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Chirita, Valeriu
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Sangiovanni, D., Mei, A. B., Hultman, L., Chirita, V., Petrov, I. & Greene, J. E. (2016). Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Nitrogen/VN(001) Surface Reactions: Vacancy-Catalyzed N-2 Dissociative Chemisorption, N Adatom Migration, and N-2 Desorption. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 120(23), 12503-12516
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ab Initio Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Nitrogen/VN(001) Surface Reactions: Vacancy-Catalyzed N-2 Dissociative Chemisorption, N Adatom Migration, and N-2 Desorption
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 120, nr 23, s. 12503-12516Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We use density-functional ab initio molecular dynamics to investigate the kinetics of N/VN(001) surface reactions at temperatures ranging from 1600 to 2300 K. N adatoms (N-ad) on VN(001) favor epitaxial atop-V positions and diffuse among them by transiting through 4-fold hollow (FFH) sites, at which they are surrounded by two V and two N surface atoms. After several atop-V -amp;gt; FFH -amp;gt; atop-V jumps, isolated N adatoms bond strongly with an underlying N surface (N-surf) atom. Frequent N-ad/N-surf pair exchange reactions lead to N-2 desorption, which results in the formation of an anion surface vacancy. N vacancies rapidly migrate via in-plane (110) jumps and act as efficient catalysts for the dissociative chemisorption of incident N-2 molecules. During exposure of VN(001) to incident atomic N gas atoms, N-ad/N-ad recombination and desorption is never observed, despite a continuously high N monomer surface coverage. Instead, N-2 desorption is always initiated by a N adatom removing a N surface atom or by energetic N gas atoms colliding with N-ad or N-surf atoms. Similarities and differences between: N/VN(001) vs. previous N/TiN(001) results, discussed on the basis of temperature-dependent ab initio electronic structures and chemical bonding, provide insights for controlling the reactivity of NaCl-structure transition-metal nitride (001) surfaces via electron-concentration tuning.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2016
Nationell ämneskategori
Oorganisk kemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130283 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcc.6b02652 (DOI)000378196200021 ()
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Isotope Project) [2011.0094]; Swedish Research Council (VR) Linkoping Linnaeus Initiative LiLi-NFM [2008-6572, 2014-5790, 2013-4018]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area Grant in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials (through Swedens innovation agency VINNOVA) [MatLiU 2009-00971]

Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-01 Skapad: 2016-07-28 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28
Sangiovanni, D., Hultman, L., Chirita, V., Petrov, I. & Greene, J. E. (2016). Effects of phase stability, lattice ordering, and electron density on plastic deformation in cubic TiWN pseudobinary transition-metal nitride alloys. Acta Materialia, 103, 823-835
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effects of phase stability, lattice ordering, and electron density on plastic deformation in cubic TiWN pseudobinary transition-metal nitride alloys
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Acta Materialia, ISSN 1359-6454, E-ISSN 1873-2453, Vol. 103, s. 823-835Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We carry out density functional theory calculations to compare the energetics of layer glide, as well as stress vs. strain curves, for cubic Ti0.5W0.5N pseudobinary alloys and reference B1-structure TiN. Irrespective of the degree of ordering on the metal sublattice, the hardness and stiffness of Ti0.5W0.5, as estimated by stress strain results and resistance to layer glide, are comparable to that of the parent binary TiN, while ductility is considerably enhanced. After an initial elastic response to an applied load, the pseudobinary alloy deforms plastically, thus releasing accumulated mechanical stress. In contrast, stress continues to increase linearly with strain in TiN. Layer glide in Ti0.5W0.5N is promoted by a high valence-electron concentration which enables the formation of strong metallic bonds within the slip direction upon deformation. [1111-oriented Ti0.5W0.5N layers characterized by high local metal-sublattice ordering exhibit low resistance to slip along < 110 > directions due to energetically favored formation of (111) hexagonal stacking faults. This is consistent with the positive formation energy of < 111 >-ordered Tio.5W0.5N with respect to mixing of cubic-BI TiN and hexagonal WC-structure WN. In the cubic pseudobinary alloy, slip occurs parallel, as well as orthogonal, to the resolved applied stress at the interface between layers with the lowest friction. We suggest that analogous structural metastability (mixing cubic and hexagonal TM nitride binary phases) and electronic (high valence electron concentration) effects are responsible for the enhanced toughness recently demonstrated experimentally for cubic single-crystal pseudobinary V0.5W0.5N and V0.5MocoN epitaxial layers. (c) 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2016
