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Brooke, R., Edberg, J., Crispin, X., Berggren, M., Engquist, I. & Jonsson, M. (2019). Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning. Polymers, 11(2), Article ID 267.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Greyscale and Paper Electrochromic Polymer Displays by UV Patterning
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2019 (English)In: Polymers, ISSN 2073-4360, E-ISSN 2073-4360, Vol. 11, no 2, article id 267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electrochromic devices have important implications as smart windows for energy efficient buildings, internet of things devices, and in low-cost advertising applications. While inorganics have so far dominated the market, organic conductive polymers possess certain advantages such as high throughput and low temperature processing, faster switching, and superior optical memory. Here, we present organic electrochromic devices that can switch between two high-resolution images, based on UV-patterning and vapor phase polymerization of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) films. We demonstrate that this technique can provide switchable greyscale images through the spatial control of a UV-light dose. The color space was able to be further altered via optimization of the oxidant concentration. Finally, we utilized a UV-patterning technique to produce functional paper with electrochromic patterns deposited on porous paper, allowing for environmentally friendly electrochromic displays.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
conductive polymers; PEDOT; patterning; electrochromic; electrochromic displays; paper displays; digital cellulose; cellulose; paper electronics; electrochromism; vapor phase polymerization
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155591 (URN)10.3390/polym11020267 (DOI)000460296000081 ()2-s2.0-85061197759 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009 00971]; Vinnova

Available from: 2019-03-21 Created: 2019-03-21 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
Chaharsoughi, M. S., Tordera, D., Grimoldi, A., Engquist, I., Berggren, M., Fabiano, S. & Jonsson, M. (2018). Hybrid Plasmonic and Pyroelectric Harvesting of Light Fluctuations. Advanced Optical Materials
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hybrid Plasmonic and Pyroelectric Harvesting of Light Fluctuations
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2018 (English)In: Advanced Optical Materials, ISSN 2162-7568, E-ISSN 2195-1071Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

State-of-the-art solar energy harvesting systems based on photovoltaic technology require constant illumination for optimal operation. However, weather conditions and solar illumination tend to fluctuate. Here, a device is presented that extracts electrical energy from such light fluctuations. The concept combines light-induced heating of gold nanodisks (acting as plasmonic optical nanoantennas), and an organic pyroelectric copolymer film (poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene)), that converts temperature changes into electrical signals. This hybrid device can repeatedly generate current pulses, not only upon the onset of illumination, but also when illumination is blocked. Detailed characterization highlights the key role of the polarization state of the copolymer, while the copolymer thickness has minor influence on performance. The results are fully consistent with plasmon-assisted pyroelectric effects, as corroborated by combined optical and thermal simulations that match the experimental results. Owing to the tunability of plasmonic resonances, the presented concept is compatible with harvesting near infrared light while concurrently maintaining visible transparency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2018
Keywords
Gold nanodisks, Plasmonic heating, Pyroelectric copolymers, Solar energy harvesting
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-148574 (URN)10.1002/adom.201701051 (DOI)000434349300001 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Wenner-Gren Foundations; Swedish Research Council [2015-05070]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; AForsk Foundation; Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Lin

