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Strömbäck, C., Lind, T., Skagerlund, K., Västfjäll, D. & Tinghög, G. (2017). Does self-control predict financial behavior and financial well-being?. Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, 14, 30-38.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Does self-control predict financial behavior and financial well-being?
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Behavioral and Experimental Finance, ISSN 2214-6350, E-ISSN 2214-6369, ISSN 2214-6350, Vol. 14, 30-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To improve our understanding of how people make financial decisions, it is important to investigate what psychological characteristics influence individuals’ positive financial behavior and financial well-being. In this study, we explore the effect of individual differences in self-control and other non-cognitive factors on financial behavior and financial well-being. A survey containing measures of financial behavior, subjective financial well-being, self-control, optimism, deliberative thinking and demographic variables was sent to a representative sample (n=2063)" role="presentation" style="box-sizing: border-box; display: inline-block; line-height: normal; font-size: 14.399999618530273px; word-wrap: normal; white-space: nowrap; float: none; direction: ltr; max-width: none; max-height: none; min-width: 0px; min-height: 0px; border: 0px; padding: 0px; margin: 0px; color: rgb(80, 80, 80); font-family: Arial, Helvetica, 'Lucida Sans Unicode', 'Microsoft Sans Serif', 'Segoe UI Symbol', STIXGeneral, 'Cambria Math', 'Arial Unicode MS', sans-serif; position: relative;"> of the Swedish population. Our findings extend the application of the behavioral lifecycle hypothesis beyond savings behavior, to include general financial behavior. People with good self-control are more likely to save money from every pay-check, have better general financial behavior, feel less anxious about financial matters, and feel more secure in their current and future financial situation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keyword
Financial behavior, Financial well-being, Self-control, Decision making, Behavioral finance
National Category
Economics Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-140677 (URN)10.1016/j.jbef.2017.04.002 (DOI)000405854600005 ()2-s2.0-85020027862 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Länsförsäkringar ABMarianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation, 2014.0187
Note

Export Date: 7 September 2017; Article

Available from: 2017-09-07 Created: 2017-09-07 Last updated: 2018-01-10Bibliographically approved
Reigstad, A., Eirik, S. & Tinghög, G. (2017). Extending the Cooperative Phenotype: Assessing the Stability of Cooperation across Countries. Frontiers in Psychology, 8, Article ID 1990.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending the Cooperative Phenotype: Assessing the Stability of Cooperation across Countries
2017 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, 1990Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper studies whether individual cooperation is stable across settings and over time. Involving more than 7,000 subjects on two different continents, this study documents positive correlation in cooperative behavior across economic games in Norway, Sweden, Austria, and the United States. The game measures also correlate with a tendency to make deontological judgments in moral dilemmas, and display of general trust toward strangers. Using time-variation in the data, we test whether temporal stability of behavior is similar in the United States and Norway, and find similar stability estimates for both the American and Norwegian samples. The findings here provide further evidence of the existence of a stable behavioral inclination toward prosociality – a “cooperative phenotype,” as it has recently been termed. Also in line with previous research, we find that punishment and cooperation seem to be uncorrelated.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2017
Keyword
cooperation, social preferences, cooperative phenotype, prosocial behavior, trust
National Category
Economics Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143024 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01990 (DOI)000415147100001 ()
Funder
Ragnar Söderbergs stiftelseMarianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation
Note

Funding agencies: University of Bergen; Ragnar Soderberg Foundation; Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg Foundation

Available from: 2017-11-15 Created: 2017-11-15 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Tinghög, G. & Andersson, D. (2016). Are Individuals Luck Egalitarians?: An Experiment on the Influence of Brute and Option Luck on Social Preferences. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Are Individuals Luck Egalitarians?: An Experiment on the Influence of Brute and Option Luck on Social Preferences
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

According to luck egalitarianism, inequalities should be deemed fair as long as they follow from individuals’ deliberate and fully informed choices, i.e. option luck – while inequalities should be deemed unfair if they follow from choices over which the individual has no control, i.e. brute luck. This study investigates if individuals’ fairness preferences correspond with the luck egalitarian fairness position. More specifically, in a laboratory experiment we test how individuals choose to redistribute gains and losses that stem from option luck compared to brute luck.

A two-stage experimental design with real incentives was employed. In total, 226 subjects were randomly assigned to either the brute luck or option luck treatment. Treatments were identical except for how monetary compensation for participation in the experiment was settled in stage one. In the option luck treatment, subjects were given the option to chose between a safe option (50 SEK) and a risky option (a 50/50 gamble between 0 SEK and 150 SEK). In the brute luck treatment no such choice was given, instead all subjects were compensated based on outcome of the risky option. In the second stage, subjects were asked to distribute additional endowments (100 SEK) in an anonymous dictator game using the strategy method, i.e. making decisions contingent on the recipient losing or wining in the gamble.

