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Hultman, M., Fredriksson, I., Larsson, M., Alvandpour, A. & Strömberg, T. (2018). A 15.6 frames per second 1 megapixel Multiple Exposure Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging setup. Journal of Biophotonics, 11(2), Article ID e201700069.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A 15.6 frames per second 1 megapixel Multiple Exposure Laser Speckle Contrast Imaging setup
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Biophotonics, ISSN 1864-063X, E-ISSN 1864-0648, Vol. 11, no 2, article id e201700069Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A multiple exposure laser speckle contrast imaging (MELSCI) setup for visualizing blood perfusion was developed using a field programmable gate array (FPGA), connected to a 1000 frames per second (fps) 1-megapixel camera sensor. Multiple exposure time images at 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 milliseconds were calculated by cumulative summation of 64 consecutive snapshot images. The local contrast was calculated for all exposure times using regions of 4 × 4 pixels. Averaging of multiple contrast images from the 64-millisecond acquisition was done to improve the signal-to-noise ratio. The results show that with an effective implementation of the algorithm on an FPGA, contrast images at all exposure times can be calculated in only 28 milliseconds. The algorithm was applied to data recorded during a 5 minutes finger occlusion. Expected contrast changes were found during occlusion and the following hyperemia in the occluded finger, while unprovoked fingers showed constant contrast during the experiment. The developed setup is capable of massive data processing on an FPGA that enables processing of MELSCI data in 15.6 fps (1000/64 milliseconds). It also leads to improved frame rates, enhanced image quality and enables the calculation of improved microcirculatory perfusion estimates compared to single exposure time systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018
Keywords
blood flow, blood perfusion, FPGA, LASCA, LSCI, microcirculation, multiexposure
National Category
Other Medical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141201 (URN)10.1002/jbio.201700069 (DOI)000424643600014 ()2-s2.0-85026753968 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2014-6141
Available from: 2017-09-26 Created: 2017-09-26 Last updated: 2019-09-05Bibliographically approved
Hultman, M., Fredriksson, I., Strömberg, T. & Larsson, M. (2018). Evaluation of a high framerate multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging setup. In: Kevin K. Tsia, Keisuke Goda (Ed.), High-Speed Biomedical Imaging and Spectroscopy III: Toward Big Data Instrumentation and Management. Paper presented at SPIE BIOS 27 January - 1 February 2018 San Francisco, California, United States. SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of a high framerate multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging setup
2018 (English)In: High-Speed Biomedical Imaging and Spectroscopy III: Toward Big Data Instrumentation and Management / [ed] Kevin K. Tsia, Keisuke Goda, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We present a first evaluation of a new multi-exposure laser speckle contrast imaging (MELSCI) system for assessing spatial variations in the microcirculatory perfusion. The MELSCI system is based on a 1000 frames per second 1-megapixel camera connected to a field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) capable of producing MELSCI data in realtime. The imaging system is evaluated against a single point laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) system during occlusionrelease provocations of the arm in five subjects. Perfusion is calculated from MELSCI data using current state-of-the-art inverse models. The analysis displayed a good agreement between measured and modeled data, with an average error below 6%. This strongly indicates that the applied model is capable of accurately describing the MELSCI data and that the acquired data is of high quality. Comparing readings from the occlusion-release provocation showed that the MELSCI perfusion was significantly correlated (R=0.83) to the single point LDF perfusion, clearly outperforming perfusion estimations based on a single exposure time. We conclude that the MELSCI system provides blood flow images of enhanced quality, taking us one step closer to a system that accurately can monitor dynamic changes in skin perfusion over a large area in real-time

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018
Series
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging - Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0277-786X ; 10505
National Category
Medical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148844 (URN)10.1117/12.2286248 (DOI)000446339000015 ()978-1-5106-1496-3 (ISBN)
Conference
SPIE BIOS 27 January - 1 February 2018 San Francisco, California, United States
Available from: 2018-06-20 Created: 2018-06-20 Last updated: 2018-10-17
