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Gerasimov, J., Karlsson, R. H., Forchheimer, R., Stavrinidou, E., Simon, D. T., Berggren, M. & Fabiano, S. (2019). An Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Neuromorphic Applications. ADVANCED SCIENCE, 6(7), Article ID 1801339.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Evolvable Organic Electrochemical Transistor for Neuromorphic Applications
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2019 (English)In: ADVANCED SCIENCE, ISSN 2198-3844, Vol. 6, no 7, article id 1801339Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An evolvable organic electrochemical transistor (OECT), operating in the hybrid accumulation-depletion mode is reported, which exhibits short-term and long-term memory functionalities. The transistor channel, formed by an electropolymerized conducting polymer, can be formed, modulated, and obliterated in situ and under operation. Enduring changes in channel conductance, analogous to long-term potentiation and depression, are attained by electropolymerization and electrochemical overoxidation of the channel material, respectively. Transient changes in channel conductance, analogous to short-term potentiation and depression, are accomplished by inducing nonequilibrium doping states within the transistor channel. By manipulating the input signal, the strength of the transistor response to a given stimulus can be modulated within a range that spans several orders of magnitude, producing behavior that is directly comparable to short- and long-term neuroplasticity. The evolvable transistor is further incorporated into a simple circuit that mimics classical conditioning. It is forecasted that OECTs that can be physically and electronically modulated under operation will bring about a new paradigm of machine learning based on evolvable organic electronics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2019
Keywords
conducting polymers; evolvable electronics; neuromorphic; organic electrochemical transistors; organic electronics
National Category
Other Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156560 (URN)10.1002/advs.201801339 (DOI)000463153100015 ()30989020 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061035781 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [2012.0302]; VINNOVA [2015-04859]; Swedish Research Council [2016-03979]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research (BioCom Lab) [RIT15-0119]; Marie Sklodowska Curie Individual Fellowship (MSCA-IF-EF-ST, Trans-Plant) [702641]

Available from: 2019-05-15 Created: 2019-05-15 Last updated: 2019-10-25Bibliographically approved
Wang, X., Grimoldi, A., Hakansson, K., Fall, A., Granberg, H., Mengistie, D., . . . Gustafsson, G. (2019). Anisotropic conductivity of Cellulose-PEDOT:PSS composite materials studied with a generic 3D four-point probe tool. Organic electronics, 66, 258-264
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Anisotropic conductivity of Cellulose-PEDOT:PSS composite materials studied with a generic 3D four-point probe tool
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2019 (English)In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 66, p. 258-264Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The conducive polymer poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiphene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) is widely used in organic electronics and printed electronics due to its excellent electronic and ionic conductivity. PEDOT:PSS films exhibit anisotropic conductivities originating from the interplay of film deposition processes and chemical structure. The previous studies found that high boiling point solvent treated PEDOT:PSS exhibits an anisotropy of 3-4 orders magnitude. Even though both the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities are important for the device performance, the out-of-plane conductivity is rarely studied due to the complexity with the experiment procedure. Cellulose-based paper or films can also exhibit anisotropic behavior due to the combination of their intrinsic fibric structure and film formation process. We have previously developed a conducive paper based on PEDOT:PSS and cellulose which could be used as the electrodes in energy storage devices. In this work we developed a novel measurement set-up for studying the anisotropy of the charge transport in such composite materials. A tool with two parallel plates mounted with spring loaded probes was constructed enabling probing both lateral and vertical directions and resistances from in-plane and out-of-plane directions to be obtained. The measurement results were then input and analyzed with a model based on a transformation method developed by Montgomery, and thus the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities could be detangled and derived. We also investigated how the conductivity anisotropy depends on the microstructure of the cellulose template onto which the conducive polymer self-organizes. We show that there is a relatively small difference between the in-plane and out-of-plane conductivities which is attributed to the unique 3D-structure of the composites. This new knowledge gives a better understanding of the possibilities and limitations for using the material in electronic and electrochemical devices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV, 2019
Keywords
Cellulose; PEDOT: PSS; Composite material; Anisotropic conductivity; Four-point probe
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154091 (URN)10.1016/j.orgel.2018.12.023 (DOI)000455249800035 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research [GMT14-0058]

