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Raak, Ragnhild
Publikasjoner (10 av 18) Visa alla publikasjoner
Wallin, M. & Raak, R. (2008). Quality of life in subgroups of individuals with whiplash associated disorders. European Journal of Pain, 12(7), 842-849
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Quality of life in subgroups of individuals with whiplash associated disorders
2008 (engelsk)Inngår i: European Journal of Pain, ISSN 1090-3801, E-ISSN 1532-2149, Vol. 12, nr 7, s. 842-849Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: The term whiplash associated disorders (WAD) includes a wide range of complaints, with neck pain as predominating symptom. Living with long term pain influences quality of life. In previous studies of other chronic pain patients, subgrouping has been made according to thermal pain thresholds measured in quantitative sensory testing (QST).

Aims: The aims of the present study are threefold, (1) to evaluate thermal pain thresholds and health related quality of life in WAD patients compared to healthy pain-free individuals, (2) to explore whether subgrouping of the WAD patients is possible according to thermal pain thresholds over trapezius, and if so (3) to explore differences between the subgroups.

Methods: Twenty-six patients with WAD and 18 healthy pain-free controls took part in the study. Thermal pain thresholds were measured in two sites (over the thenar and the trapezius muscle) using quantitative sensory testing (QST). Health related quality of life (HRQoL) was assessed using the SF-36. The visual analogue scale was used to rate pain intensity and unpleasantness related to the experimental situation.

Results: WAD patients are more sensitive to thermal pain, and scored lower on the SF-36 in all scales when compared with healthy pain-free individuals. After analyzing clusters (K-means algorithm) two subgroups of WAD emerge, pain insensitive and pain sensitive. The pain insensitive group differed significantly from the pain sensitive group in the Role Emotional subscale of SF-36 (p=0.025).

Conclusions: Thermal pain hyperalgesia, especially for cold, seems to be a determinant for subgrouping WAD patients. These results support that such a classification of a heterogenous group could be of importance in tailoring treatment and early interventions.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-44215 (URN)10.1016/j.ejpain.2007.12.008 (DOI)76064 (Lokal ID)76064 (Arkivnummer)76064 (OAI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-10 Laget: 2009-10-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Wallin, M. & Raak, R. (2007). Health related quality of life and catastrophizing in subgroups of individuals with Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) based on thermal pain thresholds. In: International Whiplash Trauma Cenference, IWTC 2007,2007 (pp. 31-31).
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Health related quality of life and catastrophizing in subgroups of individuals with Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) based on thermal pain thresholds
2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Whiplash Trauma Cenference, IWTC 2007,2007, 2007, s. 31-31Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

  

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-39747 (URN)51094 (Lokal ID)51094 (Arkivnummer)51094 (OAI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-10 Laget: 2009-10-10 Sist oppdatert: 2012-09-21bibliografisk kontrollert
Wallin, M. & Raak, R. (2007). Non-Scandinavian and Scandinavian women´s expectations and experiences of acute pain. Acute Pain, 9(1), 1-6
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Non-Scandinavian and Scandinavian women´s expectations and experiences of acute pain
2007 (engelsk)Inngår i: Acute Pain, ISSN 1366-0071, E-ISSN 1873-6319, Vol. 9, nr 1, s. 1-6Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Cultural or ethnic background has been shown to be significant for how individuals experience pain. The aim of this study was to examine the expectation and experience of acute pain, the use of stress-coping styles, and the distribution of analgesics among non-Scandinavian and Scandinavian women in a dental treatment situation.

Methods

Instruments used were the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS).

Results

Non-Scandinavian women rated both expected and experienced pain significantly higher than Scandinavian women. No significant differences were found in stress-coping styles or in the distribution of analgesics between the two groups.

Conclusion

Nurses in acute pain situations must be aware of the need for appropriate assessment tools as well as the need to be sensitive to variations in both verbal and non-verbal communication styles across cultures.

