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Jensen, Per
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Publications (10 of 121) Show all publications
Fallahsharoudi, A., Løtvedt, P., Beltéky, J., Altimiras, J. & Jensen, P. (2019). Changes in pituitary gene expression may underlie multiple domesticated traits in chickens.. Heredity, 122(2), 195-204
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Changes in pituitary gene expression may underlie multiple domesticated traits in chickens.
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2019 (English)In: Heredity, ISSN 0018-067X, E-ISSN 1365-2540, Vol. 122, no 2, p. 195-204Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Domesticated animals share a unique set of morphological and behavioral traits, jointly referred to as the domesticated phenotype. Striking similarities amongst a range of unrelated domesticated species suggest that similar regulatory mechanisms may underlie the domesticated phenotype. These include color pattern, growth, reproduction, development and stress response. Although previous studies have focused on the brain to find mechanisms underlying domestication, the potential role of the pituitary gland as a target of domestication is highly overlooked. Here, we study gene expression in the pituitary gland of the domesticated White Leghorn chicken and its wild ancestor, the Red Junglefowl. By overlapping differentially expressed genes with a previously published list of functionally important genes in the pituitary gland, we narrowed down to 34 genes. Amongst them, expression levels of genes with inhibitory function on pigmentation (ASIP), main stimulators of metabolism and sexual maturity (TSHB and DIO2), and a potential inhibitor of broodiness (PRLR), were higher in the domesticated breed. Additionally, expression of 2 key inhibitors of the stress response (NR3C1, CRHR2) was higher in the domesticated breed. We suggest that changes in the transcription of important modulatory genes in the pituitary gland can account not only for domestication of the stress response in domestic chickens, but also for changes in pigmentation, development, and reproduction. Given the pivotal role of the pituitary gland in the regulation of multiple shared domesticated traits, we suggest that similar changes in pituitary transcriptome may contribute to the domesticated phenotype in other species as well.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148742 (URN)10.1038/s41437-018-0092-z (DOI)000455217300005 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council (VR) [2015-05444]; Swedish Research Council Formas [2016-00645]; European Research Council (ERC) [322206 GENEWELL]

Available from: 2018-06-18 Created: 2018-06-18 Last updated: 2019-01-29Bibliographically approved
Jensen, P. (2018). 2 - Genetics and genomics of animal welfare. In: Joy A. Mench (Ed.), Advances in Agricultural Animal Welfare: (pp. 25-48). Woodhead Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>2 - Genetics and genomics of animal welfare
2018 (English)In: Advances in Agricultural Animal Welfare / [ed] Joy A. Mench, Woodhead Publishing , 2018, p. 25-48Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Behavior and welfare are closely dependent on the underlying genetics, yet so far this connection has been poorly investigated. Using domestication as a model, this chapter outlines the fundamentals of genetic inheritance, and explains some central concepts such as linkage, pleiotropy, epistasis, and heritability. It then outlines the essential approaches to finding single genes associated with specific behavioral- and welfare-related traits. These are split into top-down and bottom-up approaches, depending on whether the phenotype or genotype is the starting point for analysis. Finally, the novel field of epigenetics and its importance for welfare science are covered.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Woodhead Publishing, 2018
Series
Food Science, Technology and Nutrition
Keywords
QTL, domestication, epigenetics, genetic mapping, GWAS, heritability
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160767 (URN)10.1016/B978-0-08-101215-4.00002-X (DOI)9780081012154 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-10-07 Created: 2019-10-07 Last updated: 2019-10-07Bibliographically approved
Buller, H., Blokhuis, H., Jensen, P. & Keeling, L. (2018). Towards Farm Animal Welfare and Sustainability. Animals, 8(6), Article ID 81.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards Farm Animal Welfare and Sustainability
2018 (English)In: Animals, ISSN 2076-2615, E-ISSN 2076-2615, Vol. 8, no 6, article id 81Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As farm animal welfare becomes an increasingly important component of contemporary global livestock production, animal welfare science and animal welfare policy-making need to find new ways of entering global debates over food security and sustainability. In this paper, we explore the means by which both animal welfare science and policy should articulate with these emerging global debates. Having first established the important gains in animal welfare policy and the maturity of animal welfare science, we identify and explore the potential impact of these current debates and argue that they have the potential for profound change in our understanding of, and our response to, the welfare of animals. We conclude the paper with a number of possible recommendations for how a scientifically informed, sustainable animal welfare policy might flourish.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2018
Keywords
farm animal welfare; sustainability; food security
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149724 (URN)10.3390/ani8060081 (DOI)000436270600003 ()29799456 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Centre for Excellence in Animal Welfare Science

