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Wu, Z., Ding, P., Gueskine, V., Boyd, R., Glowacki, E. D., Odén, M., . . . Vagin, M. (2023). Conducting Polymer‐Based e‐Refinery for Sustainable Hydrogen Peroxide Production. Energy & Environmental Materials, Article ID e12551.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Conducting Polymer‐Based e‐Refinery for Sustainable Hydrogen Peroxide Production
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2023 (English)In: Energy & Environmental Materials, E-ISSN 2575-0356, article id e12551Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Electrocatalysis enables the industrial transition to sustainable production of chemicals using abundant precursors and electricity from renewable sources. De-centralized production of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) from water and oxygen of air is highly desirable for daily life and industry. We report an effective electrochemical refinery (e-refinery) for H2O2 by means of electrocatalysis-controlled comproportionation reaction (2(H)O + O -> 2(HO)), feeding pure water and oxygen only. Mesoporous nickel (II) oxide (NiO) was used as electrocatalyst for oxygen evolution reaction (OER), producing oxygen at the anode. Conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene): poly(styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) drove the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), forming H2O2 on the cathode. The reactions were evaluated in both half-cell and device configurations. The performance of the H2O2 e-refinery, assembled on anion-exchange solid electrolyte and fed with pure water, was limited by the unbalanced ionic transport. Optimization of the operation conditions allowed a conversion efficiency of 80%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2023
Keywords
conducting polymer; hydrogen peroxide; nickel (II) oxide; oxygen evolution reaction; oxygen reduction reaction
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-191801 (URN)10.1002/eem2.12551 (DOI)000932336900001 ()2-s2.0-85147681332 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, 42022‐1Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation, 2018.0058Swedish Research Council, 2016‐05990Swedish Research Council, 2019‐05577Swedish Research Council, 2021‐04427Vinnova, 2016‐05156
Note

Funding: Swedish Agency for Innovation Systems (Vinnova) [2016-05156]; Swedish Energy Agency [42022-1]; Swedish Research Council [VR 2021-04427, VR 2019-05577, VR 2016-05990]; Centre in Nanoscience and Technology (CeNano, Linkoeping Institute of Technology (LiTH), Linkoeping University, 2020, 2021); Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoeping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (H2O2) [KAW 2018.0058]

Available from: 2023-02-16 Created: 2023-02-16 Last updated: 2024-06-10Bibliographically approved
Molaei, A. & Crispin, X. (2023). Faradic Side Reactions at Novel Carbon Flow-Through Electrodes for Desalination Studied in a Static Supercapacitor Architecture. Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, 4(1), Article ID 2200119.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Faradic Side Reactions at Novel Carbon Flow-Through Electrodes for Desalination Studied in a Static Supercapacitor Architecture
2023 (English)In: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 2200119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Desalination by capacitive deionization (CDI) is a promising technique to combine desalination and energy storage. The efficiency of charge storage process, which is equivalent to the desalination process, depends strongly on the presence of Faradic side reactions on the electrode. Herein, the performance of a new low-cost designed flow-through electrode with porous carbon nanoparticles (CP) coating on carbon-fiber paper (CFP) is evaluated. The CP layer enables high capacitance while the CFP core makes fluid dynamics along and across the electrode. The electrodes are evaluated by studying the effective operational CDI parameters, such as operational voltage, degassing of electrolyte, and salt concentration. The Faradic side reaction and its effect on charge efficiency (CE) are evaluated which are estimated to decrease to 46% by liquid flow bringing dissolved oxygen from the air-electrolyte interface to the electrode. The CE enhances to 59% with a salt concentration of 1 m. By purging N-2 gas, CE is much higher (>85%) with a maximum efficiency of 97% at 0.6 V. Three regimes of the complex kinetic of side reactions are found involving various species such as O-2, H2O2, H-2, and carbon oxidation and the implication of those regimes for real applications are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2023
Keywords
capacitive deionization; desalination; hydrogen peroxide; oxygen reduction reactions; supercapacitors
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-190625 (URN)10.1002/aesr.202200119 (DOI)000892761400001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [VR 2016-05990]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW 2018.0058]; Swedish Energy Agency [P52023-1]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoeping University [2009-00971]

