liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Publications (10 of 71) Show all publications
Sircar, S., Andersson Djurfeldt, A., Westholm, L., Ostwald, M., Wetterlind, J., Wiklund, J., . . . Magnusson, U. (2018). Gender issues in contemporary research on agriculture for food security - Knowledge gaps and key issues across the AgriFoSe2030 themes. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gender issues in contemporary research on agriculture for food security - Knowledge gaps and key issues across the AgriFoSe2030 themes
Show others...
2018 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Agriculture in low- and middle-income countries faces considerable challenges, ranging from increased food demand to climate change impacts, with rapidly evolving scope and complexity. At the same time, the opportunities to address these challenges are significant, which brings optimism that efforts

in agricultural research can succeed. One major barrier, however, threatens to inhibit the impacts of agricultural research: the low level of gender equity in low- and middle-income countries. This is problematic on many levels and across entire crop and livestock value chains, all the way to landscape management. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SLU, 2018. p. 12
Series
Agriculture for Food Security, AgriFoSe2030
National Category
Other Agricultural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147358 (URN)
Note

Contents

Foreword

Gender dimensions of formal and informal land tenure systems in South Asia and sub--Saharan Africa by Srilata Sircar and Agnes Andersson-Djurfeldt

Women and food production in multifunctional landscapes by Lisa Westholm and Madelene Ostwald

Gender and sustainable intensification practises in smallholder crop production by Johanna Wetterlind, Jonna Wiklund and Håkan Marstorp

Gender research in relation to livestock production by Sofia Boqvist, Sofia Förster, Daovy Kongmanila, Maria Nassuna-Musoke and Ulf Magnusson

Concluding remarks and future research needs

Available from: 2018-04-20 Created: 2018-04-20 Last updated: 2018-09-24Bibliographically approved
Mattsson, E., Ostwald, M. & Nissanka, S. (2018). What is good about Sri Lankan homegardens with regards to food security?: A synthesis of the current scientific knowledge of a multifunctional land-use system. Agroforestry Systems, 92, 1469-1484
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What is good about Sri Lankan homegardens with regards to food security?: A synthesis of the current scientific knowledge of a multifunctional land-use system
2018 (English)In: Agroforestry Systems, ISSN 0167-4366, E-ISSN 1572-9680, Vol. 92, p. 1469-1484Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Recently, there has been growing interest in agroforestry systems due to their great potential to mitigate threats to household food and nutrition security from soaring food prices but also as carbon sinks. In Sri Lanka, smallholder farms such as homegardens constitute a majority of Sri Lanka’s total annual crop and timber production. Despite Sri Lankan homegardens being considered desirable and sustainable land-use systems, their role in food and nutrition security is not yet entirely understood. By synthesising scientific articles and grey literature we sought the link between food security and homegardens by quantifying their products or services and ascertaining whether food security characteristics are assessed as direct or indirect impacts. The results show that 27% of 92 identified articles directly quantified aspects that are relevant to food security. Another 51% of the articles quantified indirect aspects that have relevance for food security, including climate, soil, ecosystem services, structural and floristic diversity and economic aspects. Twenty-two percent of the articles were categorised as being qualitative or conceptual and contained no direct assessments or quantification of food security. The presence of significant merits from homegardens includes providing food security throughout the year at low-cost while sustaining numerous ecosystem services. This benefits particularly the poor farmers. However, many studies are descriptive and only provide location-specific information on single research focuses such as plant species, yield and management. There are few comparisons with crop land, forests or other production systems, and there is even less empirical evidence and quantification of the food security and other benefits. Seven areas where more scientific focus would be beneficial are identified. Homegardens are strong in national policies and to reach a greater level of efficiency within these activities our findings suggest more emphasis on a higher degree of inclusiveness of relevant stakeholders and long-term engagements with context specific guidance.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2018
Keywords
Agroforestry Sri Lanka Nutrition Diversity Intensification Trees Crops Landscape
National Category
Other Agricultural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137665 (URN)10.1007/s10457-017-0093-6 (DOI)000449101900002 ()2-s2.0-85019604757 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies: AgriFoSe2030 programme

Available from: 2017-05-24 Created: 2017-05-24 Last updated: 2018-11-22Bibliographically approved
Mattsson, E., Ostwald, M. & Nissanka, S. (2017). Food security in Sri Lankan homegardens – what does science tell us?. Göteborg
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Food security in Sri Lankan homegardens – what does science tell us?
2017 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

