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Ledin, Torbjörn
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Publications (10 of 76) Show all publications
Zarenoe, R. & Ledin, T. (2014). Quality of life in patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss. B-ENT, 10(1), 41-51.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quality of life in patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss
2014 (English)In: B-ENT, ISSN 1781-782X, Vol. 10, no 1, 41-51 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the quality of life in patients with tinnitus and SNHL, to investigate patients’ mental and physical health and to measure the level of satisfaction concerning the care experienced by the patients.

Methods: Three questionnaires related to patients` physical and psychological health, were mailed to 714 Swedish patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss.

Results: Female patients had significantly higher Tinnitus Handicap Inventory scores than male patients. Patients who were satisfied with the care they obtained had significantly higher PTA. It was found that the satisfied group had significantly lower THI-scores. In the dissatisfied group, 61% of patients had no hearing aids compared to 42% in the satisfied group.

Conclusion: Our cohort of patients estimated their life quality and general health at a good level almost 4.5 years after their first report of tinnitus. Another finding was that 47% of patients were not satisfied with the treatment they obtained. In the dissatisfied group, 61% of patients had no hearing aids. Further research is required to find an approach that could motivate patients with both tinnitus and hearing impairment to use hearing aids.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ROYAL BELGIAN SOC EAR, NOSE, THROAT, HEAD & NECK SURGERY, 2014
Keyword
Tinnitus, Sensorineural hearing loss, Questionnaire, Quality of life
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81412 (URN)000334566200007 ()24765828 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-13 Last updated: 2017-02-20Bibliographically approved
Zarenoe, R. & Ledin, T. (2013). A cohort study of patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss in a Swedish population. Auris, nasus, larynx, 40(1), 41-45.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A cohort study of patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss in a Swedish population
2013 (English)In: Auris, nasus, larynx, ISSN 0385-8146, E-ISSN 1879-1476, Vol. 40, no 1, 41-45 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to describe a large cohort of patients with tinnitus and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in Sweden, and also to explore the possibility of finding potential possible differences between various diagnoses within SNHL. It is also of great interest to see how a multidisciplinary team was used in the different subgroups and the frequency of hearing aids use in patients with tinnitus.

METHODS: Medical records of all patients who had received the diagnosis SNHL in Östergötland County, Sweden between 2004 and 2007 were reviewed. Patients between 20 and 80 years with tinnitus and a pure tone average (PTA) lower than 70dB HL were included in the study. Patients were excluded from the analyses if they had a cochlear implantation, middle ear disorders or had a hearing loss since birth or childhood. The investigators completed a form for each included patient, covering background facts, and audiograms taken at the yearly check up.

RESULTS: Of a total 1672 patients' medical record review, 714 patients were included. The majority of patients (79%) were in the age group over 50 years. In male patients with bilateral tinnitus, the PTA for the left ear was significantly higher than for the right ear. The results regarding the configuration of hearing loss revealed that 555 patients (78%) had symmetric and 159 (22%) asymmetric hearing loss. Retrocochlear examinations were done in 372 patients and MRI was the most common examination. In all patients, 400 had no hearing aids and out of those 220 had unilateral tinnitus and 180 patients had bilateral tinnitus. 219 patients had a PTA>20dB HL and did not have any hearing aid. Results demonstrated that the Stepped Care model was not used widely in the daily practice. In our study, patients with bilateral-, unilateral hearing loss or Mb Ménière were the most common patients included in the Stepped Care model.

