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Mehraeen, S., Asadi, M., Martinez, J. G., Persson, N.-K. & Jager, E. (2019). Smart yarns as the building blocks of textile actuators. In: : . Paper presented at 9th international conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer (EAP)transducers & artificial muscles, Dresden, Germany, 4-6 June, 2019.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Smart yarns as the building blocks of textile actuators
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2019 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Poster (med eller utan abstract) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The field of smart textile actuators has been progressing rapidly during the last years. Smart textiles are a class of textile products which exploit the determinant feature of responding to a stimulus, input, which can be chemical, mechanical, optical, magnetic or electrical. The building block for fabrication of such products is smart yarn. However, most smart textiles are focused on receiving an input stimulus (sensors) and only a few are dedicated to providing an output response (actuators). Yarn actuators show strain or apply force upon application of electrical stimulation in isotonic or isometric conditions, respectively. A small actuation in the yarn scale can be amplified by knitting or weaving the smart yarns into a fabric. In this work, we have investigated the effect of inherent properties of different commercial yarns on the linear actuation of the smart yarns in aqueous media. Since actuation significantly depends on the structure and mechanical properties of the yarns, elastic modules, and tenacity of the yarns were characterized. Investigating the actuation behavior, yarns were coated with PEDOT:PSS to make them conductive. Then polypyrrole which provides the electromechanical actuation was electropolymerized on the yarn surface under controlled conditions. Finally, linear actuation of the prepared smart yarns was investigated under aqueous electrolyte in both isotonic and isometric conditions.

Nationell ämneskategori
Textil-, gummi- och polymermaterial
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160102 (URN)
Konferens
9th international conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer (EAP)transducers & artificial muscles, Dresden, Germany, 4-6 June, 2019
Tillgänglig från: 2019-09-05 Skapad: 2019-09-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-13Bibliografiskt granskad
Backe, C., Guo, L., Jager, E. & Persson, N.-K. (2019). Towards responding fabrics – textile processing of thin threadlike pneumatic actuators. In: : . Paper presented at Smart Materials and Surfaces - SMS Conference 2019.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Towards responding fabrics – textile processing of thin threadlike pneumatic actuators
2019 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Muntlig presentation med publicerat abstract (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

With few exceptions (such as 1) textiles have not been considered as means for obtaining actuation. This is surprising as textiles have many advantageous characteristics such as the D=M property, which stands for Doing Devices while Making the Material. This means that functions are introduced simultaneously as the material, such as in a weave, is built up tread by tread. Traditionally a tread could have a certain colour so in total an aesthetical pattern is formed. Now we take a step beyond this working with threads having more advanced functions. Included are fiber formed structures showing actuation behavior. 

This we employ here. We make fiber formed actuating structures (FAS) following the McKibben principle (2) with braided mesh sleeves surrounding a prolonged inflatable tube. Here we worked with relatively large diameters in the relaxed state but show that there is prospect for obtaining relaxed diameters of less than 1 mm approaching the range of large scale weaving manufacturing.

We study the behavior of these fibre formed actuating structures individually. Length changes obtained are -20%. We then make textile constructions by integrating several of these FASes with textile processing. By this, we build simple models of fabrics showing actuating behavior.  

 

This study shows how textile constructions can support or hinder overall movement. It is a first logical step in order to get an understanding of actuating fabrics based also on other actuating mechanisms (3).

Nationell ämneskategori
Textil-, gummi- och polymermaterial
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161262 (URN)
Konferens
Smart Materials and Surfaces - SMS Conference 2019
Tillgänglig från: 2019-10-25 Skapad: 2019-10-25 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-25
Martinez, J. G., Klaus, R., Nils-Krister, P. & Jager, E. (2019). Use of conducting yarns to develop textile actuators. In: : . Paper presented at 9th international conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer (EAP)transducers & artificial muscles, Dresden, Germany, 4-6 June, 2019.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Use of conducting yarns to develop textile actuators
2019 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Poster (med eller utan abstract) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

The feasibility of textile actuators and their advantages to develop soft actuators with synergetic actuation have been proven. They are composed of a passive fabric coated with an electroactive polymer that provides the mechanical motion. Until now, a two-step coating process was followed to make the textile actuators: a first coating that provided conductivity to the passive fabrics and, once conducting, a second coating by electropolymerization was used to get a highly electroactive (moving as much as possible) material. To simplify the fabrication process, we here used different commercially available conducting yarns (polyamide+carbon, silicon+carbon, polyamide+silver coated, cellulose+carbon, polyester+2 × INOX 50 μm, polyester+2 × Cu/Sn and polyester+gold coated) to develop such textile actuators.

Thus, it was possible to coat them through direct electrochemical synthesis, avoiding the first step, which should provide with an easier and more cost-effective fabrication process. The conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the yarns were sufficient to allow the electropolymerization of the conducting polymer polypyrrole on the yarns. The electropolymerization was carried out and both the linear and angular the actuation of the yarns was investigated. These yarns may be incorporated into textile actuators for assistive prosthetic devices.

