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Fredlund, C., Dahlström, Ö., Svedin, C. G., Wadsby, M., Jonsson, L. & Pribe, G. (2018). Adolescents motives for selling sex in a welfare state - A Swedish national study. International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, 81, 286-295
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adolescents motives for selling sex in a welfare state - A Swedish national study
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2018 (English)In: International Journal of Child Abuse & Neglect, ISSN 0145-2134, E-ISSN 1873-7757, Vol. 81, p. 286-295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In addition to money or other compensation, other motives for selling sex may be important in a welfare country such as Sweden. The aim of this study was to carry out an exploratory investigation of adolescents motives for selling sex in a population-based survey in Sweden. A total of 5839 adolescents from the third year of Swedish high school, mean age 18.0 years, participated in the study. The response rate was 59.7% and 51 students (0.9%) reported having sold sex. Exploratory factor analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were used to identify groups of adolescents according to underlying motives for selling sex. Further analyses were carried out for characteristics of selling sex and risk factors. Three groups of adolescents were categorized according to their motives for selling sex: Adolescents reporting; 1) Emotional reasons, being at a greater risk of sexual abuse, using sex as a means of self-injury and having a non-heterosexual orientation. 2) Material but no Emotional reasons, who more often receive money as compensation and selling sex to a person over 25 years of age, and 3) Pleasure or no underlying motive for selling sex reported, who were mostly heterosexual males selling sex to a person under 25 years of age, the buyer was not known from the Internet, the reward was seldom money and this group was less exposed to penetrative sexual abuse or using sex as a means of self-injury. In conclusion, adolescents selling sex are a heterogeneous group in regard to underlying motives.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2018
Keywords
Selling sex; Adolescent; Child sexual exploitation; Motives; Prostitution
National Category
Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149697 (URN)10.1016/j.chiabu.2018.04.030 (DOI)000436375800026 ()29775872 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Ministry of Health and Social Affairs/the Childrens Welfare Foundation Sweden; County of Stockholm, Sweden

Available from: 2018-07-24 Created: 2018-07-24 Last updated: 2019-05-01
Nilsson, D., Dahlström, Ö., Wadsby, M. & Bergh Johannesson, K. (2018). Evaluation of the Swedish Trauma Symptom Inventory -2 in a clinical and a studnet population. European Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, 2(2), 71-82
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of the Swedish Trauma Symptom Inventory -2 in a clinical and a studnet population
2018 (English)In: European Journal of Trauma and Dissociation, ISSN 2468-7499, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 71-82Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction. – The Trauma Symptom Inventory-2 (TSI-2) is a broad-spectrum assessment instrumentdesigned to identify symptoms that can appear in the aftermath of potentially traumatic experiences.

Objective. – This study aimed to evaluate the external and internal validity of this newly reconstructedinstrument.Method. – In total, 696 individuals participated in the study, including 83 psychiatric outpatients. Participants answered the TSI-2, together with a trauma history questionnaire, and other questionnairesassumed to correlate with the different scales included in the TSI-2.

Results. – Validity was evaluated by correlations between the TSI-2 and the other instruments and bythe differences between clinical and non-clinical populations. Reliability was calculated by testinginternal consistency and test-re-test reliability. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was computed totest the postulated four-factor structure. Cronbach’s alpha was found to be good and ranged froma = .77 to .91 and test-retest reliability was strong. Strong to satisfactory correlations were foundbetween the TSI-2 and the other instruments. The student sample scored significantly lower than theclinical group on all clinical scales. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated with different cut-offscores.

