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Hamrin, E., Ernerudh, J. & Rosén, A. (2018). Immunological and Quality-of-Life Profiles in Women with Breast Cancer: Complementary versus Conventional Care. Complementary Medicine Research, 25, 391-397
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Immunological and Quality-of-Life Profiles in Women with Breast Cancer: Complementary versus Conventional Care
2018 (English)In: Complementary Medicine Research, ISSN 2504-2092, Vol. 25, p. 391-397Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Previous studies showed that women with breast cancer treated in anthroposophic clinic versus conventional care had increased quality of life (QoL) parameters, fighting spirit, and anxiety coping. We have now analyzed immune and QoL factors in these 2 groups for possible differences during the first 6 months after admission, prompted by anthroposophic studies, including mistletoe extracts, showing beneficial immune system effects.

Patients and MethodsFourteen immunological variables, including leukocyte count, lymphocyte count, activated T cells (CD4+ and CD8+), NK cells, B cells, IL1β, IL6, IL10, and oxytocin, were longitudinally analyzed in both groups (n = 2 × 26). A panel of QoL parameters were analyzed using 3 different instruments. Statistical evaluation included that each patient was its own control.

Results: Cytotoxic CD8+ T cell frequency (percent of lymphocytes analyzed by flow-cytometry) significantly decreased over time in the anthroposophic group versus the conventional group (repeated measures ANOVA, p = 0.05). No major differences were observed in other immunological parameters, whereas QoL variables, anxiety decreased and physical symptoms increased/improved significantly in the anthroposophic group (p = 0.04 and p = 0.05, respectively).

Conclusion: Overall, women with breast cancer in anthroposophic or conventional therapy did not differ in their immune profiles over time, with exception of decreased cytotoxic T cells in the anthroposophic group. Improvement in physical symptoms along with less anxiety in this group may have influenced the brain-immune axis resulting in lower frequency of CD8+ T cells, a feature associated with less aggressive cancer stages. To evaluate whether this observation is associated with good or bad prognosis, further detailed analyses of memory and naïve CD8+ T cells at tumor site and in blood circulation are essential.

Abstract [de]

Hintergrund: Bisherige Studien haben gezeigt, dass die Behandlung von Brustkrebspatientinnen in anthroposophischen Kliniken gegenüber einer konventionellen Behandlung mit einer verbesserten Lebensqualität (quality of life; QoL), größerem Kampfgeist und einer besseren Angstbewältigung einhergeht. Angespornt durch anthroposophische Studien, solche mit Mistelextrakt eingeschlossen, die eine günstige Wirkung auf das Immunsystem zeigten, haben wir nun Immun- und QoL-Faktoren in diesen beiden Gruppen während der ersten 6 Monate nach Aufnahme untersucht.

Patienten und Methoden: 14 immunologische Variablen, einschließlich Leukozyten- und Lymphozytenzahl, aktivierter T-Zellen (CD4+ und CD8+), NK-Zellen, B-Zellen, IL1β, IL6, IL10 und Oxytocin, wurden in beiden Gruppen longitudinal analysiert (n = 2 × 26). Unter Zuhilfenahme von 3 verschiedenen Instrumenten wurde eine Reihe von QoL-Parametern analysiert. Die statistische Auswertung war so angelegt, dass jeder Patient als seine eigene Kontrolle diente.

Ergebnisse: Die Häufigkeit von zytotoxischen CD8+-T-Zellen (prozentualer Anteil an Lymphozyten analysiert mittels Durchflusszytometrie) nahm in der anthroposophischen gegenüber der konventionell behandelten Gruppe im Zeitverlauf signifikant ab (wiederholte ANOVA-Messungen; p = 0,05). Während für weitere immunologische Parameter keine größeren Unterschiede festgestellt wurden, verbesserten sich die QoL-Variablen; die Angst verringerte sich und die physischen Symptome verbesserten sich signifikant in der anthroposophischen Gruppe (p = 0,04 bzw. p = 0,05).

