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Wilhelmsson, P., Fryland, L., Lindblom, P., Sjöwall, J., Ahlm, C., Berglund, J., . . . Lindgren, P.-E. (2016). A prospective study on the incidence of Borrelia infection after a tick bite in Sweden and on the Åland Islands, Finland (2008-2009). Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, 7(1), 71-79
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A prospective study on the incidence of Borrelia infection after a tick bite in Sweden and on the Åland Islands, Finland (2008-2009)
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2016 (English)In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common and increasing tick-borne disease in Europe. The risk of acquiring a Borrelia infection after a tick bite is not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of Borrelia infection after a tick bite and if the Borrelia load and/or the duration of tick-feeding influenced the risk of infection. During 2008-2009, ticks and blood samples were collected from 1546 tick-bitten persons from Sweden and the Åland Islands, Finland. Follow-up blood samples were taken three months after the tick bite. The duration of tick feeding was microscopically estimated and Borrelia was detected and quantified in ticks by real-time PCR. Anti-Borrelia antibodies were detected in sera using ELISA assays and immunoblot.

Even though 28 % of the participants were bitten by a Borrelia-positive tick, only 7.5% (32/428) of them developed a Borrelia infection, half of them LB. All who seroconverted removed “their” ticks significantly later than those who did not. The Borrelia load in the ticks did not explain the risk of seroconversion. Regional as well as gender differences in the Borrelia seroprevalence were found. The risk of developing a Borrelia infection after a bite by a Borrelia-infected tick is small but increases with the duration of tick feeding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato; tick bite; incidence of infection; Lyme borreliosis; asymptomatic infection; bacterial load; tick-feeding.
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105475 (URN)10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.08.009 (DOI)000366953400012 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council Branch of Medicine [K2008-58X-14631-06-3]; Medical Research Council of South-East Sweden [FORSS-8967, FORSS-12573, FORSS-29021, FORSS-86911]; EU Interreg IV A project ScandTick [167226]; County Council of Ostergotland [LIO-56191];

Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-25 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved
Dessau, R. B., Fryland, L., Wilhelmsson, P., Ekerfelt, C., Nyman, D., Forsberg, P. & Lindgren, P.-E. (2015). Study of a Cohort of 1,886 Persons To Determine Changes in Antibody Reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi 3 Months after a Tick Bite. Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, 22(7), 823-827
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Study of a Cohort of 1,886 Persons To Determine Changes in Antibody Reactivity to Borrelia burgdorferi 3 Months after a Tick Bite
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2015 (English)In: Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, ISSN 1556-6811, E-ISSN 1556-679X, Vol. 22, no 7, p. 823-827Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lyme borreliosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi. The most frequent clinical manifestation is a rash called erythema migrans. Changes in antibody reactivity to B. burgdorferi 3 months after a tick bite are measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). One assay is based on native purified flagellum antigen (IgG), and the other assay is based on a recombinant antigen called C6 (IgG or IgM). Paired samples were taken at the time of a tick bite and 3 months later from 1,886 persons in Sweden and the Åland Islands, Finland. The seroconversion or relative change is defined by dividing the measurement units from the second sample by those from the first sample. The threshold for the minimum level of significant change was defined at the 2.5% level to represent the random error level. The thresholds were a 2.7-fold rise for the flagellar IgG assay and a 1.8-fold rise for the C6 assay. Of 1,886 persons, 102/101 (5.4%) had a significant rise in antibody reactivity in the flagellar assay or the C6 assay. Among 40 cases with a diagnosis of Lyme borreliosis, the sensitivities corresponding to a rise in antibodies were 33% and 50% for the flagellar antigen and the C6 antigen, respectively. Graphical methods to display the antibody response and to choose thresholds for a rise in relative antibody reactivity are shown and discussed. In conclusion, 5.4% of people with tick bites showed a rise in Borrelia-specific antibodies above the 2.5% threshold in either ELISA but only 40 (2.1%) developed clinical Lyme borreliosis.