Available from: 2019-01-29 Created: 2019-01-29 Last updated: 2019-10-10
Kim, N., Petsagkourakis, I., Chen, S., Berggren, M., Crispin, X., Jonsson, M. & Zozoulenko, I. (2019). Electric Transport Properties in PEDOT Thin Films. In: John R. Reynolds; Barry C. Thompson; Terje A. Skotheim (Ed.), Conjugated Polymers: Properties, Processing, and Applications (pp. 45-128). Boca Raton: CRC Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electric Transport Properties in PEDOT Thin Films
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2019 (English)In: Conjugated Polymers: Properties, Processing, and Applications / [ed] John R. Reynolds; Barry C. Thompson; Terje A. Skotheim, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2019, p. 45-128Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this chapter, the authors summarize their understanding of Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), with respect to its chemical and physical fundamentals. They focus upon the structure of several PEDOT systems, from the angstrom level and up, and the impact on both electronic and ionic transport. The authors discuss the structural properties of PEDOT:X and PEDOT:poly(styrenesulfonate) based on experimental data probed at the scale ranging from angstrom to submicrometer. The morphology of PEDOT is influenced by the nature of counter-ions, especially at high oxidation levels. The doping anions intercalate between PEDOT chains to form a “sandwich” structure to screen the positive charges in PEDOT chains. The authors provide the main transport coefficients such as electrical conductivity s, Seebeck coefficient S, and Peltier coefficient σ, starting from a general thermodynamic consideration. The optical conductivity of PEDOT has also been examined based on the effective medium approximation, which is normally used to describe microscopic permittivity properties of composites made from several different constituents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2019
National Category
Materials Engineering Bio Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160891 (URN)10.1201/9780429190520-3 (DOI)9780429190520 (ISBN)
Available from: 2019-10-14 Created: 2019-10-14 Last updated: 2020-03-24Bibliographically approved
Mitraka, E., Gryszel, M., Vagin, M., Jafari, M. J., Singh, A., Warczak, M., . . . Glowacki, E. (2019). Electrocatalytic Production of Hydrogen Peroxide with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Electrodes. Advanced Sustainable Systems, 3(2), 1-6, Article ID 1800110.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrocatalytic Production of Hydrogen Peroxide with Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) Electrodes
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2019 (English)In: Advanced Sustainable Systems, ISSN 2366-7486, Vol. 3, no 2, p. 1-6, article id 1800110Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrocatalysis for energy‐efficient chemical transformations is a central concept behind sustainable technologies. Numerous efforts focus on synthesizing hydrogen peroxide, a major industrial chemical and potential fuel, using simple and green methods. Electrochemical synthesis of peroxide is a promising route. Herein it is demonstrated that the conducting polymer poly(3,4‐ethylenedioxythiophene), PEDOT, is an efficient and selective heterogeneous catalyst for the direct reduction of oxygen to hydrogen peroxide. While many metallic catalysts are known to generate peroxide, they subsequently catalyze decomposition of peroxide to water. PEDOT electrodes can support continuous generation of high concentrations of peroxide with Faraday efficiency remaining close to 100%. The mechanisms of PEDOT‐catalyzed reduction of O2 to H2O2 using in situ spectroscopic techniques and theoretical calculations, which both corroborate the existence of a chemisorbed reactive intermediate on the polymer chains that kinetically favors the selective reduction reaction to H2O2, are explored. These results offer a viable method for peroxide electrosynthesis and open new possibilities for intrinsic catalytic properties of conducting polymers.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2019
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163609 (URN)10.1002/adsu.201800110 (DOI)000458426200002 ()
Available from: 2020-02-17 Created: 2020-02-17 Last updated: 2020-02-25Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Edberg, J., Crispin, X., Berggren, M., Engquist, I. & Jonsson, M. (2019). Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning. Polymers, 11(2), Article ID 267.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning
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2019 (English)In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrochromic devices have important implications as smart windows for energy efficient buildings, internet of things devices, and in low-cost advertising applications. While inorganics have so far dominated the market, organic conductive polymers possess certain advantages such as high throughput and low temperature processing, faster switching, and superior optical memory. Here, we present organic electrochromic devices that can switch between two high-resolution images, based on UV-patterning and vapor phase polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films. We demonstrate that this technique can provide switchable greyscale images through the spatial control of a UV-light dose. The color space was able to be further altered via optimization of the oxidant concentration. Finally, we utilized a UV-patterning technique to produce functional paper with electrochromic patterns deposited on porous paper, allowing for environmentally friendly electrochromic displays.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
conductive polymers; PEDOT; patterning; electrochromic; electrochromic displays; paper displays; digital cellulose; cellulose; paper electronics; electrochromism; vapor phase polymerization
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155591 (URN)10.3390/polym11020267 (DOI)000460296000081 ()2-s2.0-85061197759 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009 00971]; Vinnova

Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
Berggren, M. & Malliaras, G. G. (2019). How conducting polymer electrodes operate. Science, 364(6437), 233-234
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How conducting polymer electrodes operate
2019 (English)In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 364, no 6437, p. 233-234Article in journal, Editorial material (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

n/a

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Washington, DC, United States: American Association for the Advancement of Science (A A A S), 2019
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157205 (URN)10.1126/science.aaw9295 (DOI)000464956600026 ()31000650 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85065022317 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|KAW; SSF; VINNOVA; VR; EPSRC; EU Horizon 2020; KAUST

Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2019-11-06Bibliographically approved
Fahlman, M., Fabiano, S., Gueskine, V., Simon, D. T., Berggren, M. & Crispin, X. (2019). Interfaces in organic electronics. Nature Reviews Materials, 4(10), 627-650
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Interfaces in organic electronics
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2019 (English)In: Nature Reviews Materials, E-ISSN 2058-8437, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 627-650Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Undoped, conjugated, organic molecules and polymers possess properties of semiconductors, including the electronic structure and charge transport, which can be readily tuned by chemical design. Moreover, organic semiconductors (OSs) can be n-doped or p-doped to become organic conductors and can exhibit mixed electronic and ionic conductivity. Compared with inorganic semiconductors and metals, organic (semi)conductors possess a unique feature: no insulating oxide forms on their surface when exposed to air. Thus, OSs form clean interfaces with many materials, including metals and other OSs. OS–metal and OS–OS interfaces have been intensely investigated over the past 30 years, from which a consistent theoretical description has emerged. Since the 2000s, increased attention has been paid to interfaces in organic electronics that involve dielectrics, electrolytes, ferroelectrics and even biological organisms. In this Review, we consider the central role of these interfaces in the function of organic electronic devices and discuss how the physico-chemical properties of the interfaces govern the interfacial transport of light, excitons, electrons and ions, as well as the transduction of electrons into the molecular language of cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2019
National Category
Condensed Matter Physics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160114 (URN)10.1038/s41578-019-0127-y (DOI)000489089600004 ()2-s2.0-85069828729 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies:  Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University (Faculty Grant SFO Mat LiU) [2009 00971]; Wallenberg Wood Science Center; Knut and Alice Wallenberg FoundationKnut & Alice Wallenberg Foundatio

Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-23 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Berggren, M., Gabrielsson, E. O., Simon, D. T. & Tybrandt, K. (2019). Organic bioelectronics based on Mixed Ion–Electron conductors. In: John R. Reynolds, Barry C. Thompson, Terje A. Skotheim (Ed.), Conjugated polymers: properties, processing, and applications (pp. 679-696). Boca Raton: CRC Press, Sidor 679-696
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organic bioelectronics based on Mixed Ion–Electron conductors
2019 (English)In: Conjugated polymers: properties, processing, and applications / [ed] John R. Reynolds, Barry C. Thompson, Terje A. Skotheim, Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2019, Vol. Sidor 679-696, p. 679-696Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This chapter focuses on two specific areas of organic mixed ion–electron conductors: surfaces and scaffolds for controlling cell cultures, and “iontronic”-controlled delivery of ions and biomolecules. It draws on iontronic technology based on ion exchange materials, which is compatible with physiological salt concentrations. Iontronics is attractive for bioelectronic applications, as it provides a means for the manipulation of flows of ions and charged biomolecules – species that can possess chemical and biological functionality. The organic electronic ion pump (OEIP) is a delivery device where charged (bio)molecules are transported within a polyelectrolyte membrane. The electronic control of the delivery flux, together with micrometer-sized channel outlets, enables OEIPs to achieve high spatiotemporal resolution; biomolecule delivery can be tightly controlled to a specific site and dose amount. High spatiotemporal control of ion and biomolecule concentrations is attractive for a wide range of in vitro studies of biological systems.??

