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Sernelius, B. E. (2018). Fundamentals of van der Waals and Casimir Interactions. Cham: Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fundamentals of van der Waals and Casimir Interactions
2018 (English)Book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This book presents a self-contained derivation of van der Waals and Casimir type dispersion forces, covering the interactions between two atoms but also between microscopic, mesoscopic, and macroscopic objects of various shapes and materials. It also presents detailed and general prescriptions for finding the normal modes and the interactions in layered systems of planar, spherical and cylindrical types, with two-dimensional sheets, such as graphene incorporated in the formalism.

A detailed derivation of the van der Waals force and Casimir-Polder force between two polarizable atoms serves as the starting point for the discussion of forces: Dispersion forces, of van der Waals and Casimir type, act on bodies of all size, from atoms up to macroscopic objects. The smaller the object the more these forces dominate and as a result they play a key role in modern nanotechnology through effects such as stiction. They show up in almost all fields of science, including physics, chemistry, biology, medicine, and even cosmology.

Written by a condensed matter physicist in the language of condensed matter physics, the book shows readers how to obtain the electromagnetic normal modes, which for metallic systems, is especially useful in the field of plasmonics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cham: Springer, 2018. p. 416
Series
Springer Series on Atomic, Optical, and Plasma Physics, ISSN 1615-5653, E-ISSN 2197-6791 ; 102
Keywords
Van der Waals Interactions, Dispersion Interactions, Vacuum Energy, Zero-Point Energy, Electromagnetic Normal Modes, Surface Modes, Layered Structures, Casimir Interaction, Interaction Power Laws
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151685 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-99831-2 (DOI)9783319998305 (ISBN)9783319998312 (ISBN)
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2019-08-15Bibliographically approved
Sernelius, B. E. (2015). Casimir effects in systems containing 2D layers such as graphene and 2D electron gases. Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, 27(21), 214017
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Casimir effects in systems containing 2D layers such as graphene and 2D electron gases
2015 (English)In: Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter, ISSN 0953-8984, E-ISSN 1361-648X, Vol. 27, no 21, p. 214017-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present a variety of methods to derive the Casimir interaction in planar systems containing2D layers. Examples where this can be of use is graphene, graphene-like layers and 2Delectron gases. We present results for two free standing layers and for one layer above asubstrate. The results can easily be extended to systems with a larger number of layers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2015
Keywords
Casimir, 2D, graphene, normal modes, Feynman diagrams, zero-point energy
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117886 (URN)10.1088/0953-8984/27/21/214017 (DOI)000354390300018 ()25965400 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-05-12 Created: 2015-05-12 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Sernelius, B. (2015). Core-level spectra from graphene. Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 91(4), 045402
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Core-level spectra from graphene
2015 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 91, no 4, p. 045402-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We calculate core-level spectra for pristine and doped free-standing graphene sheets. Instructions for how to perform the calculations are given in detail. Although pristine graphene is not metallic the core-level spectrum presents low-energy tailing which is characteristic of metallic systems. The peak shapes vary with doping level in a characteristic way. The spectra are compared to experiments and show good agreement. We compare to two different pristine samples and to one doped sample. The pristine samples are one with quasi-free-standing epitaxial graphene on SiC obtained by hydrogen intercalation and one with a suspended graphene sheet. The doped sample is a gold supported graphene sheet. The gold substrate acts as an acceptor so the graphene sheet gets p doped.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physical Society, 2015
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114240 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.91.045402 (DOI)000347921700007 ()
Available from: 2015-02-16 Created: 2015-02-16 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Ferreira da Silva, A., Levine, A., Sadre Momtaz, Z., Boudinov, H. & Sernelius, B. (2015). Magnetoresistance of doped silicon. Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 91(21), 214414
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Magnetoresistance of doped silicon
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2015 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 91, no 21, p. 214414-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have performed longitudinal magnetoresistance measurements on heavily n-doped silicon for donor concentrations exceeding the critical value for the metal-nonmetal transition. The results are compared to those from a many-body theory where the donor electrons are assumed to reside at the bottom of the many-valley conduction band of the host. Good qualitative agreement between theory and experiment is obtained.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physical Society, 2015
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-119788 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.91.214414 (DOI)000355825000002 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|National Research Council of Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq); Bahia Research Foundation (FAPESB)/PRONEX; Sao Paulo Research Foundation (FAPESP)