National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-120003 (URN)10.1128/CVI.00026-15 (DOI)000356863200016 ()25994550 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-07-02 Created: 2015-07-02 Last updated: 2017-10-31
Andersson, M., Rubér, M., Ekerfelt, C., Björnsson, H., Olaison, G. & Andersson, R. (2014). Can New Inflammatory Markers Improve the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis?. World Journal of Surgery, 38(11), 2777-2783
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can New Inflammatory Markers Improve the Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis?
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2014 (English)In: World Journal of Surgery, ISSN 0364-2313, E-ISSN 1432-2323, Vol. 38, no 11, p. 2777-2783Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The diagnosis of appendicitis is difficult and resource consuming. New inflammatory markers have been proposed for the diagnosis of appendicitis, but their utility in combination with traditional diagnostic variables has not been tested. Our objective is to explore the potential of new inflammatory markers for improving the diagnosis of appendicitis. The diagnostic properties of the six most promising out of 21 new inflammatory markers (interleukin [IL]-6, chemokine ligand [CXCL]-8, chemokine C-C motif ligand [CCL]-2, serum amyloid A [SAA], matrix metalloproteinase [MMP]-9, and myeloperoxidase [MPO]) were compared with traditional diagnostic variables included in the Appendicitis Inflammatory Response (AIR) score (right iliac fossa pain, vomiting, rebound tenderness, guarding, white blood cell [WBC] count, proportion neutrophils, C-reactive protein and body temperature) in 432 patients with suspected appendicitis by uni- and multivariable regression models. Of the new inflammatory variables, SAA, MPO, and MMP9 were the strongest discriminators for all appendicitis (receiver operating characteristics [ROC] 0.71) and SAA was the strongest discriminator for advanced appendicitis (ROC 0.80) compared with defence or rebound tenderness, which were the strongest traditional discriminators for all appendicitis (ROC 0.84) and the WBC count for advanced appendicitis (ROC 0.89). CCL2 was the strongest independent discriminator beside the AIR score variables in a multivariable model. The AIR score had an ROC area of 0.91 and could correctly classify 58.3 % of the patients, with an accuracy of 92.9 %. This was not improved by inclusion of the new inflammatory markers. The conventional diagnostic variables for appendicitis, as combined in the AIR score, is an efficient screening instrument for classifying patients as low-, indeterminate-, or high-risk for appendicitis. The addition of the new inflammatory variables did not improve diagnostic performance further.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2014
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112174 (URN)10.1007/s00268-014-2708-7 (DOI)000343048900006 ()25099684 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Jonkoping County Research Council; Research Council of South-Eastern Sweden (FORSS); Futurum- Academy of Health Care, Jonkoping County Council, Jonkoping, Sweden

Available from: 2014-11-18 Created: 2014-11-18 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Kvarnström, M., Ydrefors, J., Ekerfelt, C., Vrethem, M. & Ernerudh, J. (2013). Longitudinal interferon-β effects in multiple sclerosis: differential regulation of IL-10 and IL-17A, while no sustained effects on IFN-γ, IL-4 or IL-13. Journal of the Neurological Sciences, 325(1-2), 79-85
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Longitudinal interferon-β effects in multiple sclerosis: differential regulation of IL-10 and IL-17A, while no sustained effects on IFN-γ, IL-4 or IL-13
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2013 (English)In: Journal of the Neurological Sciences, ISSN 0022-510X, E-ISSN 1878-5883, Vol. 325, no 1-2, p. 79-85Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background:

Recent studies in experimental models and in vitro indicate lowering of IL-17/Th17 as an important mechanism of interferon-beta (IFN-β) treatment in multiple sclerosis (MS).

Material and methods:

In this longitudinal study of MS patients (n = 25), spontaneous and myelin antigen-induced secretion of IL-4, IFN-γ and IL-10 (ELISPOT), mitogen stimulated secretion of IL-13 and IL-17A (ELISA) and circulating cytokine levels (Luminex) were recorded at inclusion and after 1.5, 3, 6 and 12 months of IFN-β treatment.

Results:

Early changes were noted for IL-4, while after one year of treatment the only recorded significant effects were a decrease in secreted IL-17A levels and an increase in IL-10 secreting cells. While IL-17A levels tended to be higher in non-responders (n = 8), the decrease in IL-17A levels seemed to be more pronounced in responders (n = 17) showing significantly lower IL-17A levels after one year as compared with non-responders.

Conclusion:

IFN-β treatment seems to mainly affect IL-17/IL-10-associated pathways rather than the IFN-γ/IL-4 axis.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Multiple sclerosis, Interferon-beta, Cytokines, IL-4, IL-17, IL-10, Responder
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-90199 (URN)10.1016/j.jns.2012.12.001 (DOI)000315323000016 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Biogen Idec||Network for Inflammation research||Swedish Foundation for Strategic Research||Swedish Association of Neurologically Disabled||County Council of Ostergotland||University Hospital of Linkoping and Lions Ostergotland||