Available from: 2018-07-24 Created: 2018-07-24 Last updated: 2018-08-14
Jensen, P. (2017). Behaviour genetics, evolution and domestication (3ed.). In: Per Jensen (Ed.), The ethology of domestic animals: an introcuctory text (pp. 11-25). wallingford: CABI Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behaviour genetics, evolution and domestication
2017 (English)In: The ethology of domestic animals: an introcuctory text / [ed] Per Jensen, wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2017, 3, p. 11-25Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2017 Edition: 3
Keywords
Etologi
National Category
Behavioral Sciences Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161098 (URN)9781786391650 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-10-22 Created: 2019-10-22 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
Løtvedt, P., Fallahshahroudi, A., Bektic, L., Altimiras, J. & Jensen, P. (2017). Chicken domestication changes expression of stress-related genes in brain, pituitary and adrenals. Neurobiology of stress, 7, 113-121
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Chicken domestication changes expression of stress-related genes in brain, pituitary and adrenals
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2017 (English)In: Neurobiology of stress, ISSN 2352-2895, Vol. 7, p. 113-121Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Domesticated species have an attenuated behavioral and physiological stress response compared to their wild counterparts, but the genetic mechanisms underlying this change are not fully understood. We investigated gene expression of a panel of stress response-related genes in five tissues known for their involvement in the stress response: hippocampus, hypothalamus, pituitary, adrenal glands and liver of domesticated White Leghorn chickens and compared it with the wild ancestor of all domesticated breeds, the Red Junglefowl. Gene expression was measured both at baseline and after 45 min of restraint stress. Most of the changes in gene expression related to stress were similar to mammals, with an upregulation of genes such as FKBP5, C-FOS and EGR1 in hippocampus and hypothalamus and StAR, MC2R and TH in adrenal glands. We also found a decrease in the expression of CRHR1 in the pituitary of chickens after stress, which could be involved in negative feedback regulation of the stress response. Furthermore, we observed a downregulation of EGR1 and C-FOS in the pituitary following stress, which could be a potential link between stress and its effects on reproduction and growth in chickens. We also found changes in the expression of important genes between breeds such as GR in the hypothalamus, POMC and PC1 in the pituitary and CYP11A1 and HSD3B2 in the adrenal glands. These results suggest that the domesticated White Leghorn may have a higher capacity for negative feedback of the HPA axis, a lower capacity for synthesis of ACTH in the pituitary and a reduced synthesis rate of corticosterone in the adrenal glands compared to Red Junglefowl. All of these findings could explain the attenuated stress response in the domesticated birds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Animal domestication, Chicken, Gene expression, Glucocorticoid receptor, HPA axis, Stress response
National Category
Genetics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143054 (URN)10.1016/j.ynstr.2017.08.002 (DOI)28879214 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85028334770 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-17 Created: 2017-11-17 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Beltéky, J., Eklund, B. & Jensen, P. (2017). Gene expression of behaviorally relevant genes in the cerebral hemisphere changes after selection for tameness in Red Junglefowl.. PLoS ONE, 12(5), Article ID e0177004.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gene expression of behaviorally relevant genes in the cerebral hemisphere changes after selection for tameness in Red Junglefowl.
2017 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 12, no 5, article id e0177004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The process of domestication in animals has led to alterations in behavior, physiology and phenotypic traits, changes that may be driven by correlations with reduced fear of humans. We used Red Junglefowl, ancestors of all domesticated chickens selected for either high or low fear of humans for five generations to study the effects of selection on gene transcription in the cerebral hemisphere, which is heavily involved in behaviour control. A total of 24 individuals from the parental generation as well as from the fifth selected generation were used. Twenty-two genes were significantly differentially expressed at p < 0.05 after false discovery rate (FDR) correction. Those genes that were upregulated in the low fearful animals were found to be involved in neural functions. Gene ontology and pathway analysis revealed enrichment for terms associated with behavioural processes. We conclude that five generations of divergent selection for high or low tameness has significantly changed gene expression patterns in the cerebral hemisphere in the Red Junglefowl population used here, which could underlie a range of changes in the domestic phenotype.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2017
National Category
Behavioral Sciences Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-137300 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0177004 (DOI)000401313700027 ()28481924 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: research council Formas [221-2010-35]; Swedish Research Council VR [621-2011-4731]; European Research Council, ERC [322206 GENEWELL]; ERC [322206 GENEWELL]

