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Jönemo, J., Akbar, M. U., Kämpe, R., Hamilton, J. P. & Eklund, A. (2023). Efficient Brain Age Prediction from 3D MRI Volumes Using 2D Projections. Brain Sciences, 13(9), Article ID 1329.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficient Brain Age Prediction from 3D MRI Volumes Using 2D Projections
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2023 (English)In: Brain Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-3425, Vol. 13, no 9, article id 1329Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using 3D CNNs on high-resolution medical volumes is very computationally demanding, especially for large datasets like UK Biobank, which aims to scan 100,000 subjects. Here, we demonstrate that using 2D CNNs on a few 2D projections (representing mean and standard deviation across axial, sagittal and coronal slices) of 3D volumes leads to reasonable test accuracy (mean absolute error of about 3.5 years) when predicting age from brain volumes. Using our approach, one training epoch with 20,324 subjects takes 20–50 s using a single GPU, which is two orders of magnitude faster than a small 3D CNN. This speedup is explained by the fact that 3D brain volumes contain a lot of redundant information, which can be efficiently compressed using 2D projections. These results are important for researchers who do not have access to expensive GPU hardware for 3D CNNs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2023
Keywords
brain age, 3D CNN, 2D projections, deep learning
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Medical Image Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-197835 (URN)10.3390/brainsci13091329 (DOI)001077104000001 ()37759930 (PubMedID)
Funder
Vinnova, 2021-01954
Note

Funding: ITEA/VINNOVA [2021-01954]; Ake Wiberg foundation

Available from: 2023-09-17 Created: 2023-09-17 Last updated: 2024-07-04Bibliographically approved
Perini, I., Mayo, L. M., Johansson Capusan, A., Paul, E., Yngve, A., Kämpe, R., . . . Heilig, M. (2023). Resilience to substance use disorder following childhood maltreatment: association with peripheral biomarkers of endocannabinoid function and neural indices of emotion regulation. Molecular Psychiatry (6), 2563-2571
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resilience to substance use disorder following childhood maltreatment: association with peripheral biomarkers of endocannabinoid function and neural indices of emotion regulation
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2023 (English)In: Molecular Psychiatry, ISSN 1359-4184, E-ISSN 1476-5578, no 6, p. 2563-2571Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Childhood maltreatment (CM) is a risk factor for substance use disorders (SUD) in adulthood. Understanding the mechanisms by which people are susceptible or resilient to developing SUD after exposure to CM is important for improving intervention. This case-control study investigated the impact of prospectively assessed CM on biomarkers of endocannabinoid function and emotion regulation in relation to the susceptibility or resilience to developing SUD. Four groups were defined across the dimensions of CM and lifetime SUD (N = 101 in total). After screening, participants completed two experimental sessions on separate days, aimed at assessing the behavioral, physiological, and neural mechanisms involved in emotion regulation. In the first session, participants engaged in tasks assessing biochemical (i.e., cortisol, endocannabinoids), behavioral, and psychophysiological indices of stress and affective reactivity. During the second session, the behavioral and brain mechanisms associated with emotion regulation and negative affect were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging. CM-exposed adults who did not develop SUD, operationally defined as resilient to developing SUD, had higher peripheral levels of the endocannabinoid anandamide at baseline and during stress exposure, compared to controls. Similarly, this group had increased activity in salience and emotion regulation regions in task-based measures of emotion regulation compared to controls, and CM-exposed adults with lifetime SUD. At rest, the resilient group also showed significantly greater negative connectivity between ventromedial prefrontal cortex and anterior insula compared to controls and CM-exposed adults with lifetime SUD. Collectively, these peripheral and central findings point to mechanisms of potential resilience to developing SUD after documented CM exposure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGERNATURE, 2023
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-193375 (URN)10.1038/s41380-023-02033-y (DOI)000967871600001 ()37041416 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council for Infrastructures and Science for Life Laboratory, Sweden; Swedish Research Council [2013-07434]; Medical Training and Research Agreement in Ostergotland Region [ALF 2017: LIO-599451, ALF 2018: LIO-692621, ALF 2019: LIO-791581, ALF 2020: RO-888021, ALF 2021: RO-935602]; Systembolagets alkoholforskningsrad [2016-0018, 2017-0075, 2018-0030, 2019-0007]; Brain & Behavior Research Foundation NARSAD Young Investigator Grant [27094]