Individuals change their action associated with re-allocation depending on the underlying conception of luck. Subjects in the brute luck treatment equalized outcomes to larger extent (p=0.0069). Thus, subjects redistributed a larger amount to unlucky losers and a smaller amount to lucky winners compared to equivalent choices made in the option luck treatment.

We find strong support for people having a fairness preference not just for outcomes, but also for how those outcomes are reached. Our findings are potentially important for understanding the role citizens assign individual responsibility for life outcomes, i.e. health and wealth.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. 17 p.
Series
Linköping University Working Papers in Economics, 2016:1
Keyword
Fairness, luck egalitarianism, brute luck, option luck, dictator game, laboratory experiment
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125248 (URN)
Available from: 2016-02-17 Created: 2016-02-17 Last updated: 2016-02-19Bibliographically approved
Västfjäll, D., Paul, S., Burns, W., Erlandsson, A., Koppel, L., Asutay, E. & Tinghög, G. (2016). The Arithmetic of Emotion: Integration of Incidental and Integral Affect in Judgments and Decisions. Frontiers in Psychology, 7, 325.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Arithmetic of Emotion: Integration of Incidental and Integral Affect in Judgments and Decisions
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2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, 325- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research has demonstrated that two types of affect have an influence on judgment and decision making: incidental affect (affect unrelated to a judgment or decision such as a mood) and integral affect (affect that is part of the perceiver’s internal representation of the option or target under consideration). So far, these two lines of research have seldom crossed so that knowledge concerning their combined effects is largely missing. To fill this gap, the present review highlights differences and similarities between integral and incidental affect. Further, common and unique mechanisms that enable these two types of affect to influence judgment and choices are identified. Finally, some basic principles for affect integration when the two sources co-occur are outlined. These mechanisms are discussed in relation to existing work that has focused on incidental or integral affect but not both.

Keyword
emotions, incidental affect, integral affect, judgment, decision making
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126557 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00325 (DOI)27014136 (PubMedID)
Funder
Ragnar Söderbergs stiftelse
Available from: 2016-03-30 Created: 2016-03-30 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Eriksson, T. & Tinghög, G. (2015). Letter: Societal Cost of Skin Cancer in Sweden in 2011 [Letter to the editor]. Acta Dermato-Venereologica, 95(3), 347-348.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Letter: Societal Cost of Skin Cancer in Sweden in 2011
2015 (English)In: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, ISSN 0001-5555, E-ISSN 1651-2057, Vol. 95, no 3, 347-348 p.Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Society for the Publication of Acta Dermato - Venereologica, 2015
Keyword
Skin cancer; cost; cost-of-illness; Sweden
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111009 (URN)10.2340/00015555-1938 (DOI)000351249600021 ()25110892 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-10-02 Created: 2014-10-02 Last updated: 2017-12-18Bibliographically approved
William, H., David, A., Daniel, V. & Tinghög, G. (2015). Public Views on Policies Involving Nudges. Review of Philosophy and Psychology, 6(3), 439-453.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public Views on Policies Involving Nudges
2015 (English)In: Review of Philosophy and Psychology, ISSN 1878-5158, E-ISSN 1878-5166, Vol. 6, no 3, 439-453 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When should nudging be deemed as permissible and when should it be deemed as intrusive to individuals’ freedom of choice? Should all types of nudges be judged the same? To date the debate concerning these issues has largely proceeded without much input from the general public. The main objective of this study is to elicit public views on the use of nudges in policy. In particular we investigate attitudes toward two broad categories of nudges that we label pro-self (i.e. focusing on private welfare) and pro-social (i.e. focusing on social welfare) nudges. In addition we explore how individual differences in thinking and feeling influence attitudes toward nudges. General population samples in Sweden and the United States (n=952) were presented with vignettes describing nudge-policies and rated acceptability and intrusiveness on freedom of choice. To test for individual differences, measures on cultural cognition and analytical thinking were included. Results show that the level of acceptance toward nudge-policies was generally high in both countries, but were slightly higher among Swedes than Americans. Somewhat paradoxically a majority of the respondents also perceived the presented nudge-policies as intrusive to freedom of choice. Nudge- polices classified as pro-social had a significantly lower acceptance rate compared to pro-self nudges (p<.0001). Individuals with a more individualistic worldview were less likely to perceive nudges as acceptable, while individuals more prone to analytical thinking were less likely to perceive nudges as intrusive to freedom of choice. To conclude, our findings suggest that the notion of “one-nudge- fits-all” is not tenable. Recognizing this is an important aspect both for successfully implementing nudges as well as nuancing nudge theory. 

