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Aminifar, A., Bini, E., Eles, P. l. & Peng, Z. (2016). Analysis and Design of Real-Time Servers for Control Applications. I.E.E.E. transactions on computers (Print), 65(3), 834-846
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Analysis and Design of Real-Time Servers for Control Applications
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: I.E.E.E. transactions on computers (Print), ISSN 0018-9340, E-ISSN 1557-9956, Vol. 65, nr 3, s. 834-846Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat) Published
Abstract [en]

Today, a considerable portion of embedded systems, e.g., automotive and avionic, comprise several control applications. Guaranteeing the stability of these control applications in embedded systems, or cyber-physical systems, is perhaps the most fundamental requirement while implementing such applications. This is different from the classical hard real-time systems where often the acceptance criterion is meeting the deadline. In other words, in the case of control applications, guaranteeing stability is considered to be a main design goal, which is linked to the amount of delay and jitter a control application can tolerate before instability. This advocates the need for new design and analysis techniques for embedded real-time systems running control applications. In this paper, the analysis and design of such systems considering a server-based resource reservation mechanism are addressed. The benefits of employing servers are manifold: providing a compositional and scalable framework, protection against other tasks misbehaviors, and systematic bandwidth assignment and co-design. We propose a methodology for designing bandwidth-optimal servers to stabilize control tasks. The pessimism involved in the proposed methodology is both discussed theoretically and evaluated experimentally.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE COMPUTER SOC, 2016
Nyckelord
Embedded systems; real-time systems; real-time control co-design; control server; stability; bandwidth minimization
Nationell ämneskategori
Datorteknik
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126249 (URN)10.1109/TC.2015.2435789 (DOI)000370729600014 ()
Anmärkning

Funding Agencies|ELLIIT Excellence Center; Linneaus Center LCCC; Marie Curie Intra European Fellowship within Seventh European Community Framework Programme; Swedish Research Council

Tillgänglig från: 2016-03-21 Skapad: 2016-03-21 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-10
Aminifar, A. (2016). Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Embedded Control Systems. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Analysis, Design, and Optimization of Embedded Control Systems
2016 (Engelska)Doktorsavhandling, monografi (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
Abstract [en]

Today, many embedded or cyber-physical systems, e.g., in the automotive domain, comprise several control applications, sharing the same platform. It is well known that such resource sharing leads to complex temporal behaviors that degrades the quality of control, and more importantly, may even jeopardize stability in the worst case, if not properly taken into account.

In this thesis, we consider embedded control or cyber-physical systems, where several control applications share the same processing unit. The focus is on the control-scheduling co-design problem, where the controller and scheduling parameters are jointly optimized. The fundamental difference between control applications and traditional embedded applications motivates the need for novel methodologies for the design and optimization of embedded control systems. This thesis is one more step towards correct design and optimization of embedded control systems.

Offline and online methodologies for embedded control systems are covered in this thesis. The importance of considering both the expected control performance and stability is discussed and a control-scheduling co-design methodology is proposed to optimize control performance while guaranteeing stability. Orthogonal to this, bandwidth-efficient stabilizing control servers are proposed, which support compositionality, isolation, and resource-efficiency in design and co-design. Finally, we extend the scope of the proposed approach to non-periodic control schemes and address the challenges in sharing the platform with self-triggered controllers. In addition to offline methodologies, a novel online scheduling policy to stabilize control applications is proposed.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. s. 155
Serie
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1746
Nyckelord
Embedded Control Systems, Cyber-Physical Systems, System Design and Optimization, Controller Synthesis, Real-Time Scheduling, Predictability, Self-Triggered Control
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi) Datorsystem
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124319 (URN)10.3384/diss.diva-124319 (DOI)978-91-7685-826-4 (ISBN)
Disputation
2016-03-22, Visionen, hus B, Campus Valla, Linköping, 13:15 (Engelska)
Opponent
Handledare
Forskningsfinansiär
CUGS (National Graduate School in Computer Science)eLLIIT - The Linköping‐Lund Initiative on IT and Mobile CommunicationsVetenskapsrådet
Tillgänglig från: 2016-02-18 Skapad: 2016-01-26 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-10Bibliografiskt granskad
Aminifar, A., Tabuada, P., Eles, P. & Peng, Z. (2016). Self-Triggered Controllers and Hard Real-Time Guarantees. In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE): . Paper presented at Design, Automation & Test in Europe (DATE) (pp. 636-641). Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE)
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Self-Triggered Controllers and Hard Real-Time Guarantees
2016 (Engelska)Ingår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 2016 DESIGN, AUTOMATION & TEST IN EUROPE CONFERENCE & EXHIBITION (DATE), Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016, s. 636-641Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