Strömberg, T., Saager, R. B., Kennedy, G. T., Fredriksson, I., Salerud, G., Durkin, A. J. & Larsson, M. (2018). Spatial frequency domain imaging using a snap-shot filter mosaic camera with multi-wavelength sensitive pixels. In: Bernard Choi, and Haishan Zeng (Ed.), Proceedings Volume 10467, Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018; 104670D (2018): . Paper presented at SPIE BIOS, 27 January - 1 February 2018, San Francisco, California, United States. SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 10467, Article ID 104670D.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Spatial frequency domain imaging using a snap-shot filter mosaic camera with multi-wavelength sensitive pixels
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings Volume 10467, Photonics in Dermatology and Plastic Surgery 2018; 104670D (2018) / [ed] Bernard Choi, and Haishan Zeng, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018, Vol. 10467, article id 104670DConference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) utilizes a digital light processing (DLP) projector for illuminating turbid media with sinusoidal patterns. The tissue absorption (μa) and reduced scattering coefficient (μ,s) are calculated by analyzing the modulation transfer function for at least two spatial frequencies. We evaluated different illumination strategies with a red, green and blue light emitting diodes (LED) in the DLP, while imaging with a filter mosaic camera, XiSpec, with 16 different multi-wavelength sensitive pixels in the 470-630 nm wavelength range. Data were compared to SFDI by a multispectral camera setup (MSI) consisting of four cameras with bandpass filters centered at 475, 560, 580 and 650 nm. A pointwise system for comprehensive microcirculation analysis was used (EPOS) for comparison. A 5-min arterial occlusion and release protocol on the forearm of a Caucasian male with fair skin was analyzed by fitting the absorption spectra of the chromophores HbO2, Hb and melanin to the estimatedμa. The tissue fractions of red blood cells (fRBC), melanin (/mel) and the Hb oxygenation (S02 ) were calculated at baseline, end of occlusion, early after release and late after release. EPOS results showed a decrease in S02 during the occlusion and hyperemia during release (S02 = 40%, 5%, 80% and 51%). The fRBC showed an increase during occlusion and release phases. The best MSI resemblance to the EPOS was for green LED illumination (S02 = 53%, 9%, 82%, 65%). Several illumination and analysis strategies using the XiSpec gave un-physiological results (e.g. negative S02 ). XiSpec with green LED illumination gave the expected change in /RBC , while the dynamics in S02 were less than those for EPOS. These results may be explained by the calculation of modulation using an illumination and detector setup with a broad spectral transmission bandwidth, with considerable variation in μa of included chromophores. Approaches for either reducing the effective bandwidth of the XiSpec filters or by including their characteristic in a light transport model for SFDI modulation, are proposed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152301 (URN)10.1117/12.2289357 (DOI)000451701900002 ()
Conference
SPIE BIOS, 27 January - 1 February 2018, San Francisco, California, United States
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Larsson, M., Favilla, R. & Strömberg, T. (2017). Assessment of advanced glycated end product accumulation in skin using auto fluorescence multispectral imaging. Computers in Biology and Medicine, 85, 106-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of advanced glycated end product accumulation in skin using auto fluorescence multispectral imaging
2017 (English)In: Computers in Biology and Medicine, ISSN 0010-4825, E-ISSN 1879-0534, Vol. 85, p. 106-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several studies have shown that advanced glycation end products (AGE) play a role in both the microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes and are closely linked to inflammation and atherosclerosis. AGEs accumulate in skin and can be detected using their auto fluorescence (AF).A significant correlation exists between AGE AF and the levels of AGEs as obtained from skin biopsies. A commercial device, the AGE Reader, has become available to assess skin AF for clinical purposes but, while displaying promising results, it is limited to single-point measurements performed in contact to skin tissue. Furthermore, in vivo imaging of AGE accumulation is virtually unexplored.We proposed a non-invasive, contact-less novel technique for quantifying fluorescent AGE deposits in skin tissue using a multispectral imaging camera setup (MSI) during ultraviolet (UV) exposure. Imaging involved applying a region-of-interest mask, avoiding specular reflections and a simple calibration. Results of a study conducted on 16 subjects with skin types ranging from fair to deeply pigmented skin, showed that AGE measured with MSI in forearm skin was significantly correlated with the AGE reference method (AGE Reader on forearm skin, R=0.68, p=0.005). AGE measured in facial skin was borderline significantly related to AGE Reader on forearm skin (R=0.47, p=0.078). These results support the use of the technique in devices for non-touch measurement of AGE content in either facial or forearm skin tissue over time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Advanced glycation end products, Auto fluorescence, Multispectral imaging, Noninvasive, Self-monitoring
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128653 (URN)10.1016/j.compbiomed.2016.04.005 (DOI)000403511200013 ()27106500 (PubMedID)
