liu.seSearch for publications in DiVA
Change search
Link to record
Permanent link

Direct link
BETA
Ivehammar, Pernilla
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 16) Show all publications
Andersson, P. & Ivehammar, P. (2019). Benefits and costs of autonomous trucks and cars. Journal of Transportation Technologies, 9(2)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Benefits and costs of autonomous trucks and cars
2019 (English)In: Journal of Transportation Technologies, ISSN 2160-0473, E-ISSN 2160-0481, Vol. 9, no 2Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Autonomous vehicles are currently developed, and are expected to be introducedgradually. Society needs a basis for decisions regarding market interventions.This study identifies, quantifies and values the benefits and costs ofautonomous trucks and cars considering generalized costs, external effectsand social marginal cost pricing to consumers with Swedish data. The resultsshow that the greatest benefits are saved driver costs for trucks and decreasedtravel time costs for car drivers. In the example calculations, capital costs mayincrease by 22 percent for cars and 36 percent for trucks for benefits to exceedcosts in 2025. Subsidies are not needed since the producers and consumersget the major benefits and pay the costs.

Keywords
Autonomous Vehicles, Self-Driving Vehicles, Benefits, Generalized Cost, Social Marginal Cost, Policy
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163735 (URN)10.4236/jtts.2019.92008 (DOI)
Available from: 2020-02-19 Created: 2020-02-19 Last updated: 2020-03-13
Andersson, P. & Ivehammar, P. (2018). Nyttor och kostnader för självkörande fordon på väg: En studie för Utredningen om självkörande fordon på väg, N 2015:07. In: Vägen till självkörande fordon - introduktion: Del 2 (pp. 1017-1071). Stockholm: Norstedts juridik
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Nyttor och kostnader för självkörande fordon på väg: En studie för Utredningen om självkörande fordon på väg, N 2015:07
2018 (Swedish)In: Vägen till självkörande fordon - introduktion: Del 2, Stockholm: Norstedts juridik , 2018, p. 1017-1071Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Syftet med denna studie är dels att utveckla principer och tillvägagångssätt för hur en samhällsekonomisk analys av förväntade nyttor och kostnader med växande andel trafik med självkörande fordon på det svenska vägnätet kan genomföras, dels att genomföra exempel-kalkyler för att undersöka vilka effekter som är betydande för sam-hällsekonomisk lönsamhet. Den analys som genomförs preciserar effekterna genom att i tur och ordning systematiskt identifiera, kvantifiera och värdera nyttor och kostnader av att transportarbetet i allt högre grad utförs av självkörande fordon. Kalkylen görs i ett medel-långt perspektiv för år2030 och ett långsiktigt för år2050 och baserar sig på några alternativa utvecklingsscenarier. Kalkylen görs för olika typer av trafik och jämförs med nollalternativ. Det råder stora osäkerheter kring en teknik som ännu inte är färdigutvecklad och tids-horisonten är lång. Därför ska resultaten tolkas mer som att indikera storleksordningar och visa vilka faktorer som är mer eller mindre betydelsefulla än som exakta sifferuppgifter.

CBA (Cost-Benefit Analysis) är en metod som på ett strukturerat sätt identifierar, kvantifierar och värderar olika effekter av en planerad åtgärd eller annan typ av förändring för att undersöka om nyttorna är större än kostnaderna orsakade av förändringen (Board-man et al., 2011). Metoden kan användas för att utforma ett besluts-underlag i fall där offentlig sektor överväger att själv producera på, finansiera eller reglera marknader. Utgångspunkten är nationalekonomisk välfärdsteori där målet är att maximera välfärden totalt för alla individer i samhället utifrån de begränsade resurser som finns. Det är individernas egna värderingar (vilja att betala för den aktuella åtgärden) som ska vara grunden.

Trafikverket genomför samhällsekonomiska lönsamhetskalkyler (den svenska termen för CBA) för alla större planerade investeringar i infrastruktur. Metoden är därmed i Sverige ganska utvecklad för att genomföra CBA inom transportområdet och det finns olika fram-tagna värden för effekter som restid, trafiksäkerhet och miljöeffekter av transporter. I den här studien tillämpas metoden i ett nytt samman-hang, varför vi i kapitel 2 redogör för de principer och tillvägagångs-sätt vi använder oss av. Nyttor och kostnader med SDV identifierar vi genom litteraturstudier, information från olika personer med expertkunskap samt egna bedömningar och antaganden. Vi använder oss i största möjliga mån av de samband och värden som används av Trafikverket och som rekommenderas av ASEK (Analysmetoder och samhällsekonomiska kalkylvärden för transportsektorn) (Trafik-verket, 2016).