Available from: 2022-12-19 Created: 2022-12-19 Last updated: 2024-01-10
Ghorbani Shiraz, H., Ullah Khan, Z., Pere, D., Liu, X., Coppel, Y., Fahlman, M., . . . Crispin, X. (2022). 3R-TaS2 as an Intercalation-Dependent Electrified Interface for Hydrogen Reduction and Oxidation Reactions. The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, 126(40), 17056-17065
Open this publication in new window or tab >>3R-TaS2 as an Intercalation-Dependent Electrified Interface for Hydrogen Reduction and Oxidation Reactions
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2022 (English)In: The Journal of Physical Chemistry C, ISSN 1932-7447, E-ISSN 1932-7455, Vol. 126, no 40, p. 17056-17065Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hydrogen technology, as a future breakthrough for the energy industry, has been defined as an environmentally friendly, renewable, and high-power energy carrier. The green production of hydrogen, which mainly relies on electrocatalysts, is limited by the high cost and/ or the performance of the catalytic system. Recently, studies have been conducted in search of bifunctional electrocatalysts accelerating both the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) and the hydrogen oxidation reaction (HOR). Herein, we report the investigation of the high efficiency bifunctional electrocatalyst TaS2 for both the HER and the HOR along with the asymmetric effect of inhibition by organic intercalation. The linear organic agent, to boost the electron donor property and to ease the process of intercalation, provides a higher interlayer gap in the tandem structure of utilized nanosheets. XRD and XPS data reveal an increase in the interlayer distance of 22%. The HER and the HOR were characterized in a Pt group metal-free electrochemical system. The pristine sample shows a low overpotential of -0.016 Vat the onset. The intercalated sample demonstrates a large shift in its performance for the HER. It is revealed that the intercalation is a potential key strategy for tuning the performance of this family of catalysts. The inhibition of the HER by intercalation is considered as the increase in the operational window of a water-based electrolyte on a negative electrode, which is relevant to technologies of electrochemical energy storage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2022
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189795 (URN)10.1021/acs.jpcc.2c04290 (DOI)000869704900001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [VR 2016-05990]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW 2019.0604, 2021.0195]; Karl Erik Onnesjos Foundation; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO-MatLiU) [2009-00971]

Available from: 2022-11-08 Created: 2022-11-08 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Sultana, A., Wurger, A., Phopase, J., Crispin, X. & Zhao, D. (2022). An ionic thermoelectric ratchet effect in polymeric electrolytes. Journal of Materials Chemistry C, 10(37), 13922-13929
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An ionic thermoelectric ratchet effect in polymeric electrolytes
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2022 (English)In: Journal of Materials Chemistry C, ISSN 2050-7526, E-ISSN 2050-7534, Vol. 10, no 37, p. 13922-13929Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ionic thermoelectric materials can generate extraordinarily high thermal voltage under small temperature differences due to their orders of magnitude larger Seebeck coefficient than that of electronic materials. Together with their low-cost, environmentally friendly compositions and solution processability, electrolytes have brought renewed prosperity in thermoelectric fields. Despite the rapid growing number of good-performance materials, yet to be implemented in devices, the main challenge is the understanding of the mechanism of the large Seebeck coefficient in practical electrolytes. Here, we show that the ion/polymer interaction in PEG based electrolytes does not only affect the mobility of the ions, but also has a great impact on the Seebeck coefficient. By delicately varying the types of solvent and the concentration of the solute, we could tune the molar conductivity of the electrolytes and correlate with the Seebeck coefficient. The linear relation between the Seebeck coefficient and the logarithm of the molar conductivity is in agreement with the recently reported thermoelectric ratchet effect in ions with hopping dynamics. This could lead to new design rules for ionic thermoelectrics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-186834 (URN)10.1039/d2tc01130a (DOI)000814785400001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [VR 2016-05990, 2016-06146, 2018-04037]; Advanced Functional Materials Center at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