Available from: 2013-04-03 Created: 2013-03-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Skogman, B. H., Hellberg, S., Ekerfelt, C., Jenmalm, M., Forsberg, P., Ludvigsson, J., . . . Ernerudh, J. (2012). Adaptive and Innate Immune Responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Exposed Asymptomatic Children and Children with Previous Clinical Lyme Borreliosis. Clinical & Developmental Immunology, 2012(294587)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adaptive and Innate Immune Responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in Exposed Asymptomatic Children and Children with Previous Clinical Lyme Borreliosis
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2012 (English)In: Clinical & Developmental Immunology, ISSN 1740-2522, E-ISSN 1740-2530, Vol. 2012, no 294587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Why some individuals develop clinical manifestations in Lyme borreliosis (LB) while others remain asymptomatic is largely unknown. Therefore, we wanted to investigate adaptive and innate immune responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato in exposed Borrelia-antibody-positive asymptomatic children (n = 20), children with previous clinical LB (n = 24), and controls (n = 20). Blood samples were analyzed for Borrelia-specific interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-17 secretion by ELISPOT and Borrelia-induced IL-1 beta, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12(p70), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) secretion by Luminex. We found no significant differences in cytokine secretion between groups, but a tendency towards an increased spontaneous secretion of IL-6 was found among children with previous clinical LB. In conclusion, the adaptive or innate immune responsiveness to Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato was similar in Borrelia-exposed asymptomatic children and children with previous clinical LB. Thus, the immunological mechanisms of importance for eradicating the spirochete effectively without developing clinical manifestations of LB remain unknown.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hindawi Publishing Corporation, 2012
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-74647 (URN)10.1155/2012/294587 (DOI)000298814000001 ()
Note
Funding Agencies|Research Council in Southeast Sweden (FORSS)||County Council in Ostergotland||Swedish Child Diabetes Foundation||Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundations||Holmia Foundation||Center of Clinical Research in Dalarna (CKF)||Available from: 2012-02-03 Created: 2012-02-03 Last updated: 2017-12-08
Fryland, L., Forsberg, P., Sandin, L., Wilhelmsson, P., Lindblom, P., Nyman, D., . . . Ekerfelt, C. (2012). Biomarkers in blood a few days after a bite by a Borrelia burgdorferi infected tick:: Asymptomatic Borrelia burgdorferi-infected subjects show higher Th1-associated response compared with subjects who later develop Lyme borreliosis.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biomarkers in blood a few days after a bite by a Borrelia burgdorferi infected tick:: Asymptomatic Borrelia burgdorferi-infected subjects show higher Th1-associated response compared with subjects who later develop Lyme borreliosis
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2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The clinical outcome following infection with Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu lato (s.l.) differs between individuals, ranging from asymptomatic infection to Lyme borreliosis (LB) with persistent symptoms post-treatment. Previous studies in mice and humans have generated the hypothesis that a successful outcome of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection is associated with an early strong pro-inflammatory T helper (Th)1-like immune response. The aim of this study was to assess the early course of events in B. burgdorferi s.l.-associated inflammation by screening for possible early immune biomarkers in peripheral blood from newly tick-bitten persons. The study subjects bitten by B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected ticks were divided into (1) those later developing clinical LB, (2) those who developed anti-B. burgdorferi s.l. antibodies but not clinical LB, (3) those who neither developed antibodies nor clinical LB. A fourth group consisted of bitten study subjects without development of antibodies or clinical LB. Two sets of samples, both comprising all four groups, were collected in order to repeat the analyses and confirm the data. Sera or plasma collected a few days after the tick bite were analysed for 18 biomarkers (IL-1β, IL-6, CXCL8/IL-8, IL-12p70, IL-17A, IL-27, TNF, CCL18, CCL20, CCL22, CXCL1, CXCL9, CXCL10, CXCL11, calprotectin, MMP-3, MMP-8, MMP-9) by multiplex bead assay and ELISA. In the first set of samples, the neutrophil activation marker calprotectin was increased in subjects who developed clinical LB compared with subjects who developed antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. but did not develop LB. However, the finding could not be confirmed in the second set of samples, thus the study failed to identify an early prognostic marker for development of clinical LB. Interestingly, both sets of samples showed increases in two different Th1-associated markers, CXCL10 and IL-12p70, respectively, in subjects who following a bite by a B. burgdorferi s.l.-infected tick developed antibodies against B. burgdorferi s.l. but did not develop LB compared with subjects who developed clinical LB, thus supporting the hypothesis of an early strong Th1-response being important for optimal resolution of B. burgdorferi s.l. infection.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86267 (URN)
Note

TBD Sting study group (Tick-Borne Diseases Sting study group) consists of: Clas Ahlm,Johan Berglund, Sven Bergström, Sten-Anders Carlsson, Ingvar Eliasson, Mats Haglund,Anna J Henningsson, Christian Jansson, Liselott Lindvall, Peter Nolskog, Marika Nordberg,Susanne Olausson, Katarina Ornstein, Johanna Sjöwall, Barbro Hedin Skogman, IvarTjernberg, Mari-Anne Åkeson.

