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Hammar Chiriac, Eva, ProfessorORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7117-5620
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Hammar Chiriac, E. & Forslund Frykedal, K. (2023). Individual Group Work Assessment in Cooperative Learning: Possibilities and Challenges (1ed.). In: Robyn M. Gillies, Barbara Mills, Neil Davidson (Ed.), Contemporary Global Perspectives on Cooperative Learning Applications Across Educational Contexts: (pp. 94-108). New York: Routhledge
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Individual Group Work Assessment in Cooperative Learning: Possibilities and Challenges
2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Contemporary Global Perspectives on Cooperative Learning Applications Across Educational Contexts / [ed] Robyn M. Gillies, Barbara Mills, Neil Davidson, New York: Routhledge , 2023, 1, s. 94-108Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Combining individual group work assessment with expectations of collaboration and shared learning can be seen as a paradox. In this chapter we explore and problematise whether it is possible to combine cooperative learning, an approach that has great potential to contribute to joint knowledge development between students, with teacher’s curricula knowledge requirements to assess student knowledge and abilities individually. The latter can create competition between the students. We propose adding a further dimension of contemporary global perspectives on cooperative learning in education by increasing knowledge about what happens in the meeting between cooperative learning and individual group work assessment. We will address some salient possibilities and challenges regarding individual group work assessment based on theory and research, but primarily we will discuss results from our group work assessment intervention project. We will also contribute by noting some practical implications presented as recommendations for teachers who employ the assessment practice when using cooperative learning. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
New York: Routhledge, 2023 Upplaga: 1
Nyckelord
Cooperative learning, Group work assessment, Group work
Nationell ämneskategori
Utbildningsvetenskap Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-193182 (URN)9781032213934 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2023-04-19 Skapad: 2023-04-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-05-23Bibliografiskt granskad
Hammar Chiriac, E. (2023). Individual Reflection Papers as a Means to Support Group Exams in PBL. In: : . Paper presented at ESPLAT 2023: Learning and Teaching Psychology in a Changing World, 14th – 16th of June 2023, Umeå, Sweden.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Individual Reflection Papers as a Means to Support Group Exams in PBL
2023 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Muntlig presentation med publicerat abstract (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

An individual reflection paper (IRP) is a structured method requiring a student’s written reflections on knowledge acquired and aspects of it to discuss at the student’s next tutorial meeting. Previous experience and research on problem-based learning (PBL) have shown that the use of IRPs can act as a support for students’ preparation for and learning in tutorial groups. It also appears that an IRP can facilitate tutors’ assessments and examinations of students’ individual engagement and contribution in tutorial groups. Against this backdrop, we aimed to explore if an IRP can act as a means to support group exams in PBL. Even though using group examinations aligns well with the epistemology of PBL, the dilemma of using joint learning while at the same time fulfilling individual assessment requirements is thought to make group exams become difficult to use. 152 IRPs were used as a basis to assess whether a particular group of students had acquired knowledge that would impact results on a group examination. By evaluating each student’s submitted IRP, examiners were able to determine the extent to which each of the group participants contributed newly acquired knowledge to the content of the examination. Overall, completed IRPs clearly showed concurrence between acquired and requested knowledge, except on a few occasions. The findings are promising and suggest that IRPs can act as a means to support group exams in PBL. 