Available from: 2023-05-03 Created: 2023-05-03 Last updated: 2024-05-02Bibliographically approved
Takamiya, A., Dols, A., Emsell, L., Abbott, C., Yrondi, A., Mas, C. S., . . . Kishimoto, T. (2022). Neural Substrates of Psychotic Depression: Findings From the Global ECT-MRI Research Collaboration. Schizophrenia Bulletin, 48(2), 514-523
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Neural Substrates of Psychotic Depression: Findings From the Global ECT-MRI Research Collaboration
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2022 (English)In: Schizophrenia Bulletin, ISSN 0586-7614, E-ISSN 1745-1701, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 514-523Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Psychotic major depression (PMD) is hypothesized to be a distinct clinical entity from nonpsychotic major depression (NPMD). However, neurobiological evidence supporting this notion is scarce. The aim of this study is to identify gray matter volume (GMV) differences between PMD and NPMD and their longitudinal change following electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data from 8 independent sites in the Global ECT-MRI Research Collaboration (GEMRIC) database (n = 108; 56 PMD and 52 NPMD; mean age 71.7 in PMD and 70.2 in NPMD) were analyzed. All participants underwent MRI before and after ECT. First, cross-sectional whole-brain voxel-wise GMV comparisons between PMD and NPMD were conducted at both time points. Second, in a flexible factorial model, a main effect of time and a group-by-time interaction were examined to identify longitudinal effects of ECT on GMV and longitudinal differential effects of ECT between PMD and NPMD, respectively. Compared with NPMD, PMD showed lower GMV in the prefrontal, temporal and parietal cortex before ECT; PMD showed lower GMV in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) after ECT. Although there was a significant main effect of time on GMV in several brain regions in both PMD and NPMD, there was no significant group-by-time interaction. Lower GMV in the MPFC was consistently identified in PMD, suggesting this may be a trait-like neural substrate of PMD. Longitudinal effect of ECT on GMV may not explain superior ECT response in PMD, and further investigation is needed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford University Press, 2022
Keywords
psychosis; depression; magnetic resonance imaging; gray matter volume; medial prefrontal cortex
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-183602 (URN)10.1093/schbul/sbab122 (DOI)000763977300001 ()34624103 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Keio University Medical Science Fund [99-095-0007]; AMED [JP20dm0307102h0003]; Research Foundation Flanders (FWO) grantFWO [G0C0319N]; KU Leuven Fund [C24/18/095]; Sequoia Fund for Research on Ageing and Mental Health; National Institute of HealthUnited States Department of Health & Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USA [MH125126, MH111826]; Carlos III Health InstituteInstituto de Salud Carlos III [CD20/00189]; Lundbeck FoundationLundbeckfonden; Western Norway Regional Health Authority [911986, 912238]

Available from: 2022-03-18 Created: 2022-03-18 Last updated: 2023-03-10Bibliographically approved
Paul, E., Schwieler, L., Erhardt, S., Boda, S., Trepci, A., Kämpe, R., . . . Samuelsson, M. (2022). Peripheral and central kynurenine pathway abnormalities in major depression. Brain, behavior, and immunity, 101, 136-145
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peripheral and central kynurenine pathway abnormalities in major depression
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2022 (English)In: Brain, behavior, and immunity, ISSN 0889-1591, E-ISSN 1090-2139, Vol. 101, p. 136-145Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Considerable data relate major depressive disorder (MDD) with aberrant immune system functioning. Pro inflammatory cytokines facilitate metabolism of tryptophan along the kynurenine pathway (KP) putatively resulting in reduced neuroprotective and increased neurotoxic KP metabolites in MDD, in addition to modulating metabolic and immune function. This central nervous system hypothesis has, however, only been tested in the periphery. Here, we measured KP-metabolite levels in both plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of depressed patients (n = 63/36 respectively) and healthy controls (n = 48/33). Further, we assessed the relation between KP abnormalities and brain-structure volumes, as well as body mass index (BMI), an index of metabolic disturbance associated with atypical depression. Plasma levels of picolinic acid (PIC), the kynurenic/quinolinic acid ratio (KYNA/QUIN), and PIC/QUIN were lower in MDD, but QUIN levels were increased. In the CSF, we found lower PIC in MDD. Confirming previous work, MDD patients had lower hippocampal, and amygdalar volumes. Hippocampal and amygdalar volumes were correlated positively with plasma KYNA/QUIN ratio in MDD patients. BMI was increased in the MDD group relative to the control group. Moreover, BMI was inversely correlated with plasma and CSF PIC and PIC/QUIN, and positively correlated with plasma QUIN levels in MDD. Our results partially confirm previous peripheral KP findings and extend them to the CSF in MDD. We present the novel finding that abnormalities in KP metabolites are related to metabolic disturbances in depression, but the relation between KP metabolites and depression-associated brain atrophy might not be as direct as previously hypothesized.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press Inc - Elsevier Science, 2022
Keywords
Major depressive disorder; Kynurenine pathway; Inflammation; Central nervous system; Brain volumetry; Structural magnetic resonance imaging; Cerebrospinal fluid
National Category
Neurology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-183765 (URN)10.1016/j.bbi.2022.01.002 (DOI)000761260700005 ()34999196 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Johnson & Johnson Innovation; Swedish Medical Research CouncilSwedish Medical Research Council (SMRC)European Commission [2017-00875, 2013-07434, 2019-01138]; ALF Grants, Region Ostergotland; National Institutes of HealthUnited States Department of Health & Human ServicesNational Institutes of Health (NIH) - USA [R01 CA193522, R01 NS073939]; MD Anderson Cancer Support Grant [P30 CA016672]