Available from: 2018-06-13 Created: 2018-06-13 Last updated: 2018-06-28
Edberg, J., Malti, A., Granberg, H., Hamedi, M. M., Crispin, X., Engquist, I. & Berggren, M. (2017). Electrochemical circuits from ‘cut and stick’ PEDOT:PSS-nanocellulose composite. Flexible and printed electronics, 4(2), Article ID 045010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electrochemical circuits from ‘cut and stick’ PEDOT:PSS-nanocellulose composite
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2017 (English)In: Flexible and printed electronics, E-ISSN 2058-8585, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 045010Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We report a flexible self-standing adhesive composite made from PEDOT:PSS and nanofibrillated cellulose. The material exhibits good combined mechanical and electrical characteristics(an elastic modulus of 4.4 MPa, and an electrical conductivity of 30 S cm−1 ). The inherent self-adhesiveness of the material enables it to be laminated and delaminated repeatedly to form and reconfigure devices and circuits. This modular property opens the door for a plethora of applications where reconfigurability and ease-of-manufacturing are of prime importance. We also demonstrate a paper composite with ionic conductivity and combine the two materials to construct electrochemical devices, namely transistors, capacitors and diodes with high values of transconductance, charge storage capacity and current rectification. We have further used these devices to construct digital circuits such as NOT, NAND and NOR logic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2017
Keywords
organic electronics, PEDOT, nanocellulose, organic electrochemical transistors, supercapacitors, composites, flexible electronics
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145181 (URN)10.1088/2058-8585/aa8027 (DOI)2-s2.0-85041011470 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-02-13 Created: 2018-02-13 Last updated: 2019-01-09Bibliographically approved
Malti, A., Edberg, J., Granberg, H., Ullah Khan, Z., Andreasen, J. W., Liu, X., . . . Berggren, M. (2016). An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics. Advanced Science, Article ID 1500305.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An Organic Mixed Ion–Electron Conductor for Power Electronics
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2016 (English)In: Advanced Science, ISSN 2198-3844, article id 1500305Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A mixed ionic–electronic conductor based on nanofibrillated cellulose composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythio­phene):­poly(styrene-sulfonate) along with high boiling point solvents is demonstrated in bulky electrochemical devices. The high electronic and ionic conductivities of the resulting nanopaper are exploited in devices which exhibit record values for the charge storage capacitance (1F) in supercapacitors and transconductance (1S) in electrochemical transistors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2016
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123225 (URN)10.1002/advs.201500305 (DOI)000370336500011 ()
Note

Funding agencies:  Knut and Alice Wallenberg foundation [KAW 2011.0050]; Onnesjo Foundation; Advanced Functional Materials Center at Linkoping University; Stiftelsen for strategisk forskning (SSF); RISE Research Institutes of Sweden; U.S. National Science Foundation [DMR-12

Available from: 2015-12-08 Created: 2015-12-08 Last updated: 2018-02-15
Abdollahi Sani, N., Wang, X., Granberg, H., Andersson Ersman, P., Crispin, X., Dyreklev, P., . . . Berggren, M. (2016). Flexible Lamination-Fabricated Ultra-High Frequency Diodes Based on Self-Supporting Semiconducting Composite Film of Silicon Micro-Particles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose. Scientific Reports, 6(28921)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible Lamination-Fabricated Ultra-High Frequency Diodes Based on Self-Supporting Semiconducting Composite Film of Silicon Micro-Particles and Nano-Fibrillated Cellulose
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2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, no 28921Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Low cost and flexible devices such as wearable electronics, e-labels and distributed sensors will make the future "internet of things" viable. To power and communicate with such systems, high frequency rectifiers are crucial components. We present a simple method to manufacture flexible diodes, operating at GHz frequencies, based on self-adhesive composite films of silicon micro-particles (Si-mu Ps) and glycerol dispersed in nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). NFC, Si-mu Ps and glycerol are mixed in a water suspension, forming a self-supporting nanocellulose-silicon composite film after drying. This film is cut and laminated between a flexible pre-patterned Al bottom electrode and a conductive Ni-coated carbon tape top contact. A Schottky junction is established between the Al electrode and the Si-mu Ps. The resulting flexible diodes show current levels on the order of mA for an area of 2 mm(2), a current rectification ratio up to 4 x 10(3) between 1 and 2 V bias and a cut-off frequency of 1.8 GHz. Energy harvesting experiments have been demonstrated using resistors as the load at 900 MHz and 1.8 GHz. The diode stack can be delaminated away from the Al electrode and then later on be transferred and reconfigured to another substrate. This provides us with reconfigurable GHz-operating diode circuits.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016
National Category
Other Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130275 (URN)10.1038/srep28921 (DOI)000378907900001 ()27357006 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Swedish Government Strategic Research Area in Materials Science on Functional Materials at Linkoping University [2009-00971]

