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Hara, T., Sakao, T. & Fukushima, R. (2019). Customization of product, service, and product/service system: what and how to design. Mechanical Engineering Reviews, 6(1), 1-20, Article ID 18-00184.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Customization of product, service, and product/service system: what and how to design
2019 (English)In: Mechanical Engineering Reviews, ISSN 2187-9753, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-20, article id 18-00184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Customizing offerings to match customers’ specific needs is a common practice for manufacturers striving to maintain their competence in markets. Despite Product/Service Systems (PSSs) having developed substantially in industry and academia for the last two decades, no scientific review of PSS customization has been published. This prompted us to conduct a review of scientific papers relating to products, services, and PSS customization with a focus on design, with the aim of clarifying future research directions in PSS customization. In particular, distinct design models and methods were individually examined, with a special focus on service aspects, in terms of what to design and how to design it. The population of papers included in the review was those included in the Web of Science. Even though service customization has been utilizing the knowledge generated by product customization, which has been researched extensively for decades, there are differences between them, such as the difficulty associated with modularity. The same or even larger differences apply to PSS customization, because, apart from service characteristics, PSS also has product characteristics and thus is more complex. Results also include that the module-based platform strategy used in service customization can also be used for PSS. Although several papers concerned with PSS customization have been published thus far, their focus has been on the service aspect of PSS, providing further research opportunities. Existing methods to design PSS can be also applied to develop a method for PSS customization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tokyo, Japan: Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2019
Keywords
Customization, Product/service system, PSS, Integrated solution, Design science, Platform, Literature review, Modularity
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153730 (URN)10.1299/mer.18-00184 (DOI)000454668200002 ()
Projects
Circularis (Circular Economy through Innovating Design)
Funder
VINNOVA, 2016-03267
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2019-01-15Bibliographically approved
Neramballi, A., Sakao, T. & S Gero, J. (2019). What Do Experienced Practitioners Discuss When Designing Product/Service Systems?. In: John S. Gero (Ed.), DCC 2018: Design Computing and Cognition '18: . Paper presented at International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, DCC 2018, Politecnico di Milano, Lecco Campus on Lake Como (near Milan), Italy, 2–4 July 2018 (pp. 361-380). Springer
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What Do Experienced Practitioners Discuss When Designing Product/Service Systems?
2019 (English)In: DCC 2018: Design Computing and Cognition '18 / [ed] John S. Gero, Springer, 2019, p. 361-380Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents empirical results aimed at increasing the understanding of conceptual activities of Product/Service Systems (PSS) design by experienced designers from industry. Results are derived from a protocol analysis of five PSS design sessions, using the Function–Behavior–Structure coding scheme. Sessions included five pairs of professional designers and the task was to redesign a concept for an existing PSS to improve its resource efficiency. The results show (i) the distribution of design issues during PSS design sessions, (ii) on average 47% of the overall cognitive design effort spent by the designers is related to behavior, and (iii) all the design issues except requirements are constantly focused on during the entirety of the design sessions. Major differences compared to product design are the average occurrence of function for PSS design (23%) for product design (4%) and of structure for PSS design (22%) compared to the product design (35%).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Product-Service Systems Design, Design Cognition, Design Science, Function-Behavior-Structure Ontology, Protocol Analysis, Resource efficiency
National Category
Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153834 (URN)10.1007/978-3-030-05363-5_20 (DOI)978-3-030-05363-5 (ISBN)978-3-030-05362-8 (ISBN)
Conference
International Conference on Design Computing and Cognition, DCC 2018, Politecnico di Milano, Lecco Campus on Lake Como (near Milan), Italy, 2–4 July 2018
Projects
Mistra REES (Resource Efficient and Effective Solutions) (grant number DIA 2014/16)a grant from the US National Science Foundation Grant No. CMMI‐1400466
Available from: 2019-01-12 Created: 2019-01-12 Last updated: 2019-01-18Bibliographically approved
Wasserbaur, R. & Sakao, T. (2018). Analysing interplays between PSS business models and governmental policies towards a circular economy. In: Procedia CIRP: . Paper presented at 10th CIRP IPS2 Conference 2018 (pp. 130-136). , 73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysing interplays between PSS business models and governmental policies towards a circular economy
2018 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, 2018, Vol. 73, p. 130-136Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Insights about the interplay between business models of an enterprise and policies by governments in a circular economy (CE) context are limited. To fill the gap, this paper aims to analyse and learn from the interplays reported in the literature beyond the CE context. It focuses on product/service system (PSS) business models, and uses a systematic literature review. Six types of policies and nine components of a PSS business model are introduced in the analysis. Results show that frequently observed types of interplays are regulatory policies versus value proposition, revenue model, and cost model; economic policies versus revenue model and cost model. On the other hand, rarely reported types are the interplays with three types of polices co-regulation, information-based, and agreement-based policies. Future research includes broadening the scope in order to get a more complete picture as well as relating the proposed approach to the current EU context.

