drexel Univ, PA 19104 USA.
    Read, Jeffrey A.
    US Army, MD 20783 USA.
    Electrode Surface Composition of Dual-Intercalation, All-Graphite Batteries2017In: C-JOURNAL OF CARBON RESEARCH, ISSN 2311-5629, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 3010005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dual-intercalation batteries implement graphite electrodes as both cathodes and anodes and offer high specific energy, inexpensive and environmentally sustainable materials, and high operating voltages. Our research investigated the influence of surface composition on capacities and cycling efficiencies of chemically functionalized all-graphite battery electrodes. We subjected core-shell spherical particles and synthetic graphite flakes to high-temperature air oxidation, and hydrogenation to introduce, respectively, -OH, and -H surface functional groups. We identified noticeable influences of electrode surface chemistry on first-cycle efficiencies and charge storage densities of anion and cation intercalation into graphite electrodes. We matched oxidized cathodes and hydrogenated anodes in dual-ion batteries and improved their overall performance. Our approach provides novel fundamental insight into the anion intercalation process and suggests inexpensive and environmentally sustainable methods to improve performance of these grid-scale energy storage systems.

  • Gerlach, Inga
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tholin, Soren
    Lantmannen Reppe AB, S-53140 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Hass, Volker C.
    Univ Appl Sci Furtwangen, Germany.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Operator Training Simulator for an Industrial Bioethanol Plant2016In: Processes, ISSN 2227-9717, Vol. 4, no 4, article id 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Operator training simulators (OTS) are software tools for training process operators in large-scale industrial applications. Here, we describe the development, implementation and training of an OTS for a large-scale industrial plant for bioethanol production. The design of the OTS is based on conceptual analysis (previously reported by us in this journal) of various configuration alternatives and training procedures at the plant. In this article, we report on how the conceptual design is used in simulation models and graphical user interfaces and how the design is applied for training of operators in the real plant environment. The results imply that OTS would be time-and cost-efficient tools for application in the biotechnological industry.

  • Cars, Otto
    et al.
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Sweden.
    Xiao, Yonghong
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Lundborg, Cecilia Stalsby
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lennart E
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Shen, Jianzhong
    China Agr Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Qiang
    Shandong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Bi, Zhenqiang
    Shandong Ctr Dis Control and Prevent, Peoples R China.
    Borjesson, Stefan
    Natl Vet Inst, Sweden.
    Greko, Christina
    Natl Vet Inst, Sweden.
    Wang, Yang
    China Agr Univ, Peoples R China.
    Liu, Yuqing
    Shandong Acad Agr Sci, Peoples R China.
    Ottoson, Jakob
    Natl Food Agcy, Sweden.
    Li, Xuewen
    Shandong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Nilsson, Maud
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Yin, Hong
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bi, Zhenwang
    Shandong Ctr Dis Control and Prevent, Peoples R China.
    Zheng, Beiwen
    Zhejiang Univ, Peoples R China.
    Xia, Xi
    China Agr Univ, Peoples R China.
    Chen, Baoli
    Shandong Ctr Dis Control and Prevent, Peoples R China.
    Ding, Lilu
    Shandong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Sun, Pan
    Shandong Univ, Peoples R China.
    Dyar, Oliver James
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Hulth, Anette
    Publ Hlth Agcy Sweden, Sweden.
    Tomson, Goran
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden; Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Building bridges to operationalise one health: A Sino-Swedish collaboration to tackle antibiotic resistance2016In: One Health, ISSN 2352-7714, ONE HEALTH, Vol. 2, p. 139-143Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antibiotic resistance is a complex global health challenge. The recent Global Action Plan on antimicrobial resistance highlights the importance of adopting One Health approaches that can cross traditional disciplinary boundaries. We report on the early experiences of a multisectoral Sino-Swedish research project that aims to address gaps in our current knowledge and seeks to improve the situation through system-wide interventions. Our research project is investigating antibiotic use and resistance in a rural area of China through a combination of epidemiological, health systems and laboratory investigations. We reflect here on the challenges inherent in conducting long distance cross-disciplinary collaborations, having now completed data and sample collection for a baseline situation analysis. In particular, we recognise the importance of investing in aspects such as effective communication, shared conceptual frameworks and leadership. We suggest that our experiences will be instructive to others planning to develop similar international One Health collaborations. (c) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

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    Lindkvist Haziri, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Manufacturing Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Improving Design for Remanufacturing Though Feedback from Remanufacturing to Design2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The high demand for products in our society makes manufacturing, and the treatment of products throughout the product life cycle, crucial as it adds to the total environmental impact of a product. Initiatives such as the circular economy promote economic growth while not increasing environmental impacts. The circular economy can also be viewed as a system where the use, maintenance, reuse, remanufacturing, and recycling of materials are optimised to capture the embedded value of products. This doctoral thesis focuses on remanufacturing in particular as an environmentally preferred way to treat products that have reached their end of use. Remanufacturing is an industrial process whereby a used product is restored to its next full life cycle, and thus energy and materials can be saved compared to new production.

    A product that is intended for remanufacturing ought to have certain qualities such as ease of cleaning, ease of separation, and ease of reassembly in order to achieve efficient product remanufacturing. By applying design for remanufacturing (DfRem), costs can be saved as the remanufacturing operation time is reduced. Further, integrating DfRem in the design process is essential in order to achieve a more efficient and effective remanufacturing process. However, the current status in industry is that DfRem is not widely applied, and thus, products are not designed to facilitate remanufacturing. Since DfRem requires knowledge about remanufacturing, feedback from remanufacturing to design is needed for making the correct design considerations. The aim of this doctoral thesis is to expand current knowledge on feedback from remanufacturing to design and how it can be used to improve DfRem.

    Hence, in order to meet the aim of this thesis, both literature studies and multiple case studies were conducted. The case studies include three companies that design, manufacture, and remanufacture their products. The data collection within the case studies was predominantly conducted through semistructured interviews. The results from the case studies have been further explored in a cross-case analysis.

    The literature studies show the potential feedback from remanufacturing to design can be divided into three main categories: from the remanufacturing personnel, related to the process of remanufacturing, or related to the core to be remanufactured. Further, potential feedback at the case companies was found. However, currently, the potential feedback remains unsought for at the case companies. Indeed, there are barriers for feedback from remanufacturing to design, such as lack of knowledge, lack of incentives, and organisational barriers. However, there are also enablers, such as business opportunities to be gained, increased customer willingness, and laws, regulations, and standards encouraging more sustainable products.

    In this doctoral thesis, a framework for improving implementation of DfRem is presented, as the use of DfRem and feedback from remanufacturing to design was found to be scarce in the case companies. The developed Remanufacturing Information Feedback Framework (RIFF) focuses on breaching the barriers for feedback from remanufacturing to design. Further, the application of the RIFF promotes the implementation of DfRem methods and tools, which, when applied, could make remanufacturing more efficient and effective. Consequently, the increased application of DfRem will contribute to the overall growth of the remanufacturing market, which will also reduce the negative environmental impact and promote, in turn a more circular economy.

    List of papers
    1. Life-Cycle Information Feedback to Product Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life-Cycle Information Feedback to Product Design
    2012 (English)In: Proceedings of the 5th Swedish Production symposium (SPS'12), The Swedish Production Academy , 2012, p. 99-105Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A key to sustainable product development is to consider the entire product life-cycle, as well as the requirements on product design in the different life-cycle phases. Improvements in product design can be based on information feedback from the product life-cycle. The aim of this paper is to identify sources of information from the product life-cycle for product design, as well as what benefits the retrieval of such information feedback can have for the product development process. The method udes for this paper was a literature review, utilizing the Scopus and Science Direct databases. Feedback information on the design phase can stream from the product life-cycle phases of manufacturing, use, service and edn-of-life. The feedback includes objective and subjective data from customers, users, service technicians and company staff involved in the product life-cycle. The feedback from the product life-cycle needs to be managed well, and relevant information should be available to the product development team in the design phase. Sucg information flows are valuable in supporting the design of products to facilitate the entire product life-cycle.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    The Swedish Production Academy, 2012
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87524 (URN)978-91-7519-752-4 (ISBN)
    Conference
    5th International Swedish Production Symposium (SPS 2012), 6-8 November 2012, Linköping, Sweden
    Available from: 2013-01-18 Created: 2013-01-18 Last updated: 2020-03-05Bibliographically approved
    2. Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing
    2015 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 29, p. 780-785Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    In order to achieve a sustainable development, circular economy approaches and circular material flows are explored in industry. However, circular information flows remain essentially unestablished. The aim of this paper is to: 1) explore categories and types of product life-cycle information available for remanufacturing; 2) identify constraints for efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing; and 3) propose initiatives to facilitate product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing.

