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Baer, K., Ericson, L. & Krus, P. (2019). Robustness and performance evaluations for simulation-based control and component parameter optimization for a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle. Engineering optimization (Print), 1-19
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Robustness and performance evaluations for simulation-based control and component parameter optimization for a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle
2019 (engelsk)Inngår i: Engineering optimization (Print), ISSN 0305-215X, E-ISSN 1029-0273, s. 1-19Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Simulation-based optimization is a useful tool in the design of complex engineering products. Simulation models are used to capture numerous aspects of the design problem for the objective function. Optimization results obtained can be assessed from various perspectives. In this study, component and control optimization of a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle is used as an application, and different robustness and performance aspects are evaluated. Owing to relatively high computational loads, efficient optimization algorithms are important to provide sufficient quality of results at reasonable computational costs. To estimate problem complexity and evaluate optimization algorithm performance, the definitions for information entropy and the related performance index are extended. The insights gained from various simulation-based optimization experiments and their subsequent analysis help characterize the efficiency of the optimization problem formulation and parameterization, as well as optimization algorithm selection with respect to parallel computation capabilities for further development of the model and optimization framework.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Taylor & Francis, 2019
Emneord
Simulation-based optimization, information entropy-rate-based performance index, robustness analysis, direct search optimization, hydraulic hybrid vehicle
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156185 (URN)10.1080/0305215X.2019.1590566 (DOI)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2019-04-08 Laget: 2019-04-08 Sist oppdatert: 2019-04-15bibliografisk kontrollert
Baer, K., Ericson, L. & Krus, P. (2018). Framework for simulation-based simultaneous system optimization for a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle. International Journal of Fluid Power
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Framework for simulation-based simultaneous system optimization for a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle
2018 (engelsk)Inngår i: International Journal of Fluid Power, ISSN 1439-9776Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Hybridisation of hydraulic drivetrains offers the potential of efficiency improvement for on – and off-road applications. To realise the advantages, a carefully designed system and corresponding control strategy are required, which are commonly obtained through a sequential design process. Addressing component selection and control parameterisation simultaneously through simulation-based optimisation allows for exploration of a large design space as well as design relations and trade-offs, and their evaluation in dynamic conditions which exist in real driving scenarios. In this paper, the optimisation framework for a hydraulic hybrid vehicle is introduced, including the simulation model for a series hybrid architecture and component scaling considerations impacting the system’s performance. A number of optimisation experiments for an on-road light-duty vehicle, focused on standard-drive-cycle-performance, illustrate the impact of the problem formulation on the final design and thus the complexity of the design problem. The designs found demonstrate both the potential of energy storage in series hybrids, via an energy balance diagram, as well as some challenges. The framework presented here provides a base for systematic evaluation of design alternatives and problem formulation aspects.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Taylor & Francis, 2018
Emneord
Simulation-based optimization, hydraulic hybrid vehicle, series hybrid, simultaneous design and control optimization, Hopsan
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152353 (URN)10.1080/14399776.2018.1527122 (DOI)2-s2.0-85055674140 (Scopus ID)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-10-29 Laget: 2018-10-29 Sist oppdatert: 2018-11-23bibliografisk kontrollert
Baer, K. (2018). Simulation-Based Optimization of a Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Simulation-Based Optimization of a Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle
2018 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

Hybrid transmissions are characterized by their utilization of more than one form of energy storage. They have the potential to help reduce overall fuel consumption and vehicle emissions by providing the possibility of brake energy recuperation and prime mover operation management. Electric hybrids and electric vehicle drives are nowadays ubiquitous, and mechanical energy storage in flywheel has been investigated in the past. The use of fluid power technology with a combustion engine has also been investigated since the late 1970s, and is frequently revisited.

Hydraulic hybridization is especially attractive for heavy vehicles with frequent braking and acceleration which benefit most from fluid power components’ high power density, typically busses, delivery or refuse vehicles, and vehicles with existing hydraulic circuits and transmissions, such as forest and construction machinery, but have been considered for smaller vehicles as well.