Schlussfolgerung: Insgesamt zeigte sich, dass es während des untersuchten Zeitraums keinen Unterschied in den Immunprofilen von Brustkrebspatientinnen mit anthroposophischer gegenüber solchen mit ausschließlich konventioneller Therapie gab. Die Verbesserung der physischen Symptome sowie die verringerte Angst in dieser Gruppe könnte die Gehirnimmunachse beeinflusst und zu einer geringeren Häufigkeit der CD8+-T-Zellen, einem Kennzeichen für weniger aggressive Tumorstadien, geführt haben. Um beurteilen zu können, ob diese Beobachtung mit einer guten oder schlechten Prognose assoziiert ist, sind weitere detaillierte Untersuchungen von Gedächtnis- und naiven CD8+-T-Zellen am Tumorort und in der Blutzirkulation unerlässlich.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
S. Karger, 2018
Keywords
Breast cancer treatment, Complementary medicine, Anthroposophical care, Immunology, Tumor immunity, Cytotoxic CD8 + T cells, Physical symptoms, Anxiety, Brustkrebstherapie, Komplementärmedizin, Anthroposophische Versorgung, Immunologie, Tumorimmunität, Zytotoxische CD8+-T-Zellen, Physische Symptome, Angst
National Category
Cancer and Oncology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153754 (URN)10.1159/000490049 (DOI)000456452900009 ()30145583 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85053163476 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Cancer Society
Available from: 2019-01-08 Created: 2019-01-08 Last updated: 2019-03-06Bibliographically approved
Blomgran, P., Blomgran, R., Ernerudh, J. & Aspenberg, P. (2017). Cox-2 inhibition and the composition of inflammatory cell populations during early and mid-time tendon healing. Muscles, ligaments and Tendons journal, 7(2), 223-229
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cox-2 inhibition and the composition of inflammatory cell populations during early and mid-time tendon healing
2017 (English)In: Muscles, ligaments and Tendons journal, ISSN 2240-4554, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 223-229Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: During early tendon healing, the cells within the regenerating tissue are, to a large part, inflammatory leukocytes (CD45+). In a rat Achilles tendon healing model, the inflammation resolves between 5 and 10 days. In the same model, Cox inhibitors (NSAIDs) impair healing when given during the first 5 days, but have a positive effect if given later. We tested the hypothesis that a Cox inhibitor would exert these effects by influencing inflammation, and thereby the composition of the inflammatory cell subpopulations.Methods: Achilles tendon transection was performed in 44 animals. Animals were randomized to either parecoxib or saline injections. Healing was evaluated by mechanical testing day 7 after surgery and by flow cytometry day 3 and 10.Results: Cross-sectional area, peak force and stiffness were reduced by parecoxib 31, 33, and 25% respectively (p=0.005, p=0.002, and p=0.005). By flow cytometry, there was a strong effect of time (p<0.001) on virtually all inflammatory cell subpopulations (CD45, CD11b, CD68, CCR7, CD163, CD206, CD3, CD4), but no significant effect of parecoxib at any time point.Conclusion: The results suggest that the negative effects of Cox inhibitors on tendon healing might be exerted mainly via mechanisms not directly related to inflammatory cells.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Rome, Italy: CIC Edizioni Internazionali, 2017
Keywords
tendon healing; NSAID; inflammation; rat model; flow cytometry
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142352 (URN)10.11138/mltj/2017.7.2.223 (DOI)
Available from: 2017-10-27 Created: 2017-10-27 Last updated: 2018-04-17
Blomgran, P., Blomgran, R., Ernerudh, J. & Aspenberg, P. (2016). A possible link between loading, inflammation and healing: Immune cell populations during tendon healing in the rat. Scientific Reports, 6(29824)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A possible link between loading, inflammation and healing: Immune cell populations during tendon healing in the rat
2016 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, no 29824Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Loading influences tendon healing, and so does inflammation. We hypothesized that the two are connected. 48 rats underwent Achilles tendon transection. Half of the rats received Botox injections into calf muscles to reduce mechanical loading. Cells from the regenerating tissue were analyzed by flow cytometry. In the loaded group, the regenerating tissue contained 83% leukocytes (CD45(+)) day 1, and 23% day 10. The M1/M2 macrophage ratio (CCR7/CD206) peaked at day 3, while T helper (CD3(+)CD4(+)) and T-reg cells (CD25(+) Foxp3(+)) increased over time. With Botox, markers associated with down-regulation of inflammation were more common day 5 (CD163, CD206, CD25, Foxp3), and M1 or M2 macrophages and T-reg cells were virtually absent day 10, while still present with full loading. The primary variable, CCR7/CD206 ratio day 5, was higher with full loading (p = 0.001) and the T-reg cell fraction was lower (p amp;lt; 0.001). Free cage activity loading is known to increase size and strength of the tendon in this model compared to Botox. Loading now appeared to delay the switch to an M2 type of inflammation with more T-reg cells. It seems a prolonged M1 phase due to loading might make the tendon regenerate bigger.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016
National Category
Cell and Molecular Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130383 (URN)10.1038/srep29824 (DOI)000379584000001 ()27405922 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [K2013-52X-02031-47-5]; Swedish National Centre for Research in Sports; King Gustaf V and Queen Victoria Free Mason Foundation

