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BETA
Beyer, Franziska
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 34) Show all publications
Booker, I. D., Ul Hassan, J., Lilja, L., Beyer, F., Karhu, R., Bergman, J. P., . . . Janzén, E. (2014). Carrier Lifetime Controlling Defects Z(1/2) and RB1 in Standard and Chlorinated Chemistry Grown 4H-SiC. Crystal Growth & Design, 14(8), 4104-4110
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Carrier Lifetime Controlling Defects Z(1/2) and RB1 in Standard and Chlorinated Chemistry Grown 4H-SiC
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2014 (English)In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 4104-4110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

4H-SiC epilayers grown by standard and chlorinated chemistry were analyzed for their minority carrier lifetime and deep level recombination centers using time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) and standard deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS). Next to the well-known Z(1/2) deep level a second effective lifetime killer, RB1 (activation energy 1.05 eV, electron capture cross section 2 x 10(-16) cm(2), suggested hole capture cross section (5 +/- 2) x 10(-15) cm(2)), is detected in chloride chemistry grown epilayers. Junction-DLTS and bulk recombination simulations are used to confirm the lifetime killing properties of this level. The measured RB1 concentration appears to be a function of the iron-related Fe1 level concentration, which is unintentionally introduced via the corrosion of reactor steel parts by the chlorinated chemistry. Reactor design and the growth zone temperature profile are thought to enable the formation of RB1 in the presence of iron contamination under conditions otherwise optimal for growth of material with very low Z(1/2) concentrations. The RB1 defect is either an intrinsic defect similar to RD1/2 or EH5 or a complex involving iron. Control of these corrosion issues allows the growth of material at a high growth rate and with high minority carrier lifetime based on Z(1/2) as the only bulk recombination center.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2014
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110278 (URN)10.1021/cg5007154 (DOI)000340080400049 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|The Swedish Energy Agency; Swedish Research Council (VR); Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (SSF); LG Innotek

Available from: 2014-09-05 Created: 2014-09-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Beyer, F., Hemmingsson, C., Pedersen, H., Henry, A., Isoya, J., Morishita, N., . . . Janzén, E. (2012). Capacitance transient study of a bistable deep level in e(-)-irradiated n-type 4H-SiC. Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, 45(45)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capacitance transient study of a bistable deep level in e(-)-irradiated n-type 4H-SiC
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, ISSN 0022-3727, E-ISSN 1361-6463, Vol. 45, no 45Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using capacitance transient techniques, a bistable centre, called FB centre here, was observed in electron irradiated 4H-SiC. In configuration A, the deep level known as EH5 (E-a = E-C - 1.07 eV) is detected in the deep level transient spectroscopy spectrum, whereas for configuration B no obvious deep level is observed in the accessible part of the band gap. Isochronal annealing revealed the transition temperatures to be T-A -andgt; B andgt; 730K and for the opposite process T-B -andgt; A approximate to 710 K. The energy needed to conduct the transformations were determined to be E-A(A -andgt; B) = (2.1 +/- 0.1) eV and E-A(B -andgt; A) = (2.3 +/- 0.1) eV, respectively. The pre-factor indicated an atomic jump process for the opposite transition A -andgt; B and a charge carrier-emission dominated process in the case of B -andgt; A. Minority charge carrier injection enhanced the transformation from configuration B to configuration A by lowering the transition barrier by about 1.4 eV. Since the bistable FB centre is already present after low-energy electron irradiation (200 keV), it is likely related to carbon.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics, 2012
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85846 (URN)10.1088/0022-3727/45/45/455301 (DOI)000310453400009 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council|2009-338320085243|Swedish Energy Agency|P30942-1|

Available from: 2012-11-30 Created: 2012-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Leone, S., Pedersen, H., Beyer, F., Andersson, S., Kordina, O., Henry, A., . . . Janzén, E. (2012). Chloride-Based CVD of 4H-SiC at High Growth Rates on Substrates with Different Off-Angles. In: Materials Science Forum Vols 717 - 720. Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ICSCRM 2011), 11-16 September 2011, Cleveland, OH, USA (pp. 113-116). Trans Tech Publications Inc., 717-720
