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Nordwall, Maria
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Publications (10 of 26) Show all publications
Lauria, A., Barker, A., Schloot, N., Hosszufalusi, N., Ludvigsson, J., Mathieu, C., . . . Pozzilli, P. (2015). BMI is an important driver of beta-cell loss in type 1 diabetes upon diagnosis in 10 to 18-year-old children. European Journal of Endocrinology, 172(2), 107-113
Open this publication in new window or tab >>BMI is an important driver of beta-cell loss in type 1 diabetes upon diagnosis in 10 to 18-year-old children
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2015 (English)In: European Journal of Endocrinology, ISSN 0804-4643, E-ISSN 1479-683X, Vol. 172, no 2, p. 107-113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: Body weight-related insulin resistance probably plays a role in progression to type 1 diabetes, but has an uncertain impact following diagnosis. In this study, we investigated whether BMI measured at diagnosis was an independent predictor of C-peptide decline 1-year post-diagnosis. Design: Multicentre longitudinal study carried out at diagnosis and up to 1-year follow-up. Methods: Data on C-peptide were collected from seven diabetes centres in Europe. Patients were grouped according to age at diagnosis (less than5 years, n = 126; greater than5 years less than10 years, n = 295; greater than10 years less than18 years, n = 421; greater than18 years, n = 410). Linear regression was used to investigate whether BMI was an independent predictor of change in fasting C-peptide over 1 year. Models were additionally adjusted for baseline insulin dose and HbA1c. Results: In individuals diagnosed between 0 and 5 years, 5 and 10 years and those diagnosed greater than18 years, we found no association between BMI and C-peptide decline. In patients aged 10-18 years, higher BMI at baseline was associated with a greater decline in fasting C-peptide over 1 year with a decrease (beta 95% CI; P value) of 0.025 (0.010, 0.041) nM/kg per m(2) higher baseline BMI (P = 0.001). This association remained significant after adjusting for gender and differences in HbA1c and insulin dose (beta = 0.026, 95% CI = 0.0097, 0.042; P = 0.002). Conclusions: These observations indicate that increased body weight and increased insulin demand are associated with more rapid disease progression after diagnosis of type 1 diabetes in an age group 10-18 years. This should be considered in studies of beta-cell function in type 1 diabetes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioScientifica, 2015
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115328 (URN)10.1530/EJE-14-0522 (DOI)000349458000007 ()25378371 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Centro Internazionale Studi Diabete; Instituto Carlos III, Spain [FIS 061104]

Available from: 2015-03-13 Created: 2015-03-13 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Nordwall, M., Abrahamsson, M., Dhir, M., Fredrikson, M., Ludvigsson, J. & Arnqvist, H. J. (2015). Comment: Response to Comment on Nordwall et al. Impact of HbA1c, Followed From Onset of Type 1 Diabetes, on the Development of Severe Retinopathy and Nephropathy: The VISS Study (Vascular Diabetic Complications in Southeast Sweden). Diabetes Care 2015;38:308-315 [Letter to the editor]. Diabetes Care, 38(8), e124
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comment: Response to Comment on Nordwall et al. Impact of HbA1c, Followed From Onset of Type 1 Diabetes, on the Development of Severe Retinopathy and Nephropathy: The VISS Study (Vascular Diabetic Complications in Southeast Sweden). Diabetes Care 2015;38:308-315
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2015 (English)In: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, E-ISSN 1935-5548, Vol. 38, no 8, p. e124-Article in journal, Letter (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

We thank Dr. Takahara (1) for the comment on our recent article exploring the impact of HbA1c, followed from diabetes onset, on the development of severe microvascular complications (2). As suggested, we have validated our results with Cox hazards analysis with severe microvascular events, i.e., laser-treated proliferative retinopathy and macroalbuminuria as a dependent variable and HbA1c (mmol/mol) as a time-dependent covariate.

For laser-treated proliferative retinopathy, we found a hazard ratio of 1.038 (95% CI 1.025–1.052, P < 0.001) and for macroalbuminuria, a hazard ratio of 1.075 (95% CI 1.050–1.100, P < 0.001).

Analyzing our data with Cox hazards analysis thus shows the strong influence of long-term HbA1c on severe microvascular complications, in agreement with our previous conclusions.