Due to the characteristic discharge profile of hydraulic energy storage, special attention needs to be paid to control aspects in the design process to guarantee drivability of the vehicle. In this respect, simulation models can be of use in early design process stages for cheaper and faster evaluation of concepts and designs than physical experiments and prototyping, and to generate better understanding of the system studied. Engineering optimization aids in the systematic exploration of a given design space, to determine limits and potentials, evaluate trade-offs and potentially find unexpected solutions. In the optimization of a hydraulic hybrid transmission, the integration of component and controller design is of importance, and different strategies (sequential, iterative, bi-level and simultaneous approaches) are conceivable, with varying consequences for the implementation.

This thesis establishes a simulation-based optimization framework for a hydraulic hybrid transmission with series architecture. Component and control parameter optimization are addressed simultaneously, using a rule-based supervisory control strategy. The forward-facing dynamic simulation model at the centre of the framework is built in Hopsan, a multi-disciplinary open-source tool developed at Linköping University. The optimization is set up and conducted for an example application of an on-road light-duty truck over standard drive cycles. Both results from these experiments as well as the framework itself are studied and evaluated. Relevant design aspects, such as explicit design relations to be considered and performance requirements for more robust design, are identified and addressed, and the optimization problem is analysed with regard to algorithm performance and problem formulation. The final result is an optimization framework that can be adjusted for further in-depth studies, for example through the inclusion of additional components or optimization objectives, and extendable for comparative analysis of different topologies, applications and problem formulations.  

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. s. 72
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1916
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145387 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-145387 (DOI)9789176853443 (ISBN)
Disputas
2018-03-23, C3, C-huset, Campus Valla, Linköping, 09:15 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Tilgjengelig fra: 2018-02-27 Laget: 2018-02-27 Sist oppdatert: 2019-04-08bibliografisk kontrollert
Baer, K., Ericson, L. & Krus, P. (2016). Aspects of Parameter Sensitivity for Series Hydraulic Hybrid Light-Weight Duty Vehicle Design. In: Proceedings of the 9th FPNI Ph.D. Symposium on Fluid Power (FPNI2016): . Paper presented at 9th FPNI Ph.D. Symposium on Fluid Power, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, October 26–28, 2016. American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Article ID V001T01A041.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Aspects of Parameter Sensitivity for Series Hydraulic Hybrid Light-Weight Duty Vehicle Design
2016 (engelsk)Inngår i: Proceedings of the 9th FPNI Ph.D. Symposium on Fluid Power (FPNI2016), American Society of Mechanical Engineers , 2016, artikkel-id V001T01A041Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Hybridization of a vehicle’s drivetrain can in principle help to improve its energy efficiency by allowing for recuperation of kinetic energy and modulating the engine’s load. How well this can be realized depends on appropriate sizing and control of the additional components. The system is typically designed sequentially, with the hardware setup preceding the development and tuning of advanced controller architectures. Taking an alternative approach, component sizing and controller tuning can be addressed simultaneously through simulation-based optimization.