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chloride-Based CVD of 4H-SiC at High Growth Rates on Substrates with Different Off-Angles
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2012 (English)In: Materials Science Forum Vols 717 - 720, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2012, Vol. 717-720, p. 113-116Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A review of recently achieved results with the chloride-based CVD on 8 degrees and 4 degrees off-axis and nominally on-axis 4H-SiC wafers is done to clarify the epitaxial growth mechanisms on different off-angle substrates. The process conditions selected for each off-axis angle become even more difficult when running at growth rates of 100 mu m/h or more. A fine-tuning of process parameters, mainly temperature, C/Si ratio and in situ surface preparation is necessary for each Wangle. Some trends related to the surface properties and the effective C/Si ratio existing on the surface prior to and during the epitaxial growth can be observed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2012
Keywords
Chloride-based CVD; homoepitaxial growth; substrate off-angle; high growth rate
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87566 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.717-720.113 (DOI)000309431000026 ()
Conference
14th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ICSCRM 2011), 11-16 September 2011, Cleveland, OH, USA
Available from: 2013-01-18 Created: 2013-01-18 Last updated: 2015-03-11
Kotamraju, S., Krishnan, B., Beyer, F. C., Henry, A., Kordina, O., Janzén, E. & Koshka, Y. (2012). Electrical and optical properties of high-purity epilayers grown by the low-temperature chloro-carbon growth method. In: Materials Science Forum Vol 717 - 720. Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ICSCRM 2011), 11-16 September 2011, Cleveland, OH, USA (pp. 129-132). Trans Tech Publications Inc., 717-720
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrical and optical properties of high-purity epilayers grown by the low-temperature chloro-carbon growth method
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2012 (English)In: Materials Science Forum Vol 717 - 720, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2012, Vol. 717-720, p. 129-132Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A reduced growth pressure (down to 10 Torr) was employed for the low-temperature chloro-carbon epitaxial growth. More than two times lower H-2 flow rate became possible. The optimal input H-2/Si and C/Si ratios were also lower. A significant reduction of the net free donor concentration resulted from the use of the low pressure, delivering partially compensated epilayers with the net free donor concentration below 7 x 10(13) cm(-3). Deep levels were characterized in the low-temperature epilayers for the first time. No Z(1/2) or EH6/7 centers could be detected by DLTS. No strong D-1 photoluminescence signature was observed. The high purity of the obtained epitaxial layers made it possible to use the low-temperature chloro-carbon epitaxial growth to fabricate drift regions of Schottky diodes for the first time. Promising values of the reverse breakdown voltage and the leakage current were obtained from the fabricated devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2012
Keywords
epitaxial growth; chloro-carbon; deep levels; photoluminescence; DLTS; Schottky
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-88451 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.717-720.129 (DOI)000309431000030 ()
Conference
14th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ICSCRM 2011), 11-16 September 2011, Cleveland, OH, USA
Available from: 2013-02-12 Created: 2013-02-07 Last updated: 2014-10-08
Gällström, A., Magnusson, B., Beyer, F., Gali, A., Son, N. ., Leone, S., . . . Janzén, E. (2012). Electronic Configuration of Tungsten in 4H-, 6H-, and 15R-SiC. In: Materials Science Forum Vols 717 - 720: . Paper presented at 14th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ICSCRM 2011), 11-16 September 2011, Cleveland, OH, USA (pp. 211-216). Trans Tech Publications Inc., 717-720
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic Configuration of Tungsten in 4H-, 6H-, and 15R-SiC
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2012 (English)In: Materials Science Forum Vols 717 - 720, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2012, Vol. 717-720, p. 211-216Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A commonly observed unidentified photoluminescence center in SiC is UD-1. In this report, the UD-1 center is identified to be tungsten related. The identification is based on (i) a W-doping study, the confirmation of W in the samples was made using deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS), (ii) the optical activation energy of the absorption of UD-1 in weakly n-type samples corresponds to the activation energy of the deep tungsten center observed using DLTS. The tungsten-related optical centers are reported in 4H-, 6H-, and 15R-SiC. Further, a crystal field model for a tungsten atom occupying a Si-site is suggested. This crystal field model is in agreement with the experimental data available: polarization, temperature dependence and magnetic field splitting.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2012