    Data was collected through workshops and interviews at five remanufacturing companies. An accumulated Sankey diagram illustrates product life-cycle information flow, losses and bottleneck. Based on the analysis, possible initiatives to facilitate efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing are presented.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Elsevier, 2015
    Keywords
    Remanufacturing; Product life-cycle stackeholder; Feedback; Feed forward; Sankey diagram
    National Category
    Other Civil Engineering
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120761 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2015.02.162 (DOI)000356146100132 ()
    Conference
    22nd CIRP Conference on Life Cycle Engineering (LCE), Univ New S Wales, Sydney, AUSTRALIA, April 7-9, 2015
    Projects
    Återprodukt, KEAP2
    Funder
    VINNOVA
    Available from: 2015-08-24 Created: 2015-08-24 Last updated: 2020-03-05Bibliographically approved
    3. Assessing barriers for available life-cycle information feedback transfer to product design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing barriers for available life-cycle information feedback transfer to product design
    2015 (English)In: ICoR- 2nd International Conference on Remanufacturing, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The design of products greatly influences the performance of the product in the rest of the product’s life-cycle phases, e.g. manufacturing, use/maintenance and end-of-life processes. In order to design more sustainable products, information from all life-cycle phases should be implemented in structured ways via e.g. eco-design tools in the design process. Remanufacturing is one viable end-of-life strategy that is environmentally beneficial as it will preserve most of the material and energy put into the initial product and/or its components. Although the product design determines a large portion of the remanufacturability of a product, few companies apply design for remanufacturing on their products.The aim of this paper is to show what type of feedback is available at remanufacturers, and to explore the barriers that prevent that feedback from reaching product development. Using the case study methodology, data have been collected through semi-structured interviews with four remanufacturing companies focusing on the information exchange between the departments of remanufacturing and product development.The case study results show that there is feedback from the remanufacturers concerning a wide variety of design aspects. Furthermore, the remanufacturers have feedback about information they lack from design and the use phase including service. At present, however, there is no feedback provided from remanufacturing to design in the cases studied. Thus, the barriers for providing available life-cycle information feedback are assessed. There are both internal and external barriers. Between design and remanufacturing the barriers include e.g. lack of knowledge and organisational aspects. Further influencing the lack of feedback are managerial aspects such as the business case and specifications lacking remanufacturing aspects and thus not supporting design for remanufacturing. However, design changes such as different joining methods, a higher degree of standardization and different material selections could be very beneficial for remanufacturing and thus the environment.

    Keywords
    Remanufacturing, design for remanufacturing, life-cycle information feedback, feedback barriers, case studies
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126999 (URN)
    Conference
    ICoR- 2nd International Conference on Remanufacturing, Amsterdam, Netherlands, 14-16 June 2015
    Projects
    KEAP 2
    Funder
    VINNOVA, 1414323700
    Available from: 2016-04-11 Created: 2016-04-11 Last updated: 2020-03-05Bibliographically approved
    4. The role of Product-Service Systems regarding information feedback transfer in the product life-cycle including remanufacturing
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of Product-Service Systems regarding information feedback transfer in the product life-cycle including remanufacturing
    2016 (English)In: PRODUCT-SERVICE SYSTEMS ACROSS LIFE CYCLE, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 47, p. 311-316Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With a Product-Service System (PSS), the producer often has control of its products during multiple life-cycles, and thus there are more incentives for design for service and remanufacturing in comparison to traditional sales. The aim of this paper is to explore the role of PSS regarding information feedback transfer in the product life-cycle including remanufacturing. The paper explores two industrial cases where PSS does not yet act as a facilitator for transferring information feedback from remanufacturing to product designers. However, the full potential of PSS is not yet utilized at the companies, and their products are neither designed for PSS nor remanufacturing. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2016
    Series
    Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271
    Keywords
    Product life-cycle information; PSS; Remanufacturing
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-133141 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2016.03.088 (DOI)000387505100053 ()
    Conference
    Conference on Product-Service Systems across Life Cycle
    Available from: 2016-12-12 Created: 2016-12-09 Last updated: 2020-03-05
    5. Feedback from Remanufacturing: Its Unexploited Potential to Improve Future Product Design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feedback from Remanufacturing: Its Unexploited Potential to Improve Future Product Design
    2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 15, p. 1article id 4037Article in journal (Refereed) Published
    Abstract [en]

    Company interest and research in the circular economy and remanufacturing have increased as a means of reducing negative environmental impacts. Remanufacturing is an industrial process whereby used products are returned to a state of like-new. However, few products are designed for remanufacturing, and further research and industrial efforts are needed to facilitate more widespread use of design for remanufacturing. One crucial factor facilitating design for remanufacturing is the integration of feedback in the product design process. Thus, the objective of this paper is to analyse feedback flows from remanufacturing to product design. Hence, a literature study and multiple case studies were conducted at three companies that design, manufacture and remanufacture different kinds of products. The cross-case analysis revealed the five barriers of the lack of internal awareness, lack of knowledge, lack of incentives, lack of feedback channels and non-supportive organisational structures, and the five enablers of business opportunities, integrated design processes, customers’ demand, laws, regulations and standards, and new technologies. To establish improved feedback from remanufacturing to product design, the barriers need to be addressed and the enablers explored. Thus, improved feedback from remanufacturing to product design will improve the design of future products suited for a more circular economy.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    MDPI, 2019. p. 1
    Keywords
    feedback; remanufacturing; case studies; design for remanufacturing; circular economy; reduction in negative environmental impacts
    National Category
    Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160140 (URN)10.3390/su11154037 (DOI)000485230200042 ()2-s2.0-85070450645 (Scopus ID)
    Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2020-03-05Bibliographically approved
    6. Supporting design for remanufacturing: A framework for implementing information feedback from remanufacturing to product design
    Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supporting design for remanufacturing: A framework for implementing information feedback from remanufacturing to product design
    2019 (English)In: Journal of Remanufacturing, ISSN 2210-464X, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
    Abstract [en]

    Remanufacturing is an industrial process turning used products into a condition of like new or better. Remanufacturing is also one strategy that salvages the value put into products during manufacturing and thus reduces the environmental impact of products over the life-cycle. However, not many products are designed for remanufacturing, and there is rarely any feedback from remanufacturing to design. Since design for remanufacturing is not applied at most manufacturing companies, there is a need to support companies, for example, by information feedback methods. By implementing feedback transfer from remanufacturing to design and employing design for remanufacturing, the remanufacturing process is more likely to be effective and efficient. The aim of this paper is to present a framework that supports design for remanufacturing by the implementation of structured feedback from remanufacturing to design. The framework aims at strategically outlining and practically implementing information feedback from remanufacturing to design. A case company where the framework has been initialised is also presented.

    Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
    Springer, 2019
    National Category
    Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
    Identifiers
    urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160139 (URN)10.1007/s13243-019-00074-7 (DOI)
    Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2020-03-05Bibliographically approved
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    Pant, Prabhat
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Residual Stress Distributions in Additively Manufactured Parts: Effect of Build Orientation2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Additive manufacturing (AM) of parts using a layer by layer approach has seen a rapid increase in application for production of net shape or near-net shape complex parts, especially in the field of aerospace, automotive, etc. Due to the superiority of manufacturing complex shapes with ease in comparison to the conventional methods, interest in these kinds of processes has increased. Among various methods in AM, laser powder bed fusion (LPBF) is one of the most widely used techniques to produce metallic components.

    As in all manufacturing processes, residual stress (RS) generation during manufacturing is a relevant issue for the AM process. RS in AM are generated due to a high thermal gradient between subsequent layers. The impact of residual stresses can be significant for the mechanical integrity of the built parts and understanding the generation of RS and the effect of AM process parameters is therefore important for a broader implementation of AM techniques. The work presented in this licentiate thesis aims to investigate the influence of build orientation on the RS distribution in AM parts. For this purpose, L-shaped Inconel 718 parts were printed by LPBF in three different orientations, 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively. Inconel 718 was selected because it is a superalloy widely used for making gas turbine components. In addition, IN718 has in general good weldability which renders it a good material for additive manufacturing.