In our article, we chose to analyze and present the results in a way that was perhaps easier for a clinician to interpret and apply in clinical routine. With life-table analysis we found that the incidence of both laser-treated proliferative retinopathy and macroalbuminuria increased sharply and occurred earlier with increasing long-term weighted mean HbA1c. In the same manner, the prevalence of microvascular complications increased steeply with higher long-term weighted mean HbA1c, categorized in different groups.

In conclusion, our study irrespective of statistical methods shows a strong association between development of late complications and long-term mean HbA1c, and keeping the average HbA1c below 7.6% (60 mmol/mol) seemed sufficient to prevent microvascular complications for at least up to 20 years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Diabetes Association, 2015
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126409 (URN)10.2337/dc15-0939 (DOI)000358673200009 ()26207065 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-03-23 Created: 2016-03-23 Last updated: 2018-03-22Bibliographically approved
Nordwall, M., Abrahamsson, M., Dhir, M., Fredrikson, M., Ludvigsson, J. & Arnqvist, H. (2015). Impact of HbA(1c), Followed From Onset of Type 1 Diabetes, on the Development of Severe Retinopathy and Nephropathy: The VISS Study (Vascular Diabetic Complications in Southeast Sweden). Diabetes Care, 38(2), 308-315
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impact of HbA(1c), Followed From Onset of Type 1 Diabetes, on the Development of Severe Retinopathy and Nephropathy: The VISS Study (Vascular Diabetic Complications in Southeast Sweden)
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2015 (English)In: Diabetes Care, ISSN 0149-5992, E-ISSN 1935-5548, Vol. 38, no 2, p. 308-315Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVEHbA(1c) is strongly related to the development of diabetes complications, but it is still controversial which HbA(1c) level to strive for in the treatment of type 1 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to evaluate HbA(1c), followed from diagnosis, as a predictor of severe microvascular complications and to formulate HbA(1c) target levels for treatment.RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODSA longitudinal observation study followed an unselected population of 451 patients diagnosed with type 1 diabetes during 1983-1987 before the age of 35 years in a region of Southeast Sweden. Retinopathy was evaluated by fundus photography and nephropathy data collected from medical records. HbA(1c) was measured starting from diagnosis and during the whole follow-up period of 20-24 years. Long-term weighted mean HbA(1c) was then calculated. Complications were analyzed in relation to HbA(1c) levels.RESULTSThe incidence of proliferative retinopathy and persistent macroalbuminuria increased sharply and occurred earlier with increasing long-term mean HbA(1c). None of the 451 patients developed proliferative retinopathy or persistent macroalbuminuria below long-term weighted mean HbA(1c) 7.6% (60 mmol/mol); 51% of the patients with long-term mean HbA(1c) above 9.5% (80 mmol/mol) developed proliferative retinopathy and 23% persistent macroalbuminuria.CONCLUSIONSLong-term weighted mean HbA(1c), measured from diagnosis, is closely associated with the development of severe complications in type 1 diabetes. Keeping HbA(1c) below 7.6% (60 mmol/mol) as a treatment target seems to prevent proliferative retinopathy and persistent macroalbuminuria for up to 20 years.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Diabetes Association, 2015
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114569 (URN)10.2337/dc14-1203 (DOI)000348461400032 ()25510400 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Child Diabetes Foundation (Barndiabetesfonden); Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden (Forskningsradet I Sydostra Sverige)

Available from: 2015-03-02 Created: 2015-02-26 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Barker, A., Lauria, A., Schloot, N., Hosszufalusi, N., Ludvigsson, J., Mathieu, C., . . . Pozzilli, P. (2014). Age-dependent decline of beta-cell function in type 1 diabetes after diagnosis: a multi-centre longitudinal study. Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, 16(3), 262-267
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Age-dependent decline of beta-cell function in type 1 diabetes after diagnosis: a multi-centre longitudinal study
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2014 (English)In: Diabetes, obesity and metabolism, ISSN 1462-8902, E-ISSN 1463-1326, Vol. 16, no 3, p. 262-267Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