Available from: 2022-07-05 Created: 2022-07-05 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Mardi, S., Zhao, D., Tybrandt, K., Reale, A. & Crispin, X. (2022). Interfacial Effect Boosts the Performance of All-Polymer Ionic Thermoelectric Supercapacitors. Advanced Materials Interfaces, 9(31), Article ID 2201058.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interfacial Effect Boosts the Performance of All-Polymer Ionic Thermoelectric Supercapacitors
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2022 (English)In: Advanced Materials Interfaces, ISSN 2196-7350, Vol. 9, no 31, article id 2201058Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ionic thermoelectric supercapacitors (ITESCs) have recently been developed for converting low-grade waste heat into electricity. Until now, most reports of ITESCs have been focused on the development of electrolytes, which then have been combined with a specific electrode material. Here, it is demonstrated that the electrode is not only critical for electrical energy storage but also greatly affects the effective thermopower (S-eff) of an ITESC. It is shown that the same ion gel can generate a positive thermopower in an ITESC when using gold nanowire (AuNW) electrodes, while generating a negative thermopower when using poly(3,4-ethylendioxythiophene):polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) electrodes. The achieved negative sign of the S-eff could be attributed to the Donnan exclusive effect from the polyanions in the PEDOT:PSS electrodes. After examining the thermovoltage, capacitance and charge retention performance of the two ITESCs, it is concluded that PEDOT:PSS is superior to AuNWs as electrodes. Moreover, a new strategy of constructing an ionic thermopile of multiple p- and n-type legs is achieved by series-connecting these legs with same electrolyte but different electrodes. Using interfacial effect at ionic gels/PEDOT:PSS electrode interface, an enhanced thermoelectric effect in ITESCs is obtained, which constitutes one more step towards efficient, low-cost, flexible, and printable ionic thermoelectric modules for energy harvesting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2022
Keywords
effective thermopowers; interfacial potentials; ionic thermoelectric supercapacitors; thermodiffusion
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-189074 (URN)10.1002/admi.202201058 (DOI)000859035400001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|University of Rome Tor Vergata - Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; Swedish Research Council [2016-05990, 2016-06146]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research

Available from: 2022-10-11 Created: 2022-10-11 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Ahmed, F., Ding, P., Ail, U., Warczak, M., Grimoldi, A., Ederth, T., . . . Crispin, X. (2022). Manufacturing Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) Electrocatalytic Sheets for Large-Scale H2O2 Production. Advanced Sustainable Systems, 6(1), Article ID 2100316.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Manufacturing Poly(3,4-Ethylenedioxythiophene) Electrocatalytic Sheets for Large-Scale H2O2 Production
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2022 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, E-ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 6, no 1, article id 2100316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Producing thick films of conducting polymers by a low-cost manufacturing technique would enable new applications. However, removing huge solvent volume from diluted suspension or dispersion (1-3 wt%) in which conducting polymers are typically obtained is a true manufacturing challenge. In this work, a procedure is proposed to quickly remove water from the conducting polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene:poly(4-styrene sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) suspension. The PEDOT:PSS suspension is first flocculated with 1 m H2SO4 transforming PEDOT nanoparticles (approximate to 50-500 nm) into soft microparticles. A filtration process inspired by pulp dewatering in a paper machine on a wire mesh with apertures dimension between 60 mu m and 0.5 mm leads to thick free-standing films (approximate to 0.5 mm). Wire mesh clogging that hinders dewatering (known as dead-end filtration) is overcome by adding to the flocculated PEDOT: PSS dispersion carbon fibers that aggregate and form efficient water channels. Moreover, this enables fast formation of thick layers under simple atmospheric pressure filtration, thus making the process truly scalable. Thick freestanding PEDOT films thus obtained are used as electrocatalysts for efficient reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide, a promising green chemical and fuel. The inhomogeneity of the films does not affect their electrochemical function.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2022
Keywords
conducting polymers; thick films; H2O2 production; large-scale; fast dewatering; low-cost
National Category
Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-181467 (URN)10.1002/adsu.202100316 (DOI)000719682100001 ()2-s2.0-85119125155 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies: Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linköping University (Faculty Grant SFO-Mat-LiU) [2009-00971]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (H2O2, Cellfion); Swedish Research Council European Commission [2016-05990, VR 2019-05577]