Available from: 2015-06-26 Created: 2015-06-26 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Bostrom, M., Thiyam, P., Persson, C., Parsons, D. F., Buhmann, S. Y., Brevik, I. & Sernelius, B. (2015). Non-perturbative theory of dispersion interactions. Physica Scripta, 90(3), 035405
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Non-perturbative theory of dispersion interactions
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2015 (English)In: Physica Scripta, ISSN 0031-8949, E-ISSN 1402-4896, Vol. 90, no 3, p. 035405-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Some open questions exist with fluctuation-induced forces between extended dipoles. Conventional intuition derives from large-separation perturbative approximations to dispersion force theory. Here, we present a full non-perturbative theory. In addition, we discuss how one can take into account finite dipole size corrections. It is of fundamental value to investigate the limits of validity of the perturbative dispersion force theory.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP Publishing: Hybrid Open Access, 2015
Keywords
fluctuation forces; non-perturbative theory; van der Waals interactions
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-116966 (URN)10.1088/0031-8949/90/3/035405 (DOI)000350866700023 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Research Council of Norway [221469]; European Commission; German Research Council [BU 1803/3-1]; Freiburg Institute for Advanced Studies; Swedish Research Council [C0485101]

Available from: 2015-04-13 Created: 2015-04-10 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Meng, F., Thomson, M. D., Sernelius, B. & Roskos, H. G. (2015). Relativistic Doppler Frequency Up-conversion and Probing the Initial Relaxation of a Non-Equilibrium Electron-Hole Plasma in Silicon. In: 2015 40TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFRARED, MILLIMETER AND TERAHERTZ WAVES (IRMMW-THZ): . Paper presented at 40th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz). IEEE
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relativistic Doppler Frequency Up-conversion and Probing the Initial Relaxation of a Non-Equilibrium Electron-Hole Plasma in Silicon
2015 (English)In: 2015 40TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON INFRARED, MILLIMETER AND TERAHERTZ WAVES (IRMMW-THZ), IEEE , 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

we demonstrate experimentally the relativistic Doppler frequency up-conversion of the THz pulses from the counter-propagating ionized plasma front in silicon. The observed frequency up-conversion can be well modeled by the 1D FDTD simulations if significant short scattering time (well below 10 fs) in the plasma is assumed. To further elucidate the scattering rate in the electro-hole plasma, we performed pump probe experiment employing ultra-broadband (150 THz) THz-Mid-Infrared pulse. The results show the scattering time decreases from similar to 200 fs down to similar to 20 fs when the carrier density increases up to 10(19)-cm(-3), and then saturates for higher densities. Such scattering time dependence on plasma carrier density can be very well fitted by the Drude model for thermalized electron-holes, and the saturation behavior is attributed to electron-hole phase-space restriction as the plasma becomes degenerate. The resultant much shorter scattering time measured with non-thermalized plasma is in good accordance with the Doppler experiment, which demonstrates Doppler geometry an effective method for probing non-equilibrium plasma dynamics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE, 2015
Series
International Conference on Infrared Millimeter and Terahertz Waves, ISSN 2162-2027
National Category
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129682 (URN)10.1109/IRMMW-THz.2015.7327552 (DOI)000376674000160 ()978-1-4799-8272-1 (ISBN)
Conference
40th International Conference on Infrared, Millimeter, and Terahertz Waves (IRMMW-THz)
Available from: 2016-06-27 Created: 2016-06-23 Last updated: 2016-06-27
Thomson, M. D., Meng, F., Sernelius, B. E. & Roskos, H. G. (2015). Relativistic Doppler reflection as a probe for the initialrelaxation of a non-equilibrium electron-hole plasma in silicon. Paper presented at 19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19), Salamanca, Spain, 29 June to 2 July 2015. Journal of Physics, Conference Series, 647, 012016-012019
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relativistic Doppler reflection as a probe for the initialrelaxation of a non-equilibrium electron-hole plasma in silicon
2015 (English)In: Journal of Physics, Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596, Vol. 647, p. 012016-012019Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper reviews the status of investigations of the relativistic Doppler reflectionof a broadband terahertz pulse at a counter-propagating plasma front of photo-excited chargecarriers in undoped silicon. When a THz pulse with 20-THz bandwidth impinges onto amoving plasma front with a carrier density in the range of 1019 per cm3, one observes a spectralup-shift, which is, however, much less pronounced than expected from simulations assuming a Drude plasma characterized by a single carrier relaxation time τ of the order of 15-100 fs.Qualitative agreement between simulations and experiments can be achieved if τ is chosen tobe less than 5 fs. In order to explore carrier relaxation in more detail, optical-pump/THz-probeexperiments in the conventional co-propagation geometry were performed. If the pump-probedelay is long enough for monitoring of the equilibrium value of the scattering time, τ rangesfrom 200 fs at low carrier density to 20 fs in the 1019-cm-3 density range. For small (subpicosecond)pump-probe delay, the data reveal a significantly faster scattering, which slowsdown during energy relaxation of the charge carriers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2015
Keywords
Relativistic Doppler reflection, non-equilibrium electron-hole plasma, relaxation, silicon.
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123876 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/647/1/012016 (DOI)000366236800016 ()
Conference
19th International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures (EDISON'19), Salamanca, Spain, 29 June to 2 July 2015
Funder
German Research Foundation (DFG)
Available from: 2016-01-12 Created: 2016-01-12 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Meng, F., Thomson, M. D., Sernelius, B., Joerger, M. & Roskos, H. G. (2015). Ultrafast dynamic conductivity and scattering rate saturation of photoexcited charge carriers in silicon investigated with a midinfrared continuum probe. Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 91(7), 075201
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ultrafast dynamic conductivity and scattering rate saturation of photoexcited charge carriers in silicon investigated with a midinfrared continuum probe
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2015 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 91, no 7, p. 075201-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We employ ultrabroadband terahertz-midinfrared probe pulses to characterize the optical response of photoinduced charge-carrier plasmas in high-resistivity silicon in a reflection geometry, over a wide range of excitation densities (10(15)-10(19) cm(-3)) at room temperature. In contrast to conventional terahertz spectroscopy studies, this enables one to directly cover the frequency range encompassing the resultant plasma frequencies. The intensity reflection spectra of the thermalized plasma, measured using sum-frequency (up-conversion) detection of the probe pulses, can be modeled well by a standard Drude model with a density-dependent momentum scattering time of similar to 200 fs at low densities, reaching similar to 20 fs for densities of similar to 10(19) cm(-3), where the increase of the scattering rate saturates. This behavior can be reproduced well with theoretical results based on the generalized Drude approach for the electron-hole scattering rate, where the saturation occurs due to phase-space restrictions as the plasma becomes degenerate. We also study the initial subpicosecond temporal development of the Drude response and discuss the observed rise in the scattering time in terms of initial charge-carrier relaxation, as well as the optical response of the photoexcited sample as predicted by finite-difference time-domain simulations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physical Society, 2015
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114978 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.91.075201 (DOI)000349247900002 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG)