Agroforestry and other types of multifunctional land-use systems have increasingly been highlighted as win-win-win solutions to meet the challenges of climate change, agricultural intensification, secure ecosystem services as well as support to food security. In this brief the authors seek in the literature for evidence and information on the food security link to homegardens; a traditional agroforestry system common in Sri Lanka, and promoted by the Sri Lankan government . 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: , 2017. p. 2
Series
Focali Brief ; 2017:01
Keywords
Food security, AgriFoSe2030, multifunctional land use systems
National Category
Agricultural Science, Forestry and Fisheries
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-139511 (URN)10.13140/RG.2.2.31028.96647 (DOI)9789186402372 (ISBN)
Projects
AgriFoSe2030
Available from: 2017-08-07 Created: 2017-08-07 Last updated: 2018-02-02Bibliographically approved
Karlson, M., Ostwald, M., Reese, H., Romeo Bazie, H. & Tankoano, B. (2016). Assessing the potential of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery for mapping West African agroforestry tree species. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, 50, 80-88
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the potential of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery for mapping West African agroforestry tree species
Show others...
2016 (English)In: International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation, ISSN 0303-2434, Vol. 50, p. 80-88Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High resolution satellite systems enable efficient and detailed mapping of tree cover, with high potential to support both natural resource monitoring and ecological research. This study investigates the capability of multi-seasonal WorldView-2 imagery to map five dominant tree species at the individual tree crown level in a parkland landscape in central Burkina Faso. The Random Forest algorithm is used for object based tree species classification and for assessing the relative importance of WorldView-2 predictors. The classification accuracies from using wet season, dry season and multi-seasonal datasets are compared to gain insights about the optimal timing for image acquisition. The multi-seasonal dataset produced the most accurate classifications, with an overall accuracy (OA) of 83.4%. For classifications based on single date imagery, the dry season (OA=78.4%) proved to be more suitable than the wet season (OA=68.1%). The predictors that contributed most to the classification success were based on the red edge band and visible wavelengths, in particular green and yellow. It was therefore conchided that WorldView-2, with its unique band configuration, represents a suitable data source for tree species mapping in West African parklands. These results are particularly promising when considering the recently launched WorldView-3, which provides data both at higher spatial and spectral resolution, including shortwave infrared bands. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Tree species mapping; WorldView-2; Agroforestry; Parkland; Sudano-Sahel
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128916 (URN)10.1016/j.jag.2016.03.004 (DOI)000375819200008 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council; Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida); Swedish Energy Agency.

The previous status of this article was Manuscript and the working title was Assessing the potential of multi-temporal WorldView-2 imagery for mapping West African agroforestry tree species.

Available from: 2016-06-09 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Mattsson, E., Ostwald, M., Wallin, G. & Nissanka, S. (2016). Heterogeneity and assessment uncertainties in forest characteristics and biomass carbon stocks: Important considerations for climate mitigation policies. Land use policy, 59, 84-94
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Heterogeneity and assessment uncertainties in forest characteristics and biomass carbon stocks: Important considerations for climate mitigation policies
2016 (English)In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 59, p. 84-94Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The management of forests to store carbon and mitigate climate change has received significant inter- national attention during the last decade. Using in situ data from a 2008–2009 forest inventory field campaign in Sri Lanka, this study describes the structural characteristics and carbon stocks of six natural forest types. This paper has a dual scope: i) to highlight the variation in carbon stored in aboveground biomass within and between forest types and ii) to determine the implications of the allometric equa- tions chosen to calculate biomass carbon stocks. This study concerns work related to climate change interventions, such as Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) and other forest-related, performance-based initiatives that require proper monitoring, reporting, and verification of carbon stocks, sinks and emissions. The results revealed that forests are heterogeneous in terms of tree density and height–diameter relationships, both between and within the six forest types investigated. The mean aboveground carbon stock in the different forest types ranged from 22 to 181 Mg C ha−1 , and there were statistically significant differences in the carbon stocks of the six forest types in 7 of 15 cases. The estimated carbon stock depended heavily on the allometric equation used for the calculations, the variables, and its application to the specific life zone. Due to the diversity of forest structures, these results suggest that caution should be taken when applying default values to estimate forest carbon stocks and emission values in reporting and accounting schemes. The results also indicated the need for allometric equations that are context-specific for different forest types. Therefore, new field investigations and mea- surements are needed to determine these specific allometric equations, as well as the potential variation in forest carbon stocks in tropical natural forests. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Sri Lanka, Forest inventory, Carbon, Above ground biomass (AGB), Allometric equations, Climate interventions, MRV
National Category
Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130931 (URN)10.1016/j.landusepol.2016.08.026 (DOI)000387519600008 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency (Project No 35586-1); the National Research Council of Sri Lanka; Forskning och Framtid, Linköping University, Sweden