Available from: 2016-08-01 Created: 2016-07-28 Last updated: 2017-11-28
Ullah Khan, Z., Edberg, J., Max Hamedi, M., Gabrielsson, R., Granberg, H., Wågberg, L., . . . Crispin, X. (2016). Thermoelectric Polymers and their Elastic Aerogels. Advanced Materials, 28(22), 4556-4562
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermoelectric Polymers and their Elastic Aerogels
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2016 (English)In: Advanced Materials, ISSN 0935-9648, E-ISSN 1521-4095, Vol. 28, no 22, p. 4556-4562Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electronically conducting polymers constitute an emerging class of materials for novel electronics, such as printed electronics and flexible electronics. Their properties have been further diversified to introduce elasticity, which has opened new possibility for "stretchable" electronics. Recent discoveries demonstrate that conducting polymers have thermoelectric properties with a low thermal conductivity, as well as tunable Seebeck coefficients - which is achieved by modulating their electrical conductivity via simple redox reactions. Using these thermoelectric properties, all-organic flexible thermoelectric devices, such as temperature sensors, heat flux sensors, and thermoelectric generators, are being developed. In this article we discuss the combination of the two emerging fields: stretchable electronics and polymer thermoelectrics. The combination of elastic and thermoelectric properties seems to be unique for conducting polymers, and difficult to achieve with inorganic thermoelectric materials. We introduce the basic concepts, and state of the art knowledge, about the thermoelectric properties of conducting polymers, and illustrate the use of elastic thermoelectric conducting polymer aerogels that could be employed as temperature and pressure sensors in an electronic-skin.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2016
National Category
Polymer Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129660 (URN)10.1002/adma.201505364 (DOI)000377123500029 ()26836440 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|European Research Council (ERC) [307596]; Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Swedish Energy Agency; Advanced Functional Materials Center at Linkoping University; Research Institute of Sweden (RISE)

Available from: 2016-06-27 Created: 2016-06-23 Last updated: 2018-09-07
Malti, A., Edberg, J., Granberg, H., Khan, Z. U., Andreasen, J. W., Liu, X., . . . Berggren, M. (2015). Enabling organic power electronics with a cellulose nano-scaffold.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enabling organic power electronics with a cellulose nano-scaffold
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2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Exploiting the nanoscale properties of certain materials enables the creation of new materials with a unique set of properties. Here, we report on an electronic (and ionic) conducting paper based on cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) composited with poly(3,4-ethylene-dioxythiophene):poly(styrene-sulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), which may be facilely processed into large three-dimensional geometries, while keeping unprecedented electronic and ionic conductivities of 140 S/cm and 20 mS/cm, respectively. This is achieved by cladding the CNF with PEDOT:PSS, and trapping an ion-transporting phase in the interstices between these nanofibrils. The unique properties of the resulting nanopaper composite have been used to demonstrate (electrochemical) transistors, supercapacitors and conductors resulting in exceptionally high device parameters, such as an associated transconductance, charge storage capacity and current level beyond 1 S, 1 F and 1 A, respectively.

National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122021 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-16 Created: 2015-10-16 Last updated: 2018-02-15Bibliographically approved
Liu, J., Engquist, I. & Berggren, M. (2015). Half‐Gate Light‐Emitting Electrochemical Transistor to Achieve Centered Emissive Organic p‐n Junction. Organic electronics, 18, 32-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Half‐Gate Light‐Emitting Electrochemical Transistor to Achieve Centered Emissive Organic p‐n Junction
2015 (English)In: Organic electronics, ISSN 1566-1199, E-ISSN 1878-5530, Vol. 18, p. 32-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Conventional organic light-emitting electrochemical cells show promise for lighting applications but in many cases suffer from unbalanced electrochemical doping. A predominant p-doping over n-doping causes an off-centered emissive p-n junction, which leads to poor power-conversion efficiency. Here, we report a half-gate lightemitting electrochemical transistor (HGLECT), in which a ion-conductive gate made from poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly-(styrenesulfonate) is employed to combat this problem. The gate material, covering half the channel, is used to enhance the ndoping in this part by employing an appropriate operation protocol. We demonstrate a centered light emission zone, closely following the geometry of the gate material. The HGLECT with centered emission profile is shown to be more efficient than the corresponding LEC without gate electrode, and its n-doping level is measured to be 15%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Light-emitting electrochemical transistor; Light-emitting electrochemical cell; PEDOT:PSS; MEH-PPV; Polymer electrolyte
National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104924 (URN)10.1016/j.orgel.2014.12.027 (DOI)000349548400005 ()
Note