    Residual stress distributions in the parts removed from the build plate were measured using neutron diffraction technique. A simple finite element model was developed to predict the residual stresses and the effect of RS relaxation due to the separation of the parts and build plate. The trend of residual stress distribution predicted was in good agreement with experimental results. In general, compressive RS at the part center and tensile RS near the surface were found. However, while the part printed in 0° orientation had the least amount of RS in all three principal directions of part, the part built in 90° orientation possessed the highest amount of RS in both compression and tension. The study has shown that residual stress distributions in the parts are strongly dependent on the building process. Further, it has shown that the relaxation of RS associated with the removal of the parts from the build plate after printing has a great impact on the final distribution of residual stress in the parts. These results can be used as guidelines for choosing the orientations of the part during printing.

  • Broqvist, Mari
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Society and Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    von Goes, Lovisa
    Hjälpmedelscentralen, Region Jönköpings län.
    Svensson, Carina
    Hjälpmedelscentralen, Region Jönköpings län.
    Volmevik Lundberg, Pernilla
    Hjälpmedelscentralen, Region Jönköpings län.
    Winberg, Anette
    Tidigare anställd vid Hälsa och habilitering, Region Uppsala.
    Beslutsstöd för prioriteringar på individnivå: Exempel från hjälpmedelsverksamhet2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 1997, when the ethical platform for resource allocation was introduced in the Swedish health care system, methods have been in development with the aim of supporting the healthcare providers in the difficult decisions of assigning priorities. The methodological focus has been on the major issues, on the allocation of resources at regional level and policy decisions in various activities, but the large number of priorities are made on a daily basis in interactions between health care staff and patients.

    This report is addressed to those who strive to prioritize at individual level on more equal and explicit grounds, in line with the guidelines on priorities that the Riksdag has decided on. The tool presented here is called Decision support for priorities at the individual level. It aims to guide the analysis of the persons´ health care needs so that the need-solidarity and the cost-effectiveness principle are taken into account in the assessment. It is the result of many years of development work and tested in practice in Center for assistive technology in different regions for several years. In addition to being used in prescribing such technology, decision support is also possible to test for other types of health care interventions.

    The decision support consists of an assessment form and a manual. Severity, patient benefit and patient benefit in relation to costs are the variables that should be assessed and direct the health care staff in assigning a priority.

    One aim of using the decision support is to facilitate priorities on more equal grounds. Introduced in a well-organized manner, it can contribute to, but not alone, create such priorities. In order to create mutual understanding and acceptance for grounds and transparency in priorities, a thought-out implementation process is also required. In this report, such an example is given from Region Jönköpings län and prescribers of assistive devices. The main ingredients for succeeding in such work seem to be support from the management and political level, methodological support and constant perseverance.

  • Tompa, Eszter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine.
    Detektion av Anaplasma phagocytophilum och Rickettsia spp. hos Ixodes persulcatus i Norrbotten, Sverige med realtids-PCR2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är den första studien där förekomsten av Anaplasma phagocytophilum och Rickettsia spp. hos Ixodes persulcatus fästingar insamlade från Sverige undersökts. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka förekomsten av Anaplasma phagocytophilum och Rickettsia spp. hos I. persulcatus i Norrbotten, Sverige.

    Fästingar livnär sig på blod och är vektor för flera olika patogena mikroorganismer. I Sverige är den vanligaste arten Ixodes ricinus men 2016 fann forskare etablerade populationer även av I. persulcatus i norra Sverige. I. persulcatus har bl.a. människa som värddjur och är vektor för bl.a. Anaplasma phagocytophilum och Rickettsia spp.

    Totalt analyserades 292 I. persulcatus fästingar med realtids-PCR med Anaplasma och Rickettsia gltA som målgen. Positiva prover analyserades med konventionell PCR med 17-kDa och ompB som målgener. PCR produkter nukleotidsekvenserades för artbestämning. Resultaten är att prevalensen av A. phagocytophilum är 0 % och prevalensen av Rickettsia spp. är 0.68 % (n=2) vilket är betydligt lägre än i andra länder. Av de två positiva proverna kunde en artbestämmas till R. helvetica och den andra kunde inte artbestämmas.

    De 292 fästingarna har tidigare analyserats för andra patogena mikroorganismer. I jämförelse med andra länder är saminfektionen lägre för dessa fästingar. Kunskap om I. persulcatus utbredningsområde i Sverige och vilka patogena mikroorganismer de är vektor för är av värde för flera olika grupper i samhället, möjligtvis framför allt för vårdpersonal, djurägare och personer som vistas mycket i riskområden.

  • Lushaku, Faton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    Lahtinen, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Economics.
    The Gambler’s Fallacy and Decision Fatigue in Decision-Making: A Study on Driving License Examiners2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    People make hundreds of decisions every day, at home, at school or at work and that requires mental efforts, which in turn can be depleting. Previous research in behavioral economics has shown that people are not always rational in their decision-making and the decisions they make are not solely based on the case merits or the decision makers' competence. In addition of being affected by the outcome of our previous decisions, people are also affected by the number of decisions they have made in one day, as a result of fatigue.

    The purpose of this paper was to test to what extent decisions made by driving license examiners at the Swedish Transport Administration suffer from decision fatigue and/or the gambler’s fallacy. Previous studies could show that the more decision we make on a day the more tired we get, which makes us revert to the status quo option, in order to simplify the decision-making process, and also that people tend to incorporate previous decisions in their decision-making.

    We analyzed data on 5,870 decisions, made by 50 driving license examiners, during March of 2018. The decisions were analyzed through the use of logistic regression models. Our results showed that driving examiners are affected by decision fatigue but not the gambler’s fallacy. Surprisingly, our results suggest that the driving license examiners are affected by the opposite fallacy, namely the hot hand fallacy, predicting that an examiner is approximately 5% more likely to pass a test-taker if the previous test-taker passed. Furthermore, our models predict that examiners are affected by decision fatigue, and that the results are stronger in the afternoon.

    We could not say with certainty that the examiners use the hot hand fallacy, nor suffer from decision fatigue since our sample cannot be proved to be random.

    The authors of this study suggest that future studies should be conducted in government bodies that handle sequential decisions, in order to help policy-makers improve decision-making.

  • Sjögren, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Wänström, Linda
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, The Division of Statistics and Machine Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Gini, Gianluca
    Univ Padua, Italy.
    Bystander behaviour in peer victimisation: moral disengagement, defender self-efficacy and student-teacher relationship quality2020In: Research Papers in Education, ISSN 0267-1522, E-ISSN 1470-1146Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to examine how different bystander roles in peer victimisation situations relate to moral disengagement, defender self-efficacy, and student-teacher relationship quality. Self-reported survey data were collected from 333 middle and junior high school students (10-15 years of age) from four schools in Sweden. Random intercept model analyses of factor scores revealed that, when witnessing peer victimisation, students high in moral disengagement and low in defender self-efficacy were more inclined to act as reinforcers or outsiders, and that students high in defender self-efficacy and student-teacher relationship quality were more inclined to act as defenders. Furthermore, examining these relationships within and between classes revealed that reinforcer and outsider behaviours were more common among students who, compared to their classmates, were higher in moral disengagement and lower in defender self-efficacy, whereas defending was more common among students who, compared to their classmates, were higher in defender self-efficacy. The results enrich the knowledge of factors related to different bystander behaviours, which has potential implications for prevention and intervention work.

  • Wiggins Young, Sally
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    A brief commentary on discursive psychology and talking to others2020In: Qualitative Research in Psychology, ISSN 1478-0887, E-ISSN 1478-0895Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This commentary provides a short reflection on the current status of discursive psychology in a fluctuating academic landscape. It focuses on three points: how discursive psychological research situates itself in relation to other research (both within and outside of psychology), how psychology itself can be respecified as a discipline (rather than only topic areas within psychology), and on the need for further development of methodological aspects and learning resources within discursive psychology. The piece concludes by noting the strengths of discursive psychology as a detailed analytical approach and of the benefits of talking to, and engaging with, other researchers.