Keywords
deep level defect; PL; transition metal; Crystal Field Model
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-87570 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.717-720.211 (DOI)000309431000049 ()978-3-03785-419-8 (ISBN)
Conference
14th International Conference on Silicon Carbide and Related Materials (ICSCRM 2011), 11-16 September 2011, Cleveland, OH, USA
Available from: 2013-01-18 Created: 2013-01-18 Last updated: 2015-09-22
Gällström, A., Magnusson, B., Beyer, F., Gali, A., Son Tien, N., Leone, S., . . . Janzén, E. (2012). Optical identification and electronic configuration of tungsten in 4H-and 6H-SiC. Physica. B, Condensed matter, 407(10), 1462-1466
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical identification and electronic configuration of tungsten in 4H-and 6H-SiC
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2012 (English)In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 407, no 10, p. 1462-1466Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Several optically observed deep level defects in SiC are still unidentified and little is published on their behavior. One of the commonly observed deep level defects in semi-insulating SiC is UD-1. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanThis report suggests that UD-1 is Tungsten related, based on a doping study and previously reported deep level transient spectroscopy data, as well as photo-induced absorption measurements. The electronic levels involved in the optical transitions of UD-1 are also deduced. The transitions observed in the photoluminescence of UD-1 are from a Gamma(C3v)(4), to two different final states, which transform according to Gamma(C3v)(5)circle plus Gamma(C3v)(6) and Gamma(C3v)(4), respectively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Deep level defect, PL, Transition metal
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77521 (URN)10.1016/j.physb.2011.09.062 (DOI)000303149600003 ()
Available from: 2012-05-28 Created: 2012-05-22 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Henry, A., Leone, S., Beyer, F., Pedersen, H., Kordina, O., Andersson, S. & Janzén, E. (2012). SiC epitaxy growth using chloride-based CVD. Physica. B, Condensed matter, 407(10), 1467-1471
Open this publication in new window or tab >>SiC epitaxy growth using chloride-based CVD
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2012 (English)In: Physica. B, Condensed matter, ISSN 0921-4526, E-ISSN 1873-2135, Vol. 407, no 10, p. 1467-1471Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The growth of thick epitaxial SiC layers needed for high-voltage, high-power devices is investigated with the chloride-based chemical vapor deposition. High growth rates exceeding 100 mu m/h can be obtained, however to obtain device quality epilayers adjustments of the process parameters should be carried out appropriately for the chemistry used. Two different chemistry approaches are compared: addition of hydrogen chloride to the standard precursors or using methyltrichlorosilane, a molecule that contains silicon, carbon and chlorine. Optical and electrical techniques are used to characterize the layers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
Silicon carbide, Chloride, Epitaxy, Doping, PL, DLTS
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77522 (URN)10.1016/j.physb.2011.09.063 (DOI)000303149600004 ()
Note
Funding Agencies|The Swedish Energy Agency||Swedish Research Council||Available from: 2012-05-28 Created: 2012-05-22 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Beyer, F., Hemmingsson, C., Pedersen, H., Henry, A., Janzén, E., Isoya, J., . . . Ohshima, T. (2011). Annealing behavior of the EB-centers and M-center in low-energy electron irradiated n-type 4H-SiC. Journal of Applied Physics, 109(10), 103703
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Annealing behavior of the EB-centers and M-center in low-energy electron irradiated n-type 4H-SiC
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2011 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 109, no 10, p. 103703-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

