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Kambanou, M. L. & Sakao, T. (2020). Using life cycle costing (LCC) to select circular measures: A discussion and practical approach. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 155, Article ID 104650.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Using life cycle costing (LCC) to select circular measures: A discussion and practical approach
2020 (English)In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 155, article id 104650Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The implementation of circular measures in businesses constitutes a solution to future resource scarcity, which has yet to gain momentum. To select and implement such measures, companies, with limited resources need practical and easy-to-use guides that help them understand the financial outcomes while leading them towards more circular solutions. To this end, a guideline based on Life Cycle Costing (LCC), which fulfils the aforementioned criteria, has been created. The guideline directs the companies towards measures at the top of the CE hierarchy and LCC is used to assess profitability and provide information on material circularity. Its development follows the Design Research Methodology (DRM) and is based on using LCC at three case companies when selecting circular measures and on literature. Insights on the companies’ processes and decision criteria as well as the LCC results are presented. One identified critical criterion is the profitability of a circular measure, but comparing the LCC of alternatives is only an adequate measure of profitability, if the alternatives are functionally equivalent and of equal value for the customer, otherwise revenue and customer costs need to be compared as well. In addition, because labour is included in LCC, by categorizing the costs companies can be guided towards exchanging material costs with labour costs. Concerning circularity, in this comparative context, the difference in material cost between the alternatives can be used to measure circularity performance without additional effort. Finally, customization of products was also identified in the company research as a barrier to the implementation of various circular measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
circular economy, circularity strategy, case study, resource efficiency, prescriptive research, product-service systems
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163544 (URN)10.1016/j.resconrec.2019.104650 (DOI)
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-03267
Available from: 2020-02-08 Created: 2020-02-08 Last updated: 2020-03-03
Ren, S., Zhang, Y., Liu, Y., Sakao, T., Huisingh, D. & Almeida, C. M. V. (2019). A comprehensive review of big data analytics throughout product lifecycle to support sustainable smart manufacturing: A framework, challenges and future research directions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 210, 1343-1365
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A comprehensive review of big data analytics throughout product lifecycle to support sustainable smart manufacturing: A framework, challenges and future research directions
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 210, p. 1343-1365Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Smart manufacturing has received increased attention from academia and industry in recent years, as it provides competitive advantage for manufacturing companies making industry more efficient and sustainable. As one of the most important technologies for smart manufacturing, big data analytics can uncover hidden knowledge and other useful information like relations between lifecycle decisions and process parameters helping industrial leaders to make more-informed business decisions in complex management environments. However, according to the literature, big data analytics and smart manufacturing were individually researched in academia and industry. To provide theoretical foundations for the research community to further develop scientific insights in applying big data analytics to smart manufacturing, it is necessary to summarize the existing research progress and weakness. In this paper, through combining the key technologies of smart manufacturing and the idea of ubiquitous servitization in the whole lifecycle, the term of sustainable smart manufacturing was coined. A comprehensive overview of big data in smart manufacturing was conducted, and a conceptual framework was proposed from the perspective of product lifecycle. The proposed framework allows analyzing potential applications and key advantages, and the discussion of current challenges and future research directions provides valuable insights for academia and industry. (C) 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Big data analytics; Smart manufacturing; Servitization; Sustainable production; Conceptual framework; Product lifecycle
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154546 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.11.025 (DOI)000456762600121 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|National Natural Science Foundation of China [51675441]; Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities [3102017jc04001]; 111 Project [B13044]; Circularis (Circular Economy through Innovating Design) project - Vinnova - Swedens innovation agency [2016-03267]; Simon (New Application of Al for Services in Maintenance towards a Circular Economy) project - Vinnova - Swedens innovation agency [2017-01649]

Available from: 2019-02-20 Created: 2019-02-20 Last updated: 2019-03-04Bibliographically approved
Sakao, T., Wasserbaur, R. & Fabrice, M. (2019). A methodological approach for manufacturers to enhancevalue-in-use of service-based offerings considering three dimensions of sustainability. CIRP annals, 68(1), 33-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A methodological approach for manufacturers to enhancevalue-in-use of service-based offerings considering three dimensions of sustainability
2019 (English)In: CIRP annals, ISSN 0007-8506, E-ISSN 1726-0604, Vol. 68, no 1, p. 33-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To shift towards a sustainable society, lifecycle engineering methodologies addressing the social dimension need to be advanced. A new methodological approach is proposed for manufacturers to address the three dimensions of sustainability. This approach aims to enhance value-in-use of service-based offerings and supports designers with two social indicators and five generally applicable recommendations involving multiple product lives towards a circular economy. For validation, it was applied to the case of a manufacturer of washing machines for European consumer markets. Results show that the approach supports designers to incorporate the social dimension efficiently while improving resource efficiency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Service; Environment; Social sustainability
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156668 (URN)10.1016/j.cirp.2019.04.084 (DOI)000474213500009 ()
Projects
Expert contract by the European Commission (CT-EX2014D222360-101)
Funder
EU, European Research Council, Expert contract by the European Commission (CT-EX2014D222360-101)
Note