Nyckelord
Individual reflection paper (IRP), Group examination, Problem-based learning (PBL)
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi) Lärande
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-195407 (URN)
Konferens
ESPLAT 2023: Learning and Teaching Psychology in a Changing World, 14th – 16th of June 2023, Umeå, Sweden
Tillgänglig från: 2023-06-19 Skapad: 2023-06-19 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-06-19
Hammar Chiriac, E., Forsberg, C. & Thornberg, R. (2023). Teachers’ perspectives on factors influencing the school climate: A constructivist grounded theory case study. Cogent Education, 10(2), Article ID 2245171.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Teachers’ perspectives on factors influencing the school climate: A constructivist grounded theory case study
2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Cogent Education, E-ISSN 2331-186X, Vol. 10, nr 2, artikel-id 2245171Artikel, forskningsöversikt (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to explore and analyse teachers’ perspectives on factors influencing the school climate, to better understand teachers’ everyday efforts in influencing the school climate, including obstacles they might experience. Bronfenbrenner’s social-ecological theory was utilized as the overarching theoretical perspective. Data were collected by means of 14 semi-structured focus group interviews with 73 teachers from two compulsory schools in southeast Sweden. Findings revealed that teachers experienced the school climate as both positively and negatively influenced by a number of internal and external factors, perceived as influenceable or uninfluenceable. According to the teachers, four types of factors affected the quality of the school climate: social processes and values in school (i.e. influenceable internal factors), school premises and support structures (i.e. uninfluenceable internal factors, external relations (i.e. influenceable external factors) and external means of control (i.e. uninfluenceable external factors). A grounded theory of teachers’ perceptions of factors influencing school were developed. Our conclusion is that the teachers talked about a multidimensional and malleable phenomenon, emanated by a complex interplay across multiple agents and contexts both within and outside the school, aligning with all domains and features and acting as preconditions for the school climate. 

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Taylor & Francis Group, 2023
Nyckelord
school climate, teachers’ perspective, social-ecological perspective, focus group interviews, internal and external factors, grounded theory
Nationell ämneskategori
Pedagogik Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-196491 (URN)10.1080/2331186x.2023.2245171 (DOI)001043140600001 ()
Projekt
Improving teaching learning through classroom management, classroom climate, and school climateI/Att utveckla undervisningen och förbättra lärandet genom klassrumsledarskap, klassrumsklimat och skolklimat
Forskningsfinansiär
Skolforskningsinstitutet, 2017-00038
Tillgänglig från: 2023-08-09 Skapad: 2023-08-09 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-12-18
Liebech-Lien, B., Hammar Chiriac, E. & Davidson, N. (2023). Teachers’ professional development for cooperative learning: A constructive controversy between long-term versus short-term professional development.. Autonomy and responsibility journal of educational sciences, 8(1), 65-82
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Teachers’ professional development for cooperative learning: A constructive controversy between long-term versus short-term professional development.
2023 (Engelska)Ingår i: Autonomy and responsibility journal of educational sciences, ISSN 2415-9484, Vol. 8, nr 1, s. 65-82Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Previous scientific research has recognised the pedagogical model of cooperative learning (CL) as a best-practice pedagogy, which facilitates students’ academic and social learning. Teachers are crucial for implementing CL in the classroom. While they value the method, they often find it complex and challenging to use. Thus, it is crucial to support effective CL professional development (PD) for teachers. Various approaches, forms and lengths of PD in CL are available for teachers, and long- and short-term approaches have been debated in the literature. Based on the perspective of constructive controversy, the goal of this study is to examine teachers’ PD in CL, with a particular focus on long- and short-term PD. Drawing on our different perspectives and experiences with long- and short-term PD in CL, we aim to contribute knowledge that can support teachers’ learning and implementation of CL. To provide insights and reflections along with theoretical findings, we utilise a narrative approach, with one narrative on long-term PD and one on short-term PD. One issue that becomes clear is the lack of a consensus on what counts as PD for teachers, as PD is a holistic multidimensional construct. We propose four common characteristics that should be considered in developing successful PD regardless of the CL approach or the length of the PD: 1) It enables participating teachers to acquire a shared understanding and knowledge of the theoretical framework of CL; 2) It supports teachers in taking ownership of CL; 3) It involves collaboration (in different forms); and 4) It includes support structures. While both long- and short-term PD can support teacher learning, how the time is used is the most important factor for a successful outcome. Hence, short-term PD is better than no PD at all.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Pécs: , 2023
Nyckelord
Teachers’ Learning, Professional Development, Cooperative Learning, Implementation, Constructive Controversy
Nationell ämneskategori
Pedagogik Psykologi (exklusive tillämpad psykologi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-198445 (URN)10.15170/AR.2023.8.1.5. (DOI)
Anmärkning