Available from: 2016-08-15 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Wilhelmsson, P., Fryland, L., Lindblom, P., Sjöwall, J., Ahlm, C., Berglund, J., . . . Lindgren, P.-E. (2016). A prospective study on the incidence of Borrelia infection after a tick bite in Sweden and on the Åland Islands, Finland (2008-2009). Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, 7(1), 71-79
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A prospective study on the incidence of Borrelia infection after a tick bite in Sweden and on the Åland Islands, Finland (2008-2009)
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2016 (English)In: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases, ISSN 1877-959X, E-ISSN 1877-9603, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 71-79Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Lyme borreliosis (LB) is a common and increasing tick-borne disease in Europe. The risk of acquiring a Borrelia infection after a tick bite is not fully known. Therefore, we investigated the incidence of Borrelia infection after a tick bite and if the Borrelia load and/or the duration of tick-feeding influenced the risk of infection. During 2008-2009, ticks and blood samples were collected from 1546 tick-bitten persons from Sweden and the Åland Islands, Finland. Follow-up blood samples were taken three months after the tick bite. The duration of tick feeding was microscopically estimated and Borrelia was detected and quantified in ticks by real-time PCR. Anti-Borrelia antibodies were detected in sera using ELISA assays and immunoblot.

Even though 28 % of the participants were bitten by a Borrelia-positive tick, only 7.5% (32/428) of them developed a Borrelia infection, half of them LB. All who seroconverted removed “their” ticks significantly later than those who did not. The Borrelia load in the ticks did not explain the risk of seroconversion. Regional as well as gender differences in the Borrelia seroprevalence were found. The risk of developing a Borrelia infection after a bite by a Borrelia-infected tick is small but increases with the duration of tick feeding.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keywords
Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato; tick bite; incidence of infection; Lyme borreliosis; asymptomatic infection; bacterial load; tick-feeding.
National Category
Infectious Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105475 (URN)10.1016/j.ttbdis.2015.08.009 (DOI)000366953400012 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council Branch of Medicine [K2008-58X-14631-06-3]; Medical Research Council of South-East Sweden [FORSS-8967, FORSS-12573, FORSS-29021, FORSS-86911]; EU Interreg IV A project ScandTick [167226]; County Council of Ostergotland [LIO-56191];

Available from: 2014-03-25 Created: 2014-03-25 Last updated: 2017-05-03Bibliographically approved
Hasib, L., Lundberg, A., Zachrisson, H., Ernerudh, J. & Jonasson, L. (2016). Functional and homeostatic defects of regulatory T cells in patients with coronary artery disease. Journal of Internal Medicine, 279(1), 63-77
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Functional and homeostatic defects of regulatory T cells in patients with coronary artery disease
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Internal Medicine, ISSN 0954-6820, E-ISSN 1365-2796, Vol. 279, no 1, p. 63-77Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