On the day of the defence date the status of this article was Manuscript.

Available from: 2014-03-03 Created: 2014-03-03 Last updated: 2019-12-04Bibliographically approved
Khan, Z. U., Edberg, J., Hamedi, M., Gabrielsson, R., Granberg, H., Engquist, I., . . . Crispin, X. (2015). Nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels functionalized with conducting polymers for thermoelectric and dual-sensing applications.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nanofibrillated cellulose aerogels functionalized with conducting polymers for thermoelectric and dual-sensing applications
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2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Large amount of heat is wasted in industries, power generation plants and ordinary household appliances. This waste heat, can be a useful input to a thermoelectric generator (TEG) that can convert it to electricity. Conducting polymers (CPs) have been proved as best suited thermoelectric (TE) materials for lower temperatures, being not toxic, abundant in nature and solution processible. So far, CPs have been characterized as thin films, but it needs the third dimension to realize vertical TEGs which is possible by coating it on low thermal conductivity 3D skeletons. In this work, porous bulk cellulose structures have been used as a supporting material and were coated with CPs in various ways. The blend of cellulose and polymer were also freeze-dried, resulting in conducting and soft composites. Those flexible aerogels were utilized as a dual parameter sensor to sense pressure and temperature, based on the concept of thermoelectricity. It opens another application area of sensing, utilizing the thermoelectric phenomenon beyond the prevailing power generation concept. The sensitivity of such materials can be enhanced to make them useful as electronic skin in healthcare and robotics.

National Category
Physical Sciences Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121981 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-14 Created: 2015-10-14 Last updated: 2018-02-15Bibliographically approved
Abdollahi Sani, N., Robertsson, M., Cooper, P., Wang, X., Svensson, M., Andersson Ersman, P., . . . Gustafsson, G. (2014). All-printed diode operating at 1.6 GHz. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 111(33), 11943-11948
Open this publication in new window or tab >>All-printed diode operating at 1.6 GHz
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2014 (English)In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 111, no 33, p. 11943-11948Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Printed electronics are considered for wireless electronic tags and sensors within the future Internet-of-things (IoT) concept. As a consequence of the low charge carrier mobility of present printable organic and inorganic semiconductors, the operational frequency of printed rectifiers is not high enough to enable direct communication and powering between mobile phones and printed e-tags. Here, we report an all-printed diode operating up to 1.6 GHz. The device, based on two stacked layers of Si and NbSi2 particles, is manufactured on a flexible substrate at low temperature and in ambient atmosphere. The high charge carrier mobility of the Si microparticles allows device operation to occur in the charge injection-limited regime. The asymmetry of the oxide layers in the resulting device stack leads to rectification of tunneling current. Printed diodes were combined with antennas and electrochromic displays to form an all-printed e-tag. The harvested signal from a Global System for Mobile Communications mobile phone was used to update the display. Our findings demonstrate a new communication pathway for printed electronics within IoT applications.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
National Academy of Sciences, 2014
Keywords
UHF; silicon particle
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110476 (URN)10.1073/pnas.1401676111 (DOI)000340438800027 ()25002504 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Power Paper Project) [KAW 2011.0050]; Onnesjo Foundation; Swedish Research Council Linnaeus Grant LiLi-NFM; European Regional Development Fund through Tillvaxtverket (Project PEA-PPP)

Available from: 2014-09-15 Created: 2014-09-12 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5365-6140

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