It is well known that event-triggered and self-triggered controllers implemented on dedicated platforms can provide the same performance as the traditional periodic controllers, while consuming considerably less bandwidth. However, since the majority of controllers are implemented by software tasks on shared platforms, on one hand, it might no longer be possible to grant access to the event-triggered controller upon request. On the other hand, due to the seemingly irregular requests from self-triggered controllers, other applications, while in reality schedulable, may be declared unschedulable, if not carefully analyzed. The schedulability and response-time analysis in the presence of self-triggered controllers is still an open problem and the topic of this paper.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2016
Serie
Design, Automation, and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, ISSN 1558-1101
Nyckelord
schedulability analysis, response-time analysis, self-triggered control, event-triggered control
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128861 (URN)000382679200118 ()978-3-9815-3707-9 (ISBN)
Konferens
Design, Automation & Test in Europe (DATE)
Tillgänglig från: 2016-06-02 Skapad: 2016-06-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-10
Aminifar, A., Eles, P. & Peng, Z. (2015). Jfair: A Scheduling Algorithm to Stabilize Control Applications. In: 21st IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, Cyber-Physical Systems Week, Seattle, WA, April 2015: . Paper presented at RTAS15 (pp. 63-72). IEEE Computer Society
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Jfair: A Scheduling Algorithm to Stabilize Control Applications
2015 (Engelska)Ingår i: 21st IEEE Real-Time and Embedded Technology and Applications Symposium, Cyber-Physical Systems Week, Seattle, WA, April 2015, IEEE Computer Society, 2015, s. 63-72Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Control applications are considered to be among the core applications in cyber-physical and embedded realtime systems, for which jitter is typically an important factor. This paper investigates whether it is possible to guarantee certain amount of jitter for a given set of applications on a shared platform. The effect of jitter on the stability of control applications and its relation with the latency will be discussed. The importance arises from the fact that it is considerably easier to manage the constant part of the delay (known as latency), while the process of coping with the varying part of the delay (known as jitter) is more involved. The proposed solution guarantees certain jitter limits, and at the same time does not lead to overly pessimistic latency values. The results are later used in a design optimization problem to minimize the resource utilized.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE Computer Society, 2015
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118625 (URN)10.1109/RTAS.2015.7108417 (DOI)000380616700006 ()978-1-4799-8603-3 (ISBN)
Konferens
RTAS15
Tillgänglig från: 2015-06-02 Skapad: 2015-06-02 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-11
Aminifar, A., Bini, E., Eles, P. & Peng, Z. (2014). Bandwidth-Efficient Controller-Server Co-Design with Stability Guarantees. In: Design, Automation & Test in Europe, DATE 2014: . Paper presented at Design, Automation & Test in Europe (DATE 2014), Dresden, Germany, March 24-28, 2014. IEEE Computer Society
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Bandwidth-Efficient Controller-Server Co-Design with Stability Guarantees
2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: Design, Automation & Test in Europe, DATE 2014, IEEE Computer Society, 2014Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Many cyber-physical systems comprise several control applications implemented on a shared platform, for which stability is a fundamental requirement. This is as opposed to the classical hard real-time systems where often the criterion is meeting the deadline. However, the stability of control applications depends on not only the delay experienced, but also the jitter. Therefore, the notion of deadline is considered to be artificial for control applications that promotes the need for new techniques for designing cyber-physical systems. The approach in this paper is built on a server-based resource reservation mechanism, which provides compositionality, isolation, and the opportunity of systematic controller--server co-design. We address the controller--server co-design of such systems to obtain design solutions with the minimal bandwidth to guarantee stability.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE Computer Society, 2014
Serie
Design, Automation and Test in Europe, ISSN 1530-1591
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106742 (URN)10.7873/DATE2014.068 (DOI)000354965500055 ()978-3-9815370-2-4 (ISBN)
Konferens
Design, Automation & Test in Europe (DATE 2014), Dresden, Germany, March 24-28, 2014
Tillgänglig från: 2014-05-20 Skapad: 2014-05-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-11
Bordoloi, U. D., Aminifar, A., Eles, P. & Peng, Z. (2014). Schedulability Analysis of Ethernet AVB Switches. In: 20th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA 2014), Chongqing, China, Aug. 20-22, 2014.: . Paper presented at 20th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real- Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA 2014).. IEEE Computer Society
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Schedulability Analysis of Ethernet AVB Switches
2014 (Engelska)Ingår i: 20th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA 2014), Chongqing, China, Aug. 20-22, 2014., IEEE Computer Society, 2014Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Ethernet AVB is being actively considered by the automotive industry as a candidate for in-vehicle communication backbone. However, several questions pertaining to schedulability of hard real-time messages transmitted via such a switch remain unanswered. In this paper, we attempt to fill this void. We derive equations to perform worst-case response time analysis on Ethernet AVB switches by considering its credit-based shaping algorithm. Also, we propose several approaches to reduce the pessimism in the analysis to provide tighter bounds.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE Computer Society, 2014
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112692 (URN)10.1109/RTCSA.2014.6910530 (DOI)000352610400034 ()9781479939534 (Lokalt ID)9781479939534 (Arkivnummer)9781479939534 (OAI)