ObjectiveRegulatory T cells (Tregs) are considered atheroprotective, and low levels have been associated with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS), particularly non-ST elevation (NSTE)-ACS. However, the functional properties as well as homeostasis of Tregs are mainly unknown in coronary artery disease (CAD). Here, we investigated the composition and functional properties of naive (n) and memory (m)Tregs in patients with NSTE-ACS and in patients 6-12months post-ACS. MethodsBased on the expression of CD25, FOXP3, CD127, CD45RA, CD39 and CTLA-4, Tregsubsets were defined by flow cytometry in whole blood or isolated CD4(+) T cells. The functional properties of nTregs and mTregs were examined in terms of proliferative capacity and modulation of cytokine secretion. To understand the potential consequences of Treg defects, we also investigated correlations with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced cytokine secretion and ultrasound-defined carotid atherosclerosis. ResultsBoth NSTE-ACS and post-ACS patients exhibited reduced levels of nTregs (P&lt;0.001) compared with healthy control subjects, but without compensatory increases in mTregs. Both nTregs and mTregs from patients showed significantly lower replicative rates and impaired capacity to modulate T-cell proliferation and secretion of interferon-gamma and IL-10. The Treg defect was also associated with LPS-induced cytokine secretion and increased burden of carotid atherosclerosis. ConclusionOur results demonstrate a functional and homeostatic Treg defect in patients with NSTE-ACS and also in stabilized patients 6-12months after ACS. Moreover, this defect was associated with a subclinical proinflammatory and atherogenic state. We believe that the failure to preserve Treg function and homeostasis reflects a need for immune-restoring strategies in CAD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016
Keywords
acute coronary syndrome; coronary artery disease; immune homeostasis; inflammation; regulatory T cell
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124108 (URN)10.1111/joim.12398 (DOI)000366606200006 ()26260103 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Medical Research Council; Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation

Available from: 2016-01-25 Created: 2016-01-19 Last updated: 2017-04-25
Strindhall, J., Ernerudh, J., Morner, A., Waalen, K., Lofgren, S., Matussek, A. & Bengner, M. (2016). Humoral response to influenza vaccination in relation to pre-vaccination antibody titres, vaccination history, cytomegalovirus serostatus and CD4/CD8 ratio. INFECTIOUS DISEASES, 48(6), 436-442
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Humoral response to influenza vaccination in relation to pre-vaccination antibody titres, vaccination history, cytomegalovirus serostatus and CD4/CD8 ratio
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2016 (English)In: INFECTIOUS DISEASES, ISSN 2374-4235, Vol. 48, no 6, p. 436-442Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background Annual vaccination against influenza virus is generally recommended to elderly and chronically ill, but the relative importance of factors influencing the outcome is not fully understood. Methods In this study of 88 individuals all aged 69 years, the increase in haemagglutinin-inhibiting (HI) antibodies to trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine was correlated with HI titres before vaccination, prior vaccinations against influenza, cytomegalovirus serostatus and, as an estimate of immune risk profile, the ratio between CD4 + and CD8 + T cells. Results Vaccine responses were impaired by high pre-existing HI antibody titres. For influenza B repeated vaccinations and an inverse CD4/CD8 ratio had a negative impact on the vaccine response. Cytomegalovirus seropositivity had no apparent effect on HI titres before or after vaccination. Conclusions It is concluded that both pre-existing HI antibodies and previous vaccinations to influenza may influence the humoral response to influenza vaccination and that a CD4/CD8 ratio &lt; 1 may indicate an impaired ability to respond to repeated antigenic stimulation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2016
Keywords
immunosenescence; cytomegalovirus; Influenza vaccination
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127740 (URN)10.3109/23744235.2015.1135252 (DOI)000373810800006 ()27030916 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|FUTURUM - The Academy for Healthcare, Region Jonkoping County; FORSS - Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden

Available from: 2016-05-12 Created: 2016-05-12 Last updated: 2016-05-12
Blystad, I., Håkansson, I., Tisell, A., Ernerudh, J., Smedby, Ö., Lundberg, P. & Larsson, E.-M. (2016). Quantitative MRI for Analysis of Active Multiple Sclerosis Lesions without Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent. American Journal of Neuroradiology, 37(1), 94-100
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Quantitative MRI for Analysis of Active Multiple Sclerosis Lesions without Gadolinium-Based Contrast Agent
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2016 (English)In: American Journal of Neuroradiology, ISSN 0195-6108, E-ISSN 1936-959X, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 94-100Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Contrast-enhancing MS lesions are important markers of active inflammation in the diagnostic work-up of MS and in disease monitoring with MR imaging. Because intravenous contrast agents involve an expense and a potential risk of adverse events, it would be desirable to identify active lesions without using a contrast agent. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether pre-contrast injection tissue-relaxation rates and proton density of MS lesions, by using a new quantitative MR imaging sequence, can identify active lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-four patients with a clinical suspicion of MS were studied. MR imaging with a standard clinical MS protocol and a quantitative MR imaging sequence was performed at inclusion (baseline) and after 1 year. ROIs were placed in MS lesions, classified as nonenhancing or enhancing. Longitudinal and transverse relaxation rates, as well as proton density were obtained from the quantitative MR imaging sequence. Statistical analyses of ROI values were performed by using a mixed linear model, logistic regression, and receiver operating characteristic analysis. RESULTS: Enhancing lesions had a significantly (P &lt; .001) higher mean longitudinal relaxation rate (1.22 0.36 versus 0.89 +/- 0.24), a higher mean transverse relaxation rate (9.8 +/- 2.6 versus 7.4 +/- 1.9), and a lower mean proton density (77 +/- 11.2 versus 90 +/- 8.4) than nonenhancing lesions. An area under the receiver operating characteristic curve value of 0.832 was obtained. CONCLUSIONS: Contrast-enhancing MS lesions often have proton density and relaxation times that differ from those in nonenhancing lesions, with lower proton density and shorter relaxation times in enhancing lesions compared with nonenhancing lesions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER SOC NEURORADIOLOGY, 2016
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124482 (URN)10.3174/ajnr.A4501 (DOI)000367466500019 ()26471751 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|National Science and Engineering Research Council; University of Linkoping; University Hospital Research Funds

Available from: 2016-02-02 Created: 2016-02-01 Last updated: 2017-11-16
Garvin, P., Nilsson, E., Ernerudh, J. & Kristenson, M. (2016). The joint subclinical elevation of CRP and IL-6 is associated with lower health-related quality of life in comparison with no elevation or elevation of only one of the biomarkers. Quality of Life Research, 25(1), 213-221
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The joint subclinical elevation of CRP and IL-6 is associated with lower health-related quality of life in comparison with no elevation or elevation of only one of the biomarkers
2016 (English)In: Quality of Life Research, ISSN 0962-9343, E-ISSN 1573-2649, Vol. 25, no 1, p. 213-221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Measures of health-related quality of life (HRQoL), like the Short Form (SF)-36, have been suggested to correlate with inflammatory biomarkers. It is, however, unclear whether a joint measure of two inflammatory biomarkers would bring additional information in comparison with evaluation of one inflammatory biomarker. To evaluate associations between SF-36 and low-grade inflammation in a Swedish population, with emphasis on a combined measure of C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as a proxy for low-grade inflammation. In a randomly selected sample of a middle-aged Swedish general population (n = 905; aged 45-69 years, 50 % women), relations between SF-36 parameters and the biomarkers were tested. Regression and correlation analyses were adjusted for sex, age, presence of disease, lifestyle, and psychological factors. After adjustment for sex and age, HRQoL was significantly lower in the group with a joint elevation of CRP and IL-6 in comparison with either the group with no elevation or the groups showing elevation of one of the two biomarkers. Also after full adjustments, the combined measure of elevated CRP and IL-6, with few exceptions, was associated with significantly lower HRQoL in comparison with elevations in one of them, difference ranging from 4 (Mental Health scale) to 18 scale steps (Role-Physical scale). This study confirms that there is a relationship between HRQoL and low-grade inflammation. In particular, SF-36 scores are significantly lower in a group with joint elevation of IL-6 and CRP, in comparison with elevation of either one of them.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2016
Keywords
Biomarkers; CRP; Health-related quality of life; Inflammation; Interleukin; Population; SF-36
National Category
Sociology Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124641 (URN)10.1007/s11136-015-1068-6 (DOI)000367896300023 ()26195318 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2004-1881]; Swedish Heart and Lung Foundation [2004053]