CONCLUSION: In a large cohort of patients with SNHL and tinnitus, despite their hearing loss only 39% had hearing aids. It was observed that the medical record review often showed a lack of information about many background factors, such as; patients' general health condition, which could be a quality factor that needs improvement. Our results show that the Stepped Care model could be an effective option for providing a better access for tinnitus-focused treatment, although the number of patients in this study who were included in the Stepped Care model was low.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81411 (URN)10.1016/j.anl.2012.05.005 (DOI)22652486 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-09-13 Created: 2012-09-13 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Wahlberg, J., Sydsjö, G., Ledin, T., Bågesund, M. & Ekman, B. (2013). Impaired Postural Balance in Turner Syndrom. Hormone and Metabolic Research, 45(7), 537-540.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impaired Postural Balance in Turner Syndrom
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2013 (English)In: Hormone and Metabolic Research, ISSN 0018-5043, E-ISSN 1439-4286, Vol. 45, no 7, 537-540 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An impaired body balance has been found in Turner syndrome (TS) in clinical tests like Rombergs’s test and walking on a balance beam. The aim of the study was to assess postural balance in TS subjects with specific balance testing using dynamic posturography and relate to body composition. Nineteen TS subjects (20–57 years) were included. Balance was measured with dynamic posturography (Equitest) and compared with 19 sex and age-matched controls (22–59 years). Equitest, visual, vestibular, and somatosensory systems were provoked with increasing difficulty (6 tests, SO1–SO6) and body sway was measured with a dual forceplate. Body composition was measured with DXA. No difference was found between the TS subjects and the controls on fixed platform with open eyes (SO1), with closed eyes (SO2), with stable platform and visual disorientation (SO3), or on unstable platform with open eyes (SO4). In the difficult tests on unstable platform the TS subjects did worse compared with controls both in the test with eyes closed (SO5), p<0.01, and in the test with visual disorientation (SO6), p<0.05. Composite (a merge of all six recordings) was significantly lower in the TS-group, p<0.05. In the TS group high total body weight was related to worse outcome on tests SO5, SO6, and composite, while total bone mass, age, height, or waist showed no significant association with balance scores. Our findings indicate that TS could have an increased risk for falling due to impaired ability to manage complex coordination tasks.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Georg Thieme Verlag KG, 2013
Keyword
oestrogen deficiency - Turner syndrome - balance - posturography - body weight
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104004 (URN)10.1055/s-0033-1333718 (DOI)000321576900011 ()23389991 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84879499237 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-02-06 Created: 2014-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Wilhelmsson, N., Dahlgren, L. O., Hult, H., Wirell, S., Ledin, T. & Josephson, A. (2013). Phenomenographic study of basic science understanding-senior medical students' conceptions of fatigue. Education for Health, 26(3), 156-163.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phenomenographic study of basic science understanding-senior medical students' conceptions of fatigue
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2013 (English)In: Education for Health, ISSN 1357-6283, E-ISSN 1469-5804, Vol. 26, no 3, 156-163 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

INTRODUCTION: Helping students learn to apply their newly learned basic science knowledge to clinical situations is a long-standing challenge for medical educators. This study aims to describe how medical students' knowledge of the basic sciences is construed toward the end of their medical curriculum, focusing on how senior medical students explain the physiology of a given scenario. Methods A group of final-year medical students from two universities was investigated. Interviews were performed and phenomenographic analysis was used to interpret students' understanding of the physiology underlying the onset of fatigue in an individual on an exercise bicycle.

RESULTS: Three categories of description depict the qualitatively different ways the students conceptualized fatigue. A first category depicts well integrated physiological and bio-chemical knowledge characterized by equilibrium and causality. The second category contains conceptions of finite amount of substrate and juxtaposition of physiological concepts that are not fully integrated. The third category exhibits a fragmented understanding of disparate sections of knowledge without integration of basic science and clinical knowledge.