Nyckelord
Nitrides; Toughness Phase stability; Density functional theory (DFT); Electronic structure
Nationell ämneskategori
Den kondenserade materiens fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124462 (URN)10.1016/j.actamat.2015.10.039 (DOI)000367630500081 ()
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [2011.0094]; Swedish Research Council (VR) Linkoping Linnaeus Initiative LiLi-NFM [2008-6572, 2014-5790, 2013-4018]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area Grant in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials through Swedens innovation agency VINNOVA [2009-00971]

Tillgänglig från: 2016-02-02 Skapad: 2016-02-01 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28
Edström, D., Sangiovanni, D., Hultman, L., Petrov, I., Greene, J. E. & Chirita, V. (2016). Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of TiN/TiN(001) epitaxial film growth. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 34(4), 041509-1-041509-9
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of TiN/TiN(001) epitaxial film growth
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 34, nr 4, s. 041509-1-041509-9Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Large-scale classical molecular dynamics simulations of epitaxial TiN/TiN(001) thin film growth at 1200K are carried out using incident flux ratios N/Ti -1, 2, and 4. The films are analyzed as a function of composition, island size distribution, island edge orientation, and vacancy formation. Results show that N/Ti-1 films are globally understoichiometric with dispersed Ti-rich surface regions which serve as traps to nucleate 111-oriented islands, leading to local epitaxial breakdown. Films grown with N/Ti=2 are approximately stoichiometric and the growth mode is closer to layer-by-layer, while N/Ti-4 films are stoichiometric with N-rich surfaces. As N/Ti is increased from 1 to 4, island edges are increasingly polar, i. e., 110-oriented, and N-terminated to accommodate the excess N flux, some of which is lost by reflection of incident N atoms. N vacancies are produced in the surface layer during film deposition with N/Ti-1 due to the formation and subsequent desorption of N-2 molecules composed of a N adatom and a N surface atom, as well as itinerant Ti adatoms pulling up N surface atoms. The N vacancy concentration is significantly reduced as N/Ti is increased to 2; with N/Ti-4, Ti vacancies dominate. Overall, our results show that an insufficient N/Ti ratio leads to surface roughening via nucleation of small dispersed 111 islands, whereas high N/Ti ratios result in surface roughening due to more rapid upper-layer nucleation and mound formation. The growth mode of N/Ti-2 films, which have smoother surfaces, is closer to layer-by-layer. (C) 2016 American Vacuum Society.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
AMER INST PHYSICS, 2016
Nationell ämneskategori
Den kondenserade materiens fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130405 (URN)10.1116/1.4953404 (DOI)000379588000027 ()
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR) Linkoping Linnaeus Initiative LiLi-NFM [2008-6572, 2009-00971, 2013-4018, 2014-5790]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area Grant in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Isotope Project)

Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-15 Skapad: 2016-08-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28
Sangiovanni, D., Tasnadi, F., Hultman, L., Petrov, I., Greene, J. E. & Chirita, V. (2016). N and Ti adatom dynamics on stoichiometric polar TiN(111) surfaces. Surface Science, 649, 72-79
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>N and Ti adatom dynamics on stoichiometric polar TiN(111) surfaces
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2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 649, s. 72-79Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We use molecular dynamics (MD) based on the modified embedded atom method (MEAM) to determine diffusion coefficients and migration pathways for Ti and N adatoms (Ti-ad and N-ad) on TiN(111). The reliability of the classical model-potential is verified by comparison with density functional theory (DFT) results at 0 K. MD simulations carried out at temperatures between 600 and 1800 K show that both Ti-ad and N-ad favor fcc surface sites and migrate among them by passing through metastable hcp positions. We find that N-ad species are considerably more mobile than Ti-ad on TiN(111); contrary to our previous results on TiN(001). In addition, we show that lattice vibrations at finite temperatures strongly modify the potential energy landscape and result in smaller adatom migration energies, E-a = 1.03 for Ti-ad and 0.61 eV for N-ad, compared to 0 K values E-aOK = 1.55 (Ti-ad) and 0.79 eV (N-ad). We also demonstrate that the inclusion of dipole corrections, neglected in previous DFT calculations, is necessary in order to obtain the correct formation energies for polar surfaces such as TiN(111). (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2016
