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Jansson, J. O., Holmgren, J. & Ljungberg, A. (2015). Pricing public transport services. In: Chris Nash (Ed.), Handbook of research methods and applications in transport economics and policy: (pp. 260-308). Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pricing public transport services
2015 (English)In: Handbook of research methods and applications in transport economics and policy / [ed] Chris Nash, Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 260-308Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This chapter aims at outlining pricing policy for public transport that maximizes the social surplus, that is, the sum of the producer surplus and the consumer surplus, while internalizing possible system-external costs. It starts by presenting the door-to-door transport cost as a key concept in price theory for public transport, and then first principles of optimal pricing valid for all modes of public transport are laid down. These principles are applied to urban (short-distance) public transport in sections 13.2–13.5 and to inter-urban (long-distance) public transport in section 13.6. Section 13.7 summarizes the methodological conclusions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015
Keywords
economics and finance, transport, environment, research methods in the environment, transport, research methods, research methods in economics, research methods in the environment, urban and regional studies, research methods in urban and regional studies, transport, Kollektivtrafik
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125188 (URN)10.4337/9780857937933.00022 (DOI)9780857937926 (ISBN)9780857937933 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-02-15 Created: 2016-02-15 Last updated: 2016-04-13Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, J. & Ivehammar, P. (2015). Public Transport Quality As a Tool for Reducing Car Dependency. In: Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany: . Paper presented at European Transport Conference. September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public Transport Quality As a Tool for Reducing Car Dependency
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127162 (URN)
Conference
European Transport Conference. September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
Available from: 2016-04-15 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2016-04-29
Ivehammar, P. & Holmgren, J. (2015). The Relation Between Perceived and Actual Private Travel Costs – a Key Question for Efficient Modal Split. In: Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany: . Paper presented at Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Relation Between Perceived and Actual Private Travel Costs – a Key Question for Efficient Modal Split
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127152 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
Available from: 2016-04-15 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2016-04-29
Holmgren, J. (2014). A strategy for increased public transport usage: The effects of implementing a welfare maximizing policy. Research in Transportation Economics, 48, 221-226
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A strategy for increased public transport usage: The effects of implementing a welfare maximizing policy
2014 (English)In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 48, p. 221-226Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

For a long time public transport has experienced a struggle against rising costs and increasing car ownership. So far, public transport appears to be on the losing side in terms of market shares. The aim if this paper is to investigate if a different policy could result in higher public transport usage and improved social welfare. In order to achieve this, a model, explaining public transport usage, public transport supply and costs, is estimated. The model is then used in order to simulate the outcome of an alternative policy of social welfare maximization. It is found that the current policy of the Swedish transport is not efficient in terms of maximizing welfare. In 2011, public transport fares should have been lower in 20 of 21 counties and the supply of vehicle kilometres should have been higher in 17 of 21 counties. Implementing a welfare maximizing policy would have increased the number of trips per capita by 17.2% in 2011 and by an average of 6.7% for the period 1986-2011.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Demand, Supply, Public transport, Price, Fare, Optimization, Welfare, Policy, Kollektivtrafik, Efterfrågan, Pris, Prissättning, Optimering, Välfärd, Välfärdsmaximering, Utbud
National Category
Economics Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112962 (URN)10.1016/j.retrec.2014.09.046 (DOI)000349567800027 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyTrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Available from: 2015-01-05 Created: 2015-01-05 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Weinholt, Å. & Holmgren, J. (2014). Evaluating the effects of organizational changes and private sector involvement on cost efficiency in fire and rescue services. In: : . Paper presented at International Research Society for Public Management Conference 2014 (IRSPM 2014), April 9-11, Ottawa, Canada.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluating the effects of organizational changes and private sector involvement on cost efficiency in fire and rescue services
2014 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Keywords
Fire- and rescue services, Cost, Stochastic frontier, Efficiency, Collaboration
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107504 (URN)
Conference
International Research Society for Public Management Conference 2014 (IRSPM 2014), April 9-11, Ottawa, Canada
Available from: 2014-06-13 Created: 2014-06-13 Last updated: 2014-08-06
Holmgren, J. & Ivehammar, P. (2014). Making headway towards a better understanding of service frequency valuations: a study of how the relative valuation of train service frequency and in-vehicle time vary with traveller characteristics. International Journal of Transport Economics, 41(1), 109-129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making headway towards a better understanding of service frequency valuations: a study of how the relative valuation of train service frequency and in-vehicle time vary with traveller characteristics
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Transport Economics, ISSN 0303-5247, E-ISSN 1724-2185, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 109-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

On-going urbanization has led to greater distances between homes and workplaces and more long-distance commuting, increasing the need for efficient inter-urban transport infrastructure. For sustainability, trains are preferred to private cars.

Two key variables affecting door-to-door train travel time are in-vehicle time (IVT) and headway ; however, there is often a trade-off between speed and frequency in a system. If different categories of travellers value IVT and headway differently, their proportions on a route should affect traffic planning. Optimal system design might differ between routes carrying many commuters and routes carrying mainly passengers on single private or business trips. Knowledge of differences in relative valuations of headway versus IVT should therefore affect railway system design.