AimsC-peptide secretion is currently the only available clinical biomarker to measure residual -cell function in type 1 diabetes. However, the natural history of C-peptide decline after diagnosis can vary considerably dependent upon several variables. We investigated the shape of C-peptide decline over time from type 1 diabetes onset in relation to age at diagnosis, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels and insulin dose. MethodsWe analysed data from 3929 type 1 diabetes patients recruited from seven European centres representing all age groups at disease onset (childhood, adolescence and adulthood). The influence of the age at onset on -cell function was investigated in a longitudinal analysis at diagnosis and up to 5-years follow-up. ResultsFasting C-peptide (FCP) data at diagnosis were available in 3668 patients stratified according to age at diagnosis in four groups (less than5years, n=344; greater than5yearsless than10years, n=668; greater than10yearsless than18years, n=991; greater than18years, n=1655). FCP levels were positively correlated with age (pless than0.001); the subsequent decline in FCP over time was log-linear with a greater decline rate in younger age groups (pless than0.0001). ConclusionsThis study reveals a positive correlation between age at diagnosis of type 1 diabetes and FCP with a more rapid decline of -cell function in the very young patients. These data can inform the design of clinical trials using C-peptide values as an end-point for the effect of a given treatment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley, 2014
Keywords
beta cell; clinical trial; type 1 diabetes
National Category
Clinical Medicine Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-104835 (URN)10.1111/dom.12216 (DOI)000330564800009 ()
Available from: 2014-02-28 Created: 2014-02-28 Last updated: 2018-01-11
Nordfeldt, S., Ängarne-Lindberg, T., Nordwall, M., Ekberg, J. & Berterö, C. (2013). As facts and chats go online, what is important for adolsescents with type 1 diabetes?. PLoS ONE, 8(6), e67659
Open this publication in new window or tab >>As facts and chats go online, what is important for adolsescents with type 1 diabetes?
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2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 6, p. e67659-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Continued refinement of resources for patient information, education and support is needed. Considering the rapid development of new communication practices, the perspectives of young people themselves warrant more attention using a wide research focus. The purpose of this study was to understand information-seeking behaviours, Internet use and social networking online in adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1DM). This applied to their everyday life, including the context of diabetes and their experiences and need of contact with T1DM peers.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Twenty-four adolescents aged 10–17 years with T1DM were recruited from a county hospital in the south-east of Sweden. Qualitative data were obtained using eight focus groups, wherein each participant engaged in a 60–90 minute video/audio-recorded session. The focus group data were transcribed and analysed using qualitative content analysis. Some demographic and medical information was also collected. The three main categories that were identified; Aspects of Security, Updating, and Plainness and their sub-categories gave significant information about how to enhance information retrieval and peer contacts related to T1DM. Regarding the persons' information-seeking behaviour, Internet use, and use of social media some differences could be identified depending on gender and age.

Conclusions/Significance

Sensitivity and adaptation to users' needs and expectations seem crucial in the development of future online resources for adolescents with T1DM. To start with, this could mean applying a wider range of already existing information and communication technologies. Health practitioners need to focus on the areas of security of information and communication, frequency of updating, and simplicity of design-less is more.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2013
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-95905 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0067659 (DOI)000320846500150 ()23805322 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-08-08 Created: 2013-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Teder, M., Mörelius, E.-L., Nordwall, M., Bolme, P., Ekberg, J., Wilhelm, E. & Timpka, T. (2013). Family-based behavioural intervention program for obese children: an observational study of child and parent lifestyle interpretations. PLoS ONE, 8(8)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family-based behavioural intervention program for obese children: an observational study of child and parent lifestyle interpretations
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2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 8Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Family-based behavioural intervention programs (FBIPs) against childhood obesity have shown promising results, but the mediating mechanisms have not been identified. The aim of this study was to examine changes in obese childreńs lifestyle habits during a 2-year FBIP according to their own and parents’ reports, the concordance between these reports and the correlations to change in post-intervention z-BMI.

Methods

An observational study of 26 children (8.3–12.0 years) and their parents participating in a 2-year FBIP was performed. Weight and height were measured from baseline to 12 months after the end of the program. Eating habits and physical- and sedentary activity were reported separately by children and parents. Data were analysed with regard to concordance between parents’ and children’s reports and association between the lifestyle reports and change in z-BMI at the study endpoint using descriptive statistics and parametric and non-parametric tests.

Results

According to both children’s and parents’ reports, the level of physical activity among the children had increased after the intervention as well as the agreement between the informants’ reports. According to the children, eating habits had improved, while the parents’ reports showed an improvement only with regard to binge eating. The concordance between children and parents regarding eating habits was slight to fair also after the intervention. No statistically significant associations between changes in lifestyle reports and changes in z-BMI were observed.