Alla effekter är angivna i 2014 års penningvärde. Vissa värden för nyttor och kostnader uppskattas av ASEK (Trafikverket, 2016) att vara realt sett oförändrade i framtiden, vilket innebär att de har ett oförändrat pris år2030 och 2050 räknat i 2014 års penningvärde. Andra resurser antas realt sett öka i värde på grund av en ökad knapphet eller en ökad relativ värdering med ökad realinkomst. Vi utgår även från statistik och rapporter från främst Trafikanalys och projektet Samkost2 som har genomförts av VTI (2016) som under-lag för beräkningarna. Som utgångsläge använder vi år2015, efter-som utförlig statistik finns tillgänglig för detta år i flertalet källor.

I det följande kapitlet redogör vi för de övergripande principer och tillvägagångssätt vi använder i den samhällsekonomiska analysen. Kapitel3 och 4 presenterar i tur och ordning beräkningsunderlagen för analyserna av godstransporter och av persontransporter med personbil. I kapitel5 diskuterar vi effekter som är gemensamma för båda transportslagen. Kapitel6 presenterar våra exempelkalkyler. Ikapitel7 genomför vi känslighetsanalyser där vi varierar de mest kritiska antagandena för att se hur kalkylerna påverkas och kapitel8 sammanfattar de viktigaste slutsatserna.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: Norstedts juridik, 2018
Series
Statens offentliga utredningar, ISSN 0375-250X ; 2018:16
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-163772 (URN)9789138247662 (ISBN)
Available from: 2020-02-20 Created: 2020-02-20 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Andersson, P. & Ivehammar, P. (2017). Dynamic route planning in the Baltic Sea Region – A cost-benefit analysis based on AIS data. Maritime Economics & Logistics, 19(4), 631-649
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic route planning in the Baltic Sea Region – A cost-benefit analysis based on AIS data
2017 (English)In: Maritime Economics & Logistics, ISSN 1479-2931, E-ISSN 1479-294X, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 631-649Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Increased international trade, together with a growing concern about global emissions, raises demands to make transportation at sea more efficient. Most ways to reduce emissions will increase sea transportation costs. Dynamic route planning at sea is a concept that allows simultaneous emissions reduction and savings for ship owners. With route plans and coordination centres, ships may take shorter routes and adjust to more efficient speeds, instead of anchoring and then awaiting for berth. Using data from ships’ Automatic Identification System (AIS) transmitters, we measure the sailed distance, as well as the number and the anchored time for cargo (general cargo, bulk, container and RoRo) and tanker ships on a representative day in the Baltic Sea Region. Benefits and costs are estimated using unit prices for emissions and other costs. We find that the benefits of dynamic route planning outweigh its costs; the most decisive factors are (i) by how much distances are reduced and (ii) the unit values of emissions. For each percentage point distances that can be reduced, benefits are estimated at €102 million per year. Adding benefits of adjusted arrival times and subtracting estimated costs, net gains are found in the range of €84–98 million per year. The availability of AIS data provides new opportunities to quantify the traffic at sea and evaluate proposals to make sea transportation more efficient. The methodology can, apparently, be applied to other areas with dense sea traffic.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Palgrave Macmillan, 2017
Keywords
cost-benefit analysis, AIS data, dynamic route planning, emission reduction, sea transportation, Baltic Sea Region
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128903 (URN)10.1057/mel.2016.18 (DOI)000417602300003 ()
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2017-12-29Bibliographically approved
Holmgren, J. & Ivehammar, P. (2015). Public Transport Quality As a Tool for Reducing Car Dependency. In: Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany: . Paper presented at European Transport Conference. September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Public Transport Quality As a Tool for Reducing Car Dependency
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127162 (URN)
Conference
European Transport Conference. September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
Available from: 2016-04-15 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2016-04-29
Ivehammar, P. & Holmgren, J. (2015). The Relation Between Perceived and Actual Private Travel Costs – a Key Question for Efficient Modal Split. In: Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany: . Paper presented at Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Relation Between Perceived and Actual Private Travel Costs – a Key Question for Efficient Modal Split
2015 (English)In: Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany, 2015Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127152 (URN)
Conference
Proceedings of 43rd European Transport Conference, September 28-30, 2015, Campus Westend, Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany
Available from: 2016-04-15 Created: 2016-04-15 Last updated: 2016-04-29
Ivehammar, P. & Jernberg, J. (2014). Estimating the costs and benefits of the closure of a local grocery store. International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, 9(2), 301-316
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimating the costs and benefits of the closure of a local grocery store
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Sustainable Development and Planning, ISSN 1743-7601, E-ISSN 1743-761X, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 301-316Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Grocery stores, especially local stores in rural areas, are decreasing in number. The closure of a local grocery store may be caused by a market failure due to consumers’ inability to coordinate their behaviour. This study develops a questionnaire method to estimate the costs and benefits caused by the closure of a local grocery store. We explain why the closure of local grocery stores is a social dilemma for consumers, and we outline the costs and benefits of such closures identified in previous research. To quantify and evaluate the effects of local closures, we asked all households living in the market area of two recently closed local grocery stores detailed questions about their purchases of groceries before and after the closure of the local store. We also estimated their average willingness to pay to have access to a local grocery store. We present here a cost–benefit analysis for the two studied cases and discuss the ways to sustain local grocery stores.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WIT Press, 2014
Keywords
grocery stores, market failure, transportation costs, willingness to pay, cost-benefit analysis, CVM
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105799 (URN)10.2495/SDP-V9-N2-301-316 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-04-07 Created: 2014-04-07 Last updated: 2017-12-05
Holmgren, J. & Ivehammar, P. (2014). Making headway towards a better understanding of service frequency valuations: a study of how the relative valuation of train service frequency and in-vehicle time vary with traveller characteristics. International Journal of Transport Economics, 41(1), 109-129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Making headway towards a better understanding of service frequency valuations: a study of how the relative valuation of train service frequency and in-vehicle time vary with traveller characteristics
2014 (English)In: International Journal of Transport Economics, ISSN 0303-5247, E-ISSN 1724-2185, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 109-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

