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Publications (10 of 117) Show all publications
Mehraeen, S., Asadi, M., Martinez, J. G., Persson, N.-K. & Jager, E. (2019). Smart yarns as the building blocks of textile actuators. In: : . Paper presented at 9th international conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer (EAP)transducers & artificial muscles, Dresden, Germany, 4-6 June, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Smart yarns as the building blocks of textile actuators
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The field of smart textile actuators has been progressing rapidly during the last years. Smart textiles are a class of textile products which exploit the determinant feature of responding to a stimulus, input, which can be chemical, mechanical, optical, magnetic or electrical. The building block for fabrication of such products is smart yarn. However, most smart textiles are focused on receiving an input stimulus (sensors) and only a few are dedicated to providing an output response (actuators). Yarn actuators show strain or apply force upon application of electrical stimulation in isotonic or isometric conditions, respectively. A small actuation in the yarn scale can be amplified by knitting or weaving the smart yarns into a fabric. In this work, we have investigated the effect of inherent properties of different commercial yarns on the linear actuation of the smart yarns in aqueous media. Since actuation significantly depends on the structure and mechanical properties of the yarns, elastic modules, and tenacity of the yarns were characterized. Investigating the actuation behavior, yarns were coated with PEDOT:PSS to make them conductive. Then polypyrrole which provides the electromechanical actuation was electropolymerized on the yarn surface under controlled conditions. Finally, linear actuation of the prepared smart yarns was investigated under aqueous electrolyte in both isotonic and isometric conditions.

National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160102 (URN)
Conference
9th international conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer (EAP)transducers & artificial muscles, Dresden, Germany, 4-6 June, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Martinez, J. G., Klaus, R., Nils-Krister, P. & Jager, E. (2019). Use of conducting yarns to develop textile actuators. In: : . Paper presented at 9th international conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer (EAP)transducers & artificial muscles, Dresden, Germany, 4-6 June, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of conducting yarns to develop textile actuators
2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The feasibility of textile actuators and their advantages to develop soft actuators with synergetic actuation have been proven. They are composed of a passive fabric coated with an electroactive polymer that provides the mechanical motion. Until now, a two-step coating process was followed to make the textile actuators: a first coating that provided conductivity to the passive fabrics and, once conducting, a second coating by electropolymerization was used to get a highly electroactive (moving as much as possible) material. To simplify the fabrication process, we here used different commercially available conducting yarns (polyamide+carbon, silicon+carbon, polyamide+silver coated, cellulose+carbon, polyester+2 × INOX 50 μm, polyester+2 × Cu/Sn and polyester+gold coated) to develop such textile actuators.

Thus, it was possible to coat them through direct electrochemical synthesis, avoiding the first step, which should provide with an easier and more cost-effective fabrication process. The conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the yarns were sufficient to allow the electropolymerization of the conducting polymer polypyrrole on the yarns. The electropolymerization was carried out and both the linear and angular the actuation of the yarns was investigated. These yarns may be incorporated into textile actuators for assistive prosthetic devices.

National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160100 (URN)
Conference
9th international conference on Electromechanically Active Polymer (EAP)transducers & artificial muscles, Dresden, Germany, 4-6 June, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Martinez, J. G., Mehraeen, S., Escobar, F., Aziz, S., Milad, M. A., Persson, N.-K. & Jager, E. (2019). Woven and knitted artificial muscles for wearable devices. In: : . Paper presented at Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) XX.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Woven and knitted artificial muscles for wearable devices
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Diseases of the nervous system, traumas, or natural causes can reduce human muscle capacity. Robotic exoskeletons are forthcoming to support the movement of body parts, e.g. assist walking or aid rehabilitation. Current available devices are rigid and driven by electric motors or pneumatic actuators, making them noisy, heavy, stiff and noncompliant. We are developing textile based assistive devices that can be worn like clothing being light, soft, compliant and comfortable. We have merged advanced textile technology with electroactive polymers. By knitting and weaving electroactive yarns, we are developing soft textile actuators ("Knitted Muscles") that can be used in wearable assistive devices. We will present the latest progress increase the performance and to rationalise the fabrication. In addition we will show some demonstrators of the textile exoskeletons.