Conclusion. – Despite the CFA demonstrating a questionably good model of fit, most of the scales provedto be sound and the TSI-2 could be recommended as a broad-spectrum assessment instrument.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Trauma Symptom Inventory-2, Adults, Validity, Reliability, Trauma, Psychiatry
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151016 (URN)10.1016/j.ejtd.2017.10.006 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-09-11 Created: 2018-09-11 Last updated: 2019-05-02Bibliographically approved
Signoret, C., Blomberg, R., Dahlström, Ö., Rudner, M. & Rönnberg, J. (2018). Modulation of the neural expectation violation marker during speech perception in noise.. In: : . Paper presented at MEGNord 2018 Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, May 16-18 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Modulation of the neural expectation violation marker during speech perception in noise.
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159500 (URN)
Conference
MEGNord 2018 Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, May 16-18 2018
Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2019-08-20Bibliographically approved
Signoret, C., Blomberg, R., Dahlström, Ö., Andersen, L. M., Lundqvist, D., Rudner, M. & Rönnberg, J. (2018). Resolving discrepancies between incoming auditory information and linguistic expectations. In: Neuroscience 2018: 48th annual meeting of Society for Neuroscience. Paper presented at 48th annual meeting of Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, USA, Nov 3-7, 2018. Society for Neuroscience
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Resolving discrepancies between incoming auditory information and linguistic expectations
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2018 (English)In: Neuroscience 2018: 48th annual meeting of Society for Neuroscience, Society for Neuroscience , 2018Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Speech perception in noise is dependent on stimulus-driven and knowledge-driven processes. Here we investigate the neural correlates and time course of discrepancies between incoming auditory information (i.e. stimulus-driven processing) and linguistic expectations (knowledge-driven processing) by including 20 normal hearing adults in a MEG study. Participants read 48 rhyming sentence pairs beforehand. In the scanner, they listened to sentences that corresponded exactly to the read sentences except that the last word (presented after 1600 millisecond delay and with 50% intelligibility) was only correct in half of the cases. Otherwise, it was 1) phonologically but not semantically related, 2) semantically but not phonologically related, or 3) neither phonologically nor semantically related to the sentence. Participants indicated by button press whether the last word matched the sentence they had read outside the scanner. Behavioural results showed more errors in condition 1 than in conditions 2 or 3, suggesting that phonological compatibility overrides semantic discrepancy when intelligibility is poor. Event-related field analysis demonstrated larger activity on frontal sites for correct than unrelated words, suggesting that the former were more accurately expected than the latter. An early M170 component was also observed, possibly reflecting expectation violation in the auditory modality. Dipole analysis will reveal whether M170 could be modulated by type of linguistic discrepancy. Distributed-network analysis will further our understanding of the time course and neural correlates of discrepancies between incoming auditory information and linguistic expectations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society for Neuroscience, 2018
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159499 (URN)
Conference
48th annual meeting of Society for Neuroscience, San Diego, CA, USA, Nov 3-7, 2018
Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Fagher, K., Jacobsson, J., Dahlström, Ö., Timpka, T. & Lexell, J. (2017). An eHealth Application of Self-Reported Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport: Pilot Feasibility and Usability Study. JMIR Human Factors, 4(4), Article ID e30.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An eHealth Application of Self-Reported Sports-Related Injuries and Illnesses in Paralympic Sport: Pilot Feasibility and Usability Study
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2017 (English)In: JMIR Human Factors, E-ISSN 2292-9495, Vol. 4, no 4, article id e30Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sport participation is associated with a risk of sports-related injuries and illnesses, and Paralympic athletes additional medical issues can be a challenge to health care providers and medical staff. However, few prospective studies have assessed sports-related injuries and illnesses in Paralympic sport (SRIIPS) over time. Advances in mobile phone technology and networking systems offer novel opportunities to develop innovative eHealth applications for collection of athletes self-reports. Using eHealth applications for collection of self-reported SRIIPS is an unexplored area, and before initiation of full-scale research of SRIIPS, the feasibility and usability of such an approach needs to be ascertained.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Toronto, Canada: JMIR Publications, 2017
Keywords
epidemiology; feasibility studies; sports for persons with disabilities; sports medicine; telemedicine
National Category
Other Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-146351 (URN)10.2196/humanfactors.8117 (DOI)29187343 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-04-07 Created: 2018-04-07 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Thyberg, I., Dahlström, Ö., Björk, M., Stenström, B. & Adams, J. (2017). Hand pains in women and men in early rheumatoid arthritis, a one year follow-up after diagnosis. The Swedish TIRA project. Disability and Rehabilitation, 39(3), 291-300
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hand pains in women and men in early rheumatoid arthritis, a one year follow-up after diagnosis. The Swedish TIRA project
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2017 (English)In: Disability and Rehabilitation, ISSN 0963-8288, E-ISSN 1464-5165, Vol. 39, no 3, p. 291-300Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: This research analysed general pain intensity, hand pain at rest and hand pain during activity in women and men in early rheumatoid arhtritis (RA).