Nyckelord
Surface diffusion; Nitrides; Molecular dynamics; Density functional theory; Polar surfaces
Nationell ämneskategori
Teoretisk kemi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130423 (URN)10.1016/j.susc.2016.01.031 (DOI)000379097000012 ()
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [2011.0094]; Swedish Research Council (VR) [2014-5790]; Linkoping Linnaeus Initiative LiLi-NFM [2008-6572]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area Grant in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials through Swedens innovation agency VINNOVA [MatLiU 2009-00971]

Tillgänglig från: 2016-08-07 Skapad: 2016-08-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28
Edström, D., Sangiovanni, D., Hultman, L., Petrov, I., Greene, J. & Chirita, V. (2015). The dynamics of TiNx (x = 1 – 3) admolecule interlayer and intralayer transport on TiN/TiN(001) islands. Thin Solid Films, 589, 133-144
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>The dynamics of TiNx (x = 1 – 3) admolecule interlayer and intralayer transport on TiN/TiN(001) islands
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2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 589, s. 133-144Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

It has been shown both experimentally and by density functional theory calculations that the primary diffusing species during the epitaxial growth of TiN/TiN(001) are Ti and N adatoms together with TiNx complexes (x = 1, 2, 3), in which the dominant N-containing admolecule species depends upon the incident N/Ti flux ratio. Here, we employ classical molecular dynamics (CMD) simulations to probe the dynamics of TiNx (x = 1–3) admolecules on 8 × 8 atom square, single-atom-high TiN islands on TiN(001), as well as pathways for descent over island edges. The simulations are carried out at 1000 K, a reasonable epitaxial growth temperature. We find that despite their lower mobility on infinite TiN(001) terraces, both TiN and TiN2 admolecules funnel toward descending steps and are incorporated into island edges more rapidly than Ti adatoms. On islands, TiN diffuses primarily via concerted translations, but rotation is the preferred diffusion mechanism on infinite terraces. TiN2 migration is initiated primarily by rotation about one of the N admolecule atoms anchored at an epitaxial site. TiN admolecules descend from islands by direct hopping over edges and by edge exchange reactions, while TiN2 trimers descend exclusively by hopping. In contrast, TiN3 admolecules are essentially stationary and serve as initiators for local island growth. Ti adatoms are the fastest diffusing species on infinite TiN(001) terraces, but on small TiN/TiN(001) islands, TiN dimers provide more efficient mass transport. The overall results reveal the effect of the N/Ti precursor flux ratio on TiN(001) surface morphological evolution and growth modes.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2015
Nyckelord
Titanium nitride; Molecular dynamics; Film growth simulations; TiNx admolecule diffusion on TiN/TiN(001) islands; TiNx admolecule descent from TiN/TiN(001) islands
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111948 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2015.05.013 (DOI)000360320000023 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2014-11-11 Skapad: 2014-11-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28
Sangiovanni, D., Edström, D., Hultman, L., Petrov, I., Greene, J. E. & Chirita, V. (2014). Ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations of N2 desorption from TiN(001) surfaces. Surface Science, 624, 25-31
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations of N2 desorption from TiN(001) surfaces
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2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 624, s. 25-31Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Ab initio molecular dynamics simulations based on density functional theory show that N adatoms are chemisorbed in threefold sites close to a N surface atom and between the two diagonally opposed neighboring Ti surface atoms on TiN(001). The most probable N adatom reaction pathway, even in the presence of nearby N adatoms, is for the N adatom and N surface atom pair to first undergo several exchange reactions and then desorb as a N2 molecule, resulting in a surface anion vacancy, with an activation barrier Edes of 1.37 eV and an attempt frequency Ades = 3.4 × 1013 s− 1. Edes is essentially equal to the N adatom surface diffusion barrier, Es = 1.39 eV, while As is only three to four times larger than Ades, indicating that isolated N adatoms migrate for only short distances prior to N2 desorption. The probability of N2 desorption via recombination of N adatoms on TiN(001) is much lower due to repulsive adatom/adatom interactions at separations less than ~ 3 Å which rapidly increase to ~ 2 eV at a separation of 1.5 Å. We obtain good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the above results using the modified embedded atom method potential to perform classical molecular dynamics simulations.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2014