Available from: 2015-03-10 Created: 2015-03-06 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Ninham, B. W., Bostrom, M., Persson, C., Brevik, I., Buhmann, S. Y. & Sernelius, B. (2014). Casimir forces in a plasma: possible connections to Yukawa potentials. European Physical Journal D: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, 68(10), 328
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Casimir forces in a plasma: possible connections to Yukawa potentials
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2014 (English)In: European Physical Journal D: Atomic, Molecular and Optical Physics, ISSN 1434-6060, E-ISSN 1434-6079, Vol. 68, no 10, p. 328-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We present theoretical and numerical results for the screened Casimir effect between perfect metal surfaces in a plasma. We show how the Casimir effect in an electron-positron plasma can provide an important contribution to nuclear interactions. Our results suggest that there is a connection between Casimir forces and nucleon forces mediated by mesons. Correct nuclear energies and meson masses appear to emerge naturally from the screened Casimir-Lifshitz effect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
EDP Sciences: EPJ / Springer Verlag (Germany), 2014
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112830 (URN)10.1140/epjd/e2014-50484-8 (DOI)000344342100011 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Research Council of Norway [221469]; Department of Energy and Process Engineering (NTNU, Norway); Swedish Research Council [C0485101]; DFG [BU 1803/3-1]

Available from: 2015-01-08 Created: 2014-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Sernelius, B. (2014). Electromagnetic normal modes and Casimir effects in layered structures. Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, 90(15), 155457
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electromagnetic normal modes and Casimir effects in layered structures
2014 (English)In: Physical Review B. Condensed Matter and Materials Physics, ISSN 1098-0121, E-ISSN 1550-235X, Vol. 90, no 15, p. 155457-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We derive a general procedure for finding the electromagnetic normal modes in layered structures. We apply this procedure to planar, spherical, and cylindrical structures. These normal modes are important in a variety of applications. They are the only input needed in calculations of Casimir interactions. We present an explicit expression for the condition for modes and Casimir energy for a large number of specific geometries. The layers are allowed to be two-dimensional so graphene and graphenelike sheets as well as two-dimensional electron gases can be handled within the formalism. Also, forces on atoms in layered structures are obtained. One side result is the van der Waals and Casimir-Polder interaction between two atoms.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Physical Society, 2014
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113065 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.90.155457 (DOI)000345636400007 ()
Available from: 2015-01-09 Created: 2015-01-08 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-6281-868X

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