Method: Out of the 454 patients that were recruited into the Swedish early RA project "TIRA" the 373 patients (67% women) that remained at 12 months follow-up are reported here. Disease activity 28 joint score (DAS-28), disability (Health Assessment Questionnaire = HAQ) and pain (VAS) were recorded at inclusion and after 3 (M3), 6 (M6) and 12 (M12) months. General pain, hand pain during rest, hand pain during test of grip force as assessed by Grippit™, prescribed disease-modifying anti-inflammatory drugs (DMARDs) and hand dominance were recorded.

Results: DAS-28 and HAQ scores were high at inclusion and improved thereafter in both women and men. There were no significant differences between sexes at inclusion but women had higher DAS-28 and HAQ at all follow-ups. Women were more often prescribed DMARDs than were men. In both women and men all pain types were significantly lower at follow-up compared to at inclusion and women reported higher pain than men at follow-ups. The pain types differed significantly from each other at inclusion into TIRA, general pain was highest and hand pain during rest was lowest. There were no significant differences in hand pain related to hand dominance or between right and left hands.

Conclusions: Disease activity, disability and pain were high at inclusion and reduced over the first year. Despite more DMARDs prescribed in women than in men, women were more affected than were men. General pain was highest and not surprisingly hand pain during active grip testing was higher than hand pain during rest that was lowest in both sexes. Although our cohort was well controlled, it was evident that hand pain remains a problem. This has implications for rehabilitation and suggests potential ongoing activity limitations that should continue to receive attention from a multi-professional team.

  • Implications for Rehabilitation
  • General pain and hand pain remain a problem in RA despite today's early intervention and effective disease control with new era biologics.
  • The extent of hand pain evidenced in our work gives a more detailed and comprehensive account of pain status.
  • Higher hand pain during active grip testing than that during rest indicates a potential relationship to ongoing activity limitation.
  • Hand pain assessment can help guiding multi-professional interventions directed to reduce hand pain and thereby probably reduce activity limitations.
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Disability, grip force, hand function, pain, rehabilitation, sex
National Category
Occupational Therapy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126437 (URN)10.3109/09638288.2016.1140835 (DOI)000392480400009 ()26965161 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Rheumatism Association