Nyckelord
N2 desorption; Surface diffusion; Nitrides; Molecular dynamics simulations; Density functional theory; Vacancy formation
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111791 (URN)10.1016/j.susc.2014.01.007 (DOI)000335097900005 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2014-11-03 Skapad: 2014-11-03 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Kindlund, H., Sangiovanni, D., Jensen, J., Chirita, V., Petrov, I., Greene, J. & Hultman, L. (2014). Effect of WN content on toughness enhancement in V1–xWxN/MgO(001) thin films. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 32(3), 030603
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effect of WN content on toughness enhancement in V1–xWxN/MgO(001) thin films
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2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 32, nr 3, s. 030603-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The authors report the growth and mechanical properties of epitaxial B1 NaCl-structure V1-xWxN/MgO(001) thin films with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.60. The Gibbs free energy of mixing, calculated using density functional theory (DFT), reveals that cubic V1-xWxN solid solutions with 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.7 are stable against spinodal decomposition and separation into the equilibrium cubic-VN and hexagonal-WN binary phases. The authors show experimentally that alloying VN with WN leads to a monotonic increase in relaxed lattice parameters, enhanced nanoindentation hardnesses, and reduced elastic moduli. Calculated V1-xWxN lattice parameters and elastic moduli  (obtained from calculated C11, C12, and C44 elastic constants) are in good agreement with experimental results. The observed increase in alloy hardness, with a corresponding decrease in the elastic modulus at higher x values, combined with DFT-calculated decreases in shear to bulk moduli ratios, and increased Cauchy pressures (C12–C44) with increasing x reveal a trend toward increased toughness.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2014
Nationell ämneskategori
Naturvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106347 (URN)10.1116/1.4867610 (DOI)000335965300003 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2014-05-05 Skapad: 2014-05-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Edström, D., Sangiovanni, D. G., Hultman, L. & Chirita, V. (2014). Effects of atomic ordering on the elastic properties of TiN- and VN-based ternary alloys. Thin Solid Films, 571(Part 1), 145-153
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Effects of atomic ordering on the elastic properties of TiN- and VN-based ternary alloys
2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 571, nr Part 1, s. 145-153Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Improved toughness is one of the central goals in the development of wear-resistant coatings. Previous studies of toughness in transition metal nitride alloys have addressed the effects of chemical composition in these compounds. Herein, we use density functional theory to study the effects of various metal sublattice configurations, ranging from fully ordered to fully disordered, on the mechanical properties of VM2N and TiM2N (M2 = W, Mo) ternary alloys. Results show that all alloys display high incompressibility, indicating strong M-N bonds. Disordered atomic arrangements yield lower values of bulk moduli and C11 elastic constants, as well as higher values of C44 elastic constants, compared to ordered structures. We attribute the low C44 values of ordered structures to the formation of fully-bonding states perpendicular to the applied stress. We find that the ductility of these compounds is primarily an effect of the increased valence electron concentration induced upon alloying.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2014
Nyckelord
Nitrides, Density functional theory, Elastic properties, Ductility, Toughness
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111949 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2014.09.048 (DOI)000346053900024 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2014-11-11 Skapad: 2014-11-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Sangiovanni, D., Edström, D., Hultman, L., Petrov, I., Greene, J. E. & Chirita, V. (2014). Ti adatom diffusion on TiN(001): Ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations. Surface Science, 627, 34-41