  • Utheim, Tor Paaske
    et al.
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Norway; Sorlandet Hosp Arendal, Norway.
    Chen, Xiangjun
    Sorlandet Hosp Arendal, Norway.
    Fricke, Otto
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bergersen, Linda Hildegard
    Univ Oslo, Norway.
    Lagali, Neil
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Speech Therapy, Otorhinolaryngology and Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Ophthalmology in Linköping. Sorlandet Hosp Arendal, Norway.
    Microdot Accumulation in the Anterior Cornea with Aging - Quantitative Analysis with in Vivo Confocal Microscopy2020In: Current Eye Research, ISSN 0271-3683, E-ISSN 1460-2202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Degenerative microdot deposits in healthy and hypoxic corneas are believed to represent lipofuscin-like material aggregation in the stroma. To accurately assess microdot deposits in a clinical setting, we sought to quantify these deposits for the first time using the non-invasive clinical imaging technique of in vivo confocal microscopy (IVCM). Methods: The corneas of 102 healthy subjects aged 15-88 years were examined by IVCM and microdot density was quantified using a 6-point grading scale by two masked, trained examiners. Microdot density was analyzed with respect to age, sex and stromal depth, and inter-eye and inter-observer differences were evaluated. Results: In healthy subjects, microdot density decreased from the anterior to posterior stroma, with the greatest accumulation observed in the most anterior stroma (subepithelial region). In this region, microdot density correlated strongly with age (P amp;lt; .0001), with increased microdot deposition in older subjects (amp;gt;60 years) relative to younger ones (amp;lt;45 years) (P amp;lt; .001). Microdot density between eyes of the same subject was highly correlated (r = 0.92, P amp;lt; .0001), while no association with sex was noted (P amp;gt;= 0.05). The mean inter-observer difference in microdot assessment was 0.62 +/- 0.09 grades, with a high correlation of grading between observers (r = 0.77, P amp;lt; .0001). Conclusions: IVCM can be used to non-invasively quantify microdot deposits in the subepithelial corneal stroma with good inter-observer reproducibility. Microdot assessment may provide a novel means of quantifying age-related or pathologic degeneration of the corneal stroma in a clinical setting.

  • Tyrstrup, M.
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    André, Malin
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Brorsson, A.
    Lund Univ, Sweden; Ctr Primary Hlth Care Res, Sweden.
    Grondal, H.
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Strandberg, E-L
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Hedin, Katarina
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Lund Univ, Sweden; Fururum, Sweden.
    A study of guidelines for respiratory tract infections and their references from Swedish GPs: a qualitative analysis2020In: Scandinavian Journal of Primary Health Care, ISSN 0281-3432, E-ISSN 1502-7724, Vol. 38, no 1, p. 83-91Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: National guidelines are important instruments in reducing inappropriate antibiotic prescriptions. Low adherence to guidelines is an acknowledged problem that needs to be addressed.

    Method: We evaluated established characteristics for guidelines in the guidelines for lower respiratory tract infection, acute otitis media and pharyngotonsillitis in primary care. We studied how doctors used these guidelines by analysing interviews with 29 general practitioners (GPs) in Sweden.

    Results: We found important between-guidelines differences, which we believe affects adherence. The GPs reported persistent preconceptions about diagnosis and treatment, which we believe reduces their adherence to the guidelines.

    Conclusion: To increase adherence, it is important to consider doctors’ preconceptions when creating new guidelines.

  • Bistrom, Martin
    et al.
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Hultdin, Johan
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Andersen, Oluf
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Alonso-Magdalena, Lucia
    Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Jons, Daniel
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Martin
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Vrethem, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Neurobiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in Central Östergötland, Department of Neurology in Linköping.
    Sundstrom, Peter
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    Leptin levels are associated with multiple sclerosis risk2020In: Multiple Sclerosis, ISSN 1352-4585, E-ISSN 1477-0970, article id 1352458520905033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Obesity early in life has been linked to increased risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS). Leptin and insulin are both associated with obesity, making them suitable candidates for investigating this connection. Objective: To determine if leptin and insulin are risk factors for relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Methods: In this nested case-control study using blood samples from Swedish biobanks, we compared concentrations of leptin and insulin in 649 individuals who later developed RRMS with 649 controls matched for biobank, sex, age and date of sampling. Only pre-symptomatically drawn samples from individuals below the age of 40 years were included. Conditional logistic regression was performed on z-scored values to calculate odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results: A 1-unit leptin z-score increase was associated with increased risk of MS in individuals younger than 20 years (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.1-1.9) and in all men (OR = 1.4, 95% CI = 1.0-2.0). In contrast, for women aged 30-39 years, there was a lower risk of MS with increased leptin levels (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.54-1.0) when adjusting for insulin levels. Conclusion: We show that the pro-inflammatory adipokine leptin is a risk factor for MS among young individuals.

  • Flygare, Anna-Lena
    et al.
    Ctr Clin Res, Sweden.
    Engstrom, Ingemar
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Hasselgren, Mikael
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Jansson-Frojmark, Markus
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Frejgrim, Rikard
    Ctr Clin Res, Sweden.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Hollandare, Fredrik
    Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Internet-based CBT for patients with depressive disorders in primary and psychiatric care: Is it effective and does comorbidity affect outcome?2020In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, INTERNET INTERVENTIONS-THE APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN MENTAL AND BEHAVIOURAL HEALTH, Vol. 19, article id UNSP 100303Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Internet-based cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) has proved effective in reducing mild to moderate depressive symptoms. However, only a few studies have been conducted in a regular healthcare setting which limits the generalizability of the results. The influence of psychiatric comorbidity on outcome is not well understood. In the current study, patients with mild to moderate depressive symptoms in primary and psychiatric care were interviewed using the SCID-I and SCID-II to assess psychiatric diagnoses. Those included were randomly allocated to ICBT (n = 48) or to an active control condition (n = 47). Both groups received therapist support. At post-treatment, ICBT had reduced depressive symptoms on the BDI-II more than the active control intervention (p = .021). However, the difference between groups was no longer significant at the 6-, 12- or 24-month followups. The within-group effect size after ICBT (BDI-II) was large (d = 1.4). A comorbid anxiety disorder didnt moderate the outcome, while the presence of a personality disorder predicted significantly less improvement in depressive symptoms. ICBT had a large effect on depressive symptoms in a sample from regular healthcare. It is possible to obtain a large effect from ICBT despite comorbid anxiety, however, including patients with a comorbid personality disorder in the current form of ICBT seems questionable.

  • Käll, Anton
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Backlund, Ulrika
    Uppsala Univ, Sweden.
    Shafran, Roz
    UCL Great Ormond St Inst Child Hlth, England.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology. Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Lonesome no more?: A two-year follow-up of internet-administered cognitive behavioral therapy for loneliness2020In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, INTERNET INTERVENTIONS-THE APPLICATION OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN MENTAL AND BEHAVIOURAL HEALTH, Vol. 19, article id 100301Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study sought to investigate the long-term effects of an internet-administered programme based on CBT principles for which the initial efficacy has been reported in Kall, Jagholm, et al. (In press). Seventy-three participants who were recruited on the basis of experiencing frequent and prolonged loneliness were contacted to complete questionnaires measuring loneliness, quality of life, and symptoms of psychopathology two years after the conclusion of the initial treatment period. Additional items regarding use of the treatment techniques and strategies contained in the programme during the follow-up period was included. In total, 44 participants provided data for the loneliness measure at follow-up. The outcome data were analyzed with a piecewise mixed effects model to provide estimates of change for the continuous measures. Linear multiple regression analysis was used to investigate the relationship between use of treatment techniques and reliable change on the primary outcome measure. The results showed decreases in loneliness during the follow-up period for the sample as a whole. Additionally, an increase in quality of life and a decrease in social anxiety were noted, but no significant changes of depressive symptoms or generalized anxiety. Effect sizes for the observed changes from baseline to follow-up were in the moderate to large range for all measures. Reported use of the treatment techniques was not significantly related to reliable change in loneliness after the two-year period. In conclusion, the results of the study support the utility of internet-based CBT targeting loneliness and indicate that the benefits from the intervention can be enduring.