Projects
SEMEOTICONS
Funder
EU, FP7, Seventh Framework Programme, 611516
Available from: 2016-05-26 Created: 2016-05-26 Last updated: 2017-07-07Bibliographically approved
Jonasson, H., Fredriksson, I., Larsson, M. & Strömberg, T. (2015). Assessment of the microcirculation using combined model based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry. In: 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering: 16. NBC & 10. MTD 2014 joint conferences. October 14-16, 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden. Paper presented at 16th Nordic Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering, October 14-16, 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden (pp. 52-54). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of the microcirculation using combined model based diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry
2015 (English)In: 16th Nordic-Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering: 16. NBC & 10. MTD 2014 joint conferences. October 14-16, 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden, Springer, 2015, p. 52-54Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

By using a combined inverse model for diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) the tissue fraction of red blood cells (RBCs), their oxygenation and speed-resolved perfusion are estimated in absolute units. DRS spectra (450 to 850 nm) are measured at two source-detector distances; 0.4 and 1.2 mm. LDF spectra are measured at 1.2 mm, integrated in the same fiber-optic probe. Inverse Monte Carlo technique and an adaptive tissue model is used to quantify the microcirculatory parameters. Measurements were done during venous occlusion of the tissue. The model fitting yields a good spectral fit for the two DRS spectra and the LDF spectrum. The physiological responses regarding for example which speed regions respond to provocations follows a priori expectations. The combined model gives quantitative measures of RBC tissue fraction, oxygenation and speed resolved perfusion from the same sampling volume which gives new opportunities to interpret data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
Series
IFMBE Proceedings, ISSN 1680-0737 ; 48
Keywords
diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, laser Doppler flowmetry, modeling, Monte Carlo simulations
National Category
Medical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111403 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-12967-9_14 (DOI)000347893000014 ()978-3-319-12966-2 (ISBN)978-3-319-12967-9 (ISBN)
Conference
16th Nordic Baltic Conference on Biomedical Engineering, October 14-16, 2014, Gothenburg, Sweden
Available from: 2014-10-16 Created: 2014-10-16 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
Milanic, M., Bjorgan, A., Larsson, M., Strömberg, T. & Lyngsnes Randeberga, L. (2015). Detection of hypercholesterolemia using hyperspectral imaging of human skin. In: CLINICAL AND BIOMEDICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING IV: . Paper presented at Conference on Clinical and Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging IV held at the European Conferences on Biomedical Optics. SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 9537(95370C)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Detection of hypercholesterolemia using hyperspectral imaging of human skin
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2015 (English)In: CLINICAL AND BIOMEDICAL SPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING IV, SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015, Vol. 9537, no 95370CConference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high blood levels of cholesterol and is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Xanthelasma is a subcutaneous lesion appearing in the skin around the eyes. Xanthelasma is related to hypercholesterolemia. Identifying micro-xanthelasma can thereforeprovide a mean for early detection of hypercholesterolemia and prevent onset and progress of disease. The goal of this study was to investigate spectral and spatial characteristics of hypercholesterolemia in facial skin. Optical techniques like hyperspectral imaging (HSI) might be a suitable tool for such characterization as it simultaneously provides high resolution spatial and spectral information. In this study a 3D Monte Carlo model of lipid inclusions in human skin was developed to create hyperspectral images in the spectral range 400-1090 nm. Four lesions with diameters 0.12-1.0 mm were simulated for three different skin types. The simulations were analyzed using three algorithms: the Tissue Indices (TI), the two layer Diffusion Approximation (DA), and the Minimum Noise Fraction transform (MNF). The simulated lesions were detected by all methods, but the best performance was obtained by the MNF algorithm. The results were verified using data from 11 volunteers with known cholesterol levels. The face of the volunteers was imaged by a LCTF system (400-720 nm), and the images were analyzed using the previously mentioned algorithms. The identified features were then compared to the known cholesterol levels of the subjects. Significant correlation was obtained for the MNF algorithm only. This study demonstrates that HSI can be a promising, rapid modality for detection of hypercholesterolemia.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2015