Available from: 2016-08-31 Created: 2016-08-31 Last updated: 2017-11-21Bibliographically approved
Karlson, M. & Ostwald, M. (2016). Remote sensing of vegetation in the Sudano-Sahelian zone: A literature review from 1975 to 2014. Journal of Arid Environments, 124, 257-269
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Remote sensing of vegetation in the Sudano-Sahelian zone: A literature review from 1975 to 2014
2016 (English)In: Journal of Arid Environments, ISSN 0140-1963, E-ISSN 1095-922X, Vol. 124, p. 257-269Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Scarcity of in situ vegetation data inhibits research and natural resource management in the Sudano- Sahelian zone (SSZ). Satellite and aerial remote sensing (RS) constitute key technologies for improving the availability of vegetation data, and consequently the preconditions for scientific analysis and monitoring. The aim of this paper was to investigate how the hands-on application of RS for vegetation analysis has developed in the SSZ by reviewing the scientific literature published between 1975 and 2014. The paper assesses the usages and the users of RS by focusing on four aspects of the material (268 peer-reviewed articles), including publication details (time of publication, scientific discipline of journals and author nationality), geographic information (location of study areas and spatial scale of research), data usage (application of RS systems and procedures for accuracy assessments), and research topic (scientific objective of the research). Three key results were obtained: i) the application of RS to analyze vegetation in the SSZ has increased consistently since 1977 and it seems to become adopted by a growing number of scientific disciplines; ii) the contribution of African authors is low, potentially signalling a need for an increased transfer of knowledge and technology from developed countries; iii) RS has pri- marily been used to analyze changes in vegetation productivity and broad vegetation types, whereas its use for studying interactions between vegetation and environmental factors has been relatively low. This calls for stronger collaborative RS research that enables the mapping of additional vegetation variables of high relevance for the environmental problems facing the SSZ. Remotely sensed vegetation data are needed at spatial scales that suits the requirements of both research and natural resource management in order to further enhance the usefulness of this technology. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London, UK: Academic Press, 2016
Keywords
Remote sensing, Vegetation, Drylands, Sudano-Sahel, Monitoring, Natural resource management
National Category
Other Earth and Related Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121292 (URN)10.1016/j.jaridenv.2015.08.022 (DOI)000364245200030 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 348-2013-6547Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, SWE-2009-176Swedish Energy Agency, 35586-1
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency (Sida) [SWE-2009-176]; Swedish Energy Agency [35586-1]; Swedish Research Council (VR/Sida) [348-2013-6547]

Available from: 2015-09-13 Created: 2015-09-13 Last updated: 2018-07-04Bibliographically approved
Ostwald, M., Tiwari, R., Pettersson, K., Murthy, I., Berndes, G., Ravindranath, N. & Karlson, M. (2015). Can India’s wasteland be used for biomass plantations?.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can India’s wasteland be used for biomass plantations?
Show others...
2015 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

How much of India’s vast wasteland can be used for growing plants such as eucalyptus and Jatropha? As land demands have increased, the sustainable use of marginal lands has become increasingly important. In India about 47 million hectares, or 15 percent of the total geographical area, is classified as wastelands. Here we assess the climate and land quality requirements of eucalyptus, a commonly used plantation tree, and Jatropha, a much-discussed biodiesel crop. We find that roughly half of the degraded lands are suitable for growing eucalyptus and/or Jatropha. 

Publisher
p. 2
Series
Focali Brief ; 2015:02
National Category
Climate Research Social Sciences Interdisciplinary Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-116717 (URN)978-91-86402-34-1 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-04-02 Created: 2015-04-02 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Ostwald, M. (2015). Climate-related forest policies and trends. In: Erik Westholm, Karin Beland Lindahl, Florian Kraxner (Ed.), The future use of Nordic forests: a global perspective (pp. 99-109). Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Climate-related forest policies and trends
2015 (English)In: The future use of Nordic forests: a global perspective / [ed] Erik Westholm, Karin Beland Lindahl, Florian Kraxner, Cham: Springer, 2015, p. 99-109Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As part of the carbon cycle, forests have a place in climate-related forest policies and trends. By describing forest-related measures driven by international climate negotiations, such as the afforestation and reforestation under the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and REDD+ (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation), or the voluntary carbon market, this chapter illustrates how carbon has become an important but fuzzy commodity. The demand for carbon-focused measures is also seen in suggested activities in the Swedish context, shown with the Arctic Boreal Climate Development (ABCD) project. It can be said that due perhaps to the complexity involved in quantifying and accounting for carbon, other benefits such as energy substitution or improved hydrology from carbon-improving management strategies are being enhanced in the debate.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2015
National Category
Forest Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114650 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-14218-0_7 (DOI)9783319142173 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-03-02 Created: 2015-03-02 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
Nyberg, G., Knutsson, P., Ostwald, M., Öborn, I., Wredle, E., Jakinda Otieno, D., . . . Malmer, A. (2015). Enclosures in West Pokot, Kenya: Transforming land, livestock and livelihoods in drylands. Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice, 5, 1-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enclosures in West Pokot, Kenya: Transforming land, livestock and livelihoods in drylands
Show others...
2015 (English)In: Pastoralism: Research, Policy and Practice, ISSN 2041-7128, Vol. 5, p. 1-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dryland livestock production systems are changing in many parts of the world, as a result of growing human populations and associated pressure on water and land. Based on a combination of social and natural science methods, we studied a 30-year transformation process from pastoralism to a livestock-based agro-pastoral system in northwestern Kenya, with the overall aim to increase the understanding of the ongoing transition towards intensified agro-pastoralist production systems in dryland East Africa.