Available from: 2016-03-24 Created: 2016-03-24 Last updated: 2018-04-07Bibliographically approved
Shirnin, D., Lyxell, B., Dahlström, Ö., Blomberg, R., Rudner, M., Rönnberg, J. & Signoret, C. (2017). Speech perception in noise: prediction patterns of neural pre-activation in lexical processing. In: : . Paper presented at Fourth International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication (CHSCOM2017), Linköping, Sweden,June 18-22, 2017. Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, Article ID 65.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Speech perception in noise: prediction patterns of neural pre-activation in lexical processing
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2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to examine whether the neural correlates of lexical expectations could be used to predict speech in noise perception. We analyse mag-netoencephalography (MEG) data from 20 normal hearing participants, who read a set of couplets (a pair of phrases with rhyming end words) prior to the experiment. During the experiment, the participants are asked to listen to the couplets, whose intelligibility is set to 80%. However, the last word is pronounced with a delay of 1600 ms (i.e. expectation gap) and is masked at 50% of intelligibility. At the end of each couplet, the participants are asked to indicate if the last word was cor-rect, i.e. corresponding to the expected word. Given the oscillatory characteristics of neural patterns of lexical expectations during the expectation gap, can we predict the participant’s actual perception of the last word? In order to approach this re-search question, we aim to identify the correlation patterns between the instances of neural pre-activation, occurring during the interval of the expectation gap and the type of the given answer. According to the sequential design of the experiment, the expectation gap is placed 4400 ms prior to the time interval dedicated to the participant’s answer. Machine Learning approach has been chosen as the main tool for the pattern recognition.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Swedish Institute for Disability Research, Linköping University, 2017
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159501 (URN)
Conference
Fourth International Conference on Cognitive Hearing Science for Communication (CHSCOM2017), Linköping, Sweden,June 18-22, 2017
Available from: 2019-08-09 Created: 2019-08-09 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Sörqvist, P., Dahlström, Ö., Karlsson, T. & Rönnberg, J. (2016). Concentration: The Neural Underpinnings of How Cognitive Load Shields Against Distraction. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10(221)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Concentration: The Neural Underpinnings of How Cognitive Load Shields Against Distraction
2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, ISSN 1662-5161, E-ISSN 1662-5161, Vol. 10, no 221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Whether cognitive load and other aspects of task difficulty increases or decreases distractibility is subject of much debate in contemporary psychology. One camp argues that cognitive load usurps executive resources, which otherwise could be used for attentional control, and therefore cognitive load increases distraction. The other camp argues that cognitive load demands high levels of concentration (focal task engagement), which suppresses peripheral processing and therefore decreases distraction. In this article, we employed an functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) protocol to explore whether higher cognitive load in a visually-presented task suppresses task-irrelevant auditory processing in cortical and subcortical areas. The results show that selectively attending to an auditory stimulus facilitates its neural processing in the auditory cortex, and switching the locus-of-attention to the visual modality decreases the neural response in the auditory cortex. When the cognitive load of the task presented in the visual modality increases, the neural response to the auditory stimulus is further suppressed, along with increased activity in networks related to effortful attention. Taken together, the results suggest that higher cognitive load decreases peripheral processing of task-irrelevant information which decreases distractibility as a side effect of the increased activity in a focused-attention network.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2016
Keywords
working memory; selective attention; concentration; cognitive load; distraction
National Category
Neurosciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129158 (URN)10.3389/fnhum.2016.00221 (DOI)000376059100002 ()27242485 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Stiftelsen Riksbankens Jubileumsfond [P11-0617:1]; Swedish Research Council [2015-01116]

Available from: 2016-06-13 Created: 2016-06-13 Last updated: 2018-04-07
Timpka, T., Eriksson, H., Holm, E., Strömgren, M., Ekberg, J., Spreco, A. & Dahlström, Ö. (2016). Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures. Epidemiology and Infection, 144(10), 2031-2042
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relevance of workplace social mixing during influenza pandemics: an experimental modelling study of workplace cultures
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2016 (English)In: Epidemiology and Infection, ISSN 0950-2688, E-ISSN 1469-4409, Vol. 144, no 10, p. 2031-2042Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Workplaces are one of the most important regular meeting places in society. The aim of this study was to use simulation experiments to examine the impact of different workplace cultures on influenza dissemination during pandemics. The impact is investigated by experiments with defined social-mixing patterns at workplaces using semi-virtual models based on authentic sociodemographic and geographical data from a North European community (population 136 000). A simulated pandemic outbreak was found to affect 33% of the total population in the community with the reference academic-creative workplace culture; virus transmission at the workplace accounted for 10.6% of the cases. A model with a prevailing industrial-administrative workplace culture generated 11% lower incidence than the reference model, while the model with a self-employed workplace culture (also corresponding to a hypothetical scenario with all workplaces closed) produced 20% fewer cases. The model representing an academic-creative workplace culture with restricted workplace interaction generated 12% lower cumulative incidence compared to the reference model. The results display important theoretical associations between workplace social-mixing cultures and community-level incidence rates during influenza pandemics. Social interaction patterns at workplaces should be taken into consideration when analysing virus transmission patterns during influenza pandemics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2016
Keywords
Epidemiology; infectious disease control; influenza; medical informatics (veterinary and medical); modelling
National Category
Probability Theory and Statistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130396 (URN)10.1017/S0950268816000169 (DOI)000379785600002 ()26847017 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency [2010-2788]; Swedish Science Council [2006-4433, 2008-5252]; Swedish Governmental Agency for Innovations (VINNOVA) [2011-03231]