Series
Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0277-786X ; 9537
Keywords
Monte Carlo; hyperspectral imaging; hypercholesterolemia; light-tissue interaction; Minimum Noise Fraction transformation
National Category
Medical Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121443 (URN)10.1117/12.2183880 (DOI)000360241100006 ()978-1-62841-702-9 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Clinical and Biomedical Spectroscopy and Imaging IV held at the European Conferences on Biomedical Optics
Available from: 2015-09-18 Created: 2015-09-18 Last updated: 2016-08-31
Ewerlöf, M., Salerud, E. G., Strömberg, T. & Larsson, M. (2015). Estimating skin blood saturation by selecting a subset of hyperspectral imaging data. In: Daniel L. Farkas; Dan V. Nicolau; Robert C. Leif (Ed.), Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues XIII: . Paper presented at SPIE Photonics West BIOS. SPIE, 9328
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating skin blood saturation by selecting a subset of hyperspectral imaging data
2015 (English)In: Imaging, Manipulation, and Analysis of Biomolecules, Cells, and Tissues XIII / [ed] Daniel L. Farkas; Dan V. Nicolau; Robert C. Leif, SPIE, 2015, Vol. 9328Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Skin blood haemoglobin saturation (𝑠b) can be estimated with hyperspectral imaging using the wavelength (λ) range of 450-700 nm where haemoglobin absorption displays distinct spectral characteristics. Depending on the image size and photon transport algorithm, computations may be demanding. Therefore, this work aims to evaluate subsets with a reduced number of wavelengths for 𝑠b estimation. White Monte Carlo simulations are performed using a two-layered tissue model with discrete values for epidermal thickness (𝑇epi) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's ), mimicking an imaging setup. A detected intensity look-up table is calculated for a range of model parameter values relevant to human skin, adding absorption effects in the post-processing. Skin model parameters, including absorbers, are; μ's (λ), 𝑇epi, haemoglobin saturation (𝑠b), tissue fraction blood (𝑐b) and tissue fraction melanin (𝑐mel). The skin model paired with the look-up table allow spectra to be calculated swiftly. Three inverse models with varying number of free parameters are evaluated: A(𝑠b, 𝑐b), B(𝑠b, 𝑐b, 𝑐mel) and C(all parameters free). Fourteen wavelength candidates are selected by analysing the maximal spectral sensitivity to 𝑠b and minimizing the sensitivity to 𝑐b. All possible combinations of these candidates with three, four and 14 wavelengths, as well as the full spectral range, are evaluated for estimating 𝑠b for 1000 randomly generated evaluation spectra. The results show that the simplified models A and B estimated 𝑠b accurately using four wavelengths (mean error 2.2% for model B). If the number of wavelengths increased, the model complexity needed to be increased to avoid poor estimations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE: , 2015
Series
Proceedings of SPIE, ISSN 0277-786X ; 9328
Keywords
Hyper spectral imaging, Blood, Skin, Tissues, Absorption, Displays, Photon transport, Scattering, Simulations
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-116478 (URN)10.1117/12.2075292 (DOI)000354105000013 ()978-1-62841-418-9 (ISBN)
Conference
SPIE Photonics West BIOS
Available from: 2015-03-27 Created: 2015-03-27 Last updated: 2016-08-31Bibliographically approved
Milanic, M., Bjorgan, A., Larsson, M., Marraccini, P., Strömberg, T. & Randeberg, L. (2015). Hyperspectral imaging for detection of cholesterol in human skin. In: OPTICAL DIAGNOSTICS AND SENSING XV: TOWARD POINT-OF-CARE DIAGNOSTICS: . Paper presented at Conference on Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XV - Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics. Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), 9332(93320W)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hyperspectral imaging for detection of cholesterol in human skin
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2015 (English)In: OPTICAL DIAGNOSTICS AND SENSING XV: TOWARD POINT-OF-CARE DIAGNOSTICS, Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) , 2015, Vol. 9332, no 93320WConference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Hypercholesterolemia is characterized by high levels of cholesterol in the blood and is associated with an increased risk of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease. Early detection of hypercholesterolemia is necessary to prevent onset and progress of cardiovascular disease. Optical imaging techniques might have a potential for early diagnosis and monitoring of hypercholesterolemia. In this study, hyperspectral imaging was investigated for this application. The main aim of the study was to identify spectral and spatial characteristics that can aid identification of hypercholesterolemia in facial skin. The first part of the study involved a numerical simulation of human skin affected by hypercholesterolemia A literature survey was performed to identify characteristic morphological and physiological parameters. Realistic models were prepared and Monte Carlo simulations were performed to obtain hyperspectral images. Based on the simulations optimal wavelength