Available from: 2012-12-12 Created: 2012-12-12 Last updated: 2013-08-29Bibliographically approved
Nordberg, M., Forsberg, P., Nyman, D., Skogman, B. H., Nyberg, C., Ernerudh, J., . . . Ekerfelt, C. (2012). Can ELISPOT Be Applied to A Clinical Setting as A Diagnostic Utility for Neuroborreliosis?. Cells, 13(48), 153-167
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can ELISPOT Be Applied to A Clinical Setting as A Diagnostic Utility for Neuroborreliosis?
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2012 (English)In: Cells, ISSN 2073-4409, Vol. 13, no 48, p. 153-167Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this prospective study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of Borrelia (Bb)-induced interferon (IFN)-γ secretion detected by ELISPOT modified to be feasible for clinical laboratories as a supplementary test to the laboratory diagnosis of Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) in an endemic setting. Between 2002 and 2004, patients with symptoms of suspected clinical LNB were included in a study conducted on the Åland islands in the Finnish archipelago, which is a hyper-endemic area for Lyme borreliosis (LB). Fourteen patients with confirmed LNB and 103 patients with non-LNB were included, and the numbers of spontaneous and Bb-induced IFN-γ-secreting cells were assayed by the ELISPOT test. The ELISPOT assay showed a weak diagnostic performance with a sensitivity of 36% and a specificity of 82%. The findings in this study show that this ELISPOT-assay modified to be feasible in clinical routine laboratories is not useful as a supplementary diagnostic tool in the laboratory diagnosis of patients with clinically suspected LNB.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI AG, 2012
Keywords
Borrelia burgdorferi; neuroborreliosis; ELISPOT; cerebrospinal fluid; diagnostic test; sensitivity; specificity
National Category
Other Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80259 (URN)10.3390/cells1020153 (DOI)24710421 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2012-08-23 Created: 2012-08-23 Last updated: 2015-10-23Bibliographically approved
Persson, M., Ekerfelt, C., Jablonowska, B., Jonsson, Y., Ernerudh, J., Jenmalm, M. C. & Berg, G. (2012). Immunological status in patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation: responses to hormone treatment and relationship to outcome. Journal of Reproductive Immunology, 96(1-2), 58-67
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immunological status in patients undergoing in vitro fertilisation: responses to hormone treatment and relationship to outcome
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2012 (English)In: Journal of Reproductive Immunology, ISSN 0165-0378, E-ISSN 1872-7603, Vol. 96, no 1-2, p. 58-67Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We aimed to prospectively investigate the paternal antigen-induced cytokine secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in response to hormone treatment in women undergoing in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and to examine the predictive value of the cytokine secretion profile in the outcome of IVF treatment, in a pilot study. Twenty-five women were included and IVF treatment was successful for six and unsuccessful for 19 women. Blood samples were collected before IVF treatment, on four occasions during IVF and four weeks after embryo transfer. The numbers of Th1-, Th2- and Th17-associated cytokine-secreting cells and cytokine levels in cell supernatants were analysed by enzyme-linked immunospot-forming (ELISpot), enzyme-linked immune-sorbent (ELISA) or Luminex assay. None of the cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, TNF and GM-CSF) had any predictive value regarding IVF outcome. The majority of the cytokines reached their peak levels at ovum pick-up, suggesting an enhancing influence of the hormonal stimulation. Pregnancy was associated with a high number of IL-4-, IL-5- and IL-13-secreting cells four weeks after ET. In conclusion, the results do not support our hypothesis of a more pronounced peripheral Th1 and Th17 deviation towards paternal antigens in infertile women with an unsuccessful IVF outcome, although this is based on a small number of observations. A larger study is required to confirm this conclusion. Higher numbers of Th2-associated cytokine-secreting cells in pregnant women four weeks after ET do corroborate the hypothesis of a Th2 deviation during pregnancy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
IVF; Th1; Th2; Th17; Immune regulation
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85640 (URN)10.1016/j.jri.2012.07.005 (DOI)000312969900007 ()
Available from: 2012-11-26 Created: 2012-11-26 Last updated: 2017-12-07Bibliographically approved
Persson, M., Ekerfelt, C., Jablonowska, B., Jonsson, Y., Berg, G., Ernerudh, J. & Jenmalm, M. C. (2012). Leukocyte populations in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization: responses to hormone treatment and relation to outcome.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Leukocyte populations in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization: responses to hormone treatment and relation to outcome
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2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