Conclusions

Child and parent reports of physical activity were found to converge and display an improvement in a 2-year FBIP, while the reports on eating habits showed a more refractory pattern. Changes in concordance and agreement between children and parents reports did not correlate with weight reduction. Further methods development and studies of the processes during family-based interventions against childhood obesity are warranted.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2013
Keywords
Eating, exercise, mediators, obesity
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-89957 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0071482 (DOI)000323109700105 ()
Available from: 2013-03-12 Created: 2013-03-12 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Nordfeldt, S., Ängarne-Lindberg, T., Nordwall, M. & Krevers, B. (2013). Parents of Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Their Views on Information and Communication Needs and Internet Use. A Qualitative Study. PLoS ONE, 8(4)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Parents of Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Their Views on Information and Communication Needs and Internet Use. A Qualitative Study
2013 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 4Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Little is known about parents’ views on the use of online resources for information, education and support regarding childhood type 1 diabetes (T1DM). Considering the rapidly evolving new communication practices, parents’ perspectives need to be explored. The main purpose of this paper was to explore parents’ perceptions of their information-seeking, Internet use, and social networking online. This applied to their everyday life, including the contexts of T1DM and contact with peers. A second aim was to identify implications for future development of Internet use in this respect.

Methodology/Principal Findings

Twenty-seven parents of 24 young persons aged 10–17 with T1DM participated in eight focus group interviews during their regular visits to a county hospital. Focus group discussions were video/audio-taped, transcribed and analysed using inductive qualitative content analysis. Self-reported demographic and medical information was also collected. A main theme was Finding things out, including two sub-themes, Trust and Suitability. The latter were key factors affecting parents’ perceptions of online resources. Parents’ choice of information source was related to the situation, previous experiences and knowledge about sources and, most importantly, the level of trust in the source. A constantly present background theme was Life situation, including two sub-themes, Roles and functions and Emotions and needs. Parents’ information-seeking regarding T1DM varied greatly, and was closely associated with their life situation, the adolescents development phases and the disease trajectory.

Conclusions/Significance

Health practitioners and system developers need to focus on creating trust and suitability for users’ needs. They should understand the children’s diverse needs, which depend on their life situation, on the children’s development, and on the disease trajectory. To enhance trust in online health information and support services, the participation of local practitioners is crucial.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science, 2013
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-93394 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0062096 (DOI)000318008400136 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Linkoping Centre for Life Science Technologies (LIST), Linkoping University, Sweden||

Available from: 2013-05-31 Created: 2013-05-31 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Teder, M., Mörelius, E., Bolme, P., Nordwall, M., Ekberg, J. & Timpka, T. (2012). Family-based behavioural intervention programme for obese children: a feasibility study. BMJ open, 2(2), e000268
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Family-based behavioural intervention programme for obese children: a feasibility study
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2012 (English)In: BMJ open, ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 2, no 2, p. e000268-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To assess a 2-year family-based behavioural intervention programme against child obesity.

DESIGN: Single-group pre- and post-intervention feasibility study.

SETTING: Swedish paediatric outpatient care.

PARTICIPANTS: 26 obese children aged 8.3-12.0 years and their parents who had consented to actively participate in a 2-year intervention.

INTERVENTIONS: 25 paediatric outpatient group sessions over a 2-year period with parallel groups for children and parents. The basis for the programme was a manual containing instructions for tutor-supervised group sessions with obese children and their parents. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was change in standardised body mass index between baseline and after 36 months. The secondary outcome measures were change in the waist:height ratio, metabolic parameters and programme adherence. The participants were examined at baseline and after 3, 12 and 24 months of therapy and at follow-up 12 months after completion of the programme.

RESULTS: The primary outcome measure, standardised body mass index, declined from a mean of 3.3 (0.7 SD) at baseline to 2.9 (0.7 SD) (p<0.001) at follow-up 12 months after completion of the programme. There was no change in the waist:height ratio. Biomedical markers of blood glucose metabolism and lipid status remained in the normal range. 96% of the families completed the programme.

CONCLUSIONS: This feasibility study of a 2-year family-based behavioural intervention programme in paediatric outpatient care showed promising results with regard to further weight gain and programme adherence. These findings must be confirmed in a randomised controlled trial with longer follow-up before the intervention programme can be implemented on a larger scale.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-75517 (URN)10.1136/bmjopen-2011-000268 (DOI)000315042100002 ()22389357 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-03-06 Created: 2012-03-06 Last updated: 2016-05-04
Ekberg, J., Angbratt, M., Valter, L., Nordwall, M. & Timpka, T. (2012). History matters: childhood weight trajectories as a basis for planning community-based obesity prevention to adolescents. International Journal of Obesity, 36(4), 524-528
Open this publication in new window or tab >>History matters: childhood weight trajectories as a basis for planning community-based obesity prevention to adolescents
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2012 (English)In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 524-528Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVE: To use epidemiological data and a standardized economic model to compare projected costs for obesity prevention in late adolescence accrued using a cross-sectional weight classification for selecting adolescents at age 15 years compared with a longitudinal classification. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS: All children born in a Swedish county (population 440 000) in 1991 who participated in all regular measurements of height and weight at ages 5, 10 and 15 years (n=4312) were included in the study. The selection strategies were compared by calculating the projected financial load resulting from supply of obesity prevention services from providers at all levels in the health care system. The difference in marginal cost per 1000 children was used as the primary end point for the analyses. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS: Using the cross-sectional selection strategy, 3.8% of adolescents at age 15 years were selected for evaluation by a pediatric specialist, and 96.2% were chosen for population-based interventions. In the trajectory-based strategy, 2.4% of the adolescents were selected for intensive pediatric care, 1.4% for individual clinical interventions in primary health care, 14.0% for individual primary obesity prevention using the Internet and 82.1% for population-based interventions. Costs for the cross-sectional selection strategy were projected to USD463 581 per 1000 adolescents and for the trajectory-based strategy were USD 302 016 per 1000 adolescents. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSIONS: Using projections from epidemiological data, we found that by basing the selection of adolescents for obesity prevention on weight trajectories, the load on highly specialized pediatric care can be reduced by one-third and total health service costs for obesity management among adolescents reduced by one-third. Before use in policies and prevention program planning, our findings warrant confirmation in prospective cost-benefit studies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2012
Keywords
economics, epidemiology, decision support, cohort
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77329 (URN)10.1038/ijo.2011.263 (DOI)000302776300008 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Ostergotland County Council, Sweden||

Available from: 2012-05-11 Created: 2012-05-11 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Skogman, B. H., Glimaker, K., Nordwall, M., Vrethem, M., Ödkvist, L. & Forsberg, P. (2012). Long-term Clinical Outcome After Lyme Neuroborreliosis in Childhood. Pediatrics, 130(2), 262-269
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Long-term Clinical Outcome After Lyme Neuroborreliosis in Childhood
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2012 (English)In: Pediatrics, ISSN 0031-4005, E-ISSN 1098-4275, Vol. 130, no 2, p. 262-269Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: To determine long-term clinical outcome in children with confirmed Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) and to evaluate persistent subjective symptoms compared with a control group. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanMETHODS: After a median of 5 years, 84 children with confirmed LNB underwent a neurologic re-examination, including a questionnaire. Medical records were analyzed, and a control group (n = 84) was included. less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanRESULTS: The total recovery rate was 73% (n = 61). Objective neurologic findings, defined as "definite sequelae," were found in 16 patients (19%). The majority of these children had persistent facial nerve palsy (n = 11), but other motor or sensory deficits occurred (n = 5). Neurologic signs and/or symptoms defined as "possible sequelae" were found in another 7 patients (8%), mainly of sensory character. Nonspecific subjective symptoms were reported by 35 patients (42%) and 32 controls (38%) (nonsignificant). Affected daily activities or school performance were reported to the same extent in both groups (23% vs 20%, nonsignificant). less thanbrgreater than less thanbrgreater thanCONCLUSIONS: The long-term clinical recovery rate was 73% in children with confirmed LNB. Persistent facial nerve palsy occurred in 13%, whereas other motor or sensory deficits were found in another 14%. Neurologic deficits did not affect daily activities or school performance more often among patients than controls and should be considered as mild. Furthermore, nonspecific subjective symptoms such as headache, fatigue, or memory or concentration problems were reported as often among patients as controls and should not be considered as sequelae after LNB.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Academy of Pediatrics, 2012
Keywords
Lyme borreliosis, neuroborreliosis, children, clinical outcome, sequelae, facial nerve palsy, persistent symptoms
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81832 (URN)10.1542/peds.2011-3719 (DOI)000307123000046 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Research Council in Southeast Sweden (FORSS)||County Council in Ostergotland||Center of Clinical Research in Dalarna (CKF)||Swedish Society of Medicine||Lions Foundation||Holmia Foundation||

Available from: 2012-09-25 Created: 2012-09-24 Last updated: 2017-12-07
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