Available from: 2022-03-24 Created: 2022-03-24 Last updated: 2023-10-13
Perini, I., Kämpe, R., Arlestig, T., Karlsson, H., Löfberg, A., Pietrzak, M., . . . Heilig, M. (2020). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation targeting the insular cortex for reduction of heavy drinking in treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent subjects: a randomized controlled trial. Neuropsychopharmacology, 45(5), 842-850
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation targeting the insular cortex for reduction of heavy drinking in treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent subjects: a randomized controlled trial
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2020 (English)In: Neuropsychopharmacology, ISSN 0893-133X, E-ISSN 1740-634X, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 842-850Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Insula responses to drug cues are correlated with cravings, and lesions in this area reduce nicotine seeking. Here, we investigated the potential efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) targeting the insula in alcohol addiction. Treatment-seeking alcohol-dependent patients (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder, Fourth Edition; N = 56) participated in this double-blind, sham-controlled, randomized trial. Participants received 10 Hz rTMS or sham using an H8 coil, 5 days a week for 3 weeks. Stimulation targeted insular cortex and overlaying regions bilaterally, while excluding anterior prefrontal areas. Craving and self-reported as well as biomarker-based drinking measures were collected at baseline, during treatment, and through 12 weeks. Resting-state magnetic resonance imaging (rsMRI) data were collected before and after treatment. Task-based MRI was used to probe brain correlates of reward processing, affective responses, and alcohol following completion of treatment. A marked overall decrease in craving and drinking measures was observed during treatment, but did not differ between rTMS or sham stimulation. Both groups equally increased their alcohol use following completion of treatment and through the 12-week follow-up. Analysis using seeds in the insula identified differences in resting-state connectivity between active and sham groups at completion of treatment, potentially indicating an ability of treatment to modify insula function. However, while each task robustly replicated brain responses established in the literature, no effects of rTMS were found. Collectively, this study does not support efficacy of rTMS targeting the insula in alcohol addiction. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2020
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-200130 (URN)10.1038/s41386-019-0565-7 (DOI)000519980000016 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2013-07434EU, Horizon 2020, 668863-SyBil-AA
Available from: 2024-01-10 Created: 2024-01-10 Last updated: 2024-05-16
Paul, E. R., Farmer, M., Kämpe, R., Cremers, H. R. & Hamilton, P. J. (2019). Functional Connectivity Between Extrastriate Body Area and Default Mode Network Predicts Depersonalization Symptoms in Major Depression: Findings From an A Priori Specified Multinetwork Comparison. Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, 4(7), 627-635
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional Connectivity Between Extrastriate Body Area and Default Mode Network Predicts Depersonalization Symptoms in Major Depression: Findings From an A Priori Specified Multinetwork Comparison
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2019 (English)In: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging, ISSN 2451-9022, Vol. 4, no 7, p. 627-635Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Depersonalization/derealization disorder is a dissociative disorder characterized by feelings of unreality and detachment from the self and surroundings. Depersonalization/derealization disorder is classified as a primary disorder, but depersonalization symptoms are frequently observed in mood and anxiety disorders. In the context of major depressive disorder (MDD), depersonalization symptoms are associated with greater depressive severity as indexed by treatment resistance, inpatient visits, and duration of depressive episodes. In the current investigation, we tested four network-based, neural-functional hypotheses of depersonalization in MDD. These hypotheses were framed in terms of functional relationships between 1) extrastriate body area and default mode network (DMN); 2) hippocampus and DMN; 3) medial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum; and 4) posterior and anterior insular cortex.

Methods

We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging during resting state on 28 female patients with MDD and 27 control subjects with no history of a psychiatric disorder. Functional connectivity between seed and target regions as specified by our network-level hypotheses was computed and correlated with scores on the Cambridge Depersonalization Scale. We used a conservative, unbiased bootstrapping procedure to test the significance of neural-behavioral correlations observed under each of the four models tested.

Results

Of the four neural-functional models of depersonalization symptoms tested, only the model proposing that reduced connectivity between the extrastriate body area and DMN predicts higher levels of depersonalization symptoms in MDD was confirmed.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that depersonalization/derealization disorder symptoms in patients with depression are related to reduced functional connectivity between brain regions that are proposed to support processing of body-related (extrastriate body area) and autobiographical (DMN) information.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Default mode network; Depersonalization/derealization disorder; Extrastriate body area; Functional connectivity; Major depressive disorder
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162355 (URN)10.1016/j.bpsc.2019.03.007 (DOI)000494424200006 ()31103548 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065575555 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Warren Foundation; Swedish Research CouncilSwedish Research Council; Region Ostergotland

Available from: 2019-11-28 Created: 2019-11-28 Last updated: 2023-10-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-1107-5644

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