We aimed to prospectively investigate circulating leukocyte populations in infertile women undergoing IVF treatment and to determine whether any differences in cell proportions were associated with the IVF outcome. We also assessed the effect of IVF-based ovarian stimulation on the leukocyte populations. Twenty-five women were included and IVF treatment was successful in six and unsuccessful in 19 women. Blood samples were collected before IVF treatment, at the time of embryo transfer and four weeks after embryo transfer. The numbers and proportions of lymphocytes, T cells, NK cells, monocytes and granulocytes were analysed by flow cytometry, as well as the following lymphocyte subpopulations: CD3+HLA-DR+, CD4+CD45RA+, CD4+CD45R0+, CD8+CD45RA+, CD8+CD45R0+, CD4+CD25+, CD4dimCD25bright regulatory T cells, CD3-CD56bright and CD3-CD56dim NK cells. The proportions and numbers of leukocytes during IVF treatment were not related to the IVF outcome, although pregnant women (four weeks after ET) had a lower proportion of lymphocytes than the non-pregnant women. The absolute counts of lymphocytes, T cells, granulocytes and monocytes, as well as the proportions of granulocytes and T cells, increased at the time of ET, coinciding with high FSH and hCG levels. In conclusion, the proportions and numbers of leukocyte populations were not associated with the IVF outcome, although a larger study should be conducted to confirm this conclusion. Changes in both proportions and numbers of several leukocyte populations were observed during the course of IVF treatment, suggesting a stimulatory effect of the hormonal influence.

Keywords
IVF, pregnancy, regulatory T cells, immune regulation, leukocyte populations, hormones
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-85641 (URN)
Available from: 2012-11-26 Created: 2012-11-26 Last updated: 2013-08-29
Fryland, L., Havarinasab, S., Jakobsson, T., Bergström, S., Hultman, P. & Ekerfelt, C. (2012). Mapping of T-cell subsets in relation to disease course in experimental Borrelia burgdorferi infection.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Mapping of T-cell subsets in relation to disease course in experimental Borrelia burgdorferi infection
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2012 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Resolution of Lyme borreliosis has previously been shown to be associated with a strong initial Th1 response, followed by a subsequent Th2 response,  shutting off inflammation. We mapped markers for Th1, Th2, Th17, cytotoxic and T regulatory subsets in a murine model, where the outcome of Borrelia (B.) burgdorferi sensu stricto (s.s.) infection was altered by immune-deviation towards Th2 by exposure to a subtoxic dose of mercury. Twenty-one B. burgdorferi s.s.-infected (Bb), 21 immune-deviated B. burgdorferi s.s.-infected (BbId), and seven control C3H/HeN mice were sacrificed on days 15, 28 and 43 post-infection (p.i.) with B. burgdorferi s.s. BbId mice had increased joint swelling compared with Bb at the height of the disease (28 p.i.), and also showed a trend for increased spirochaetal load that became significant on day 43 p.i. BbId had an increased histopathology score on day 28 p.i. compared with both earlier and later time points. mRNA expression of IL-4 (p=0.018), IL-10 (p=0.018) and EBI-3 (p=0.009) decreased in Bb mice, but not in BbId, over the course of infection. A trend for higher expression of IL-12p40 mRNA in Bb mice compared with BbId was seen late in the disease course, while BbId showed trends for higher levels of Foxp3 and GM-CSF. At the protein level, BbId showed decreased levels of CXCL9 compared to the Bb group on day 15 p.i (p=0.007). Bb mice showed increases of CXCL9 and CXCL10 at all time points compared with day 0 p.i. (p≤0.014), whereas BbId mice showed an initial decrease in both chemokines at day 15 p.i. compared with day 0 (p≤0.008). In conclusion, both the clinical signs of infection and the trends for increased expression of pro-inflammatory GM-CSF and T-regulatory marker Foxp3 in BbId mice suggested ongoing inflammation. Although our findings support the need for a strong Th1 response followed by anti-inflammatory response for optimal resolution, the anti-inflammatory response seems to be more complex than only dampening the inflammation by a Th1-antagonistic Th2 response.

Keywords
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, T-cell subsets, disease outcome, arthritis
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86266 (URN)
Available from: 2012-12-12 Created: 2012-12-12 Last updated: 2013-08-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-3993-9985

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