Keyword
Nudge; Libertarian Paternalism; Acceptability; Autonomi
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119071 (URN)10.1007/s13164-015-0263-2 (DOI)
Projects
Neuroekonomi
Available from: 2015-06-08 Created: 2015-06-08 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Wiss, J., Andersson, D., Slovic, P., Västfjäll, D. & Tinghög, G. (2015). The influence of identifiability and singularity in moral decision making. Judgment and decision making, 10(5), 492-502.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The influence of identifiability and singularity in moral decision making
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2015 (English)In: Judgment and decision making, ISSN 1930-2975, E-ISSN 1930-2975, Vol. 10, no 5, 492-502 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is an increased willingness to help identified individuals rather than non-identified, and the effect of identifiability is mainly present when a single individual rather than a group is presented. However, identifiability and singularity effects have thus far not been manipulated orthogonally. The present research uses a joint evaluation approach to examine the relative contribution of identifiability and singularity in moral decision-making reflecting conflicting values between deontology and consequentialism. As in trolley dilemmas subjects could either choose to stay with the default option, i.e., giving a potentially life-saving vaccine to a single child, or to actively choose to deny the single child the vaccine in favor of five other children. Identifiability of the single child and the group of children was varied between-subjects in a 2x2 factorial design. In total 1,232 subjects from Sweden and the United States participated in three separate experiments. Across all treatments, in all three experiments, 32.6% of the subjects chose to stay with the deontological default option instead of actively choosing to maximize benefits. Results show that identifiability does not always have a positive effect on decisions in allocation dilemmas. For single targets, identifiability had a negative or no effect in two out of three experiments, while for the group of targets identifiability had a more stable positive effect on subjects’ willingness to allocate vaccines. When the effect of identifiability was negative, process data showed that this effect was mediated by emotional reactance. Hence, the results show that the influence of identifiability is more complex than it has been previously portrayed in the literature on charitable giving. 

Keyword
identifiable victim effect, singularity effect, resource allocation, trolley dilemma, moral judgment, decision making, charitable giving
National Category
Applied Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122128 (URN)000362067700009 ()
Note

Funding text: Ragnar Soderberg Foundation; U.S. National Science Foundation [SES-1227729, SES-1427414]

Available from: 2015-10-19 Created: 2015-10-19 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Tinghög, G., Andersson, D., Tinghög, P. & Lyttkens, C. H. (2014). Horizontal Inequality in Rationing by Waiting Lists. International Journal of Health Services, 44(1), 169-184.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Horizontal Inequality in Rationing by Waiting Lists
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Health Services, ISSN 0020-7314, E-ISSN 1541-4469, International Journal of Health Services, ISSN 0020-7314, Vol. 44, no 1, 169-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The objective of this article was to investigate the existence of horizontal inequality in access to care for six categories of elective surgery in a publicly funded system, when care is rationed through waiting lists. Administrative waiting time data on all elective surgeries (n = 4,634) performed in Östergötland, Sweden, in 2007 were linked to national registers containing variables on socioeconomic indicators. Using multiple regression, we tested five hypotheses reflecting that more resourceful groups receive priority when rationing by waiting lists. Low disposable household income predicted longer waiting times for orthopedic surgery (27%, p < 0.01) and general surgery (34%,p < 0.05). However, no significant differences on the basis of ethnicity and gender were detected. A particularly noteworthy finding was that disposable household income appeared to be an increasingly influential factor when the waiting times were longer. Our findings reveal horizontal inequalities in access to elective surgeries, but only to a limited extent. Whether this is good or bad depends on one's moral inclination. From a policymaker's perspective, it is nevertheless important to recognize that horizontal inequalities arise even though care is not rationed through ability to pay.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Baywood Publishing Company, Inc., 2014
Keyword
Rationing, waiting list, horizontal equity, elective surgery, Sweden
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences Philosophy Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-65396 (URN)10.2190/HS.44.1.j (DOI)000331060500010 ()
Available from: 2011-02-07 Created: 2011-02-07 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Omar, F., Tinghög, G., Carlsson, P. & Welin, S. (2014). Risk för orättvis prioritering av patienter vid njurtransplantation: En enda väntelista bör införas, visar studie av svensk praxis. Läkartidningen, 111(37).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Risk för orättvis prioritering av patienter vid njurtransplantation: En enda väntelista bör införas, visar studie av svensk praxis
2014 (Swedish)In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 111, no 37Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [sv]

Njurar från avlidna donatorer är en gemensam resurs

Gemensamma resurser ska fördelas på ett effektivt och rättvist sätt.