We investigate whether the relative values of headway versus IVT differ between inter- urban commuting by train and single inter-urban trips by train, whilst also examining differences between socioeconomic groups. Stated choice (SC) data from 580 Swedish respondents are used in estimation. Individuals actually commuting and individuals not commuting but imagining that they are when answering the SC questions are asked about their preferences for headway versus IVT.

Commuters are estimated to value increased headway 19 percentage points more than do non-commuters. Young people (under age 21 years) value headway more than do older people while people with children value headway less than do the childless.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pisa, Italy: Fabrizio Serra Editore, 2014
Keywords
Public transport, train, service, frequency, time, commuting, value of time, railway
National Category
Economics Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107491 (URN)10.1400/220029 (DOI)000335934000005 ()
Available from: 2014-06-13 Created: 2014-06-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, J. (2013). A strategy for increasing public transport market share : an investigation of an alternative development. In: Thredbo 13 - The 13th International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport: . Paper presented at Thredbo 13 - The 13th International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport, September 15-19, 2013, Oxford, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A strategy for increasing public transport market share : an investigation of an alternative development
2013 (English)In: Thredbo 13 - The 13th International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport, 2013Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Fora long time public transport has experienced a struggle against rising costsand increasing car ownership. So far, public transport appears to be on the losingside in terms of market shares. The aim if this paper is to investigate if adifferent policy could result in higher public transport usage and improvedsocial welfare. In order to achieve this, a model, explaining public transportusage, public transport supply and costs, is estimated. The model is then usedin order to simulate the outcome of an alternative policy of social welfaremaximization. It is found that the current policy of the Swedish transport isnot efficient in terms of maximizing welfare. Implementing a welfare maximizingpolicy would have increased the number of trips per capita by 12.5 per cent in2011.

Keywords
Demand, Supply, Public transport, Price, Fare, Optimization, Welfare, Policy, Kollektivtrafik, Efterfrågan, Utbud, Pris, Policy, Välfärd
National Category
Economics Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-98555 (URN)
Conference
Thredbo 13 - The 13th International Conference on Competition and Ownership in Land Passenger Transport, September 15-19, 2013, Oxford, UK
Projects
Att det ska vara så svårt! - Hur kan vi locka bilister till kollektivtrafiken utan att alla slutar cykla?Smartare transportsystem - TRENoP
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyTrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Available from: 2013-10-09 Created: 2013-10-09 Last updated: 2013-10-15
Holmgren, J. (2013). An analysis of the determinants of local public transport demand focusing the effects of income changes. European Transport Research Review, 5(2), 101-107
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An analysis of the determinants of local public transport demand focusing the effects of income changes
2013 (English)In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 101-107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: In order for public transport to be a part of the solution to the environmental problems caused by traffic, there need to be a clear understanding of how, and to whatextent, different factors affect demand. There still seem to be some confusion regarding some key relationships, one of them being the effect of income on public transport demand. The purpose of this article is therefore to provide empirical estimates of how different factors, including price and car ownership (although income being the main issue), affect the demand for local public transport.

Methods: In order to achieve the aim of the study, an econometric FD-model, allowing for unobserved effects, was estimated using panel data from Swedish counties from1986 to 2001.

Results: The short-run (direct) elasticity with respect to fare, vehicle-kilometres, income and car ownership were found to be −0,4, 0,55, 0,34, and −1,37 respectively. However, income affects public transport demand directly, and through its effect on car ownership, these effects works in opposite direction. Combining these, it is found that total income effect is close to zero.

Conclusions: It is concluded that, although the findings of several previous studies suggests that demand for public transport might be falling with increased income, there is no evidence of such effects in this study even when the full effect of changes in income (including changes in car ownership) is taken into account.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2013
Keywords
Public transport, Demand, Income, Price, Kollektivtrafik, Efterfrågan, Inkomst, Pris
National Category
Economics Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-93662 (URN)10.1007/s12544-013-0094-0 (DOI)000209727900004 ()
Funder
Swedish Energy AgencyTrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Available from: 2013-06-05 Created: 2013-06-05 Last updated: 2018-03-09Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, J. (2013). The efficiency of public transport operations: An evaluation using stochastic frontier analysis. Research in Transportation Economics, 39(1), 50-57
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The efficiency of public transport operations: An evaluation using stochastic frontier analysis
2013 (English)In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 50-57Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficiency of public transport operations undertaken in Swedish counties by the Public Transport Authorities (PTA), taking into account the substantial differences in operating conditions between counties. The analysis will be performed using Stochastic Frontier Analysis (SFA) with annual data from 1986 to 2009 for 26 Swedish counties. The analysis shows how the efficiency of the individual counties has changed over time. The results are used to provide a ranking (in terms of efficiency) of the Swedish public transport authorities that can provide a basis for benchmarking. It is concluded that the efficiency of the public transport providers in all counties fell during the observed time period. Defining cost efficiency as the ratio of minimum cost to observed cost, the overall (average) cost efficiency for the industry fell from 85.7% in the eighties to 60.4% for the period from 2000 to 2009. Possible explanations for the development include increased emphasis on route density as well as higher environmental and safety requirements.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Public transport, Cost, Stochastic frontier, Efficiency
National Category
Economics Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85804 (URN)10.1016/j.retrec.2012.05.023 (DOI)000209454500008 ()
Funder
TrenOp, Transport Research Environment with Novel Perspectives
Available from: 2012-11-28 Created: 2012-11-28 Last updated: 2018-03-09
Svensson, T. & Holmgren, J. (2012). Kollektivtrafik som verktyg för regional utveckling: En kunskapsöversikt. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Kollektivtrafik som verktyg för regional utveckling: En kunskapsöversikt
2012 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Alternative title[en]
Public transport as a tool for regional development : Review and discussion
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med rapporten är att förbättra kunskaps- och beslutsunderlag för en effektivare användning avkollektivtrafiken som utvecklingsverktyg. Uppdraget baseras på kollektivtrafikrelaterad ekonomiskforskning med fokus på lokal och regional utveckling. Kunskapsöversikten utgår i första hand frånforskning om kollektivtrafikens samhällsekonomi och planeringsmässiga dimensioner.