  • Nilsson, Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care in Linköping (ANOPIVA).
    Borgstedt-Risberg, Madeleine
    Region Östergötland, Center for Business support and Development.
    Brunner, Charlotta
    Kalmar Cty Council, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Ullakarin
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Nylen, Urban
    Natl Board Hlth and Welf, Sweden.
    Alenius, Carina
    Swedish Assoc Local Author and Reg, Sweden.
    Rutberg, Hans
    Swedish Assoc Local Author and Reg, Sweden.
    Adverse events in psychiatry: a national cohort study in Sweden with a unique psychiatric trigger tool2020In: BMC Psychiatry, ISSN 1471-244X, E-ISSN 1471-244X, BMC PSYCHIATRY, Vol. 20, no 1, article id 44Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The vast majority of patient safety research has focused on somatic health care. Although specific adverse events (AEs) within psychiatric healthcare have been explored, the overall level and nature of AEs is sparsely investigated.

    Methods

    Cohort study using a retrospective record review based on a two-step trigger tool methodology in the charts of randomly selected patients 18 years or older admitted to the psychiatric acute care departments in all Swedish regions from January 1 to June 30, 2017. Hospital care together with corresponding outpatient care were reviewed as a continuum, over a maximum of 3 months. The AEs were categorised according to type, severity and preventability.

    Results

    In total, the medical records of 2552 patients were reviewed. Among the patients, 50.4% were women and 49.6% were men. The median (range) age was 44 (18–97) years for women and 44.5 (18–93) years for men.

    In 438 of the reviewed records, 720 AEs were identified, corresponding to the AEs identified in 17.2% [95% confidence interval, 15.7–18.6] of the records. The majority of AEs resulted in less or moderate harm, and 46.2% were considered preventable. Prolonged disease progression and deliberate self-harm were the most common types of AEs. AEs were significantly more common in women (21.5%) than in men (12.7%) but showed no difference between age groups. Severe or catastrophic harm was found in 2.3% of the records, and the majority affected were women (61%). Triggers pointing at deficient quality of care were found in 78% of the records, with the absence of a treatment plan being the most common.

    Conclusions

    AEs are common in psychiatric care. Aside from further patient safety work, systematic interventions are also warranted to improve the quality of psychiatric care.

  • Gryszel, Maciej
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Glowacki, Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Laboratory of Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Warsaw Univ Technol, Poland.
    Organic thin film photofaradaic pixels for on-demand electrochemistry in physiological conditions2020In: Chemical Communications, ISSN 1359-7345, E-ISSN 1364-548X, Vol. 56, no 11, p. 1705-1708Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We report ultrathin organic photovoltaic elements optimized to run photofaradaic reactions in biological conditions. We demonstrate concurrent oxygen reduction to hydrogen peroxide and glucose oxidation. The devices are powered by deep-red irradiation in the tissue transparency window. We utilize bilayers of phthalocyanine, acting as the light absorber, and perylene diimide, functioning as both electron-acceptor and the hydrogen peroxide evolution electrocatalyst. These heterojunction bilayers are stable when irradiated in simulated physiological conditions, producing photovoltages sufficient to simultaneously drive cathodic oxygen reduction to H2O2 and anodic oxidation of glucose. We find that optimization of the anode metal is critical for sustained photofaradaic reactivity. Our results demonstrate a robust "wet" thin film photovoltaic with potential for physiological applications where localized electrochemical manipulation is desired, in particular the delivery of reactive oxygen species.

  • Engstrand, Åsa-Karin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Business Administration. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Enberg, Cecilia
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education and Sociology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The power in positionings: A Foucauldian approach to knowledge integration processes2020In: Management Learning, ISSN 1350-5076, E-ISSN 1461-7307, p. 1-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explores the role of relational power and discursive positioning in the knowledge integration process of an interdisciplinary project developing a steam turbine. As boundaries are an important focus of study for knowledge integration studies, more engagement is needed to not only map boundary work in the knowledge integration process, but also to acknowledge the role of power in this context. With help of governmentality and positioning theory, we show how power struggles are manifested as boundary work that both reinforces and undermines temporal and domain-specific boundaries. The study concludes that these reinforcements and underminings are central for our understanding of how knowledge integration develops. In addition, the study shed lights on the significance of the co-existence of domination and freedom in the project work. By acknowledging power relations and studying them as they are played out in discursive talk, the study contributes to an increased understanding of the nuances and intricacies of knowledge integration processes.

  • Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Safaric, Luka
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Viscosity dynamics and the production of extracellular polymeric substances and soluble microbial products during anaerobic digestion of pulp and paper mill wastewater sludges2020In: Bioprocess and biosystems engineering (Print), ISSN 1615-7591, E-ISSN 1615-7605, Vol. 43, no 2, p. 283-291Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The production processes of the pulp and paper industry often run in campaigns, leading to large variations in the composition of wastewaters and waste sludges. During anaerobic digestion (AD) of these wastes, the viscosity or the production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and soluble microbial products (SMP) may be affected, with the risk of foam formation, inefficient digester mixing or poor sludge dewaterability. The aim of this study was to investigate how viscosity and production of EPS and SMP during long-term AD of pulp and paper mill sludge is affected by changes in organic loading rate (OLR) and hydraulic retention time (HRT). Two mesophilic lab-scale continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) were operated for 800 days (R1 and R2), initially digesting only fibre sludge, then co-digesting fibre sludge and activated sludge. The HRT was lowered, followed by an increase in the OLR. Reactor fluids were sampled once a month for rheological characterization and analysis of EPS and SMP. The production of the protein fraction of SMP was positively correlated to the OLR, implicating reduced effluent qualities at high OLR. EPS formation correlated with the magnesium content, and during sulphate deficiency, the production of EPS and SMP increased. At high levels of EPS and SMP, there was an increase in viscosity of the anaerobic sludges, and dewatering efficiency was reduced. In addition, increased viscosity and/or the production of EPS and SMP were important factors in sludge bulking and foam formation in the CSTRs. Sludge bulking was avoided by more frequent stirring.

  • Iotti, Nathalie Ophelia
    et al.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Thornberg, Robert
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Education, Teaching and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Longobardi, Claudio
    Univ Turin, Italy.
    Jungert, Tomas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Early Adolescents Emotional and Behavioral Difficulties, Student-Teacher Relationships, and Motivation to Defend in Bullying Incidents2020In: Child and Youth Care Forum, ISSN 1053-1890, E-ISSN 1573-3319, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 59-75Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background School bullying is a widespread phenomenon across the world, which involves bystanders who take on various roles. Motivation to defend victims is important to investigate because it helps us devise better, evidence-based, anti-bullying interventions. Objective We aimed to determine whether students behavioral and emotional strengths and difficulties and student-teacher relationships were associated with different types of motivation to defend victims of bullying. The hypotheses were (1) emotional and behavioral difficulties will be associated with less autonomous and introjected motivation to defend and greater extrinsic motivation to defend and (2) close student-teacher relationships will be associated with greater autonomous motivation to defend, and less extrinsic motivation to defend. Method Data were collected from 483 Swedish early adolescents who completed a survey in their classrooms. Results Results showed that, among boys and girls, close student-teacher relationships were positively associated with autonomous motivation and negatively associated with extrinsic motivation to defend, while negative expectations concerning teachers were associated with all forms of motivation to defend. Emotional and behavioral difficulties were only associated with introjected motivation to defend among girls. Furthermore, extrinsic motivation to defend was associated with the interactions between individual differences in behavioral and emotional difficulties and negative expectations. Conclusions Adolescents who are more occupied with wanting to have a better relationship with their teachers might be motivated to be involved in good social relationships with others. The results also indicate that closeness in student-teacher relationships is important for greater autonomous motivation to defend victims during bullying.

  • Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Wachtmeister, Jesper
    Mobile Behav, Sweden.
    Nyman, Mattias
    DING Designingenjorerna Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Nordenstrom, Axel
    DING Designingenjorerna Sverige AB, Sweden.
    Kircher, Katja
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Swedish Natl Rd and Transport Res Inst VTI, S-58195 Linkoping, Sweden.
    Using smartphone logging to gain insight about phone use in traffic2020In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 181-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The prevalence of mobile phone usage in traffic has been studied by road-side counting, naturalistic driving data, surveillance cameras, smartphone logging, and subjective estimates via surveys. Here, we describe a custom-made smartphone logging application along with suggestions on how future such applications should be designed. The developed application logs start and end times of all phone interactions (mobile phone applications, incoming/outgoing phone calls and text messages, audio output, and screen activations). In addition, all movements are automatically classified into transport, cycling, walking, running, or stationary. The capabilities of the approach are demonstrated in a pilot study with 143 participants. Examples of results that can be gained from smartphone logging include prevalence in different transportation modes (here found to be 12% while driving, 4% while cycling, and 7% while walking), which apps are being used (here found to be 19% navigation, 12% talking, 12% social media, and 10% games) and on which road types (rural, urban, highway etc.). Smartphone logging was found to be an insightful complement to the other methods for assessing phone use in traffic, especially since it allows the analyses of which apps are used and where they are used, split into transportation mode and road type, all at a relatively low cost.