Nationell ämneskategori
Textil-, gummi- och polymermaterial
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160100 (URN)
Konferens
9th international conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer (EAP)transducers & artificial muscles, Dresden, Germany, 4-6 June, 2019
Tillgänglig från: 2019-09-05 Skapad: 2019-09-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-13Bibliografiskt granskad
Martinez, J. G., Mehraeen, S., Escobar, F., Aziz, S., Milad, M. A., Persson, N.-K. & Jager, E. (2019). Woven and knitted artificial muscles for wearable devices. In: : . Paper presented at Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) XX.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Woven and knitted artificial muscles for wearable devices
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2019 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Enbart muntlig presentation (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Diseases of the nervous system, traumas, or natural causes can reduce human muscle capacity. Robotic exoskeletons are forthcoming to support the movement of body parts, e.g. assist walking or aid rehabilitation. Current available devices are rigid and driven by electric motors or pneumatic actuators, making them noisy, heavy, stiff and noncompliant. We are developing textile based assistive devices that can be worn like clothing being light, soft, compliant and comfortable. We have merged advanced textile technology with electroactive polymers. By knitting and weaving electroactive yarns, we are developing soft textile actuators ("Knitted Muscles") that can be used in wearable assistive devices. We will present the latest progress increase the performance and to rationalise the fabrication. In addition we will show some demonstrators of the textile exoskeletons.

Nationell ämneskategori
Textil-, gummi- och polymermaterial
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160098 (URN)
Konferens
Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) XX
Tillgänglig från: 2019-09-05 Skapad: 2019-09-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-09-13Bibliografiskt granskad
Jager, E. (2018). Book review: Biosensors: Essentials, by Gennady Evtugyn (Lecture Notes in Chemistry Vol.84), 265 pages, Springer, 2014, ISBN 978-3-642–40240-1 Hardcover − 124,79 €; Softcover 106,90 €; eBook 86,86 €. Biosensors & bioelectronics, 115, 111-111
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Book review: Biosensors: Essentials, by Gennady Evtugyn (Lecture Notes in Chemistry Vol.84), 265 pages, Springer, 2014, ISBN 978-3-642–40240-1 Hardcover − 124,79 €; Softcover 106,90 €; eBook 86,86 €
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 115, s. 111-111Artikel i tidskrift (Övrigt vetenskapligt) Published
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2018
Nationell ämneskategori
Analytisk kemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160731 (URN)10.1016/j.bios.2018.05.013 (DOI)
Tillgänglig från: 2019-10-04 Skapad: 2019-10-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-10Bibliografiskt granskad
Gomez-Carretero, S., Libberton, B., Svennersten, K., Persson, K. M., Jager, E., Berggren, M., . . . Richter-Dahlfors, A. (2018). Correction: Redox-active conducting polymers modulate Salmonella biofilm formation by controlling availability of electron acceptors (vol 3, article number 19, 2017). npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, 4(1), Article ID 19.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Correction: Redox-active conducting polymers modulate Salmonella biofilm formation by controlling availability of electron acceptors (vol 3, article number 19, 2017)
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, ISSN 2055-5008, Vol. 4, nr 1, artikel-id 19Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
Nationell ämneskategori
Materialkemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151743 (URN)10.1038/s41522-018-0061-6 (DOI)000452255400001 ()30109118 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85051180846 (Scopus ID)
Anmärkning

This article corrects the research article with the DOI: 10.1038/s41522-017-0027-0. The research article is registered in DiVA: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151745

Tillgänglig från: 2018-10-04 Skapad: 2018-10-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-12-20Bibliografiskt granskad
Zhong, Y., Lundemo, S. & Jager, E. (2018). Development of polypyrrole based solid state on-chip microactuators using photolithography. Smart materials and structures (Print), 27(7), Article ID 074006.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Development of polypyrrole based solid state on-chip microactuators using photolithography
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 27, nr 7, artikel-id 074006Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a need for soft microactuators, especially for biomedical applications. We have developed a microfabrication process to create such soft, on-chip polymer-based microactuators that can operate in air. The on-chip microactuators were fabricated using standard photolithographic techniques and wet etching, combined with special designed process to micropattern the electroactive polymer polypyrrole that drives the microactuators. By immobilizing a UV-patternable gel containing a liquid electrolyte on top of the electroactive polypyrrole layer, actuation in air was achieved although with reduced movement. Further optimization of the processing is currently on-going. The result shows the possibility to batch fabricate complex microsystems such as microrobotics and micromanipulators based on these solid state on-chip microactuators using microfabrication methods including standard photolithographic processes.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147342 (URN)10.1088/1361-665X/aabe42 (DOI)000434378700006 ()
Anmärkning