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2019
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164571 (URN)9780429190520 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-03-26 Created: 2020-03-26 Last updated: 2020-03-26Bibliographically approved
Seitanidou, M. S., Tybrandt, K., Berggren, M. & Simon, D. T. (2019). Overcoming transport limitations in miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices. Lab on a Chip, 19(8), 1427-1435
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overcoming transport limitations in miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices
2019 (English)In: Lab on a Chip, ISSN 1473-0197, E-ISSN 1473-0189, Vol. 19, no 8, p. 1427-1435Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Organic electronic ion pumps (OEIPs) have been used for delivery of biological signaling compounds, at high spatiotemporal resolution, to a variety of biological targets. The miniaturization of this technology provides several advantages, ranging from better spatiotemporal control of delivery to reduced invasiveness for implanted OEIPs. One route to miniaturization is to develop OEIPs based on glass capillary fibers that are filled with a polyelectrolyte (cation exchange membrane, CEM). These devices can be easily inserted and brought into close proximity to targeted cells and tissues and could be considered as a starting point for other fiber-based OEIP and iontronic technologies enabling favorable implantable device geometries. While characterizing capillary OEIPs we observed deviations from the typical linear current-voltage behavior. Here we report a systematic investigation of these irregularities by performing experimental characterizations in combination with computational modelling. The cause of the observed irregularities is due to concentration polarization established at the OEIP inlet, which in turn causes electric field-enhanced water dissociation at the inlet. Water dissociation generates protons and is typically problematic for many applications. By adding an ion-selective cap that separates the inlet from the source reservoir this effect is then, to a large extent, suppressed. By increasing the surface area of the inlet with the addition of the cap, the concentration polarization is reduced which thereby allows for significantly higher delivery rates. These results demonstrate a useful approach to optimize transport and delivery of therapeutic substances at low concentrations via miniaturized electrophoretic delivery devices, thus considerably broadening the opportunities for implantable OEIP applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Royal Society of Chemistry, 2019
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157204 (URN)10.1039/c9lc00038k (DOI)000465283700008 ()30875418 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85064156567 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Advanced Functional Materials SFO-center at Linkoping University; Onnesjo Foundation; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation

Available from: 2019-06-14 Created: 2019-06-14 Last updated: 2020-02-17Bibliographically approved
Brooke, R., Edberg, J., Say, M. G., Sawatdee, A., Grimoldi, A., Ahlin, J., . . . Engquist, I. (2019). Supercapacitors on demand: all-printed energy storage devices with adaptable design. FLEXIBLE AND PRINTED ELECTRONICS, 4(1), Article ID 015006.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Supercapacitors on demand: all-printed energy storage devices with adaptable design
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2019 (English)In: FLEXIBLE AND PRINTED ELECTRONICS, ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 015006Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Demands on the storage of energy have increased for many reasons, in part driven by household photovoltaics, electric grid balancing, along with portable and wearable electronics. These are fast-growing and differentiated applications that need large volume and/or highly distributed electrical energy storage, which then requires environmentally friendly, scalable and flexible materials and manufacturing techniques. However, the limitations on current inorganic technologies have driven research efforts to explore organic and carbon-based alternatives. Here, we report a conducting polymer:cellulose composite that serves as the active material in supercapacitors which has been incorporated into all-printed energy storage devices. These devices exhibit a specific capacitance of approximate to 90 F g(-1) and an excellent cyclability (amp;gt;10 000 cycles). Further, a design concept coined supercapacitors on demand is presented, which is based on a printing-cutting-folding procedure, that provides us with a flexible production protocol to manufacture supercapacitors with adaptable configuration and electrical characteristics.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2019
Keywords
PEDOT; screen printing; printed electronics; organic electronics; cellulose; supercapacitor; energy storage
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-164472 (URN)10.1088/2058-8585/aafc4f (DOI)000459257000002 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Foundation for Strategic ResearchSwedish Foundation for Strategic Research [GMT14-0058]

Available from: 2020-03-23 Created: 2020-03-23 Last updated: 2020-03-23
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5154-0291

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