DISCUSSION: Distinctive conceptions of fatigue based with varying completeness of students' understanding characterized the three identified categories. The students' conceptions of fatigue were based on varying understanding of how organ systems relate and of the thresholds that determine physiological processes. Medical instruction should focus on making governing steps in biological processes clear and providing opportunity for causal explanations of clinical scenarios containing bio-chemical as well as clinical knowledge. This augments earlier findings by adding descriptions in terms of the subject matter studied about how basic science is applied by students in clinical settings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
The Network:Towards Unity for Health, 2013
Keyword
Phenomenography, problem-based learning, qualitative methodology, student learning, undergraduate medical education
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110130 (URN)10.4103/1357-6283.125990 (DOI)25001348 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2014-09-03 Created: 2014-09-03 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Lundin, F., Ledin, T., Wikkelsø, C. & Leijon, G. (2013). Postural function in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus before and after shunt surgery: a controlled study using computerized dynamic posturography (EquiTest). Clinical neurology and neurosurgery (Dutch-Flemish ed. Print), 115(9), 1626-1631.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Postural function in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus before and after shunt surgery: a controlled study using computerized dynamic posturography (EquiTest)
2013 (English)In: Clinical neurology and neurosurgery (Dutch-Flemish ed. Print), ISSN 0303-8467, E-ISSN 1872-6968, Vol. 115, no 9, 1626-1631 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Introduction

Postural dysfunction is one of the major features of idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). With computerized dynamic posturography (CDP) balance can be assessed objectively. The primary aim of this study was to describe the postural function in iNPH patients pre- and post-operatively in comparison with healthy individuals (HI) using CDP.

Subjects and methods

Thirty-five patients (16 M, 19 F) with a mean age of 73 (range 49–81) with iNPH, and sixteen HI (7 M, 9 F) aged 73 (62–89) were included. iNPH patients were operated on with a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. Patients and HI were tested regarding motor function, balance and cognition. CDP, EquiTest (NeuroCom International, Clackamas, OR), was performed before and three months after shunt surgery and twice in HI, with a three-month interval.

Results

Pre-operatively, the 35 patients had poorer balance measured with the Sensory Organizing Test (SOT) score in every condition (p = 0.01 in SOT 1 and p < 0.001 in SOT 2–6) compared to the HI. The greatest difference was in test conditions measuring mainly vestibular function, where loss of balance (LOB) was frequent. Twenty patients were evaluated three months after shunt surgery and 18/20 (90%) of them were considered shunt responders, with a mean improvement of motor score of 26% (range 5–67%). There was an improvement post-operatively in the weighted composite SOT score (p < 0.05) but no significant change in any of the SOT conditions. LOB was not significantly reduced in any of the test conditions.