National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160098 (URN)
Conference
Electroactive Polymer Actuators and Devices (EAPAD) XX
Available from: 2019-09-05 Created: 2019-09-05 Last updated: 2019-09-13Bibliographically approved
Jager, E. (2018). Book review: Biosensors: Essentials, by Gennady Evtugyn (Lecture Notes in Chemistry Vol.84), 265 pages, Springer, 2014, ISBN 978-3-642–40240-1 Hardcover − 124,79 €; Softcover 106,90 €; eBook 86,86 €. Biosensors & bioelectronics, 115, 111-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Book review: Biosensors: Essentials, by Gennady Evtugyn (Lecture Notes in Chemistry Vol.84), 265 pages, Springer, 2014, ISBN 978-3-642–40240-1 Hardcover − 124,79 €; Softcover 106,90 €; eBook 86,86 €
2018 (English)In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 115, p. 111-111Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
National Category
Analytical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160731 (URN)10.1016/j.bios.2018.05.013 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-10-04 Created: 2019-10-04 Last updated: 2019-10-10Bibliographically approved
Gomez-Carretero, S., Libberton, B., Svennersten, K., Persson, K. M., Jager, E., Berggren, M., . . . Richter-Dahlfors, A. (2018). Correction: Redox-active conducting polymers modulate Salmonella biofilm formation by controlling availability of electron acceptors (vol 3, article number 19, 2017). npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, 4(1), Article ID 19.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Correction: Redox-active conducting polymers modulate Salmonella biofilm formation by controlling availability of electron acceptors (vol 3, article number 19, 2017)
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2018 (English)In: npj Biofilms and Microbiomes, ISSN 2055-5008, Vol. 4, no 1, article id 19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2018
National Category
Materials Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151743 (URN)10.1038/s41522-018-0061-6 (DOI)000452255400001 ()30109118 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85051180846 (Scopus ID)
Note

This article corrects the research article with the DOI: 10.1038/s41522-017-0027-0. The research article is registered in DiVA: http://urn.kb.se/resolve?urn=urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151745

Available from: 2018-10-04 Created: 2018-10-04 Last updated: 2018-12-20Bibliographically approved
Zhong, Y., Lundemo, S. & Jager, E. (2018). Development of polypyrrole based solid state on-chip microactuators using photolithography. Smart materials and structures (Print), 27(7), Article ID 074006.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of polypyrrole based solid state on-chip microactuators using photolithography
2018 (English)In: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 27, no 7, article id 074006Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a need for soft microactuators, especially for biomedical applications. We have developed a microfabrication process to create such soft, on-chip polymer-based microactuators that can operate in air. The on-chip microactuators were fabricated using standard photolithographic techniques and wet etching, combined with special designed process to micropattern the electroactive polymer polypyrrole that drives the microactuators. By immobilizing a UV-patternable gel containing a liquid electrolyte on top of the electroactive polypyrrole layer, actuation in air was achieved although with reduced movement. Further optimization of the processing is currently on-going. The result shows the possibility to batch fabricate complex microsystems such as microrobotics and micromanipulators based on these solid state on-chip microactuators using microfabrication methods including standard photolithographic processes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2018
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147342 (URN)10.1088/1361-665X/aabe42 (DOI)000434378700006 ()
Note

Funding agencies: European Union [641822]; SSF; VINNOVA (OBOE-Center for Organic Bioelectronics); Swedish Research Council [VR-2014-3079]