On-going urbanization has led to greater distances between homes and workplaces and more long-distance commuting, increasing the need for efficient inter-urban transport infrastructure. For sustainability, trains are preferred to private cars.

Two key variables affecting door-to-door train travel time are in-vehicle time (IVT) and headway ; however, there is often a trade-off between speed and frequency in a system. If different categories of travellers value IVT and headway differently, their proportions on a route should affect traffic planning. Optimal system design might differ between routes carrying many commuters and routes carrying mainly passengers on single private or business trips. Knowledge of differences in relative valuations of headway versus IVT should therefore affect railway system design.

We investigate whether the relative values of headway versus IVT differ between inter- urban commuting by train and single inter-urban trips by train, whilst also examining differences between socioeconomic groups. Stated choice (SC) data from 580 Swedish respondents are used in estimation. Individuals actually commuting and individuals not commuting but imagining that they are when answering the SC questions are asked about their preferences for headway versus IVT.

Commuters are estimated to value increased headway 19 percentage points more than do non-commuters. Young people (under age 21 years) value headway more than do older people while people with children value headway less than do the childless.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pisa, Italy: Fabrizio Serra Editore, 2014
Keywords
Public transport, train, service, frequency, time, commuting, value of time, railway
National Category
Economics Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107491 (URN)10.1400/220029 (DOI)000335934000005 ()
Available from: 2014-06-13 Created: 2014-06-13 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Ivehammar, P. (2014). Valuing environmental quality in actual travel time savings - The Haningeleden road project in Stockholm. Research in Transportation Economics, 48, 349-356
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Valuing environmental quality in actual travel time savings - The Haningeleden road project in Stockholm
2014 (English)In: Research in Transportation Economics, ISSN 0739-8859, E-ISSN 1875-7979, Vol. 48, p. 349-356Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Effects on the environment are rarely valued in planning infrastructure for different modes of transport. This can detract from optimal planning and fair competition, which might be better served by valuing environmental quality changes through actual travel time savings. New transport infrastructure often creates both positive and negative effects for the same groups of users, although to different degrees for different individuals. This paper illustrates a proposed methodology to investigate the effect of a planned transport infrastructure investment through a survey of potential users of the Haningeleden road project in Stockholm. Postal questionnaires were sent to a random sample of 2400 persons living in the affected area in May and June 2013, including detailed questions about their travel patterns and visiting frequencies, and whether, after reading a description of the proposed change, they would be in favour of the proposed change. The negative encroachment costs and the positive relief from traffic in other areas were estimated in travel time savings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Contingent valuation method, Cost benefit analysis, Encroachment cost, Environmental quality, Valuation, Travel time savings, Transport infrastructure, Road investment
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-112579 (URN)10.1016/j.retrec.2014.09.062 (DOI)000349567800043 ()
Available from: 2014-12-04 Created: 2014-12-04 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Ivehammar, P. & Jernberg, J. (2011). Samhällsekonomiska effekter vid nedläggning av landsbygdsbutiker.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Samhällsekonomiska effekter vid nedläggning av landsbygdsbutiker
2011 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86510 (URN)978-91-7488-295-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-12-18 Created: 2012-12-18 Last updated: 2013-01-09
Ivehammar, P. (2010). Avvägning faktisk restid mot miljöintrång - fallstudie om Hamnleden i Halmstad. Trafikverket
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Avvägning faktisk restid mot miljöintrång - fallstudie om Hamnleden i Halmstad
2010 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trafikverket, 2010. p. 42
National Category
Economics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-86511 (URN)978-91-7467-010-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2012-12-18 Created: 2012-12-18 Last updated: 2013-01-09
Organisations

Search in DiVA

Show all publications