Funding agencies: European Union [641822]; SSF; VINNOVA (OBOE-Center for Organic Bioelectronics); Swedish Research Council [VR-2014-3079]

Tillgänglig från: 2018-04-19 Skapad: 2018-04-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-30Bibliografiskt granskad
Zhong, Y., Nguyen, G., Plesse, C., Vidal, F. & Jager, E. (2018). Flexible gel electrolytes with reactive surfaces for soft electrochemical systems. In: : . Paper presented at MACRO 18 World Polymer Congress, July 1-5, 2018,Cairns Convention Centre, Australia..
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Flexible gel electrolytes with reactive surfaces for soft electrochemical systems
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2018 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Enbart muntlig presentation (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Nationell ämneskategori
Textil-, gummi- och polymermaterial
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151754 (URN)
Konferens
MACRO 18 World Polymer Congress, July 1-5, 2018,Cairns Convention Centre, Australia.
Tillgänglig från: 2018-10-04 Skapad: 2018-10-04 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-10-30
Zhong, Y., Nguyen, G. T. M., Nesse, C., Vida, F. & Jager, E. (2018). Highly Conductive, Photolithographically Patternable Ionogels for Flexible and Stretchable Electrochemical Devices. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 10(25), 21601-21611
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Highly Conductive, Photolithographically Patternable Ionogels for Flexible and Stretchable Electrochemical Devices
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2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, nr 25, s. 21601-21611Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

An ionic conducting membrane is an essential part in various electrochemical devices including ionic actuators. To miniaturize these devices, micropatterns of ionic conducting membrane are desired. Here, we present a novel type of ionogel that can be patterned using standard photolithography and soft imprinting lithography. The ionogel is prepared in situ by UV-initiated free-radical polymerization of thiol acrylate precursors in the presence of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The resultant ionogel is very flexible with a low Youngs modulus (as low as 0.23 MPa) and shows a very high ionic conductivity (up to 2.4 X 10(-3) S/cm with 75 wt % ionic liquid incorporated) and has a reactive surface due to the excess thiol groups. Micropatterns of ionogel are obtained by using the thiol acrylate ionogel solution as an ionic conducting photoresist with standard photolithography. Water, a solvent immiscible with ionic liquid, is used as the photoresist developer to avoid complete removal of ionic liquid from thin micropatterns of the ionogel. By taking advantage of the reactive surface of ionogels and the photopatternability, ionogels with complex three-dimensional microstructure are developed. The surface of the ionogels can also be easily patterned using UV-assisted soft imprinting lithography. This new type of ionogels may open up for building high-performance flexible electrochemical microdevices.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2018
Nyckelord
micropatterning; ionogel; reactive surface; thiol acrylate photochemistry; electrochemical devices; photolithography
Nationell ämneskategori
Textil-, gummi- och polymermaterial
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149873 (URN)10.1021/acsami.8b03537 (DOI)000437811400064 ()29856596 (PubMedID)
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies|European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska Curie grant [641822]; Swedish Research Council [VR-2014-3079]

Tillgänglig från: 2018-08-02 Skapad: 2018-08-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-10-30
Martinez, J. G., Richter, K., Persson, N.-K. & Jager, E. (2018). Investigation of electrically conducting yarns for use in textile actuators. Smart materials and structures (Print), 27(7), Article ID 074004.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Investigation of electrically conducting yarns for use in textile actuators
2018 (Engelska)Ingår i: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 27, nr 7, artikel-id 074004Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Textile actuators are an emerging technology to develop biomimetic actuators with synergetic actuation. They are composed of a passive fabric coated with an electroactive polymer providing with mechanical motion. Here we used different conducting yarns (polyamide + carbon, silicon + carbon, polyamide + silver coated, cellulose + carbon, polyester + 2 x INOX 50µm, polyester + 2 x Cu/Sn and polyester + gold coated) to develop such textile actuators. It was possible to coat them through direct electrochemical methods, which should provide with an easier and more cost-effective fabrication process. The conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the yarns were sufficient to allow the electropolymerization of the conducting polymer polypyrrole on the yarns. The electropolymerization was carried out and both the linear and angular the actuation of the yarns was investigated. These yarns may be incorporated into textile actuators for assistive prosthetic devices easier and cheaper to get and at the same time with good mechanical performance are envisaged.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2018
Nationell ämneskategori
Textil-, gummi- och polymermaterial Polymerkemi Materialkemi Polymerteknologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-146221 (URN)10.1088/1361-665X/aabab5 (DOI)000434378700004 ()
Anmärkning

Funding agencies: Carl Tryggers Stifelsen [CTS16:207]; Swedish Research Council [VR-2014-3079]; Erling-Persson Family Foundation [2017-10-09]; Promobilia Foundation [F17603]

Tillgänglig från: 2018-04-03 Skapad: 2018-04-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-10-12Bibliografiskt granskad
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2071-7768

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