Emneord
Culture, Nursing, Acute pain, Stress-coping styles, Non-Scandinavian, Scandinavian
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-37892 (URN)10.1016/j.acpain.2006.11.003 (DOI)40288 (Lokal ID)40288 (Arkivnummer)40288 (OAI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-10 Laget: 2009-10-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Raak, R. & Wahren, L. K. (2006). Health experiences and employment status in subjects with chronic back pain: a long-term perspective. Pain Management Nursing, 7(2), 64-70
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Health experiences and employment status in subjects with chronic back pain: a long-term perspective
2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Pain Management Nursing, ISSN 1524-9042, E-ISSN 1532-8635, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 64-70Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study was to describe health experiences, focused on gender and return to work, in subjects with chronic low back pain in a long-term perspective. The convenient sample consisted of 12 subjects who had attended a pain rehabilitation program 6 years earlier. Typed interviews were transcribed, and a content analysis approach was used. Five categories were found: coping, root causes, control/influence, pain, and sleep. The interviews showed that the subjects expressed well-being, although pain had become part of their daily life. However, both gender and well-being group differences were identified. The women and the group with reduced well-being used the root causes category in a higher degree than the men and the well-being group did. The conclusion is that there are differences according to both gender and return to work within the subjects with chronic pain and that these differences are related to both root causes and coping pattern.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-34264 (URN)10.1016/j.pmn.2006.02.001 (DOI)21169 (Lokal ID)21169 (Arkivnummer)21169 (OAI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-10 Laget: 2009-10-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Raak, R. & Wahren, L. K. (2006). Health related quality of life in subgroups of WAD (Whiplash associated disorder) individuals with respect to cold hyperalgesia in quantitative sensory testing (QST). In: EFIC Pain in Europe V,2006.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Health related quality of life in subgroups of WAD (Whiplash associated disorder) individuals with respect to cold hyperalgesia in quantitative sensory testing (QST)
2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: EFIC Pain in Europe V,2006, 2006Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

 Background and aims The term Whiplash associated disorders (WAD) includes a wide range of complaints, with neck pain as predominating symptom. Living with long term pain influences quality of life. In previous studies of other chronic pain patients, subgrouping has been made according to cold pain thresholds measured in QST. The aims of the present study are threefold, (1) to evaluate thermal pain thresholds and health related quality of life in WAD patients compared to healthy pain-free individuals, (2) to explore whether subgrouping of the WAD patients was possible according to cold pain thresholds (CPT), and (3) to explore differences between the subgroups. Methods: Thermal pain thresholds were measured using QST. The SF-36 was used to assess health related quality of life. Results: WAD patients showed significantly decreased CPT (p=0.007) and lower scores on the SF-36 in all scales when compared with healthy pain-free individuals. After analyzing clusters (K-means algorithm) two subgroups of WAD emerged, slightly cold pain sensitive and highly pain sensitive. The slightly pain sensitive group differed significantly from the highly sensitive group on in the Role Emotional scale of SF-36 (p=0.025). Conclusions: Cold pain hyperalgesia seems to be a determinant for subgrouping of WAD patients, with respect to health related quality of life, and might be the result of central sensitization or peripheral mechanisms or as a result of personal characteristics. These group differences might be of importance when guiding patients to treatment interventions as well as when exposing subjects to cold in the clinical situation.    

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36023 (URN)29447 (Lokal ID)29447 (Arkivnummer)29447 (OAI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-10 Laget: 2009-10-10 Sist oppdatert: 2012-09-21bibliografisk kontrollert
Raak, R. (2006). Icke nordiska och nordiska kvinnors förväntan på och upplevelse av akut smärta. In: Svenska läkaresällskapets Riksstämma,2006.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Icke nordiska och nordiska kvinnors förväntan på och upplevelse av akut smärta
2006 (svensk)Inngår i: Svenska läkaresällskapets Riksstämma,2006, 2006Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [sv]

 ABSTRACT Cultural or ethnic background has been shown to be significant for how individuals experience pain. The aim of this study was to examine the expectation and experience of acute pain, the use of stress-coping styles, and the distribution of analgesics among non-Nordic and Nordic women in a dental treatment situation. Instruments used were the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and the Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS). Non-Nordic women rated both expected and experienced pain significantly higher than Nordic women. No significant differences were found in stress-coping styles or in the distribution of analgesics between the two groups. Nurses must be sensitive to variations in pain communication styles across cultures.  