Available from: 2016-08-15 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2018-04-07
Lundgren, J. G., Dahlström, Ö., Andersson, G., Jaarsma, T., Kärner Köhler, A. & Johansson, P. (2016). The Effect of Guided Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Patients With Depressive Symptoms and Heart Failure: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(8), 1-13, Article ID e194.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Effect of Guided Web-Based Cognitive Behavioral Therapy on Patients With Depressive Symptoms and Heart Failure: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial.
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Medical Internet Research, ISSN 1438-8871, E-ISSN 1438-8871, Vol. 18, no 8, p. 1-13, article id e194Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Depressive symptoms, and the associated coexistence of symptoms of anxiety and decreased quality of life (QoL), are common in patients with heart failure (HF). However, treatment strategies for depressive symptoms in patients with HF still remain to be established. Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy (ICBT), as guided self-help CBT programs, has shown good effects in the treatment of depression. Until now, ICBT has not been evaluated in patients with HF with depressive symptoms.

OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to (1) evaluate the effect of a 9-week guided ICBT program on depressive symptoms in patients with HF; (2) investigate the effect of the ICBT program on cardiac anxiety and QoL; and (3) assess factors associated with the change in depressive symptoms.

METHODS: Fifty participants were randomized into 2 treatment arms: ICBT or a Web-based moderated discussion forum (DF). The Patient Health Questionnaire-9 was used to measure depressive symptoms, the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) was used to measure cardiac-related anxiety, and the Minnesota Living with Heart Failure questionnaire was used to measure QoL. Data were collected at baseline and at follow-up at the end of the 9-week intervention. Intention-to-treat analysis was used, and missing data were imputed by the Expectation-Maximization method. Between-group differences were determined by analysis of covariance with control for baseline score and regression to the mean.

RESULTS: No significant difference in depressive symptoms between the ICBT and the DF group at the follow-up was found, [F(1,47)=1.63, P=.21] and Cohen´s d=0.26. Secondary within-group analysis of depressive symptoms showed that such symptoms decreased significantly in the ICBT group from baseline to the follow-up (baseline M=10.8, standard deviation [SD]=5.7 vs follow-up M=8.6, SD=4.6, t(24)=2.6, P=.02, Cohen´s d=0.43), whereas in the DF group, there was no significant change (baseline M=10.6, SD=5.0, vs follow-up M=9.8, SD=4.3, t(24)=0.93, P=.36. Cohen´s d=0.18). With regard to CAQ and QoL no significant differences were found between the groups (CAQ [d(1,47)=0.5, P=.48] and QoL [F(1,47)=2.87, P=.09]). In the ICBT group in the CAQ subscale of fear, a significant within-group decrease was shown (baseline M=1.55 vs follow-up M=1.35, P=.04). In the ICBT group, the number of logins to the Web portal correlated significantly with improvement in depressive symptoms (P=.02), whereas higher age (P=.01) and male sex (P=.048) were associated with less change in depressive symptoms. This study is underpowered because of difficulties in the recruitment of patients.

CONCLUSIONS: Guided ICBT adapted for persons with HF and depressive symptoms was not statistically superior to participation in a Web-based DF. However, within the ICBT group, a statically significant improvement of depressive symptoms was detected.

CLINICALTRIAL: Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01681771; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01681771 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6ikzbcuLN).

Keywords
Internet; Internet-based cognitive behavioral therapy; cognitive behavioral therapy; depression; eHealth; heart failure
National Category
Other Medical Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130548 (URN)10.2196/jmir.5556 (DOI)000382314400001 ()27489077 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Heart and Lung Association [E087/13, E08/14]; Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden [FORSS-374721, FORSS-470121]; Region Ostergotland [LIO-355611, LIO-374831, LIO-443711, LIO-470271]

Available from: 2016-08-15 Created: 2016-08-15 Last updated: 2019-06-27Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3955-0443

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