Keywords
Business model, Policy regulation, Literature review
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152492 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2018.04.004 (DOI)
Conference
10th CIRP IPS2 Conference 2018
Available from: 2018-11-05 Created: 2018-11-05 Last updated: 2018-11-09
Brambila-Macias, S. A., Sakao, T. & Kowalkowski, C. (2018). Bridging the gap between engineering design and marketing: insights for research and practice in product/service system design. Design Science, 4, Article ID e7.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bridging the gap between engineering design and marketing: insights for research and practice in product/service system design
2018 (English)In: Design Science, ISSN 2053-4701, Vol. 4, article id e7Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Over the last decade, product/service systems (PSSs) have become a research issue in several disciplines, such as engineering design and marketing. The inherent interdisciplinary nature of this research issue has however remained unexploited. In order to bridge these silos and foster more interaction across relevant disciplines, this research examines PSSs from an interdisciplinary angle by analyzing how engineering design and marketing inform one another, as well as presents insights for PSS design. The research is carried out using a three-stage process for analyzing and evaluating interdisciplinary research: first, through a systematic literature review to identify relevant papers and their level of utilization across disciplines; second, by using a qualitative thematic analysis looking for different perspectives in order to find themes to bridge the gap between the disciplines; and third, by providing a research agenda to advance research by moving from silos to synergy. The results show a limited use of theories, frameworks, methods and tools across disciplines thus far, while the major contribution of this article lies in the implications derived for PSS design for academics and practitioners alike, which are categorized into seven specific themes: business orientation, collaboration, cost aspects, flexibility, performance indicators, requirements and services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press, 2018
Keywords
business orientation, collaboration, flexibility, performance indicators, services
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154403 (URN)10.1017/dsj.2018.3 (DOI)000427603600001 ()2-s2.0-85058038863 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-02-11 Created: 2019-02-11 Last updated: 2019-02-14Bibliographically approved
Matschewsky, J., Lindahl, M. & Sakao, T. (2018). Capturing and enhancing provider value in product-service systems throughout the lifecycle: A systematic approach. CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Capturing and enhancing provider value in product-service systems throughout the lifecycle: A systematic approach
2018 (English)In: CIRP - Journal of Manufacturing Science and Technology, ISSN 1755-5817, E-ISSN 1878-0016Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although the transition from product seller to product-service system (PSS) provider implies fundamental changes in both value creation for customers and value capture by the provider, prior research has largely focused on the investigation and enhancement of customer value through PSSs. In contrast, a discussion of the changes in how providers attain value and support to enhance this in industrial practice is lacking at this time. This article presents a systematic, empirically-based approach to analyze and enhance PSS providers’ value capture throughout the lifecycle. This is achieved by two methods provider value analysis (PVA) facilitates a structured assessment of the value capture during the provision of PSSs in the use phase of the lifecycle, while provider value evaluation (ProVa) operationalizes the results of this analysis in the design phase to facilitate an improved value capture in the coming iteration. As the approach was developed in close collaboration with a large-scale PSS provider, the article further reports the results of its application in a case study spanning two years. As a result of using PVA, value dimensions of broad relevance for PSS providers are presented, supported by findings of applying the method at an additional PSS provider. Through the approach presented and case study results attained, the article points out how the design and management of a PSS, focusing on the provider’s value and available benefits throughout the lifecycle, can be enhanced in industry, while extending the academic body of knowledge on the value capture of PSS providers and its implications for PSS design and provision.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Servitization; PSS design; PSS evaluation; PSS value; Provider value; PSS implementation; PSS management
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152879 (URN)10.1016/j.cirpj.2018.08.006 (DOI)2-s2.0-85053313953 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, REES
Available from: 2018-11-26 Created: 2018-11-26 Last updated: 2018-12-05Bibliographically approved
Brambila-Macias, S., Dahllöf, L., Eriksson, K. & Sakao, T. (2018). Development of an environmental evaluation tool in the transport sector and its impact on decision-making in the early stages of design. In: Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton (Ed.), Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products and Policies: From science to innovation. Paper presented at 8th Life Cycle Management Conference 2017, Luxembourg 3-6 sep 2017 (pp. 381-389).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of an environmental evaluation tool in the transport sector and its impact on decision-making in the early stages of design
2018 (English)In: Designing Sustainable Technologies, Products and Policies: From science to innovation / [ed] Enrico Benetto, Kilian Gericke, Mélanie Guiton, 2018, p. 381-389Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Due to government policies and regulations as well as customer and societal demands, organizations around the world are looking for ways to manage their economic, environmental and social sustainability. One of the most frequently used standards for organizations seeking to manage their environmental responsibilities is ISO 14001. This framework, however, is generic because it can be used by any organization irrespective of sector, activity or core values. Therefore, implementation of generic guidelines might result in the use of alternative tools that respond better to specific organizational needs and that provide outcomes that can be useful for decision-making. Through case study methodology, this paper shows how Volvo Group, a world-leading producer of transport solutions, developed an internal environmental evaluation tool called Environmental Screening (EnvS) to improve the environmental performance of its solutions.