Funding agencies:  European Commission [CT-EX2014D222360-101]

Available from: 2019-05-07 Created: 2019-05-07 Last updated: 2019-07-22
Brambila-Macias, S. & Sakao, T. (2019). Analysis and evaluation in the early stages of designing resource efficient offerings: A comparison among large companies and small and medium enterprises. In: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design. Paper presented at 22nd International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED) 2019, Delft, The Netherlands, 05 - 08 August, 2019 (pp. 3161-3170). Cambridge University Press, 1
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Analysis and evaluation in the early stages of designing resource efficient offerings: A comparison among large companies and small and medium enterprises
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Design Society: International Conference on Engineering Design, Cambridge University Press, 2019, Vol. 1, p. 3161-3170Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In Europe there is a common vision to transform the economy into a sustainable one by 2050 which among other changes, calls for companies to address their offerings in a more resource-efficient manner. Therefore, efforts to provide design support namely, methods, guidelines and tools to specifically address natural resources and impact of products and services have been increasing. Moreover, companies of all sizes should integrate environmental concerns as early as possible to select profitable and environmentally sound offerings. However, knowledge of the analysis and evaluation of resourceefficient offerings seems currently insufficient especially with regards to similarities and differences among different company sizes. In this paper, the study of eight case companies: 3 large companies and 5 SMEs, shows how industry addresses the analysis and evaluation of their offerings. Commonalities among SMEs and large companies include decisions made by strategic or managerial boards, the use of mock-ups and project management skills, among others. These findings could help academics in providing relevant, useful and usable support to industry.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cambridge University Press: , 2019
National Category
Engineering and Technology Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161718 (URN)
Conference
22nd International Conference on Engineering Design (ICED) 2019, Delft, The Netherlands, 05 - 08 August, 2019
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2019-11-07 Created: 2019-11-07 Last updated: 2019-11-15Bibliographically approved
Hara, T., Sakao, T. & Fukushima, R. (2019). Customization of product, service, and product/service system: what and how to design. Mechanical Engineering Reviews, 6(1), 1-20, Article ID 18-00184.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Customization of product, service, and product/service system: what and how to design
2019 (English)In: Mechanical Engineering Reviews, ISSN 2187-9753, Vol. 6, no 1, p. 1-20, article id 18-00184Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Customizing offerings to match customers’ specific needs is a common practice for manufacturers striving to maintain their competence in markets. Despite Product/Service Systems (PSSs) having developed substantially in industry and academia for the last two decades, no scientific review of PSS customization has been published. This prompted us to conduct a review of scientific papers relating to products, services, and PSS customization with a focus on design, with the aim of clarifying future research directions in PSS customization. In particular, distinct design models and methods were individually examined, with a special focus on service aspects, in terms of what to design and how to design it. The population of papers included in the review was those included in the Web of Science. Even though service customization has been utilizing the knowledge generated by product customization, which has been researched extensively for decades, there are differences between them, such as the difficulty associated with modularity. The same or even larger differences apply to PSS customization, because, apart from service characteristics, PSS also has product characteristics and thus is more complex. Results also include that the module-based platform strategy used in service customization can also be used for PSS. Although several papers concerned with PSS customization have been published thus far, their focus has been on the service aspect of PSS, providing further research opportunities. Existing methods to design PSS can be also applied to develop a method for PSS customization.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Tokyo, Japan: Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers, 2019
Keywords
Customization, Product/service system, PSS, Integrated solution, Design science, Platform, Literature review, Modularity
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153730 (URN)10.1299/mer.18-00184 (DOI)000454668200002 ()
Projects
Circularis (Circular Economy through Innovating Design)
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-03267
Available from: 2019-01-07 Created: 2019-01-07 Last updated: 2020-03-25Bibliographically approved
Neramballi, A., Sakao, T. & Gero, J. S. (2019). Effects of a design support on practitioners designing a Product/Service System - a case study. In: Yvonne Eriksson and Kristin Paetzold (Ed.), Human Behaviour in Design: Proceedings of the 2nd SIG conference, April 2019. Paper presented at The 2nd SIG conference in Human Behaviour in Design, April 23-24, 2019, Tutzing, Germany (pp. 11-22). Neubiberg: Institut für Technische Produktentwicklung, Universität der Bundeswehr München
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of a design support on practitioners designing a Product/Service System - a case study
2019 (English)In: Human Behaviour in Design: Proceedings of the 2nd SIG conference, April 2019 / [ed] Yvonne Eriksson and Kristin Paetzold, Neubiberg: Institut für Technische Produktentwicklung, Universität der Bundeswehr München , 2019, p. 11-22Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