Conclusion

CDP showed that the patients had a poorer balance than the HI. The greatest difference was in SOT 5–6, indicating that the postural disturbance is of primarily central vestibular origin. There was a slight improvement of balance post-operatively.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keyword
Idiopathic normal pressbre hydrocephalus, Postural function, Computerized dynamic posturography, Shunt surgery
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-100038 (URN)10.1016/j.clineuro.2013.02.015 (DOI)000324787900011 ()
Available from: 2013-10-25 Created: 2013-10-25 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Lindgren, S., Brannstrom, T., Hanse, E., Ledin, T., Nilsson, G., Sandler, S., . . . Donner, J. (2011). Medical education in Sweden. Medical teacher, 33(10), 798-803.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Medical education in Sweden
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2011 (English)In: Medical teacher, ISSN 0142-159X, E-ISSN 1466-187X, Vol. 33, no 10, 798-803 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Undergraduate medical education in Sweden has moved from nationally regulated, subject-based courses to programmes integrated either around organ systems or physiological and patho-physiological processes, or organised around basic medical science in conjunction with clinical specialities, with individual profiles at the seven medical schools. The national regulations are restricted to overall academic and professional outcomes. The 51/2 year long university undergraduate curriculum is followed by a mandatory 18 months internship, delivered by the County Councils. While quality control and accreditation for the university curriculum is provided by the Swedish National Agency for Higher Education, no such formal control exists for the internship; undergraduate medical education is therefore in conflict with EU directives from 2005. The Government is expected to move towards 6 years long university undergraduate programmes, leading to licence, which will facilitate international mobility of both Swedish and foreign medical students and doctors. Ongoing academic development of undergraduate education is strengthened by the Bologna process. It includes outcome (competence)-based curricula, university Masters level complying with international standards, progression of competence throughout the curriculum, student directed learning, active participation and roles in practical clinical education and a national assessment model to assure professional competence. In the near future, the dimensioning of Swedish undergraduate education is likely to be decided more by international demands and aspects of quality than by national demands for doctors.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Informa Healthcare, 2011
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71563 (URN)10.3109/0142159X.2011.570816 (DOI)000295218300010 ()
Available from: 2011-10-21 Created: 2011-10-21 Last updated: 2017-12-08
Kammerlind, A.-S. C., Ledin, T., Ödkvist, L. & Skargren, E. (2011). Recovery after acute unilateral vestibular loss and predictors for remaining symptoms. American Journal of Otolaryngology, 32(5), 366-375.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recovery after acute unilateral vestibular loss and predictors for remaining symptoms
2011 (English)In: American Journal of Otolaryngology, ISSN 0196-0709, E-ISSN 1532-818X, Vol. 32, no 5, 366-375 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: The aims of this study were to follow recovery during the first 6 months after acute unilateral vestibular loss (AUVL) and to determine predictors for self-rated remaining symptoms. Materials and methods: Forty-two subjects were included less than 10 days after AUVL. Static and dynamic clinical balance tests, visual analogue scales, University of California Los Angeles Dizziness Questionnaire, Dizziness Beliefs Scale, European Quality of Life questionnaire, Dizziness Handicap Inventory, and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale were performed at inclusion and at 7 follow-ups over 6 months. Subjects rated their symptoms on visual analogue scales daily at home. Videonystagmography was performed in the acute stage and after 10 weeks. Results: Decrease of symptoms and improvement of balance function were larger during the first compared with the latter part of the follow-up period. Visual analogue scale ratings for balance problems were higher than those for dizziness. A prediction model was created based on the results of 4 tests in the acute stage: standing on foam with eyes closed, standing on 1 leg with eyes open, visual analogue scale rating of vertigo at rest, and European Quality of Life questionnaire rating of health-related quality of life. The prediction model identified subjects at risk of having remaining symptoms after 6 months with a sensitivity of 86% and a specificity of 79%. Conclusions: Recovery mainly takes place during the first weeks after AUVL. Subjects rate more balance problems than dizziness. Self-rated remaining symptoms after 6 months may be predicted by clinical balance tests and subjective ratings in the acute stage.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WB Saunders, 2011
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71109 (URN)10.1016/j.amjoto.2010.07.008 (DOI)000294704200002 ()
Available from: 2011-09-30 Created: 2011-09-30 Last updated: 2017-12-08
Ledin, T. & Kammerlind, A.-S. (2010). Dizziness and disequlibrium. In: Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of disease: Professional Associations for Physical Activity (pp. 356-366). Stockholm: Swedish National Institute of Public Health.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dizziness and disequlibrium
2010 (English)In: Physical activity in the prevention and treatment of disease: Professional Associations for Physical Activity, Stockholm: Swedish National Institute of Public Health , 2010, 356-366 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Svimmelhet er en vanlig forekommende tilstand, og forekomsten øker med stigendealder. Nedsatt, mistet eller forstyrret funksjon i en eller flere av delene ibalansesystemet kan forårsakes av aldring samt av mange forskjellige sykdommerog skader og kan føre til forstyrret balansefunksjon og bevegelsesillusjoner(svimmelhet). Diagnostikken består blant annet av nøyaktig anamnese, tester avvestibulær funksjon, posisjonstester og vurdering av postural kontroll. Denneframstillingen behandler noen svimmelhetstilstander der bevegelsestrening erviktig for å oppnå størst mulig grad av tilheling.Akutt perifert vestibulært tap av balansenervens funksjon på den ene siden girrask og kraftig svimmelhet og balanseforstyrrelser. Tilheling kan påskyndes ved åstimulere sentral kompensasjon med øyebevegelser, hodebevegelser og balanseøvelserav gradvis økende intensitet. Ved godartet posisjonssvimmelhet, det vil sibenign paroksysmal posisjonell vertigo (BPPV), har noen otolitter løsnet og flyttetseg fra hinnesekk til buegang i det indre øret, noe som gir svimmelhet ved hodebevegelserog endringer i kroppsstilling. Ved BPPV brukes to forskjellige behandlingsprinsipper,habitueringstrening og manøverbehandling. Skader i sentralnervesystemetog aldersrelatere forandringer av balansesystemets funksjon kan også føretil svimmelhet og balanseforstyrrelser. Svimmelhet og balansevanskeligheter hoseldre er en stor risikofaktor for fall og påfølgende fraktur. Ved skade på sentralnervesystemetog ved aldersrelatert svimmelhet skal treningen forbedre balanse,koordinasjon og styrke, redusere bevegelsesfrykten og øke aktivitetsgraden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Swedish National Institute of Public Health, 2010
Series
Swedish National Institute of Public Health, ISSN 1651-8624 ; 2010:14
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-99370 (URN)978-91-7257-715-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2013-10-16 Created: 2013-10-16 Last updated: 2013-10-25
Dahlman, J., Sjörs, A., Lundgren, P., Ledin, T. & Falkmer, T. (2010). Effects of Motion Sickness on Encoding and Retrieval. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of Motion Sickness on Encoding and Retrieval
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2010 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Objective: In this study, possible effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval of words were investigated.