National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152498 (URN)10.1007/978-3-319-66981-6_42 (DOI)978-3-319-66981-6 (ISBN)978-3-319-66980-9 (ISBN)
Conference
8th Life Cycle Management Conference 2017, Luxembourg 3-6 sep 2017
Available from: 2018-11-05 Created: 2018-11-05 Last updated: 2018-11-09
Liu, Y., Sakao, T., Lindahl, M. & Dahlhammar,, C. (2018). Editorial. Procedia CIRP, 73, 1-2
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Editorial
2018 (English)In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 73, p. 2p. 1-2Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This Procedia CIRP Special Issue is a collection of manuscripts from the 10th CIRP Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems (CIRP IPS2 2018). Because our societies face increasing demands to better address resource and environmental challenges, this year’s theme was resource efficient and effective solutions (REES).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018. p. 2
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150821 (URN)10.1016/j.procir.2018.06.003 (DOI)
Available from: 2018-09-01 Created: 2018-09-01 Last updated: 2019-01-22Bibliographically approved
Wasserbaur, R. & Sakao, T. (2018). Extending environmental impact assessments of consumer products with System Dynamics. In: : . Paper presented at The 36th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, Reykjavík, Iceland, August 7-9, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending environmental impact assessments of consumer products with System Dynamics
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The environmental impact of a product depends on a variety of factors. In this paper, existing assessments are extended through the system dynamics methodology. A conceptual model was developed that contains several factors influencing on the use of washing machine and related CO2e-emissions. A stock and flow diagram allows for a streamlined environmental impact assessment of washing machines in households. The results show that both, wash frequency of households and the development of the energy consumption of washing machines are crucial factors for lowering future CO2e-emissions in the washing machines industry, whereas the sharing of washing machines did not show significant impact.

National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152494 (URN)
Conference
The 36th International Conference of the System Dynamics Society, Reykjavík, Iceland, August 7-9, 2018
Available from: 2018-11-05 Created: 2018-11-05 Last updated: 2018-11-12
Haber, N., Fargnoli, M. & Sakao, T. (2018). Integrating QFD for Product-Service Systems with the Kano model and fuzzy AHP. Total quality management and business excellence (Online)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integrating QFD for Product-Service Systems with the Kano model and fuzzy AHP
2018 (English)In: Total quality management and business excellence (Online), ISSN 1478-3363, E-ISSN 1478-3371Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

The paper proposes a systematic procedure for the development of Product-ServiceSystems (PSSs) by focusing on the analysis of customer requirements, and theselection of those that can practically enhance the offerings’ value. With this goal inmind, the Quality Function Deployment for Product Service Systems (QFDforPSS)method was augmented by means of the Kano model to filter the customers’ needsand transform the attractive ones into Receiver State Parameters (RSPs), as thecornerstone of QFDforPSS. Then, to properly assess these parameters and theirinherent uncertainty, the Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method wasalso integrated into the procedure. To validate the proposed procedure, it wasimplemented in a case study in the medical devices sector, in collaboration with ahaemodialysis equipment manufacturer, which operates in a regulated market ofproduct-oriented services.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
product-service system (PSS); service design; quality function deployment (QFD); customer requirements; medical devices; regulated market
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152475 (URN)10.1080/00207543.2018.1481302 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049626169 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, 2014/16
Available from: 2018-11-03 Created: 2018-11-03 Last updated: 2018-11-08Bibliographically approved
Fargnoli, M., Haber, N. & Sakao, T. (2018). PSS Modularization: A Customer Driven Integrated Approach. International Journal of Production Research
Open this publication in new window or tab >>PSS Modularization: A Customer Driven Integrated Approach
2018 (English)In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588XArticle in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The shift from product ownership to integrated solutions (Product-Service Systems (PSSs)) is expected to lead to a highercustomer satisfaction in many cases compared to providing products and services separately. PSS providers are requiredto add more value to the products they offer, as well as to augment and diversify the services related to these products.To deal with this complex task, this paper proposes a practical methodology to support manufacturers in designingservices related to the proper functioning of their products fulfilling customers’ needs and expectations. This approach isbased on the synergic use of Quality Function Deployment for PSS (QFDforPSS), Axiomatic Design (AD) and theservice blueprint tools, providing a correlation between the customers’ expectations, the PSS components and the PSSmodules. The methodology was verified by means of a service modularisation for PSS at a company operating in thebiomedical sector. While the proposed approach needs to be validated through further studies in different contexts, itspositive results in reducing both the risk of overdesigning and the possibility of creating design conflicts can contributepractically to the scientific knowledge on the development of integrated solutions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2018
Keywords
Product-Service System; customer satisfaction; Quality Function Deployment; Axiomatic Design; modularisation
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152474 (URN)10.1080/00207543.2018.1481302 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049626169 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, 2014/16
Available from: 2018-11-03 Created: 2018-11-03 Last updated: 2018-11-07Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5991-5542

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