This paper presents empirical evidence on which to ground the understanding of effects of a design support on Product/Service Systems (PSS) designing. The effects are measured by the extent of application of a systems perspective and level of integration of product and service elements during PSS designing. Protocol analyses of a control team and an experiment team, involving experienced practitioners performing an identical PSS design task are conducted. Only the experiment team is provided with the design support. The Function–Behavior–Structure ontology and a scheme for the systems perspective are utilized to code the data. Results show preliminary insight into the influence of a design support. The focus on systems level abstraction shows a three-fold increase, the cognitive effort spent on behavior of structure is halved and the effort on design description is more than doubled, in the experiment team.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Neubiberg: Institut für Technische Produktentwicklung, Universität der Bundeswehr München, 2019
Keywords
Product/Service Systems design, Function-Behavior-Structure Ontology, Protocol analysis, Design support
National Category
Human Computer Interaction
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156663 (URN)10.18726/2019_2 (DOI)9783943207378 (ISBN)
Conference
The 2nd SIG conference in Human Behaviour in Design, April 23-24, 2019, Tutzing, Germany
Available from: 2019-05-06 Created: 2019-05-06 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
Sakao, T., Liu, Y. & Neramballi, A. (2019). Enhancing PSS design through big data, IoT and bigdata analytics. In: Bigdeli, A., Kowalkowski, C., Kindström, D., Baines, T. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Spring Servitization Conference: Delivering Services Growth in the Digital Era. Paper presented at Spring Servitization Conference, Linköping, Sweden, 13 - 15 May, 2019 (pp. 197-205). United Kingdom
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enhancing PSS design through big data, IoT and bigdata analytics
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Spring Servitization Conference: Delivering Services Growth in the Digital Era / [ed] Bigdeli, A., Kowalkowski, C., Kindström, D., Baines, T., United Kingdom, 2019, p. 197-205Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Purpose: PSS (Product/Service System) is a specific type of offering in servitization and requires a special way of designing to exploit its full potential. Today, thanks to increasing interest in big data, IoT (Internet of Things) and big data analytics (BDA), we are seeing an enormous opportunity to further advance the practice of PSS design and delivery. Now, questions arise as to how these technologies could improve PSS design and delivery: does such a PSS design process already exist that can accommodate various types of incoming big data through IoT? Is there a need to amend existing PSS design processes to exploit the obtained data? At present, no clear answer to these questions can be found in the literature. This conference paper aims to pave the way forward for research in PSS design and show opportunities to improve design and operational practices using big data, IoT and BDA.

Design/Methodology/Approach: The research method adopted is a literature review and analysis. First, PSS design methods and procedures are reviewed in a systematic manner and consolidated as a general PSS design procedure. Second, opportunities for using big data, IoT and BDA to improve PSS design and delivery are identified in the general description. Third, issues for further research and development are presented.

Findings: The review clarifies what, in essence, the literature scientifically informs us about PSS design methods. The common denominator for PSS design methods could be composed of ten steps. Eight out of the ten steps were found to be relevant with use of big data, IoT and BDA. The relevance was also described as pros and cons in terms of quality, cost, and time (delivery).