Available from: 2021-12-03 Created: 2021-12-03 Last updated: 2024-01-30Bibliographically approved
Kumar, D., Khan, Z., Ail, U., Phopase, J., Berggren, M., Gueskine, V. & Crispin, X. (2022). Self-Discharge in Batteries Based on Lignin and Water-in-Polymer Salt Electrolyte. Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, 3(10), Article ID 2200073.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Self-Discharge in Batteries Based on Lignin and Water-in-Polymer Salt Electrolyte
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2022 (English)In: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 3, no 10, article id 2200073Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lignin, the most abundant biopolymer on earth, has been explored as an electroactive material in battery applications. One essential feature for such lignin-based batteries to reach successful usage and implementation, e.g., large-scale stationary grid applications, is to have slow self-discharge characteristics on top of the essential safety and life-cycle properties. Water-in-polymer salt electrolytes (WIPSEs) have been demonstrated as an attractive route to solve this issue; however, little has been done to understand the fundamentals of actual self-discharge mechanisms. Herein, the impact of some critical chemical and physical parameters (pH, dissolved oxygen, viscosity, and cutoff potential) on self-discharge of batteries based on WIPSE and lignin has been investigated. The pH range is crucial as there is an interplay between long-term stability and high energy density. Indeed, lignin derivatives typically store relatively more charge in acidic media but later promote corrosion affecting device stability. A robust and high-performing organic battery, incorporating potassium polyacrylate as WIPSE, is demonstrated, which expresses good self-discharge behavior for a broad range of pH and with little impact on the atmosphere used for manufacturing. It is believed that the investigation will provide critical insights to the research community to promote the advancement of printed large-scale energy storage devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2022
Keywords
lignin; organic batteries; self-discharge; water-in-polymer salt electrolytes (WIPSEs); water-in-salt electrolytes
National Category
Other Chemistry Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187364 (URN)10.1002/aesr.202200073 (DOI)000827191800001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg (KAW) foundation [KAW 2019.0344, KAW 2020.0174]; Swedish Research Council [2016-05990]; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]; KAW

Available from: 2022-08-19 Created: 2022-08-19 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Lander, S., Vagin, M., Gueskine, V., Erlandsson, J., Boissard, Y., Korhonen, L., . . . Crispin, X. (2022). Sulfonated Cellulose Membranes Improve the Stability of Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Batteries. Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, 3(9), Article ID 2200016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sulfonated Cellulose Membranes Improve the Stability of Aqueous Organic Redox Flow Batteries
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2022 (English)In: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 3, no 9, article id 2200016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The drawbacks of current state-of-the-art selective membranes, such as poor barrier properties, high cost, and poor recyclability, limit the large-scale deployment of electrochemical energy devices such as redox flow batteries (RFBs) and fuel cells. In recent years, cellulosic nanomaterials have been proposed as a low-cost and green raw material for such membranes, but their performance in RFBs and fuel cells is typically poorer than that of the sulfonated fluoropolymer ionomer membranes such as Nafion. Herein, sulfonated cellulose nanofibrils densely cross-linked to form a compact sulfonated cellulose membrane with limited swelling and good stability in water are used. The membranes possess low porosity and excellent ionic transport properties. A model aqueous organic redox flow battery (AORFB) with alizarin red S as negolyte and tiron as posolyte is assembled with the sulfonated cellulose membrane. The performance of the nanocellulose-based battery is superior in terms of cyclability in comparison to that displayed by the battery assembled with commercially available Nafion 115 due to the mitigation of crossover of the redox-active components. This finding paves the way to new green organic materials for fully sustainable AORFB solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2022
Keywords
aqueous organic redox flow batteries; crossover; ion-selective membranes; nanocellulose
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187403 (URN)10.1002/aesr.202200016 (DOI)000823291000001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|VINNOVA (Digital Cellulose Center); BillerudKorsnas; Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation [KAW 2019.0604, KAW 2021.0195]; Swedish Energy Agency [52023-1]; Vetenskapradet [2016-05990]