After low-energy electron irradiation of epitaxial n-type 4H-SiC with a dose of 5 x 10(16) cm(-2), the bistable M-center, previously reported in high-energy proton implanted 4H-SiC, is detected in the deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) spectrum. The annealing behavior of the M-center is confirmed, and an enhanced recombination process is suggested. The annihilation process is coincidental with the evolvement of the bistable EB-centers in the low temperature range of the DLTS spectrum. The annealing energy of the M-center is similar to the generation energy of the EB-centers, thus partial transformation of the M-center to the EB-centers is suggested. The EB-centers completely disappeared after annealing temperatures higher than 700 degrees C without the formation of new defects in the observed DLTS scanning range. The threshold energy for moving Si atom in SiC is higher than the applied irradiation energy, and the annihilation temperatures are relatively low, therefore the M-center, EH1 and EH3, as well as the EB-centers are attributed to defects related to the C atom in SiC, most probably to carbon interstitials and their complexes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics, 2011
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69907 (URN)10.1063/1.3586042 (DOI)000292115900079 ()
Note
Original Publication: Franziska Beyer, Carl Hemmingsson, Henrik Pedersen, Anne Henry, Erik Janzén, J. Isoya, N. Morishita and T. Ohshima, Annealing behavior of the EB-centers and M-center in low-energy electron irradiated n-type 4H-SiC, 2011, Journal of Applied Physics, (109), 10, 103703. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3586042 Copyright: American Institute of Physics http://www.aip.org/ Available from: 2011-08-09 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08
Henry, A., Leone, S., Beyer, F. C., Andersson, S., Kordina, O. & Janzén, E. (2011). Chloride based CVD of 3C-SiC on (0001) α-SiC substrates. In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 679-680 (2011) pp 75-78. Paper presented at ECSCRM 2010, Oslo, Norway (pp. 75-78). Trans Tech Publications Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chloride based CVD of 3C-SiC on (0001) α-SiC substrates
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2011 (English)In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 679-680 (2011) pp 75-78, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2011, p. 75-78Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A chloride-based chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) process has been successfully used to grow very high quality 3C-SiC epitaxial layers on on-axis α-SiC substrates. An accurate process parameters study was performed testing the effect of temperature, surface preparation, precursor ratios, nitrogen addition, and substrate polytype and polarity. The 3C layers deposited showed to be largely single-domain material of very high purity and of excellent electrical characteristics. A growth rate of up to 10 μm/h and a low background doping enable deposition of epitaxial layers suitable for MOSFET devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2011
Keywords
epitaxial growth, chloride-based CVD, on-axis, 3C-SiC
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73587 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.679-680.75 (DOI)
Conference
ECSCRM 2010, Oslo, Norway
Available from: 2012-01-09 Created: 2012-01-09 Last updated: 2014-10-08
Leone, S., Lin, Y.-C., Beyer, F. C., Andersson, S., Pedersen, H., Kordina, O., . . . Janzén, E. (2011). Chloride-Based CVD at High Rates of 4H-SiC on On-Axis Si-Face Substrates. In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 679-680 (2011) pp 59-62. Paper presented at ECSCRM2010, Oslo, Norway (pp. 59-62). Trans Tech Publications Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chloride-Based CVD at High Rates of 4H-SiC on On-Axis Si-Face Substrates
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2011 (English)In: Materials Science Forum Vols. 679-680 (2011) pp 59-62, Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2011, p. 59-62Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The epitaxial growth at 100 µm/h on on-axis 4H-SiC substrates is demonstrated in this study. Chloride-based CVD, which has been shown to be a reliable process to grow SiC epitaxial layers at rates above 100 µm/h on off-cut substrates, was combined with silane in-situ etching. A proper tuning of C/Si and Cl/Si ratios and the combination of different chlorinated precursors resulted in the homoepitaxial growth of 4H-SiC on Si-face substrates at high rates. Methyltrichlorosilane, added with silane, ethylene and hydrogen chloride were employed as precursors to perform epitaxial growths resulting in very low background doping concentration and high quality material, which could be employed for power devices structure on basal-plane-dislocation-free epitaxial layers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trans Tech Publications Inc., 2011
Keywords
Chloride-Based CVD, Epitaxial Growth, High Growth Rate, On-Axis
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-73600 (URN)10.4028/www.scientific.net/MSF.679-680.59 (DOI)
Conference
ECSCRM2010, Oslo, Norway
Available from: 2012-01-10 Created: 2012-01-10 Last updated: 2015-03-11
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