regions for differentiation between normal and cholesterol rich skin were identified Minimum Noise Fraction transformation (MNF) was used for analysis. In the second part of the study, the simulations were verified by a clinical study involving volunteers with elevated and normal levels of cholesterol. The faces of the volunteers were scanned by a hyperspectral camera covering the spectral range between 400 nm and 720 nm, and characteristic spectral features of the affected skin were identified Processing of the images was done after conversion to reflectance and masking of the images. The identified features were compared to the known cholesterol levels of the subjects. The results of this study demonstrate that hyperspectral imaging of facial skin can be a promising, rapid modality for detection of hypercholesterolemia

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society of Photo-optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE), 2015
Series
Progress in Biomedical Optics and Imaging, ISSN 1605-7422 ; 9332
Keywords
Monte Carlo; hyperspectral imaging; hypercholesterolemia; light-tissue interaction; Minimum Noise Fraction transformation
National Category
Medical Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118258 (URN)10.1117/12.2076796 (DOI)000353614800018 ()978-1-62841-422-6 (ISBN)
Conference
Conference on Optical Diagnostics and Sensing XV - Toward Point-of-Care Diagnostics
Available from: 2015-05-22 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2019-10-28
Jonasson, H., Fredriksson, I., Pettersson, A., Larsson, M. & Strömberg, T. (2015). Oxygen saturation, red blood cell tissue fraction and speed resolved perfusion — A new optical method for microcirculatory assessment. Microvascular Research, 102, 70-77
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxygen saturation, red blood cell tissue fraction and speed resolved perfusion — A new optical method for microcirculatory assessment
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2015 (English)In: Microvascular Research, ISSN 0026-2862, E-ISSN 1095-9319, Vol. 102, p. 70-77Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have developed a new fiber-optic system that combines diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) for a multi-modal assessment of the microcirculation. Quantitative data is achieved with an inverse Monte Carlo algorithm based on an individually adaptive skin model. The output parameters are calculated from the model and given in absolute units: hemoglobin oxygen saturation (%), red blood cell (RBC) tissue fraction (%), and the speed resolved RBC perfusion separated into three speed regions; 0–1 mm/s, 1–10 mm/s and above 10 mm/s (% mm/s). The aim was to explore microcirculatory parameters using the new optical method, integrating DRS and LDF in a joint skin model, during local heating of the dorsal foot and venous and arterial occlusion of the forearm in 23 healthy subjects (age 20–28 years). There were differences in the three speed regions in regard to blood flow changes due to local heating, where perfusion for high speeds increased the most. There was also a high correlation between changes in oxygenation and changes in perfusion for higher speeds. Oxygen saturation at baseline was 44% on foot, increasing to 83% at plateau after heating. The larger increase in perfusion for higher speeds than for lower speeds together with the oxygenation increase during thermal provocation, shows a local thermoregulatory blood flow in presumably arteriolar dermal vessels. In conclusion, there are improved possibilities to assess microcirculation using integrated DRS and LDF in a joint skin model by enabling both oxygenation and speed resolved blood flow assessment simultaneously and in the same skin site. Output parameters in absolute units may also yield new insights about the microcirculatory system.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Academic Press, 2015
Keywords
Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy; Hemoglobin oxygen saturation; Laser Doppler flowmetry; Microcirculation; Skin blood flow
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121774 (URN)10.1016/j.mvr.2015.08.006 (DOI)000362310700010 ()26279347 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding text:  VINNOVA (Swedens innovation agency); Perimed AB through the SamBIO research collaboration program [2008-00149]; Research&Grow program (VINNOVA) [2011-03074]; NovaMedTech - European Union Regional Development Fund [68737, 160382]

Available from: 2015-10-05 Created: 2015-10-05 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Strömberg, T., Larsson, M., Salerud, G. & Wårdell, K. (2014). Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitoring and Imaging.. In: Biomedical Photonics Handbook: . CRC Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Laser Doppler Perfusion Monitoring and Imaging.
2014 (English)In: Biomedical Photonics Handbook, CRC Press, 2014Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
CRC Press, 2014
Keywords
Biomedical optics, microcirculation
National Category
Medical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-108586 (URN)0-8493-1116-0 (ISBN)
Available from: 2014-06-30 Created: 2014-06-30 Last updated: 2017-02-03Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6385-6760

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