Available from: 2022-08-22 Created: 2022-08-22 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Lander, S., Erlandsson, J., Vagin, M., Gueskine, V., Korhonen, L., Berggren, M., . . . Crispin, X. (2022). Sulfonated Cellulose Membranes: Physicochemical Properties and Ionic Transport versus Degree of Sulfonation. Advanced Sustainable Systems, 6(11), Article ID 2200275.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sulfonated Cellulose Membranes: Physicochemical Properties and Ionic Transport versus Degree of Sulfonation
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2022 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 6, no 11, article id 2200275Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The next generation of green ion selective membranes is foreseen to be based on cellulosic nanomaterials with controllable properties. The introduction of ionic groups into the cellulose structure via chemical modification is one strategy to obtain desired functionalities. In this work, bleached softwood fibers are oxidatively sulfonated and thereafter homogenized to liberate the cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) from the fiber walls. The liberated CNFs are subsequently used to prepare and characterize novel cellulose membranes. It is found that the degree of sulfonation collectively affects several important properties of the membranes via the density of fixed charged groups on the surfaces of the CNFs, in particular the membrane morphology, water uptake and swelling, and correspondingly the ionic transport. Both ionic conductivity and cation transport increase with the increased level of sulfonation of the starting material. Thus, it is shown that the chemical modification of the CNFs can be used as a tool for precise and rational design of green ion selective membranes that can replace expensive conventional fluorinated ionomer membranes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-V C H Verlag GMBH, 2022
Keywords
crosslinked sulfonated nanocelluloses; ionic transport; pore sizes; selective membranes; water uptake
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-188444 (URN)10.1002/adsu.202200275 (DOI)000846651200001 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|VINNOVA (Digital Cellulose Center); BillerudKorsnas; Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation [KAW 2019.0604, KAW 2021.0195]; Vetenskapradet [2016-05990]; Wallenberg Wood Science Center; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Advanced Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]

Available from: 2022-09-14 Created: 2022-09-14 Last updated: 2023-12-06Bibliographically approved
Ajjan, F., Khan, Z., Riera-Galindo, S., Lienemann, S., Vagin, M., Petsagkourakis, I., . . . Crispin, X. (2020). Doped Conjugated Polymer Enclosing a Redox Polymer: Wiring Polyquinones with Poly(3,4‐Ethylenedioxythiophene). Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, 1(2), Article ID 2000027.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Doped Conjugated Polymer Enclosing a Redox Polymer: Wiring Polyquinones with Poly(3,4‐Ethylenedioxythiophene)
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2020 (English)In: Advanced Energy and Sustainability Research, E-ISSN 2699-9412, Vol. 1, no 2, article id 2000027Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The mass implementation of renewable energies is limited by the absence of efficient and affordable technology to store electrical energy. Thus, the development of new materials is needed to improve the performance of actual devices such as batteries or supercapacitors. Herein, the facile consecutive chemically oxidative polymerization of poly(1-amino-5-chloroanthraquinone) (PACA) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT) resulting in a water dispersible material PACA-PEDOT is shown. The water-based slurry made of PACA-PEDOT nanoparticles can be processed as film coated in ambient atmosphere, a critical feature for scaling up the electrode manufacturing. The novel redox polymer electrode is a nanocomposite that withstands rapid charging (16 A g−1) and delivers high power (5000 W kg−1). At lower current density its storage capacity is high (198 mAh g−1) and displays improved cycling stability (60% after 5000 cycles). Its great electrochemical performance results from the combination of the redox reversibility of the quinone groups in PACA that allows a high amount of charge storage via Faradaic reactions and the high electronic conductivity of PEDOT to access to the redox-active sites. These promising results demonstrate the potential of PACA-PEDOT to make easily organic electrodes from a water-coating process, without toxic metals, and operating in non-flammable aqueous electrolyte for large scale pseudocapacitors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2020
Keywords
chemical oxidative polymerization, energy storage, nanocomposites, redoxpolymers
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-187968 (URN)10.1002/aesr.202000027 (DOI)000783017100001 ()
Funder
VinnovaKnut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Available from: 2022-09-01 Created: 2022-09-01 Last updated: 2024-01-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-8845-6296

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