The results of such optimizations, especially with standard algorithms with continuous design variable ranges, can however be difficult to realize, considering for example limitations in available components. Furthermore, drive-cycle based optimizations are prone to cycle-beating. This paper examines the results of such simulation-based optimization for a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle in terms of sensitivity to variations in design parameters, system parameters and drive cycle variations. Additional relevant aspects concerning the definition of the optimization problem are pointed out.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2016
Emneord
Weight (Mass), Automotive design, Cycles, Optimization, Control equipment, Simulation, Design, Hybrid electric vehicles, Hardware, Stress
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-135737 (URN)10.1115/FPNI2016-1567 (DOI)978-0-7918-5047-3 (ISBN)
Konferanse
9th FPNI Ph.D. Symposium on Fluid Power, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil, October 26–28, 2016
Tilgjengelig fra: 2017-03-17 Laget: 2017-03-17 Sist oppdatert: 2018-03-09
Baer, K., Ericson, L. & Krus, P. (2015). Design Study and Parameter Optimization for a Light-Weight Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle. In: : . Paper presented at 14th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power (SICFP'15), Tampere, Finland.
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Design Study and Parameter Optimization for a Light-Weight Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle
2015 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Hydraulic hybrid drives are one potential way of improving the fuel efficiency of vehicles, including the possi-bility of recuperating braking energy in a hydraulic accumulator. The high power density of fluid power is mainly advantageous for heavy vehicles, or duty cycles characterized with frequent braking and acceleration. For smaller vehicles, hydraulic hybrid drives are thus most interesting under urban and suburban driving conditions. Amongst the existing architectures, the series hydraulic hybrid offers the advantage of operating the internal combustion engine independently of the vehicle speed, at the cost of a less efficient transmission path than a purely mechanical one. Previously, a series hydraulics hybrid light-duty vehicle was modelled in the transmission-line modelling (TLM)-based simulation software Hopsan from the division of Fluid and Mechatronic Systems (Flumes) at Linköping University. This paper studies through simulation-based optimi-zation how the fuel-optimal vehicle design is affected by various mixes of urban and suburban driving requirements. Both the system’s hardware and the parameters of a basic control strategy are considered. The results show quite similar designs for most performance requirements combinations, and can be the base for further studies addressing additional requirements, conditions and objectives.

Serie
Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power (SICFP), ISSN 2342-2726
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122004 (URN)
Konferanse
14th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power (SICFP'15), Tampere, Finland
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-10-14 Laget: 2015-10-14 Sist oppdatert: 2018-03-09
Baer, K., Ericson, L. & Krus, P. (2014). System Parameter Study for a Light-Weight Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle. In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 8TH FPNI PH.D SYMPOSIUM ON FLUID POWER, 2014: . Paper presented at 8th FPNI Ph.D Symposium on Fluid Power, Lappeenranta, Finland, June 11–13, 2014 (pp. V001T03A004). ASME Press
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>System Parameter Study for a Light-Weight Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle
2014 (engelsk)Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 8TH FPNI PH.D SYMPOSIUM ON FLUID POWER, 2014, ASME Press, 2014, s. V001T03A004-Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Amongst the hybrid vehicle propulsion solutions aiming to improve fuel efficiency, hybrid electric solutions currently receive most attention, especially on the market. However, hydraulic hybrids are an interesting alternative, especially for heavier vehicles due to higher power density which is beneficial if higher masses are moved. As a step towards a comprehensive design framework to compare several possible hydraulic hybrid architectures for a specified application and usage profile, the model of a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle was previously introduced and initially studied concerning component sizing for an exemplary light-duty vehicle in urban traffic. The vehicle is modeled in the Hopsan simulation tool. A comparably straight-forward engine management is used for the vehicle control; both pump and engine controls are based on the hydraulic accumulator’s state-of-charge. The model is developed further with respect to the accumulator component model. Based on that, the influence of several system and component parameters, such as maximum system pressure and engine characteristics, as well as controller parameters on the vehicle’s performance is analyzed. The goal is to allow for more understanding of the system’s characteristics to facilitate future optimization of the system.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
ASME Press, 2014
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114212 (URN)10.1115/FPNI2014-7840 (DOI)000359389400029 ()978-0-7918-4582-0 (ISBN)
Konferanse
8th FPNI Ph.D Symposium on Fluid Power, Lappeenranta, Finland, June 11–13, 2014
Tilgjengelig fra: 2015-02-13 Laget: 2015-02-13 Sist oppdatert: 2018-03-09
Baer, K., Ericson, L. & Krus, P. (2013). Component Sizing Study for a Light-Duty Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle in Urban Drive Cycles. In: : . Paper presented at 22nd International Congress of Mechanical Engineering (COBEM 2013), November 3-7, 2013, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil (pp. 8368-8376). ABCM – Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Component Sizing Study for a Light-Duty Series Hydraulic Hybrid Vehicle in Urban Drive Cycles
2013 (engelsk)Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