Background: The impact of motion sickness on human performance has been studied with regards to psychomotor functions and over learned skills, as well as to novel situations requiring encoding and retrieval skills through the use of short term memory. In this study, possible effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval of words were investigated.

Method: Forty healthy participants, half of them males, performed a continuous recognition task (CRT) during exposure to a motion sickness triggering optokinetic drum. The CRT was employed as a measurement of performance and consisted of encoding and retrieval of words. The task consisted of three consecutive phases 1) encoding of familiar words; 2) encoding and retrieval of words under the influence of motion sickness; 3) retrieval of words after exposure.

Results: Data analysis revealed no significant differences in the ability to encode or retrieve words during motion sickness compared with a control condition. In addition, there were no significant correlations between the level of motion sickness and performance of the CRT.

Conclusion: The results indicate that encoding and retrieval of words are not affected by moderate levels of motion sickness. Application: This research has implications for operational settings where professionals experience moderate levels of motion sickness.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15917 (URN)
Available from: 2008-12-16 Created: 2008-12-16 Last updated: 2013-09-10Bibliographically approved
Sjörs, A., Dahlman, J., Lundgren, P., Gerdle, B., Ledin, T. & Falkmer, T. (2010). Effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval performance and on psychophysiological responses. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval performance and on psychophysiological responses
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2010 (English)Article in journal (Refereed) Submitted
Abstract [en]

Motion sickness has previously been found to deteriorate performance, e.g., regarding psychomotor functions and short term memory. Sustained ability to perform, despite motion sickness, is crucial in complex working environments. This study focuses on effects of motion sickness on encoding and retrieval of words through the use of long term memory. In addition, the temporal development of different psychophysiological responses and their relationship with perceived motion sickness were investigated. Forty healthy participants performed an encoding and retrieval task during exposure to an optokinetic drum. The results were compared with data from 20 controls that performed the task without motion sickness exposure. Measurements of heart rate, heart rate variability, skin conductance, blood volume pulse, respiration rate, and skin temperature were made throughout optokinetic drum exposure. Data analyses revealed no significant effects of moderate levels of motion sickness on the ability to encode or retrieve words. We found positive relationships between subjective motion sickness ratings and heart rate, blood volume pulse and skin temperature whereas respiration rate was negatively related to perceived motion sickness. The psychophysiological measurements did not show consistent patterns of sympathetic activation and parasympathetic withdrawal, as could be expected. Hence, they are not recommended as predictors of motion sickness.

Keyword
Motion sickness, memory, autonomic responses, performance, optokinetic drum
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54332 (URN)
Available from: 2010-03-10 Created: 2010-03-10 Last updated: 2014-02-27
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