Available from: 2017-05-11 Created: 2017-05-11 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Jensen, P. (Ed.). (2017). The ethology of domestic animals: an introductory text. Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK ;: CABI Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The ethology of domestic animals: an introductory text
2017 (English)Collection (editor) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Completely updated, revised and redesigned in colour throughout, this classic bestselling text continues to provide a concise introduction to the important fundamentals of animal behaviour from genetics, physiology, motivation, learning and cognition, through to social and reproductive behaviour, abnormal behaviour and human-animal interactions.- Concise but comprehensive coverage of all the fundamentals of animal behaviour in companion, farm and laboratory animals.- Expert authors and key opinion leaders from around the world provide the latest evidence-based information on animal behaviour and welfare.- A revised layout and design, means it is easy to find key information at a glance, making it an ideal rapid revision tool.- New for the third edition: new chapters on fur animals with the inclusion of more species and expanded sections on canine behaviour.This text remains a highly respected, essential resource for both students and lecturers in animal and veterinary science, animal welfare, zoology and psychology.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wallingford, Oxfordshire, UK ;: CABI Publishing, 2017. p. 299
Keywords
Etnologi, Boskapsskötsel, Boskap
National Category
Animal and Dairy Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151592 (URN)9781786391650 (ISBN)
Note

Table of Contents

1: The study of animal behaviour and its applications, Per Jensen

2: Behaviour genetics, evolution and domestication, Per Jensen

3: Behaviour and physiology, Anna Valros and Laura Hänninen

4: Motivation and the organisation of behaviour, Georgia Mason and Melissa Bateson

5: Learning and Cognition, Michael Mendl and Christine J. Nicol

6: Social and reproductive behaviour, Daniel M. Weary and David Fraser

7: Play and ontogeny of behaviour, Susan Held

8: Introduction to animal personality, Hanne Løvlie

9: Abnormal behaviour, stress and welfare, Linda Keeling and Per Jensen

10: Human-animal relations, Susanne Waiblinger

11: Behaviour of domesticated birds: chickens, turkeys and ducks, Joy Mench

12: Behaviour of horses, Daniel Mills and Sarah Redgate

13: Behaviour of Cattle, Cassandra B. Tucker

14: The behaviour of sheep and goats, Cathy Dwyer

15: Behaviour of pigs, Marek Špinka

16: BEHAVIOUR OF DOGS, Deborah L. Wells

17: Behaviour of cats, John Bradshaw

18: Behaviour of Foxes and Mink kept for Fur Production, Anne-Lene Hovland, Leena Ahola, Jens Malmkvist

19: The behaviour of laboratory mice and rats, Hanno Würbel, Charlotte Burn and Naomi Latham