With the focus on energy efficiency for many different kinds of vehicle applications,hybridization is considered a possible solution to reduce fuel consumption. While hybrid electric concepts are already available for passenger vehicles, and also considered for heavier applications, hybrid hydraulic alternatives have been mainly limited to the latter, which benefit most from the higher power density available. To study the different hybrid architectures and applications, a modeling framework for the system design is developed using the simulation tool Hopsan from Linköping University.  Previously,  the  model  of  a  series  hydraulic  hybrid  vehicle  was introduced, a light-duty vehicle simulated over two standard urban drive cycles, and its potential for further work established. In this paper, the model is extended by including a simple combustion engine power management to provide for more realistic propulsion of the hydraulic drivetrain, showing the potential to operate a series hydraulic hybrid vehicle’s engine in more efficient regions. Additionally, the design is studied concerning the effects of a variation of key component sizes on the accuracy and energy efficiency objectives. Instead of subjecting the system to (multi- objective) optimization, at this stage the individual component’s influence is studied, and the objectives are dealt with separately from each other to eliminate the need for compromise   between   them,   both   to   gain a better understanding of the interdependencies.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
ABCM – Associação Brasileira de Engenharia e Ciências Mecânicas, 2013
Serie
Proceedings of the International Congress of Mechanical Engineering, ISSN 2176-5480 ; 22
Emneord
Series hydraulic hybrid, Hopsan modeling
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103205 (URN)
Konferanse
22nd International Congress of Mechanical Engineering (COBEM 2013), November 3-7, 2013, Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil
Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-01-15 Laget: 2014-01-15 Sist oppdatert: 2018-03-09
Baer, K., Ericson, L. & Krus, P. (2013). Modeling of a Series Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain for a Light-Duty Vehicle in Hopsan. In: Petter Krus, Magnus Sethson, Liselott Ericson (Ed.), Conference proceedings: 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power. Paper presented at The 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, SICFP2013, June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden (pp. 107-112). Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University Electronic Press
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Modeling of a Series Hybrid Hydraulic Drivetrain for a Light-Duty Vehicle in Hopsan
2013 (engelsk)Inngår i: Conference proceedings: 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power / [ed] Petter Krus, Magnus Sethson, Liselott Ericson, Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013, s. 107-112Konferansepaper, Publicerat paper (Fagfellevurdert)
Abstract [en]

Hydraulic hybrids continue to receive attention as a possible solution in the search for improved fuel economy for different vehicle types. This paper presents a model for a series hydraulic hybrid light-duty vehicle, developed in the Hopsan simulation tool of Linköping University’s Division of Fluid and Mechatronic Systems (Flumes). Focusing on the hydraulic transmission which employs a pump control based on the hydraulic accumulator’s state-of-charge (SoC), several simplifications were made, especially concerning mechanical components. Simulation over two urban standard cycles shows promising results concerning dynamic performance and energy recuperation potential, provided sufficient component sizing to compensate for the mechanical limitations. This paper lays the foundation for both a further refined model - suitable for optimizing the full drivetrain, including component sizing and controller parameterization - and the development of comparable models for parallel and power-split hybrid architectures.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Linköping, Sweden: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2013
Serie
Linköping Electronic Conference Proceedings, ISSN 1650-3686, E-ISSN 1650-3740 ; 092
Emneord
Series hydraulic hybrid model, Hopsan modeling
HSV kategori
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103204 (URN)10.3384/ecp1392a11 (DOI)978-91-7519-572-8 (ISBN)
Konferanse
The 13th Scandinavian International Conference on Fluid Power, SICFP2013, June 3-5, 2013, Linköping, Sweden
Tilgjengelig fra: 2014-01-15 Laget: 2014-01-15 Sist oppdatert: 2018-03-09bibliografisk kontrollert
Organisasjoner
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-3207-2714