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

Tillgänglig från: 2023-10-12 Skapad: 2023-10-12 Senast uppdaterad: 2023-10-13Bibliografiskt granskad
Forslund Frykedal, K. & Hammar Chiriac, E. (2022). Individual Group Work Assessment – Formative Written Feedback as a means for Promoting Collaboration and Individual Accountability. In: : . Paper presented at Education and involvement in precarious times. NERA conference 2022/[ed] Michael Dal Reykjavik, 2022, p.21-22 Abstract book. (pp. 21-22).
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Individual Group Work Assessment – Formative Written Feedback as a means for Promoting Collaboration and Individual Accountability
2022 (Engelska)Konferensbidrag, Muntlig presentation med publicerat abstract (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Group work can provide students with valuable opportunities for cooperative learning both of knowledge and abilities related to academic factors and of collaborative skills. However, the requirement from the curriculum to assess students’ knowledge and ability individually in group work is a challenging and complex task for teachers. In addition, research on group work assessment in educational context is a neglected research area, and especially individual group work assessment. Accordingly, little theoretical knowledge or useful tools have been provided to assist teachers in this important but difficult task. A special challenge, compared to traditional assessment in education, seems to be how to discern individual knowledge from the joint work when assessing. One way for teachers to assess students during group work, and simultaneously promote their further work and learning, is to provide them with individual formative assessment, by employing feedback. Recent studies indicates that teachers’ feedback to the students also may support individual accountability, i.e., facilitates students’ ability to work more independently in group work where everyone is responsible for their part of the work but also for the group's joint assignments. Against this backdrop, the aim of this presentation is to explore and problematize in what way teachers’ formative written feedback, on students’ individual work during group work promotes or impedes collaboration and individual accountability.  

 

Social Interdependence Theory emphasizing positive interdependence as means for promoting collaboration as well as individual accountability for well-functioning group work, together with Shute’s (2008) guidelines for useful feedback, are utilized as overarching theoretical perspectives. Shute claims that there are several types of feedback that can be delivered and a large variability of the effects for the students. Useful feedback depends, according to Shute (2008), on motive, opportunity and means, that is, meet the student’s needs and is given when the student is prepared to use the feedback. 

 

The study focuses on written formative feedback as means for formative assessment. Data were obtained through 149 feedback documents from six teachers. Feedback was given during a group work assignment when students were working on the individual part of the common group task. The teachers were asked to use their own words in the written response to each student. The analysis was accomplished using an inductive thematic approach and Shute’s (2008) synthesized recommendations and guidelines to interpret and understand the teachers’ written feedback. 

 

The results display that the written feedback to the students includes comments on following levels: individual (“you”), group (“your group) and “not distinct” (not possible to discern which level). Furthermore, the results display that the teachers convey feedback in manageable units, focusing on the task to enhance the quality of the work or to promote collaboration and individual accountability. Thus, the paper contributes with relevant Nordic educational research by presenting theoretical knowledge on the sparsely researched area concerning written individual feedback as a means for formative assessment in connection with group work assessment.

References 

Shute, V. J. (2008). Focus on formative feedback. Review of Educational Research, 78(1), 153–189.