Available from: 2016-02-08 Created: 2016-02-08 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Gustafsson, M., Gawel, D., Alfredsson, L., Baranzini, S., Bjorkander, J., Blomgran, R., . . . Benson, M. (2015). A validated gene regulatory network and GWAS identifies early regulators of T cell-associated diseases. Science Translational Medicine, 7(313), Article ID 313ra178.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A validated gene regulatory network and GWAS identifies early regulators of T cell-associated diseases
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2015 (English)In: Science Translational Medicine, ISSN 1946-6234, E-ISSN 1946-6242, Vol. 7, no 313, article id 313ra178Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Early regulators of disease may increase understanding of disease mechanisms and serve as markers for presymptomatic diagnosis and treatment. However, early regulators are difficult to identify because patients generally present after they are symptomatic. We hypothesized that early regulators of T cell-associated diseases could be found by identifying upstream transcription factors (TFs) in T cell differentiation and by prioritizing hub TFs that were enriched for disease-associated polymorphisms. A gene regulatory network (GRN) was constructed by time series profiling of the transcriptomes and methylomes of human CD4(+) T cells during in vitro differentiation into four helper T cell lineages, in combination with sequence-based TF binding predictions. The TFs GATA3, MAF, and MYB were identified as early regulators and validated by ChIP-seq (chromatin immunoprecipitation sequencing) and small interfering RNA knockdowns. Differential mRNA expression of the TFs and their targets in T cell-associated diseases supports their clinical relevance. To directly test if the TFs were altered early in disease, T cells from patients with two T cell-mediated diseases, multiple sclerosis and seasonal allergic rhinitis, were analyzed. Strikingly, the TFs were differentially expressed during asymptomatic stages of both diseases, whereas their targets showed altered expression during symptomatic stages. This analytical strategy to identify early regulators of disease by combining GRNs with genome-wide association studies may be generally applicable for functional and clinical studies of early disease development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2015
National Category
Biological Sciences Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123522 (URN)10.1126/scitranslmed.aad2722 (DOI)000365237400003 ()26560356 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Cancer fund, Swedish Medical Research Council [K2013-61X-22310-01-04, 2012-3168]; Academy of Finland Centre of Excellence in Molecular Systems Immunology and Physiology Research [250114]; Sigrid Juselius Foundation; Generalitat de Catalunya AGAUR [2014-SGR364]; Spanish Association Against Cancer; Spanish Ministry of Health ISCIII FIS [PI12/01528]; RTICC [RD12/0036/0008]

Available from: 2015-12-22 Created: 2015-12-21 Last updated: 2018-04-10Bibliographically approved
Edvardsson, M., Sund-Levander, M., Ernerudh, J., Theodorsson, E. & Grodzinsky, E. (2015). Clinical use of conventional reference intervals in the frail elderly. Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, 21(2), 229-235
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clinical use of conventional reference intervals in the frail elderly
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Evaluation In Clinical Practice, ISSN 1356-1294, E-ISSN 1365-2753, Vol. 21, no 2, p. 229-235Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rationale, aims and objectives

Reference intervals provided by the laboratory are commonly established by measuring samples from apparently healthy subjects in the ages 18–65 years, excluding elderly individuals with chronic diseases and medication. The aim of our study was to establish whether current reference intervals for immune parameters and chemical biomarkers are valid for older individuals including those with chronic diseases, so-called frail elderly.

Methods

Data from our cohort of 138 non-infected nursing home residents (NHR), mean age 86.8 years, range 80–98, were compared with raw data, as basis for the development of reference intervals, obtained from reference populations, like blood donors (IgA, IgG, IgM, C3 and C4) and from the Nordic Reference Interval Project (NORIP) (alanine aminotransferase, albumin, aspartate aminotransferase, creatinine, gamma-glutamyl transferase, lactate dehydrogenase, phosphate, sodium and urea). Immune parameters were measured by nephelometry and in NORIP the measurements were performed by means of different routine methods, in more than 100 laboratories.

Results

Only nine individuals (7%) of NHR were found to be free from chronic disease. C3, C4 (P < 0.001) and IgG levels (P < 0.05) were higher, while IgM levels (P < 0.001) were lower in NHR compared with reference blood donors. Levels of alanine aminotransferase, phosphate (P < 0.001), albumin (P < 0.05) and sodium (P < 0.01) were lower while creatinine and urea levels were higher (P < 0.001) in NHR compared with NORIP subjects.

Conclusion

Comparing laboratory results from elderly people with conventional reference intervals can be misleading or even dangerous, as normal conditions may appear pathological, or vice versa and thus lead to unnecessary or even harmful treatment.

Keywords
ageing; biomarker; clinical practice; nursing home resident
National Category
Other Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117172 (URN)10.1111/jep.12294 (DOI)000351871200009 ()25494854 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-04-21 Created: 2015-04-21 Last updated: 2019-09-09
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9456-2044

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