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ti adatom diffusion on TiN(001): Ab initio and classical molecular dynamics simulations
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2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Surface Science, ISSN 0039-6028, E-ISSN 1879-2758, Vol. 627, s. 34-41Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Ab initio and classical molecular dynamics (AIMD and CMD) simulations reveal that Ti adatoms on TiN(001) surfaces migrate between neighboring fourfold hollow sites primarily along in-plane less than100greater than channels. less than100greater than and less than110greater than single jumps, as well as less than100greater than double jump rates, obtained directly from MD runs as a function of temperature, are used to determine diffusion activation energies Ea, and attempt frequencies A, for the three preferred Ti adatom migration pathways on TiN(001). From transition rates Aexp[-Ea / (k(B)T)], we determine adatom surface distribution probabilities as a function of time, which are used to calculate adatom diffusion coefficients D(T). AIMD and CMD predictions are consistent and complementary. Using CMD, we investigate the effect on the adatom jump rate of varying the phonon wavelength degrees of freedom by progressively increasing the supercell size. We find that long-wavelength phonons significantly contribute to increasing adatom mobilities at temperatures less than= 600 K, but not at higher temperatures. Finally, by directly tracking the Ti adatom mean-square displacement during CMD runs, we find that Ti adatom jumps are highly correlated on TiN(001), an effect that yields lower D-s values (D-s(corr)) than those estimated from uncorrelated transition probabilities. The temperature-dependent diffusion coefficient is D-s(corr) (T) = (4.5 x 10(-4) Cm-2 s(-1)) exp[-0.55 eV / (k(B)T)].

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2014
Nyckelord
Surface diffusion; Nitrides; Molecular dynamics simulations; Density functional theory
Nationell ämneskategori
Fysik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-109215 (URN)10.1016/j.susc.2014.04.007 (DOI)000338621500006 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2014-08-12 Skapad: 2014-08-11 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28Bibliografiskt granskad
Edström, D., Sangiovanni, D., Hultman, L., Chirita, V., Petrov, I. & Greene, J. (2014). Ti and N adatom descent pathways to the terrace from atop two-dimensional TiN/TiN(001) islands. Thin Solid Films, 558, 37-46
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Ti and N adatom descent pathways to the terrace from atop two-dimensional TiN/TiN(001) islands
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2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 558, s. 37-46Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

We use classical molecular dynamics and the modified embedded atom method to determine residence times and descent pathways of Ti and N adatoms on square, single-atom-high, TiN islands on TiN(001). Simulations are carried out at 1000 K, which is within the optimal range for TiN(001) epitaxial growth. Results show that the frequency of descent events, and overall adatom residence times, depend strongly on both the TiN(001) diffusion barrier for each species as well as the adatom island-edge location immediately prior to descent. Ti adatoms, with a low diffusion barrier, rapidly move toward the island periphery, via funneling, where they diffuse along upper island edges. The primary descent mechanism for Ti adatoms is via push-out/exchange with Ti island-edge atoms, a process in which the adatom replaces an island edge atom by moving down while pushing the edge atom out onto the terrace to occupy an epitaxial position along the island edge. Double push-out events are also observed for Ti adatoms descending at N corner positions. N adatoms, with a considerably higher diffusion barrier on TiN(001), require much longer times to reach island edges and, consequently, have significantly longer residence times. N adatoms are found to descend onto the terrace by direct hopping over island edges and corner atoms, as well as by concerted push-out/exchange with N atoms adjacent to Ti corners. For both adspecies, we also observe several complex adatom/island interactions, before and after descent onto the terrace, including two instances of Ti islandatom ascent onto the island surface.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Elsevier, 2014
Nationell ämneskategori
Teknik och teknologier
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91377 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2014.02.053 (DOI)000334314100006 ()
Tillgänglig från: 2013-04-23 Skapad: 2013-04-23 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-06-28Bibliografiskt granskad
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