Konferens
20th IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real- Time Computing Systems and Applications (RTCSA 2014).
Tillgänglig från: 2014-12-08 Skapad: 2014-12-08 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-11
Aminifar, A., Eles, P., Peng, Z. & Cervin, A. (2013). Control-Quality Driven Design of Cyber-Physical Systems with Robustness Guarantees. In: Design, Automation & Test in Europe (DATE 2013): . Paper presented at 16th Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, DATE 2013; Grenoble; France (pp. 1093-1098). IEEE
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Control-Quality Driven Design of Cyber-Physical Systems with Robustness Guarantees
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Design, Automation & Test in Europe (DATE 2013), IEEE , 2013, s. 1093-1098Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Many cyber-physical systems comprise several control applications sharing communication and computation resources. The design of such systems requires special attention due to the complex timing behavior that can lead to poor control quality or even instability. The two main requirements of control applications are: (1) robustness and, in particular, stability and (2) high control quality. Although it is essential to guarantee stability and provide a certain degree of robustness even in the worst-case scenario, a design procedure which merely takes the worst-case scenario into consideration can lead to a poor expected (average-case) control quality, since the design is solely tuned to a scenario that occurs very rarely. On the other hand, considering only the expected quality of control does not necessarily provide robustness and stability in the worst-case. Therefore, both the robustness and the expected control quality should be taken into account in the design process. This paper presents an efficient and integrated approach for designing high-quality cyber-physical systems with robustness guarantees.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE, 2013
Serie
Design, Automation and Test in Europe, ISSN 1530-1591
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86429 (URN)10.7873/DATE.2013.230 (DOI)000415129400215 ()978-1-4673-5071-6 (ISBN)
Konferens
16th Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, DATE 2013; Grenoble; France
Tillgänglig från: 2012-12-14 Skapad: 2012-12-14 Senast uppdaterad: 2019-07-03
Aminifar, A., Bini, E., Eles, P. & Peng, Z. (2013). Designing Bandwidth-Efficient Stabilizing Control Servers. In: IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, RTSS 2013: . Paper presented at IEEE 34th Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2013), Vancouver, Canada, December 3-6, 2013 (pp. 298-307). IEEE
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Designing Bandwidth-Efficient Stabilizing Control Servers
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium, RTSS 2013, IEEE , 2013, s. 298-307Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Guaranteeing stability of control applications in embedded systems, or cyber-physical systems, is perhaps the alpha and omega of implementing such applications. However, as opposed to the classical real-time systems where often the acceptance criterion is meeting the deadline, control applications do not primarily enforce hard deadlines. In the case of control applications, stability is considered to be the main design criterion and can be expressed in terms of the amount of delay and jitter a control application can tolerate before instability. Therefore, new design and analysis techniques are required for embedded control systems. In this paper, the analysis and design of such systems considering server-based resource reservation mechanism are addressed. The benefits of employing servers are manifold: (1) providing a compositional framework, (2) protection against other tasks misbehaviors, and (3) systematic bandwidth assignment. We propose a methodology for designing bandwidth-efficient servers to stabilize control tasks.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE, 2013
Serie
Real-Time Systems Symposium. Proceedings, ISSN 1052-8725
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106741 (URN)10.1109/RTSS.2013.37 (DOI)000335336500029 ()978-147992007-5 (ISBN)
Konferens
IEEE 34th Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2013), Vancouver, Canada, December 3-6, 2013
Tillgänglig från: 2014-05-20 Skapad: 2014-05-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-11Bibliografiskt granskad
Aminifar, A., Eles, P., Peng, Z. & Cervin, A. (2013). Stability-Aware Analysis and Design of Embedded Control Systems. In: Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT), 2013: . Paper presented at International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT 2013), Montreal, Canada, September 29 - October 4, 2013 (pp. 1-10). IEEE conference proceedings
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Stability-Aware Analysis and Design of Embedded Control Systems
2013 (Engelska)Ingår i: Proceedings of the International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT), 2013, IEEE conference proceedings, 2013, s. 1-10Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Many embedded systems comprise several controllers sharing available resources. It is well known that such resource sharing leads to complex timing behavior that can jeopardize stability of control applications, if it is not properly taken into account in the design process, e.g., mapping and scheduling. As opposed to hard real-time systems where meeting the deadline is a critical requirement, control applications do not enforce hard deadlines. Therefore, the traditional real-time analysis approaches are not readily applicable to control applications. Rather, in the context of control applications, stability is often the main requirement to be guaranteed, and can be expressed as the amount of delay and jitter a control application can tolerate. The nominal delay and response-time jitter can be regarded as the two main factors which relate the real-time aspects of a system to control performance and stability. Therefore, it is important to analyze the impact of variations in scheduling parameters, i.e., period and priority, on the nominal delay and response-time jitter and, ultimately, on stability. Based on such an analysis, we address, in this paper, priority assignment and sensitivity analysis problems for control applications considering stability as the main requirement.