Originality/Value: First, the paper is one of the earliest high-level reviews of PSS design from the viewpoint of big data, IoT and BDA. Second, it gives a perspective of various possible relations between PSS design and big data, IoT and BDA. Third, the paper presents further scientific and practical research opportunities in this area, building upon insights available in the state of the art of PSS design.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
United Kingdom: , 2019
Keywords
Product-Service Systems (PSS), IoT, Big Data, Data Analytics
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-157448 (URN)9781854494634 (ISBN)
Conference
Spring Servitization Conference, Linköping, Sweden, 13 - 15 May, 2019
Funder
Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research, DIA 2014/16
Available from: 2019-06-12 Created: 2019-06-12 Last updated: 2019-06-20Bibliographically approved
Lindkvist Haziri, L., Sundin, E. & Sakao, T. (2019). Feedback from Remanufacturing: Its Unexploited Potential to Improve Future Product Design. Sustainability, 11(15), Article ID 4037.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feedback from Remanufacturing: Its Unexploited Potential to Improve Future Product Design
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 15, p. 1article id 4037Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Company interest and research in the circular economy and remanufacturing have increased as a means of reducing negative environmental impacts. Remanufacturing is an industrial process whereby used products are returned to a state of like-new. However, few products are designed for remanufacturing, and further research and industrial efforts are needed to facilitate more widespread use of design for remanufacturing. One crucial factor facilitating design for remanufacturing is the integration of feedback in the product design process. Thus, the objective of this paper is to analyse feedback flows from remanufacturing to product design. Hence, a literature study and multiple case studies were conducted at three companies that design, manufacture and remanufacture different kinds of products. The cross-case analysis revealed the five barriers of the lack of internal awareness, lack of knowledge, lack of incentives, lack of feedback channels and non-supportive organisational structures, and the five enablers of business opportunities, integrated design processes, customers’ demand, laws, regulations and standards, and new technologies. To establish improved feedback from remanufacturing to product design, the barriers need to be addressed and the enablers explored. Thus, improved feedback from remanufacturing to product design will improve the design of future products suited for a more circular economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019. p. 1
Keywords
feedback; remanufacturing; case studies; design for remanufacturing; circular economy; reduction in negative environmental impacts
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160140 (URN)10.3390/su11154037 (DOI)000485230200042 ()2-s2.0-85070450645 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-09-09 Created: 2019-09-09 Last updated: 2020-03-05Bibliographically approved
Kaddoura, M., Kambanou, M. L., Tillman, A.-M. & Sakao, T. (2019). Is Prolonging the Lifetime of Passive Durable Products a Low-Hanging Fruit of a Circular Economy?: A Multiple Case Study. Sustainability, 11(18), Article ID 4819.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Is Prolonging the Lifetime of Passive Durable Products a Low-Hanging Fruit of a Circular Economy?: A Multiple Case Study
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 18, article id 4819Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Extending the lifetime of passive products, i.e., products that do not consume materials or energy during the use phase, by implementing product-service systems (PSS) has a potential to reduce the environmental impact while being an attractive and straightforward measure for companies to implement.

This research assesses the viability of introducing PSS for passive products, by documenting five real product cases of prolonging the lifetime through repair or refurbishment and by quantifying, through life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC), the change in environmental and economic outcome.

The environmental impact (measured as global warming potential over the life cycle) was reduced for all cases because extraction and production dominated the impact. This reduction was 45–72% for most cases and mainly influenced by the number of reuses and the relative environmental burden of the components whose lifetime was prolonged. The costs for the company (measured as LCC from the manufacturer’s perspective) decreased too by 8–37%. The main reason that costs reduced less than the environmental impact is that some costs have no equivalent in LCA, e.g., administration and labor costs for services. The decreases in both LCA and LCC results, as well as the willingness of the companies to implement the changes, demonstrate that this measure can be financially attractive for companies to implement and effectively contribute to a circular economy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Switzerland: MDPI, 2019
Keywords
life cycle assessment, life cycle costing, resource efficiency, circular economy, product-service system, refurbishment, repair, remanufacture
National Category
Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161723 (URN)10.3390/su11184819 (DOI)000489104700005 ()2-s2.0-85072603231 (Scopus ID)
Projects
Circularis (Circular Economy through Innovation Design)
Funder
Vinnova, 2016-03267
Note

Funding agencies: Circularis (Circular Economy through Innovation Design) project - VINNOVA, Swedens Innovation Agency [2016-03267]

Available from: 2019-11-07 Created: 2019-11-07 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved
Brambila-Macias, S. & Sakao, T. (2019). Methods and tools used in the Swedish manufacturing industry during the early stages of design. Linköping: Department of Engineering and Management, Linköping University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Methods and tools used in the Swedish manufacturing industry during the early stages of design
2019 (English)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [en]

This report is a part of deliverables from theMistraREES1programme (www.mistrarees.se) work package (WP)2.1and 2.2 of Project 2 (the project concerning design). The objective of the report is to identify and describe methods and tools used as design support for REES in the Swedish manufacturing industry.

This report presents the results of an analysisto identify different methods and tools used during the early stages of design for REES in manufacturing companies in Sweden. The methods are classified in “as-is”and “to-be”stages. The as-ismethods are what are currently used, and the to-bemethods are what they would like to have in place in the future. The compilation of methods and tools also included other sources of information partly to corroborate results from interviews. These other sources included meeting minutes and internal reports, when available. Other sources are also included from two publications in the academic literature from López-Mesa & Bylund (2011)and Nilsson et al. (2018).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Department of Engineering and Management, Linköping University, 2019. p. 9
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-162901 (URN)LIU-IEI-RR--19/00308--SE (ISRN)
Available from: 2019-12-31 Created: 2019-12-31 Last updated: 2020-01-17Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-5991-5542

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