  • Dimberg, Jan
    et al.
    Jonkoping Univ, Sweden.
    Rubér, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Skarstedt, Marita
    Dept Lab Med, Sweden.
    Andersson, Manne
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Cty Hosp Ryhov, Sweden.
    Andersson, Roland
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Cty Hosp Ryhov, Sweden.
    Genetic polymorphism patterns suggest a genetic driven inflammatory response as pathogenesis in appendicitis2020In: International Journal of Colorectal Disease, ISSN 0179-1958, E-ISSN 1432-1262, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 277-284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The pathogenesis of appendicitis is not well understood. Environmental factors are regarded most important, but epidemiologic findings suggest a role of inflammatory and genetic mechanisms. This study determines the association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of inflammatory genes with appendicitis. Methods As part of a larger prospective study on the diagnostic value of inflammatory variables in appendicitis, the genotype frequency of 28 polymorphisms in 26 inflammatory response genes from the appendicitis and control patients was analyzed in blood samples from 343 patients, 100 with appendicitis, and 243 with non-specific abdominal pain, using TaqMan SNP genotyping assays. Results Associations with appendicitis were found for SNPs IL-13 rs1800925 with odds ratio (OR) 6.02 (95% CI 1.52-23.78) for T/T versus C/C + T/T, for IL-17 rs2275913 with OR 2.38 (CI 1.24-4.57) for A/A vs G/G + GA, for CCL22 rs223888 with OR 0.12 (0.02-0.90), and for A/A vs G/G + GA. Signs of effect modification of age for the association with appendicitis were found for IL-13 rs1800925 and CTLA4 rs3087243. Stratified analysis showed difference in association with severity of disease for IL-17 rs2275913 and CD44 rs187115. Conclusions The association of gene variants on risk of appendicitis and its severity suggest an etiologic role of genetically regulated inflammatory response. This may have implications for understanding the prognosis of untreated appendicitis as a possible self-limiting disorder and for understanding the inverse association of appendicitis with ulcerative colitis.

  • Ali, Zaheer
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Cui, Dongmei
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Yang, Yunlong
    Fudan Univ, Peoples R China.
    Tracey-White, Dhani
    UCL Inst Ophthalmol, England.
    Vazquez Rodriguez, Gabriela
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Moosajee, Mariya
    UCL Inst Ophthalmol, England.
    Ju, Rong
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Li, Xuri
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Peoples R China.
    Cao, Yihai
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Jensen, Lasse
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Diagnostics and Specialist Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pharmacology.
    Synchronized tissue-scale vasculogenesis and ubiquitous lateral sprouting underlie the unique architecture of the choriocapillaris2020In: Developmental Biology, ISSN 0012-1606, E-ISSN 1095-564X, Vol. 457, no 2, p. 206-214Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The choriocapillaris is an exceptionally high density, two-dimensional, sheet-like capillary network, characterized by the highest exchange rate of nutrients for waste products per area in the organism. These unique morphological and physiological features are critical for supporting the extreme metabolic requirements of the outer retina needed for vision. The developmental mechanisms and processes responsible for generating this unique vascular network remain, however, poorly understood. Here we take advantage of the zebrafish as a model organism for gaining novel insights into the cellular dynamics and molecular signaling mechanisms involved in the development of the choriocapillaris. We show for the first time that zebrafish have a choriocapillaris highly similar to that in mammals, and that it is initially formed by a novel process of synchronized vasculogenesis occurring simultaneously across the entire outer retina. This initial vascular network expands by un-inhibited sprouting angiogenesis whereby all endothelial cells adopt tip-cell characteristics, a process which is sustained throughout embryonic and early post-natal development, even after the choriocapillaris becomes perfused. Ubiquitous sprouting was maintained by continuous VEGF-VEGFR2 signaling in endothelial cells delaying maturation until immediately before stages where vision becomes important for survival, leading to the unparalleled high density and lobular structure of this vasculature. Sprouting was throughout development limited to two dimensions by Bruchs membrane and the sclera at the anterior and posterior surfaces respectively. These novel cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying choriocapillaris development were recapitulated in mice. In conclusion, our findings reveal novel mechanisms underlying the development of the choriocapillaris during zebrafish and mouse development. These results may explain the uniquely high density and sheet-like organization of this vasculature.

  • Lindberg, Adam
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science.
    Performance Evaluation of JavaScript Rendering Frameworks2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    When developing interactive web applications a number of different technologies and frameworks could be used. This thesis is set to evaluate a number of popular frameworks that are using different native web rendering techniques. More specifically, the goal of this study is to find what JavaScript visualization framework is best suited for developing a visualization module capable of handling up to 1000 continuously moving nodes with retained frame rate. In this case, retained frame rate refers to keeping the average frame rate above 20 FPS. The frameworks investigated in this study are D3.js using SVG and Canvas, and PixiJS using WebGL 2D rendering. The evaluation was conducted by first developing a visualization module containing a force-directed graph. This was done three times over, once with each rendering technique. Next, the average frame rate was measured during the first 10 seconds of loading a fixed size data set. Data sets of increasing volume were then loaded to examine how the different modules handle data sets of various sizes. The results showed that the SVG module was far behind the other two in terms of retained FPS on larger data sets. The Canvas and WebGL modules were closer in the level of performance, where WebGL outperformed the Canvas implementation in the base case. However, when a Gaussian blur filter was activated in both modules, the Canvas module prevailed. This blur filter was a requested feature for the final product, which led to the choice of using D3.js with Canvas rendering for further development.

  • Stjernefeldt, Carin
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Mathematical Statistics .
    Enabling the future of Operational Risk Management: A research on the encoding of categorical data insupervised deep learning models2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Non-numerical data such as names of persons, cities, brands or artifacts are common in many fields and can provide great value to different types of mathematical models. In order to use these so-called categorical values in numerical models, including most ma-chine learning methods, the information has to be re-coded into something numerically interpretable. The drawback of the most common representation technique, "one-hot-encoding", is that the dimension of the numerical representation becomes impractically large if there are many unique values involved. Since the size of the input space exponentially drives the model complexity, it is of interest to keep the input dense. In this study an overview of compression methods for categorical features of two types is presented; with and without loss of information. The methods have first been reviewed with respect to their fit to a data set containing transactions of financial instruments. To evaluate the effects of the methods on model performance a deep-learning classification model identifying risk-prone transactions was trained under the usage of the different representations. The study concludes that by grouping rarely occurring categorical values the input space can be reduced by 77,9% in comparison to a one-hot-encoding with a small negative effect on the model performance. It is also shown that the time to train a model can be significantly reduced at the price of a smaller decrease of prediction accuracy which indicates that the method can be suitable in applications with limited time or computational power.   

  • Vukadinovic, Ivana
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology.
    Gustavsson Malki, Malin
    ”Du som inte får bestämma”: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om mäns upplevelse av abort2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to examine based on a qualitative method how men interpret that they have experienced an abortion, how they have interpreted that they have experienced the support of the environment afterwards, and what strategies they experienced that they used to manage the experience. Based on semi-structured interviews, five participants from Sweden described their experiences, which were then analyzed based on an inductive approach according to the method of interpretation Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA). Five prominent main themes could be distinguished: 1) An internal war between reason and emotion 2) The male strong ideal 3) Changed self-image and future 4) Being able to participate in women's conditions and 5) Lack of support and information from the healthcare. These main themes then consist of a number of sub-themes that describe the participants' detailed experiences. The results we obtained were in line with previous research and show that it is not an easy experience to go through and that a lot of ambivalent feelings arise in men who undergo an abortion. The main aspects of the study show that all participants believe that it is the woman's unquestionable right to make the abortion decision, but that everyone had a desire to be supportive of the woman, regardless of whether or not they shared the opinion of doing the abortion. Some of the men who felt involved in the abortion process experienced the event in a better way than those who felt excluded. Most of the men felt invisible by the care and asked for more information about the abortion process. The study shows the importance of considering men's participation in the abortion process as there is a clear psychological impact on men.