Key to this transformation was the use of enclosures for land rehabilitation, fodder production, and land and livestock management. Enclosures have more soil carbon and a higher vegetation cover than adjacent areas with open grazing. The level of adoption of enclosures as a management tool has been very high, and their use has enabled agricultural diversification, e.g. increased crop agriculture, poultry production and the inclusion of improved livestock. Following the use of enclosures, livelihoods have become less dependent on livestock migration, are increasingly directed towards agribusinesses and present new opportunities and constraints for women. These livelihood changes are closely associated with, and depend on, an ongoing privatization of land under different tenure regimes.

The results indicate that the observed transformation provides opportunities for a pathway towards a sustainable livestock-based agro-pastoral system that could be valid in many dryland areas in East Africa. However, we also show that emergent risks of conflicts and inequalities in relation to land, triggered by the weakening of collective property rights, pose a threat to the sustainability of this pathway. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Keywords
Enclosure, Transformation, Land use, Livestock, Livelihood, Intensification, Agro-pastoralism, Kenya
National Category
Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123040 (URN)10.1186/s13570-015-0044-7 (DOI)
Available from: 2015-12-03 Created: 2015-12-03 Last updated: 2018-07-04
Köhlin, G., Pattanayak, S., Sills, E., Mattsson, E., Ostwald, M., Salas, A. & Ternald, D. (2015). In Search of Double Dividends from Climate Change Interventions Evidence from Forest Conservation and Houshould Energy Transitions. Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In Search of Double Dividends from Climate Change Interventions Evidence from Forest Conservation and Houshould Energy Transitions
Show others...
2015 (English)Report (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Climate change is the greatest challenge facing humanity, and we are only starting to address it. Climate change scenarios indicate that poor people in developing countries will be particularly negatively affected, e.g. by increased temperature reducing their harvests or flooding due to sea-level rise and extreme weather events. There are also expectations that greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can be costefficiently reduced in developing countries through for example reduced deforestation or improved stoves. It is therefore not surprising that climate interventions have become an increasingly important part of Overseas Development Assistance (ODA), reaching 15 % of the total bilateral ODA, or about 20 billion US dollars, by 2013. According to Sustainable Development Goal 13a, this is expected to grow to at least USD 100 billion by 2020. The same trend is seen with Swedish development assistance.

Abstract [sv]

Klimatförändringarna utgör mänsklighetens största utmaning och vi har bara börjat hantera dem. Forskningen pekar på att klimatförändringarnas effekter kommer att drabba fattiga människor i utvecklingsländer särskilt negativt. Det handlar t.ex. om minskande skördar till följd av temperaturökningar eller översvämningar till följd av höjd vattennivå och extrema väderfenomen. Samtidigt finns förväntningar på att utsläppen av växthusgaser kan minskas kostnadseffektivt exempelvis genom minskad avskogning och förbättrade spisar i utvecklingsländer. Det är därför inte förvånande att klimat-relaterade biståndsinterventioner ökar som andel av internationellt utvecklingssamarbete – 2013 uppgick det till 15 % av det globala bilaterala biståndet och i enlighet med det Hållbara utvecklingsmålet 13a skall det samlade klimatbiståndet uppgå till 100 miljarder USD årligen från och med 2020. Även vad det gäller svenskt bistånd så har vi sett samma trend mot ökat klimatbistånd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: , 2015. p. 134
Series
Expertgruppen för biståndsanalys (EBA) ; 2015:9
Keywords
klimatbistånd, utvärdering, skogsskötsel, hushållsenergi
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126410 (URN)978-91-88143-11-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-03-23 Created: 2016-03-23 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-4484-266X

Search in DiVA

Show all publications