Ort, förlag, år, upplaga, sidor
IEEE conference proceedings, 2013
Nationell ämneskategori
Datavetenskap (datalogi)
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106734 (URN)10.1109/EMSOFT.2013.6658601 (DOI)978-147991443-2 (ISBN)
Konferens
International Conference on Embedded Software (EMSOFT 2013), Montreal, Canada, September 29 - October 4, 2013
Tillgänglig från: 2014-05-20 Skapad: 2014-05-20 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-11
Aminifar, A., Samii, S., Eles, P., Peng, Z. & Cervin, A. (2012). Designing High-Quality Embedded Control Systems with Guaranteed Stability. In: 33rd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2012: . Paper presented at 33rd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2012), San Juan, Puerto Rico, December 5-7, 2012.
Öppna denna publikation i ny flik eller fönster >>Designing High-Quality Embedded Control Systems with Guaranteed Stability
Visa övriga...
2012 (Engelska)Ingår i: 33rd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2012, 2012Konferensbidrag, Publicerat paper (Refereegranskat)
Abstract [en]

Many embedded systems comprise several controllers sharing available resources. It is well known that such resource sharing leads to complex timing behavior that degrades the quality of control, and more importantly, can jeopardize stability in the worst-case, if not properly taken into account during design. Although stability of the control applications is absolutely essential, a design flow driven by the worst-case scenario often leads to poor control quality due to the significant amount of pessimism involved and the fact that the worst-case scenario occurs very rarely. On the other hand, designing the system merely based on control quality, determined by the expected (average-case) behavior, does not guarantee the stability of control applications in the worst-case. Therefore, both control quality and worst-case stability have to be considered during the design process, i.e., period assignment, task scheduling, and control-synthesis. In this paper, we present an integrated approach for designing high-quality embedded control systems, while guaranteeing their stability.

Serie
Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS), ISSN 1052-8725
Nationell ämneskategori
Data- och informationsvetenskap
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80768 (URN)10.1109/RTSS.2012.79 (DOI)000317284200026 ()978-1-4673-3098-5 (ISBN)
Konferens
33rd IEEE Real-Time Systems Symposium (RTSS 2012), San Juan, Puerto Rico, December 5-7, 2012
Tillgänglig från: 2012-08-29 Skapad: 2012-08-29 Senast uppdaterad: 2018-01-12
Organisationer
Identifikatorer
ORCID-id: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1673-4733

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