  • Englund, Sandra
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Mobbning betraktas som moraliskt fel – ändå sker det: Hur olika mekanismer inom moraliskt disengagemang sammanhänger med mobbning2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to investigate the relationship between bullying (bullying in general, direct and indirect bullying) and mechanisms of moral disengagement. The study also aimed to investigate whether there were any differences between genders. The design of the study was cross-sectional and results were based on Swedish teenagers’ (N: 1726) self-reports about bullying and mechanisms of moral disengagement. Analyses of regression revealed that bullying (as a general phenomenon) had a positive correlation with moral justification, euphemistic labeling, displacement of responsibility, dehumanization and blaming the victim. Furthermore, moral justification, euphemistic labeling and dehumanization had positive correlations with bullying and direct bullying for both girls and boys. Indirect bullying correlated with moral justification, euphemistic labelling, dehumanization and blaming the victim for girls, but only with moral justification and dehumanization for boys. Girls were more likely to use mechanisms of moral disengagement in bullying situations than boys.

  • Norberg, Marcus
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Anchoring-and-adjustment-heuristikens påverkan på uppskattning och fysisk prestation2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

       Denna studies syfte var att försöka påverka individers målsättning och fysiska prestation genom att använda sig av heuristiken anchoring-and-adjustment. Anchoring-and-adjustment är en heuristik där en numerisk referenspunkt påverkar individer genom att de otillräckligt justerar utifrån ankaret när de ger svar och tar beslut. Denna heuristik, som visat sig vara väldigt robust och ha stark effekt, kombinerades med kunskap inom målsättning och sportpsykologi för att få fram frågeställningen huruvida anchoring-and-adjustmentheuristiken kan påverka individers uppskattning av prestation och följaktligen om det mål som sätts påverkar individers fysiska prestation.        Fyrtio försökspersoner (35 män) delades slumpmässigt in i två grupper där de förankrades lågt respektive högt inför två fysiska övningar. Efter förankringen tillfrågades försökspersonerna att uppskatta hur många repetitioner de trodde de skulle klara, för att sedan få utföra övningarna och se hur många de faktiskt klarade.        Skillnad kunde ses vad gällde uppskattningar inför övningarna, där de lågt förankrade individernas uppskattning signifikant skilde sig från de högt förankrade individerna. Vad gällde faktiskt utfört antal repetitioner kunde endast ett mönster ses där de högt förankrade individerna utförde marginellt fler repetitioner, skillnaden var dock inte signifikant. Det hittades alltså bevis för att anchoring-and-adjustmentheuristiken påverkar individers uppskattningar tillika målsättning, men inga bevis hittades för att den följande fysiska ansträngningen påverkades.

  • Carlsson Lindberg, Frida
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Gustavsson, Beatrice
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    ”Trauma i barndomen trådar hela livet”: En kvalitativ enkätstudie om vuxnas upplevelser kring barndomstrauma och återhämtningsprocessen2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to describe individuals’ different experiences of childhood trauma and their recovery process. This was explored through a webbased survey. This study has a qualitative approach with a thematic analysis as a data analysis method and a web-based survey as a data collection method. In total 20 individuals participated, 19 females and 1 male. The result showed that the participants reported an experienced difficulty in coping with the trauma during childhood because of an ongoing abuse, but also due to the experience of lack of adult support. Many of the participants considered that this might have been the reason why they ended up in destructive relationships in adulthood. The result also showed that the participants described different recovery processes and based on their answers, the recovery process could not be detected until they were free from abuse. The participants described that the childhood trauma had big impact on their lives in adulthood and recovering from it was an ongoing process.

  • Ruggiu, Andrea Alessandro
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Nordström, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Mathematics, Computational Mathematics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Multigrid Schemes for High Order Discretizations of Hyperbolic Problems2020In: Journal of Scientific Computing, ISSN 0885-7474, E-ISSN 1573-7691, Vol. 82, p. 1-39, article id 62Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Total variation diminishing multigrid methods have been developed for first order accurate discretizations of hyperbolic conservation laws. This technique is based on a so-called upwind biased residual interpolation and allows for algorithms devoid of spurious numerical oscillations in the transient phase. In this paper, we justify the introduction of such prolongation and restriction operators by rewriting the algorithm in a matrix-vector notation. This perspective sheds new light on multigrid procedures for hyperbolic problems and provides a direct extension for high order accurate difference approximations. The new multigrid procedure is presented, advantages and disadvantages are discussed and numerical experiments are performed.

  • Norman, Viktor
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Stekovic, Svjetlana
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Engineering Materials. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jones, J
    Whittaker, M
    On the Mechanistic Difference Between In-phase and Out-of-phase Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue Crack Growth2020In: International Journal of Fatigue, ISSN 0142-1123, E-ISSN 1879-3452, Vol. 135, p. 1-11, article id 105528Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The crack driving mechanisms in a coarse grained nickel-base superalloy RR1000 when subjected to in- and out of phase thermo mechanical fatigue are investigated. It is found that the difference in fatigue crack growth rate between these two load conditions is accounted for by the different mechanical conditions at the crack tip region, rather than oxidation effects. This is based on digital image correlation and finite element analyses of the mechanical strain field at the crack tip, which demonstrate that in phase leads to larger crack tip deformation and crack opening. Notably, it is demonstrated that in- and out of phase crack growth rates coincide when correlated to the crack tip opening displacement.

  • Gustafsson, Kristin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Ryhov Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Kvist, Joanna
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Prevention, Rehabilitation and Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV). Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Eriksson, Marit
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Futurum Acad Hlth and Care Reg Jonkoping Cty, Sweden.
    Dahlberg, Leif E.
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Rolfson, Ola
    Univ Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Socioeconomic status of patients in a Swedish national self-management program for osteoarthritis compared with the general population: a descriptive observational study2020In: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders, ISSN 1471-2474, E-ISSN 1471-2474, BMC MUSCULOSKELETAL DISORDERS, Vol. 21, no 1, article id 10Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    First-line treatment for hip and knee osteoarthritis (OA) including education and supervised exercises, delivered as a self-management program, is considered one of the mainstays in OA treatment. However, the socioeconomic profile of the population that utilizes first-line treatment for hip and knee OA is unclear. The aim of this study was to describe the socioeconomic status (SES) of a population referred to a self-management program for OA, in comparison with that of the general Swedish population.

    Methods

    This is a cross-sectional study including 72,069 patients with hip or knee OA enrolled in the National Quality Register for Better management of patients with Osteoarthritis (BOA) between 2008 and 2016, and registered before participation in a structured OA self-management program. A reference cohort (n = 216,207) was selected from the general Swedish population by one-to-three matching by year of birth, sex and residence. Residential municipality, country of birth, marital status, family type, educational level, employment, occupation, disposable income and sick leave were analyzed.

    Results

    The BOA population had higher educational level than the reference group, both regarding patients with hip OA (77.5% vs 70% with ≥10 years of education), and with knee OA (77% vs 72% with ≥10 years of education). Their average disposable income was higher (median [IQR] in Euro (€), for hip €17,442 [10,478] vs €15,998 [10,659], for knee €17,794 [10,574] vs €16,578 [11,221]). Of those who worked, 46% of patients with hip OA and 45% of the reference group had a blue-collar occupation. The corresponding numbers for knee OA were 51 and 44% respectively. Sick leave was higher among those with hip and knee OA (26%) than those in the reference groups (13% vs 12%).

    Conclusions

    The consistently higher SES in the BOA population compared with the general population indicates that this self-management program for OA may not reach the more socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, who are often those with a higher disease burden.