 

Nationell ämneskategori
Utbildningsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-188182 (URN)978-9935-468-22-2 (ISBN)
Konferens
Education and involvement in precarious times. NERA conference 2022/[ed] Michael Dal Reykjavik, 2022, p.21-22 Abstract book.
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, 721 2012-5476
Tillgänglig från: 2022-09-05 Skapad: 2022-09-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-09-05
Forslund Frykedal, K., Hammar Chiriac, E. & Rosander, M. (2021). Efficacy beliefs and interdependence when being assessed working in a group. Educational studies (Dorchester-on-Thames), 47(5), 509-520
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Efficacy beliefs and interdependence when being assessed working in a group
2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: Educational studies (Dorchester-on-Thames), ISSN 0305-5698, E-ISSN 1465-3400, Vol. 47, nr 5, s. 509-520Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate factors that can predict collective efficacy in student work groups year 5 and 8 at compulsory school and to see if there are gender and year differences for efficacy beliefs and aspects of interdependence. A total of 283 completed questionnaires were analysed. Hierarchical multiple regression was used to predict collective efficacy and 2 × 2 ANOVA was used to analyse gender and year differences and interactions for following five factors: collective efficacy, self-efficacy, negative interdependence, positive interdependence and importance of good assessment and marks. The result showed that independent of gender, year and school, self-efficacy, positive and negative interdependence predicted collective efficacy in connection with group work assessment. The result also showed that there were better conditions for cooperation in year 5 compared to year 8. Additionally, it was significantly more important for girls than boys to achieve good assessment and marks.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Taylor & Francis, 2021
Nyckelord
Collective-efficacy, self-efficacy, interdependence, group work, gender, group work assessment
Nationell ämneskategori
Pedagogiskt arbete
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162896 (URN)10.1080/03055698.2019.1706039 (DOI)000504194500001 ()2-s2.0-85077158947 (Scopus ID)
Projekt
Bedömning av kunskap och förmåga vid grupparbete
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, 721 2012-547
Anmärkning

Funding agencies:  Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council [721 2012-5476]

Tillgänglig från: 2019-12-29 Skapad: 2019-12-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-10-24Bibliografiskt granskad
Hammar Chiriac, E. (2021). ‘Suddenly the tutorial group was online’: group dynamics and collaboration in tutorial groups during a quick transition from campus to distance learning. In: ESPLAT2021 conference Teaching and Learning Psychology in Times of COVID and Beyond2, Heidelberg, 3 September 2021: . Paper presented at ESPLAT2021 The European Society of Psychology Learning and Teaching conference 2021.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>‘Suddenly the tutorial group was online’: group dynamics and collaboration in tutorial groups during a quick transition from campus to distance learning
2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: ESPLAT2021 conference Teaching and Learning Psychology in Times of COVID and Beyond2, Heidelberg, 3 September 2021, 2021Konferensbidrag, Muntlig presentation med publicerat abstract (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

The COVID-19 pandemic quickly and radically changed conditions for working and learning in tutorial groups in problem-based learning (PBL) in the psychologist programme at Linköping University, Sweden. From previously conducting work in tutorial groups on site at the university, where the students physically met, the tutorial groups were suddenly implemented online using Zoom. This transition to distance learning for tutorial groups was, for necessary reasons, implemented abruptly without giving the students any education in or opportunity for practicing on how to create and maintain well-functioning online learning environments. This unique adjustment affected the work, processes and learning in the tutorial groups. The aim of this study was to understand what happens in tutorial groups when the learning environment changes drastically at very short notice with no training or previous experience to take advantage of. Data was collected from six tutorial groups using self-assessment surveys and from three tutorial groups using diary reports. The preliminary results show that that the quick transition to distance mode affected group dynamics and collaboration in the tutorial groups in several ways. Elements of group dynamics became more prominent, and problems connected with goals, structures and communication were enhanced in distance learning tutorial groups. Norms changed and group cohesion weakened due to difficulty in using the same social cues as in a physical meeting. The move to distance learning forced the tutorial groups to discover new strategies for creating and maintaining well-functioning online learning environments.

Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-178929 (URN)
Konferens
ESPLAT2021 The European Society of Psychology Learning and Teaching conference 2021
Tillgänglig från: 2021-09-06 Skapad: 2021-09-06 Senast uppdaterad: 2021-09-06
Forsell, J., Forslund Frykedal, K. & Hammar Chiriac, E. (2021). Teachers’ perceived challenges in group work assessment. Cogent Education, 8(1), Article ID 1886474.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Teachers’ perceived challenges in group work assessment
2021 (Engelska)Ingår i: Cogent Education, E-ISSN 2331-186X, Vol. 8, nr 1, artikel-id 1886474Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Group work assessment is a challenging and complex practice for teachers. This study focuses on the challenges teachers perceive before and after participating in a group work assessment project that emphasizes individual assessment. By conducting a qualitative thematic analysis of twelve interviews with six teachers at upper secondary schools in Sweden, several challenges could be identified. The most prominent challenge concerning group work assessment is how to discern students’ individual performance within groups. This challenge has consequences for both the validity and the fairness of the assessment. Further, teachers experienced challenges with (un)fairness in group work assessment, in terms of both achieving fairness and having to deal with students’ emotions regarding perceived unfairness. The results also show how teachers perceive inadequate conditions, such as a lack of time and methods, and generate challenges in their practice, which is also related to reliability.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Taylor & Francis, 2021
Nyckelord
Group work assessment; challenges; intergroup presentations; quality in assessment
Nationell ämneskategori
Pedagogik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-173332 (URN)10.1080/2331186X.2021.1886474 (DOI)000618272300001 ()
Forskningsfinansiär
Vetenskapsrådet, VR 721 2012-5476
Anmärkning

Funding agencies: Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research CouncilEuropean Commission [VR 721 2012-5476]

Tillgänglig från: 2021-02-16 Skapad: 2021-02-16 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-08-22
Hammar Chiriac, E. (2020). Att leda grupparbete (2ed.). In: Gunnar Berg, Frank Sundh, Christer Wede (Ed.), Lärare som ledare: i och utanför klassrummet (pp. 115-138). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Att leda grupparbete
2020 (Svenska)Ingår i: Lärare som ledare: i och utanför klassrummet / [ed] Gunnar Berg, Frank Sundh, Christer Wede, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, 2, s. 115-138Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [sv]

Grupparbete är inte en enhetlig aktivitet utan flera olika aktiviteterunder olika förhållanden. Dessutom kan grupparbetet förändras fleragånger under arbetets och gruppens livstid. Arbetsformen kommeratt fungera olika bra under olika delar av grupparbetet och gruppensmedlemmar kan behöva stöd och hjälp av olika slag under arbetets gång.Detta innebär i sin tur att lärarens roll påverkas av var i grupparbetetgruppen befinner sig och vilka processer som utspelas i gruppen.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020 Upplaga: 2
Nyckelord
Lärarrollen, Ledarskap, Grupparbete
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi Utbildningsvetenskap Pedagogik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-167427 (URN)9789144133423 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-07-05 Skapad: 2020-07-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2022-03-15Bibliografiskt granskad
Hempel, A. & Hammar Chiriac, E. (2020). Avslutning och kommentarer (4ed.). In: E. Hammar Chiriac & A. Hempel (Ed.), Handbok för grupparbete – att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning: (pp. 307-328). Lund: Studentlitteratur AB
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Avslutning och kommentarer
2020 (Svenska)Ingår i: Handbok för grupparbete – att skapa fungerande grupparbeten i undervisning / [ed] E. Hammar Chiriac & A. Hempel, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020, 4, s. 307-328Kapitel i bok, del av antologi (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [sv]

Redaktörerna Anders Hempel och Eva Hammar Chiriac avrundar boken med kapitel 13, Avslutning och kommentarer, där ett urval av teman som behandlats i boken lyfts fram och belyses ytterligare. Tanken är att det avslutande kapitlet ska bidra med ytterligare reflektioner som kan användas för att börja arbeta med att utveckla studiegrupper i utbildning.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2020 Upplaga: 4
Nationell ämneskategori
Psykologi Utbildningsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-167437 (URN)978-91-44-13255-6 (ISBN)
Tillgänglig från: 2020-07-05 Skapad: 2020-07-05 Senast uppdaterad: 2021-09-15
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-7117-5620

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