 

Forskningsresultaten har valts ut med utgångpunkt från det ökade behovet av kunskapsunderlag och planeringsmodeller för integrerade regionala och lokala kollektivtrafiksystem. Vi har tolkat uppdraget utifrån de framväxande regionernas behov av tydligare strategier för hur kollektivtrafiken kan användas som verktyg för regional utveckling. Kollektivtrafiken kan kopplas till drivkrafter för den ekonomiska utvecklingen vad gäller transportmöjligheter, mobilitet och tillgänglighet generellt, men också mer direkt till de egenskaper som kollektivtrafiken har i jämförelse med övriga färdmedel. Kollektivtrafiken har hög kapacitet och ett begränsat ytanspråk vilket gör att den kan användas för att åstadkomma kluster med agglomerationsfördelar och för att realisera skalekonomier och gynnsamma produktionsförutsättningar för den växande tjänstesektorn. Det är vår uppfattning att det behövs en betydligt starkare strategisk dimension i planeringen av kollektivtrafiken. Det avgörande är inriktningen för trafiken och hur kollektivtrafiken ska användas som verktyg för regionens utveckling. I planeringen kan flera olika förändringar/ kvalitetsnivåer utvärderas och perspektivet måste vara bredare än att enbart fokusera på investeringar. Av diskussionen i rapporten följer att den rumsliga dimensionen blir alltmer betydelsefull för den ekonomiska utvecklingen. Konsekvenser för stads- och tätortsutveckling, regionala sammanhang och hur markanvändning och transportsystem samverkar bör lyftas in i planeringens centrum. Oavsett nivån i resurstilldelningen till kollektivtrafiken är det angeläget att de resurser som förbrukas gör största möjliga nytta. Om det är positiva konsekvenser för en hållbar ekonomisk utveckling som prioriteras, bör planeringen ställas om i den riktning som diskuteras i rapporten.

Abstract [en]

This report aims to improve knowledge and decision making for more efficient use of public transport as a development tool. The discussion is based on the state of knowledge in public transport-related economic research with a focus on local and regional development and accessibility and mobility. The report is mostly a research review of published research, primarily from research on public transport economics and planning dimensions. The economic research on regions and cities high-lights a number of conditions described as central to economic growth in post-industrial economies. Examples of such conditions are the importance of agglomerations and clusters, differentiation and specialization, the service sectors´ growing importance for employment, regional innovation systems and last but not least, the ability of cities and regions to be attractive and offer residents good living conditions. One important implication of this is that the economic transformation towards growth and development is becoming more and more dependent on the availability of dense physical space. Therefore, cities and regions will be drivers of growth. All these conditions can be linked to opportunities for travel, transport, mobility and accessibility. This in turn means that public transport can be linked to these driving forces for economic development in terms of mobility and accessibility in general, but also more directly to the characteristics that public transport has in relation to other modes of transport. Public transport has a high capacity with a relatively limited demand for space. Therefore, public transport can be used to achieve the dense clusters which are prerequisites to exploit agglomeration economies, to realize economies of scale and contribute to favorable production conditions for the growing service sector. It is our opinion that a much stronger strategic dimension is needed in the planning of public transport. What matters are transport system development, operation and management, and how public transport should be used as a tool for regional development aimed at sustainable growth. In planning, several changes, measures and quality levels should be evaluated and applied perspectives must be wider than to focus solely on infrastructure investments. From the discussion follows that the spatial dimension is becoming increasingly important for economic development. Urban development, regional context, and how land use and transport interact should be lifted into the core of public transport planning. Regardless of the level of resources allocated to public transport, it is important that the resources are used to the best advantage. If sustainable economic development is prioritized, planning and governance of public transport should be changed in the direction discussed in the report.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2012. p. 42
Series
VTI rapport, ISSN 0347-6030 ; 739
Keywords
Public transport, regional development, transport planning, planning, Kollektivtrafik, regional utveckling, transportplanering, transport, planering
National Category
Economics Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74487 (URN)
Available from: 2012-02-16 Created: 2012-01-30 Last updated: 2013-10-09Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2566-4183

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