  • Markovic, Gabriela
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Schult, Marie-Louise
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    Elg, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Logistics & Quality Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Linköping University, HELIX Competence Centre.
    Bartfai, Aniko
    Karolinska Inst, Sweden.
    BENEFICIAL EFFECTS OF EARLY ATTENTION PROCESS TRAINING AFTER ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY: A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL2020In: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine, ISSN 1650-1977, E-ISSN 1651-2081, Vol. 52, no 1, article id UNSP jrm00011Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Evaluation of outcome after intensive cognitive rehabilitation early after brain injury is complicated due to the ongoing biological recovery process. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of Attention Process Training early after acquired brain injury through time-series measurement with statistical process control. Design: Randomized controlled trial. Method: Patients with acquired brain injury (n=59) within 4 months post-injury in interdisciplinary rehabilitation received an additional 20 h of attention training with Attention Process Training or with activity-based attention training. The primary outcome variable was Paced Auditory Serial Attention Test (PASAT) evaluated using statistical process control. Results: Both groups improved (p amp;lt; 0.001), although a higher number of patients improved with attention process training (chi(2) (1, n= 59) = 5.93, p= 0.015) and the variability was significantly decreased. The Attention Process Training group maintained or improved performance at 6 months follow-up (chi(2) (1, n=51)=6,847, p= 0.033). Attention Process Training required fewer intervention hours for improvement. Based on individual performance, 3 improvement trajectories were identified: stationary, steady, and rapid improvers. Conclusion: The results indicate that attention training is promising early after acquired brain injury and that Attention Process Training boosts functional improvement. Notably, in the present group of relatively homogeneous patients, 3 different trajectories were identified for recovery after acquired brain injury regardless of intervention.

  • Westerberg, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Speech Therapy, Otorhinolaryngology and Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Speech Therapy, Otorhinolaryngology and Audiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Orebro Univ, Sweden.
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology.
    The evaluation of canal wall up cholesteatoma surgery with the Glasgow Benefit Inventory2020In: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, ISSN 0937-4477, E-ISSN 1434-4726, Vol. 277, no 1, p. 61-68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose The aim of the study was to investigate the change in health-related quality of life ( HRQoL) after canal wall up cholesteatoma surgery, using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI). Methods Data from a consecutive group of 47 adults scheduled for primary cholesteatoma surgery using canal wall up (CWU) with obliteration, from January 2005 to December 2009, were analysed. Information was extracted from a medical database, and complementary data from patient files and audiograms were collected and recorded retrospectively. The GBI questionnaire was used for the assessment of HRQoL after surgery. Results There was no finding of residual or recurrent cholesteatomas in the study group. Hearing was improved at 1 and 3 years postoperatively. No patient suffered a total hearing loss. The overall GBI scores showed an improved HRQoL after surgery. Twenty-nine (85%) patients benefitted from surgery, 1 (3%) had no change, and 4 (12%) expressed deterioration. Conclusions Cholesteatoma surgery using CWU with obliteration gives an improved HRQoL for the majority of patients. The GBI questionnaire provides complementary information to hearing and healing results after cholesteatoma surgery.

  • Azharuddin, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Roberg, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Department of Otorhinolaryngology.
    Dhara, Ashis Kumar
    Natl Inst Technol Durgapur, India.
    Jain, Mayur Vilas
    Lund Univ, Sweden.
    Darcy, Padraig
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Hinkula, Jorma
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Hematopoiesis and Developmental Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Slater, Nigel K. H.
    Univ Cambridge, England.
    Patra, Hirak Kumar
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Univ Cambridge, England.
    Dissecting multi drug resistance in head and neck cancer cells using multicellular tumor spheroids2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, article id 20066Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the hallmarks of cancers is their ability to develop resistance against therapeutic agents. Therefore, developing effective in vitro strategies to identify drug resistance remains of paramount importance for successful treatment. One of the ways cancer cells achieve drug resistance is through the expression of efflux pumps that actively pump drugs out of the cells. To date, several studies have investigated the potential of using 3-dimensional (3D) multicellular tumor spheroids (MCSs) to assess drug resistance; however, a unified system that uses MCSs to differentiate between multi drug resistance (MDR) and non-MDR cells does not yet exist. In the present report we describe MCSs obtained from post-diagnosed, pre-treated patient-derived (PTPD) cell lines from head and neck squamous cancer cells (HNSCC) that often develop resistance to therapy. We employed an integrated approach combining response to clinical drugs and screening cytotoxicity, monitoring real-time drug uptake, and assessing transporter activity using flow cytometry in the presence and absence of their respective specific inhibitors. The report shows a comparative response to MDR, drug efflux capability and reactive oxygen species (ROS) activity to assess the resistance profile of PTPD MCSs and two-imensional (2D) monolayer cultures of the same set of cell lines. We show that MCSs provide a robust and reliable in vitro model to evaluate clinical relevance. Our proposed strategy can also be clinically applicable for profiling drug resistance in cancers with unknown resistance profiles, which consequently can indicate benefit from downstream therapy.

  • Björkman, Ann-Sofi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Spångeus, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Endocrinology.
    Woisetschläger, Mischa
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Radiological Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Radiology in Linköping.
    Mobile learning device increased study efficiency for radiology residents but with risk of temporary novelty effect2019In: Acta Radiologica Open, ISSN 2058-4601, Vol. 8, no 11, p. 1-8Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Digital resources in learning are increasingly available and offer new possibilities in education. Mobile learning devices (MLD) such as tablets provide easy and flexible access for users.

    Purpose: To investigate whether the introduction of MLDs in radiology education affected time spent on studies over a longer time frame and whether learning behavior and attitudes changed.

    Material and Methods: The radiology residents employed during 2015–2016 were invited to participate in this 12-month MLD intervention study. Results were evaluated using online questionnaires at six months (6 m) and 12 months (12 m).

    Results: Thirty-one residents were included, of whom half were in the early stages of residency (<2 years). After the MLD introduction, most participants (91% [6 m] and 83% [12 m]) estimated increased time spent on studies. Of these, 32% stated “a lot more” at 6 m but only 8% at 12 m (P ¼ 0.12). The MLDs showed positive effects on the experience of radiology studies, as a majority of participants stated better quality and effectiveness in their studies (100% [6 m]–92% [12 m]), that MLD facilitated access to educational materials to a high degree (83% [6 m]–75% [12 m]), and that studies had become better and more fun (96% [6 m]–100% [12 m]).

    Conclusion: The use of MLDs seems to facilitate learning effectively for radiologic residents. However, a larger scale study is required as a trend of decreasing figures in the longer term was seen, but our results did not show a significant reduction of time spent on radiology studies.

  • Dimitrijevic Carlsson, Alexandra
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Public Dental Health Care, Center for Oral Rehabilitation Linköping. Malmo Univ, Sweden; Scandinavian Ctr Orofacial Neurosci, Sweden.
    Wahlund, Kerstin
    Kalmar Cty Hosp, Sweden.
    Kindgren, Erik
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Children's and Women's health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Vasterv Hosp, Sweden; Skaraborg Hosp, Sweden.
    Skogh, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Rheumatology.
    Starkhammar Johansson, Carin
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Public Dental Health Care.
    Alstergren, Per
    Malmo Univ, Sweden; Scandinavian Ctr Orofacial Neurosci, Sweden; Skane Univ Hosp, Sweden; Malmo Univ, Sweden.
    Orofacial pain in juvenile idiopathic arthritis is associated with stress as well as psychosocial and functional limitations2019In: Pediatric Rheumatology, ISSN 1546-0096, E-ISSN 1546-0096, PEDIATRIC RHEUMATOLOGY, Vol. 17, no 1, article id 83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    The aim of this study was to investigate relations between psychosocial factors, signs and symptoms of orofacial pain and jaw dysfunction in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA).

    Methods

    Forty-five patients with JIA (median age 12 years) and 16 healthy matched controls (median age 13 years) were examined according to the diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders (DC/TMD). The subjects answered the DC/TMD questionnaires regarding psychosocial factors (pain intensity, pain–related disability, depression, stress, catastrophizing, pain locations and jaw function).

    Results

    JIA patients with orofacial pain had higher degree of stress, depression, catastrophizing and jaw dysfunction compared to subjects without. In turn, these factors were associated with orofacial pain intensity. Also, patients with orofacial pain had higher systemic inflammatory activity.

    Conclusions

    Orofacial pain in patients with JIA is associated with stress, psychological distress, jaw dysfunction and loss of daily living activities. Pain intensity seems to be the major pain aspect related to these factors. In addition, systemic inflammatory activity appears to be an important factor contributing to orofacial pain in JIA.