Available from: 2018-09-26 Created: 2018-09-26 Last updated: 2018-09-26Bibliographically approved
Jensen, P. (2017). The study of animal behaviour and its applications. In: Per Jensen (Ed.), The ethnology of domestic animals: an introcuctory text (pp. 3-10). Wallingford: CABI Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The study of animal behaviour and its applications
2017 (English)In: The ethnology of domestic animals: an introcuctory text / [ed] Per Jensen, Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2017, p. 3-10Chapter in book (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wallingford: CABI Publishing, 2017
Keywords
Etologi
National Category
Behavioral Sciences Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161094 (URN)9781786391650 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-10-22 Created: 2019-10-22 Last updated: 2019-10-22Bibliographically approved
Karlsson, A.-C., Fallahsharoudi, A., Johnsen, H., Hagenblad, J., Wright, D., Andersson, L. & Jensen, P. (2016). A domestication related mutation in the thyroid stimulating hormonereceptor gene (TSHR) modulates photoperiodic response andreproduction in chickens. General and Comparative Endocrinology, 228, 69-78
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A domestication related mutation in the thyroid stimulating hormonereceptor gene (TSHR) modulates photoperiodic response andreproduction in chickens
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2016 (English)In: General and Comparative Endocrinology, ISSN 0016-6480, E-ISSN 1095-6840, Vol. 228, p. 69-78Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The thyroid stimulating hormone receptor gene (TSHR) has been suggested to be a ‘‘domestication locus”in the chicken. A strong selective sweep over TSHR in domestic breeds together with significant effects ofa mutation in the gene on several domestication related traits, indicate that the gene has been importantfor chicken domestication. TSHR plays a key role in the signal transduction of seasonal reproduction,which is characteristically less strict in domestic animals. We used birds from an advanced intercross linebetween ancestral Red Junglefowl (RJF) and domesticated White Leghorn (WL) to investigate effects ofthe mutation on reproductive traits as well as on TSHB, TSHR, DIO2 and DIO3 gene expression duringaltered day length (photoperiod). We bred chickens homozygous for either the mutation (d/d) or wildtype allele (w/w), allowing assessment of the effect of genotype at this locus while also controlling forbackground variation in the rest of the genome. TSHR gene expression in brain was significantly lowerin both d/d females and males and d/d females showed a faster onset of egg laying at sexual maturity thanw/w. Furthermore, d/d males showed a reduced testicular size response to decreased day length, andlower levels of TSHB and DIO3 expression. Additionally, purebred White Leghorn females kept under naturalshort day length in Sweden during December had active ovaries and lower levels of TSHR and DIO3expression compared to Red Junglefowl females kept under similar conditions. Our study indicates thatthe TSHR mutation affects photoperiodic response in chicken by reducing dependence of seasonal reproduction,a typical domestication feature, and may therefore have been important for chickendomestication.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Domestication, DIO2, DIO3, TSHB Chicken, Gallus gallus
National Category
Zoology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125283 (URN)10.1016/j.ygcen.2016.02.010 (DOI)000372681400010 ()26873630 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies:  Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, FORMAS (Formel Excel); Swedish Research Council, VR; European Research Council (ERC) [322206]

Available from: 2016-02-19 Created: 2016-02-19 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Foyer, P., Svedberg, A.-M., Nilsson, E., Wilsson, E., Olsen Faresjö, Å. & Jensen, P. (2016). Behavior and cortisol responses of dogs evaluated in a standardized temperament test for military working dogs. Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, 11, 7-12
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Behavior and cortisol responses of dogs evaluated in a standardized temperament test for military working dogs
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Veterinary Behavior: Clinical Applications and Research, ISSN 1558-7878, E-ISSN 1878-7517, Vol. 11, p. 7-12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Military and police working dogs are often exposed to stressful or threatening events, and an improper response, e.g., fear, may implicate both reduced working efficiency and welfare. Therefore, identifying individuals that display a favorable response to potentially threatening situations is of great interest. In the present study, we investigated behavior responses of 85 prospective military working dogs in 4 subtests in a standardized temperament test used to select working dogs for the Swedish Armed Forces. Our goal was to evaluate behavioral responses in specific subtests and cortisol responses of candidate dogs. After dogs were rated as approved or nonapproved based on the test leader’s assessment of the full test result, we independently analyzed video recordings of 4 subtests. In addition, for 37 dogs, we analyzed pretest and posttest salivary cortisol levels. Dogs which were approved by the test leader for further training scored higher in the video recordings on emotionality and, in particular, fear-related behavior during a subset of the test and had higher levels of cortisol both before and after the test, than nonapproved dogs. Although this may actually reflect the desired traits, it could also indicate a bias in the selection procedure, which may pose limitations on the attempts to recruit the most suitable working dogs.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Working dog; temperament test; behavior; cortisol
National Category
Behavioral Sciences Biology Genetics and Breeding Other Veterinary Science
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122584 (URN)10.1016/j.jveb.2015.09.006 (DOI)000368923100002 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council Formas; European Research Council, within the project GENEWELL [322206]

Available from: 2015-11-10 Created: 2015-11-10 Last updated: 2017-05-07
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