Available from: 2018-04-19 Created: 2018-04-19 Last updated: 2018-08-22Bibliographically approved
Zhong, Y., Nguyen, G., Plesse, C., Vidal, F. & Jager, E. (2018). Flexible gel electrolytes with reactive surfaces for soft electrochemical systems. In: : . Paper presented at MACRO 18 World Polymer Congress, July 1-5, 2018,Cairns Convention Centre, Australia..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Flexible gel electrolytes with reactive surfaces for soft electrochemical systems
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151754 (URN)
Conference
MACRO 18 World Polymer Congress, July 1-5, 2018,Cairns Convention Centre, Australia.
Available from: 2018-10-04 Created: 2018-10-04 Last updated: 2018-10-30
Zhong, Y., Nguyen, G. T. M., Nesse, C., Vida, F. & Jager, E. (2018). Highly Conductive, Photolithographically Patternable Ionogels for Flexible and Stretchable Electrochemical Devices. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 10(25), 21601-21611
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highly Conductive, Photolithographically Patternable Ionogels for Flexible and Stretchable Electrochemical Devices
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2018 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 25, p. 21601-21611Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An ionic conducting membrane is an essential part in various electrochemical devices including ionic actuators. To miniaturize these devices, micropatterns of ionic conducting membrane are desired. Here, we present a novel type of ionogel that can be patterned using standard photolithography and soft imprinting lithography. The ionogel is prepared in situ by UV-initiated free-radical polymerization of thiol acrylate precursors in the presence of ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide. The resultant ionogel is very flexible with a low Youngs modulus (as low as 0.23 MPa) and shows a very high ionic conductivity (up to 2.4 X 10(-3) S/cm with 75 wt % ionic liquid incorporated) and has a reactive surface due to the excess thiol groups. Micropatterns of ionogel are obtained by using the thiol acrylate ionogel solution as an ionic conducting photoresist with standard photolithography. Water, a solvent immiscible with ionic liquid, is used as the photoresist developer to avoid complete removal of ionic liquid from thin micropatterns of the ionogel. By taking advantage of the reactive surface of ionogels and the photopatternability, ionogels with complex three-dimensional microstructure are developed. The surface of the ionogels can also be easily patterned using UV-assisted soft imprinting lithography. This new type of ionogels may open up for building high-performance flexible electrochemical microdevices.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2018
Keywords
micropatterning; ionogel; reactive surface; thiol acrylate photochemistry; electrochemical devices; photolithography
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149873 (URN)10.1021/acsami.8b03537 (DOI)000437811400064 ()29856596 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|European Unions Horizon 2020 research and innovation program under the Marie Sklodowska Curie grant [641822]; Swedish Research Council [VR-2014-3079]

Available from: 2018-08-02 Created: 2018-08-02 Last updated: 2018-08-22
Martinez, J. G., Richter, K., Persson, N.-K. & Jager, E. (2018). Investigation of electrically conducting yarns for use in textile actuators. Smart materials and structures (Print), 27(7), Article ID 074004.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of electrically conducting yarns for use in textile actuators
2018 (English)In: Smart materials and structures (Print), ISSN 0964-1726, E-ISSN 1361-665X, Vol. 27, no 7, article id 074004Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Textile actuators are an emerging technology to develop biomimetic actuators with synergetic actuation. They are composed of a passive fabric coated with an electroactive polymer providing with mechanical motion. Here we used different conducting yarns (polyamide + carbon, silicon + carbon, polyamide + silver coated, cellulose + carbon, polyester + 2 x INOX 50µm, polyester + 2 x Cu/Sn and polyester + gold coated) to develop such textile actuators. It was possible to coat them through direct electrochemical methods, which should provide with an easier and more cost-effective fabrication process. The conductivity and the electrochemical properties of the yarns were sufficient to allow the electropolymerization of the conducting polymer polypyrrole on the yarns. The electropolymerization was carried out and both the linear and angular the actuation of the yarns was investigated. These yarns may be incorporated into textile actuators for assistive prosthetic devices easier and cheaper to get and at the same time with good mechanical performance are envisaged.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics (IOP), 2018
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials Polymer Chemistry Materials Chemistry Polymer Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-146221 (URN)10.1088/1361-665X/aabab5 (DOI)000434378700004 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Carl Tryggers Stifelsen [CTS16:207]; Swedish Research Council [VR-2014-3079]; Erling-Persson Family Foundation [2017-10-09]; Promobilia Foundation [F17603]

Available from: 2018-04-03 Created: 2018-04-03 Last updated: 2018-10-12Bibliographically approved
Khaldi, A., Falk, D., Bengtsson, K., Maziz, A., Filippini, D., Robinson, N. D. & Jager, E. W. H. (2018). Patterning highly conducting conjugated polymer electrodes for soft and flexible microelectrochemical devices. ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 10(17), 14978-14985
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Patterning highly conducting conjugated polymer electrodes for soft and flexible microelectrochemical devices
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2018 (English)In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, ISSN 1944-8244, E-ISSN 1944-8252, Vol. 10, no 17, p. 14978-14985Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is a need for soft actuators in various biomedical applications in order to manipulate delicate objects such as cells and tissues. Soft actuators are able to adapt to any shape and limit the stress applied to delicate objects. Conjugated polymer actuators, especially in the so-called trilayer configuration, are interesting candidates for driving such micromanipulators. However, challenges involved in patterning the electrodes in a trilayer with individual contact have prevented further development of soft micromanipulators based on conjugated polymer actuators. To allow such patterning, two printing-based patterning techniques have been developed. First an oxidant layer is printed using either syringe-based printing or micro-contact printing, followed by vapor phase polymerization of the conjugated polymer. