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Lundin, Daniel
Publications (10 of 33) Show all publications
Lundin, D. & Pedersen, H. (2013). High power pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition: a brief overview of general concepts and early results. In: NINETEENTH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (EUROCVD 19): . Paper presented at 19th European Conference on Chemical Vapor Deposition (EuroCVD), Varna, BULGARIA, SEP 01-06, 2013 (pp. 3-11). , 46.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High power pulsed plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition: a brief overview of general concepts and early results
2013 (English)In: NINETEENTH EUROPEAN CONFERENCE ON CHEMICAL VAPOR DEPOSITION (EUROCVD 19), 2013, Vol. 46, 3-11 p.Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The general concepts of the emerging plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) technique High Power Pulsed PECVD (HiPP-PECVD) are outlined; the main feature of HiPP-PECVD is the use of a power scheme characterized by high power pulses with a duty cycle of a few percent or less to generate a process plasma with a significantly higher plasma density compared to traditional PECVD. The higher plasma density leads to a more reactive plasma chemistry, which results in a higher rate of dissociation of the precursor molecules, i.e. a more efficient use of the source material. The high plasma density also leads to a higher degree of ionization of the growth species, enabling the possibility to guide the growth species to the substrate or applying an energetic bombardment of the growing film by applying a substrate bias. Early results on HiPP-PECVD have shown that HiPP-PECVD enables deposition of phase pure alpha-Al2O3 at substrate temperatures as low as 560 degrees C with mechanical properties comparable to standard thermal CVD grown material. Also, deposition of amorphous, copper containing carbon films at deposition rates higher than 30 mu m/h has been demonstrated together with results showing the more efficient plasma chemistry. It is suggested that HiPPPECVD is a promising tool for low temperature deposition of films with tailored properties for e.g. the hard coatings industry. (C) 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

Series
Physics Procedia
Keyword
PECVD; Pulsed plasma discharges; Substrate bias; Al2O3; Amorphous Carbon; HiPIMS
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103064 (URN)10.1016/j.phpro.2013.07.039 (DOI)
Conference
19th European Conference on Chemical Vapor Deposition (EuroCVD), Varna, BULGARIA, SEP 01-06, 2013
Available from: 2014-01-13 Created: 2014-01-13 Last updated: 2014-01-13
Aiempanakit, M., Aijaz, A., Lundin, D., Helmersson, U. & Kubart, T. (2013). Understanding the discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of oxides. Journal of Applied Physics, 113(13).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding the discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of oxides
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 113, no 13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The discharge current behavior in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of Ti-O and Al-O is investigated. It is found that for both metals, the discharge peak current significantly increases in the oxide mode in contrast to the behavior in reactive direct current magnetron sputtering where the discharge current increases for Al but decreases for Ti when oxygen is introduced. In order to investigate the increase in the discharge current in HiPIMS-mode, the ionic contribution of the discharge in the oxide and metal mode is measured using time-resolved mass spectrometry. The energy distributions and time evolution are investigated during the pulse-on time as well as in the post-discharge. In the oxide mode, the discharge is dominated by ionized oxygen, which has been preferentially sputtered from the target surface. The ionized oxygen determines the discharge behavior in reactive HiPIMS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics (AIP), 2013
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-91256 (URN)10.1063/1.4799199 (DOI)000317238000006 ()
Available from: 2013-04-18 Created: 2013-04-18 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Pedersen, H., Larsson, P., Aijaz, A., Jensen, J. & Lundin, D. (2012). A novel high-power pulse PECVD method. Surface & Coatings Technology, 206(22), 4562-4566.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel high-power pulse PECVD method
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2012 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 206, no 22, 4562-4566 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) technique has been developed in order to combine energetic particle bombardment and high plasma densities found in ionized PVD with the advantages from PECVD such as a high deposition rate and the capability to coat complex and porous surfaces. In this PECVD method, an ionized plasma is generated above the substrate by means of a hollow cathode discharge. The hollow cathode is known to generate a highly ionized plasma and the discharge can be sustained in direct current (DC) mode, or in high-power pulsed (HiPP) mode using short pulses of a few tens of microsecond. The latter option is similar to the power scheme used in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), which is known to generate a high degree of ionization of the sputtered material, and thus providing new and added means for the synthesis of tailor-made thin films. In this work amorphous carbon coatings containing copper, have been deposited using both HiPP and DC operating conditions. Investigations of the bulk plasma using optical emission spectroscopy verify the presence of Ar+, C+ as well as Cu+ when running in pulsed mode. Deposition rates in the range 30 mu m/h have been obtained and the amorphous, copper containing carbon films have a low hydrogen content of 4- 5 at%. Furthermore, the results presented here suggest that a more efficient PECVD process is obtained by using a superposition of HiPP and DC mode, compared to using only DC mode at the same average input power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keyword
PECVD, Hollow cathode, Pulsed plasma discharges, Amorphous carbon
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81223 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2012.05.007 (DOI)000306350600011 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Innovation Agency (VINNOVA) and Angpanneforeningens forskningsstiftelse (AForsk)||

Available from: 2012-09-10 Created: 2012-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Aijaz, A., Sarakinos, K., Lundin, D., Brenning, N. & Helmersson, U. (2012). A strategy for increased carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges. Diamond and related materials, 23, 1-4.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A strategy for increased carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges
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2012 (English)In: Diamond and related materials, ISSN 0925-9635, E-ISSN 1879-0062, Vol. 23, 1-4 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A strategy that facilitates a substantial increase of carbon ionization in magnetron sputtering discharges is presented in this work. The strategy is based on increasing the electron temperature in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge by using Ne as the sputtering gas. This allows for the generation of an energetic C+ ion population and a substantial increase in the C+ ion flux as compared to a conventional Ar-HiPIMS process. A direct consequence of the ionization enhancement is demonstrated by an increase in the mass density of the grown films up to 2.8 g/cm3; the density values achieved are substantially higher than those obtained from conventional magnetron sputtering methods.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74315 (URN)10.1016/j.diamond.2011.12.043 (DOI)000302887600001 ()
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 621-2008-3222 623-2009-7348
Available from: 2012-01-24 Created: 2012-01-24 Last updated: 2017-12-08Bibliographically approved
Lundin, D. & Sarakinos, K. (2012). An introduction to thin film processing using high-power impulse magnetron sputtering. Journal of Materials Research, 27(5), 780-792.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>An introduction to thin film processing using high-power impulse magnetron sputtering
2012 (English)In: Journal of Materials Research, ISSN 0884-2914, E-ISSN 2044-5326, Vol. 27, no 5, 780-792 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) is a promising sputtering-based ionized physical vapor deposition technique and is already making its way to industrial applications. The major difference between HiPIMS and conventional magnetron sputtering processes is the mode of operation. In HiPIMS the power is applied to the magnetron (target) in unipolar pulses at a low duty factor (andlt;10%) and low frequency (andlt;10 kHz) leading to peak target power densities of the order of several kilowatts per square centimeter while keeping the average target power density low enough to avoid magnetron overheating and target melting. These conditions result in the generation of a highly dense plasma discharge, where a large fraction of the sputtered material is ionized and thereby providing new and added means for the synthesis of tailor-made thin films. In this review, the features distinguishing HiPIMS from other deposition methods will be addressed in detail along with how they influence the deposition conditions, such as the plasma parameters and the sputtered material, as well as the resulting thin film properties, such as microstructure, phase formation, and chemical composition. General trends will be established in conjunction to industrially relevant material systems to present this emerging technology to the interested reader.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press (CUP) / Materials Research Society, 2012
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78284 (URN)10.1557/jmr.2012.8 (DOI)000304064500004 ()
Note
Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR)|623-2009-7348|Available from: 2012-06-08 Created: 2012-06-08 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Vitelaru, C., Lundin, D., Stancu, G. D., Brenning, N., Bretagne, J. & Minea, T. (2012). Argon metastables in HiPIMS: time-resolved tunable diode-laser diagnostics. Plasma sources science & technology (Print), 21(2), 025010.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Argon metastables in HiPIMS: time-resolved tunable diode-laser diagnostics
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2012 (English)In: Plasma sources science & technology (Print), ISSN 0963-0252, E-ISSN 1361-6595, Vol. 21, no 2, 025010- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Time-resolved tunable diode-laser absorption spectroscopy measurements were performed on the argon metastable (Ar-m) level 3s(2)3p(5)(P-2(3/2)degrees)4s excited at 801.478 nm, in the dense plasma region in front of the magnetron target in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge. From the Doppler profile the evolution of the temperature and density was derived during the pulse as well as during the plasma decay, i.e. in the afterglow. It is shown that the Ar-m density sharply increases at the beginning of the discharge pulse, followed by a severe Ar-m depletion along with increasing gas temperature around the peak of the HiPIMS discharge current. The strong dynamics of these parameters involve many elementary processes such as electron-impact excitation, electron-impact de-excitation and ionization of Ar-m, gas rarefaction, electron temperature increase at the end of the pulse and gas diffusion. These phenomena are discussed with respect to several parameters: distance from the target, peak discharge current during the pulse, pulse length, and gas pressure.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics, 2012
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77335 (URN)10.1088/0963-0252/21/2/025010 (DOI)000302779400024 ()
Note
Funding Agencies|IDEI of the PNCDI|540/2009|Swedish Research Council||Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research||European Collaboration in Science and Technology (COST Action)|MP0804|Available from: 2012-05-11 Created: 2012-05-11 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Huo, C., Raadu, M. A., Lundin, D., Gudmundsson, J. T., Anders, A. & Brenning, N. (2012). Gas rarefaction and the time evolution of long high-power impulse magnetron sputtering pulses. Plasma sources science & technology (Print), 21(4), 045004.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gas rarefaction and the time evolution of long high-power impulse magnetron sputtering pulses
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2012 (English)In: Plasma sources science & technology (Print), ISSN 0963-0252, E-ISSN 1361-6595, Vol. 21, no 4, 045004- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Model studies of 400 mu s long discharge pulses in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering have been made to study the gas dynamics and plasma chemistry in this type of pulsed processing plasma. Data are taken from an experiment using square voltage pulses applied to an Al target in an Ar atmosphere at 1.8 Pa. The study is limited to low power densities, andlt; 0.5 kW cm(-2), in which the discharge is far away from the runaway self-sputtering mode. The model used is the ionization region model, a time-dependent plasma chemistry discharge model developed for the ionization region in magnetron sputtering discharges. It gives a close fit to the discharge current during the whole pulse, both an initial high-current transient and a later plateau value of constant lower current. The discharge current peak is found to precede a maximum in gas rarefaction of the order of Delta n(Ar)/n(Ar),(0) approximate to 50%. The time durations of the high-current transient, and of the rarefaction maximum, are determined by the time it takes to establish a steady-state diffusional refill of process gas from the surrounding volume. The dominating mechanism for gas rarefaction is ionization losses, with only about 30% due to the sputter wind kick-out process. During the high-current transient, the degree of sputtered metal ionization reaches 65-75%, and then drops to 30-35% in the plateau phase. The degree of self-sputtering (defined here as the metal ion fraction of the total ion current to the target) also varies during the pulse. It grows from zero at pulse start to a maximum of 65-70% coinciding in time with the maximum gas rarefaction, and then stabilizes in the range 40-45% during the plateau phase. The loss in deposition rate that can be attributed to the back-attraction of the ionized sputtered species is also estimated from the model. It is low during the initial 10-20 mu s, peaks around 60% during the high-current transient, and finally stabilizes around 30% during the plateau phase.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics, 2012
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-84356 (URN)10.1088/0963-0252/21/4/045004 (DOI)000307307600007 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Icelandic Research Fund|072105003|Swedish Research Council Grant|621-2008-3222|European Collaboration in Science and Technology (COST Action)|MP0804|US Department of Energy|DE-AC020-5CH11231|

Available from: 2012-10-05 Created: 2012-10-05 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Gudmundsson, J. T., Brenning, N., Lundin, D. & Helmersson, U. (2012). High power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 30(030801).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge
2012 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 30, no 030801Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge is a recent addition to plasma based sputtering technology. In HiPIMS, high power is applied to the magnetron target in unipolar pulses at low duty cycle and low repetition frequency while keeping the average power about 2 orders of magnitude lower than the peak power. This results in a high plasma density, and high ionization fraction of the sputtered vapor, which allows better control of the film growth by controlling the energy and direction of the deposition species. This is a significant advantage over conventional dc magnetron sputtering where the sputtered vapor consists mainly of neutral species. The HiPIMS discharge is now an established ionized physical vapor deposition technique, which is easily scalable and has been successfully introduced into various industrial applications. The authors give an overview of the development of the HiPIMS discharge, and the underlying mechanisms that dictate the discharge properties. First, an introduction to the magnetron sputtering discharge and its various configurations and modifications is given. Then the development and properties of the high power pulsed power supply are discussed, followed by an overview of the measured plasma parameters in the HiPIMS discharge, the electron energy and density, the ion energy, ion flux and plasma composition, and a discussion on the deposition rate. Finally, some of the models that have been developed to gain understanding of the discharge processes are reviewed, including the phenomenological material pathway model, and the ionization region model.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-76304 (URN)10.1116/1.3691832 (DOI)000303602800003 ()
Note

funding agencies|Icelandic Research Fund| 072105003 |Swedish Research Council| 621-2008-3222 |COST Action| MP0804 |

Available from: 2012-04-03 Created: 2012-04-03 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Samuelsson, M., Lundin, D., Sarakinos, K., Bjorefors, F., Walivaara, B., Ljungcrantz, H. & Helmersson, U. (2012). Influence of ionization degree on film properties when using high power impulse magnetron sputtering. Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, 30(3), 031507.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of ionization degree on film properties when using high power impulse magnetron sputtering
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 30, no 3, 031507- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Chromium thin films are deposited by combining direct current magnetron sputtering and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) on a single cathode in an industrial deposition system. While maintaining a constant deposition rate and unchanged metal ion energy distribution function, the fraction of the total power supplied by either deposition technique is altered, and thereby also the metal ion to metal neutral ratio of the deposition flux. It is observed that the required total average power needed to be proportionally increased as the HiPIMS fraction is increased to be able to keep a constant deposition rate. The influence on microstructure, electrical, and electrochemical properties of the films is investigated and shows improvements with the use of HiPIMS. However, considerable influence of the studied properties occurs already when only some 40% of the total power is supplied by the HiPIMS technique. Further increase of the HiPIMS power fraction results in comparatively minor influence of the studied properties yet significant deposition rate efficiency reduction. The results show that the degree of ionization can be controlled separately, and that the advantages associated with using HiPIMS can be obtained while much of the deposition rate reduction, often reported for HiPIMS, can be avoided.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Vacuum Society, 2012
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-78582 (URN)10.1116/1.3700227 (DOI)000303602800018 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR)|621-2005-3245621-2008-3222623-2009-7348|Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research||

Available from: 2012-06-15 Created: 2012-06-15 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Brenning, N., Huo, C., Lundin, D., Raadu, M. A., Vitelaru, C., Stancu, G. D., . . . Helmersson, U. (2012). Understanding deposition rate loss in high power impulse magnetron sputtering: I. Ionization-driven electric fields. Plasma sources science & technology (Print), 21(2), 025005.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Understanding deposition rate loss in high power impulse magnetron sputtering: I. Ionization-driven electric fields
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2012 (English)In: Plasma sources science & technology (Print), ISSN 0963-0252, E-ISSN 1361-6595, Vol. 21, no 2, 025005- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The lower deposition rate for high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) compared with direct current magnetron sputtering for the same average power is often reported as a drawback. The often invoked reason is back-attraction of ionized sputtered material to the target due to a substantial negative potential profile, sometimes called an extended presheath, from the location of ionization toward the cathode. Recent studies in HiPIMS devices, using floating-emitting and swept-Langmuir probes, show that such extended potential profiles do exist, and that the electric fields E-z directed toward the target can be strong enough to seriously reduce ion transport to the substrate. However, they also show that the potential drops involved can vary by up to an order of magnitude from case to case. There is a clear need to understand the underlying mechanisms and identify the key discharge variables that can be used for minimizing the back-attraction. We here present a combined theoretical and experimental analysis of the problem of electric fields E-z in the ionization region part of HiPIMS discharges, and their effect on the transport of ionized sputtered material. In particular, we have investigated the possibility of a sweet spot in parameter space in which the back-attraction of ionized sputtered material is low. It is concluded that a sweet spot might possibly exist for some carefully optimized discharges, but probably in a rather narrow window of parameters. As a measure of how far a discharge is from such a window, a Townsend product Pi(Townsend) is proposed. A parametric analysis of Pi(Townsend) shows that the search for a sweet spot is complicated by the fact that contradictory demands appear for several of the externally controllable parameters such as high/low working gas pressure, short/long pulse length, high/low pulse power and high/low magnetic field strength.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics, 2012
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-77328 (URN)10.1088/0963-0252/21/2/025005 (DOI)000302779400019 ()
Note
Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council||Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research||European Collaboration in Science and Technology (COST Action)|MP0804|ANR HiPPoPP (French Government Research Agency)||Romanian ministry of Education, Research, Youth and Sport|IDEI 540/2009|Available from: 2012-05-11 Created: 2012-05-11 Last updated: 2017-12-07
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