Emneord
nursing, VAS, pain, stress-coping styles, Nordic, non-Nordic
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-36024 (URN)29448 (Lokal ID)29448 (Arkivnummer)29448 (OAI)
Merknad
Fria föredrag - Abstracts under sektionen smärtlindringTilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-10 Laget: 2009-10-10
Raak, R. & Wallin, M. (2006). Thermal thresholds and catastrophizing in individuals with chronic pain after whiplash injury. Biological Research for Nursing, 8(2), 138-146
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Thermal thresholds and catastrophizing in individuals with chronic pain after whiplash injury
2006 (engelsk)Inngår i: Biological Research for Nursing, ISSN 1099-8004, E-ISSN 1552-4175, Vol. 8, nr 2, s. 138-146Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Thermal sensitivity, thermal pain thresholds, and catastrophizing were examined in individuals with whiplash associated disorders (WAD) and in healthy pain-free participants. Quantitative sensory testing (QST) was used to measure skin sensitivity to cold and warmth and cold and heat pain thresholds over both the thenar eminence and the trapezius muscle (TrM) in 17 participants with WAD (age 50.8± 11.3 years) and 18 healthy participants (age 44.8± 10.2 years). The Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) was used to determine pain coping strategies, and visual analogue scales were used for self-assessment of current background pain in individuals in the WAD group as well as experienced pain intensity and unpleasantness after QST and sleep quality in all participants. There were significant differences in warmth threshold and cold and heat pain thresholds of the TrM site between the WAD and pain-free groups. Significant differences between the two groups were also found for the catastrophizing dimension of helplessness in the PCS and in self-assessed quality of sleep. A correlational analysis showed that current background pain is significantly correlated with both cold discrimination and cold pain threshold in the skin over the TrM in individuals with WAD. These findings imply that thermal sensitivity is an important factor to consider in providing nursing care to individuals with WAD. Because biopsychosocial factors also influence the experience of pain in individuals with WAD, the role of nurses includes not only the description of the pain phenomenon but also the identification of relieving and aggravating factors.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35629 (URN)10.1177/1099800406291078 (DOI)28017 (Lokal ID)28017 (Arkivnummer)28017 (OAI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-10 Laget: 2009-10-10 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
Raak, R. & Wahren, L. K. (2005). Headache and coping in a female working population. Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, 19(4), 325-329
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Headache and coping in a female working population
2005 (engelsk)Inngår i: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 19, nr 4, s. 325-329Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

Tension-type headache is a common disorder amongst working people and, because of its very high prevalence, represents one of the most costly ailments in modern society. To study the frequency of tension-type headache in a working female population and to investigate how females who have experienced tension-type headache cope with pain compared with the way healthy pain-free subjects cope with stress. A total of 400 females working at a university hospital in Sweden were asked about their experience of headache in the previous 3 months. Instruments used were a specific Headache Questionnaire, the Jalowiec Stress-coping Questionnaire and Coping Strategy Questionnaire. Before the study, approval from the board of directors and the employees’ council was obtained. About 257 females (64.3%) answered the questionnaire and 78% of them (n = 199) reported that they had experienced headache in the previous 3 months. About 90% of the participants had never had an appointment with a doctor concerning headache and 57% reported a relationship between stress and headache. Regarding pain-coping strategy, increased pain behaviour was the most frequent strategy used. With regard to stress-coping style, a significant difference in the use of emotive style was found between females reporting headache and females not reporting headache. The results indicate that prevention programmes emphasizing stress management and coping may influence the experience of tension-type headache.

Emneord
Employee, Females, Stress, Tension-type headache
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-50347 (URN)10.1111/j.1471-6712.2005.00347.x (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-11 Laget: 2009-10-11 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-12bibliografisk kontrollert
Nilsson, E., Raak, R., Wahren, L. K. & Kristenson, M. (2004). Hälsorelaterad livskvalitet i relation till psykologiska förklaringsvariabler. In: Svenska Läkarsällskapets Riksstämma,2004 (pp. 82-82).
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Hälsorelaterad livskvalitet i relation till psykologiska förklaringsvariabler
2004 (svensk)Inngår i: Svenska Läkarsällskapets Riksstämma,2004, 2004, s. 82-82Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Annet vitenskapelig)
Emneord
Hälsorelaterad livskvalitet
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-22163 (URN)1282 (Lokal ID)1282 (Arkivnummer)1282 (OAI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-07 Laget: 2009-10-07
Raak, R., Hurtig, I. & Wahren, L. K. (2003). Coping strategies and life satisfaction in subgrouped fibromyalgia patients. Biological Research for Nursing, 4(3), 193-202
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Coping strategies and life satisfaction in subgrouped fibromyalgia patients
2003 (engelsk)Inngår i: Biological Research for Nursing, ISSN 1099-8004, E-ISSN 1552-4175, Vol. 4, nr 3, s. 193-202Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study describes pain- and stress-coping strategies and life satisfaction in subgroups of fibromyalgia patients. Thirty-two females with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and 21 healthy pain-free women were studied. Those with FMS were classified as thermal (both heat and cold) pain sensitive or slightly cold pain sensitive based on pain thresholds determined using a Thermotest device. Global stress-coping styles, life satisfaction, and specific pain-coping strategies were measured. Patients classified as thermal pain sensitive were affected by physical symptoms to a greater extent than were those classified as slightly cold pain sensitive. The thermal pain sensitive group used more diverting attention coping strategies than the slightly cold pain sensitive group did. Separating fibromyalgia patients into subgroups might increase the potential for improving nursing care of these patients. Through the use of effective coping strategies in dealing with stress and pain, life satisfaction may also be enhanced.

HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-26942 (URN)10.1177/1099800402239622 (DOI)11570 (Lokal ID)11570 (Arkivnummer)11570 (OAI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2009-10-08 Laget: 2009-10-08 Sist oppdatert: 2017-12-13bibliografisk kontrollert
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