I en intervjustudie innefattande svenska transplantationskirurger, nefrologer och transplantationskoordinatorer undersöktes faktorer och värden som ligger till grund för allokering av njurar.

Två risker för orättvisa i fördelningssystemet identifierades.

Faktorer och värden som ligger till grund för beslut bör göras mer publika och lättillgängliga.

Sverige bör införa ett nationellt, centraliserat fördelningssystem.

Abstract [en]

In order to investigate the fairness of the priority setting process underpinning Swedish kidney transplantation in reference to the Accountability for Reasonableness (A4R) framework, 15 interviews with transplant surgeons, nephrologists, and coordinators were carried out. The factors described by interviewees and the values they rest on satisfy the relevance criterion of the A4R. Two potential sources for unfair inequalities were identified, namely the use of clinical judge­ments and varying institutional policies among dif­ferent centres. It is recommended that factors and values used in the priority process are made more public. Sweden should also consider a national, centralised system for allocation of kidneys and not rely on present day local allocation.

Keyword
etik, prioritering, njurtransplantation
National Category
Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110626 (URN)25253609 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-09-16 Created: 2014-09-16 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Eriksson, T. & Tinghög, G. (2014). Samhällskostnader för hudcancer 2011. Stockholm: Strålsäkerhetsmyndigheten.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Samhällskostnader för hudcancer 2011
2014 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Bakgrund

Under senare år har antalet nya fall av hudcancer kraftigt ökat. I Sverige har antalet dödsfall till följd av hudcancer ökat med 38 procent mellan åren 1997 och 2011. Denna utveckling leder inte enbart till ökat mänskligt lidande i samband med sjukdom utan också till en ökad ekonomisk börda för samhället. Det är därför av stor vikt att motverka denna oroande utveckling för att undvika en allt tyngre samhällsbörda till följd av hudcancer.

Syfte

I denna rapport presenteras förekomsten av olika hudcancerdiagnoser i Sverige 2011 samt samhällskostnaderna relaterat till dessa diagnoser. Dessutom redovisas en sammanställning av genomförda hälsoekonomiska utvärderingar av preventiva insatser mot hudcancer som finns publicerat internationellt.

Resultatet från studien utgör även ett viktigt kunskapsunderlag i uppföljningen och vid måluppfyllelsebedömningen av miljökvalitetsmåletSäker strålmiljö.

Resultat

De totala kostnaderna för hudcancer i Sverige år 2011 beräknas till 1,58 miljarder kronor. Direkta kostnader (dvs. sjukvårdskostnader) uppgick till 909 miljoner kronor (58 procent), medan indirekta kostnader(dvs. produktionsbortfall) uppgick till 671 miljoner kronor (42 procent). Malignt melanom är den enskilda hudcancerdiagnos som står för de största samhällskostnaderna, 830 miljoner kronor. Det är framförallt kostnaderna kopplade till produktionsbortfall vid dödsfall som bidrar till att malignt melanom är den samhällsekonomiskt mest belastande hudcancerformen. Icke melanom hudcancer står dock för de största sjukvårdskostnaderna, 348 miljoner kronor. Detta beror främst på att dessa cancertyper sammantaget är betydligt vanligare förekommande än malignt melanom. Kostnaderna som presenteras i rapporten visar på en ökning med 331 miljoner kronor jämfört med de kostnader som presenterades år 2005 i en rapport av Tinghög et al på uppdrag av Statens strålskyddsinstitut (SSI).

Konklusioner

Den sammantagna slutsatsen baserad på litteraturöversikten av hälsoekonomiska utvärderingar av preventiva metoder mot hudcancer är att det idag saknas studier relevanta för den svenska kontexten där kostnadseffe - tiviteten bedömts. Svårigheten att kunna genomföra randomiserade kontrollerade studier är en bidragande orsak till detta. Framöver bör initiativ för att beräkna kostnadseffektivi eten av preventiva åtgärder efterlysas.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Strålsäkerhetsmyndigheten, 2014. 54 p.
Series
SSM rapport, ISSN 2000-0456 ; 2014:49
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113891 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, SSM2013-3522
Available from: 2015-02-03 Created: 2015-02-03 Last updated: 2017-03-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-8159-1249

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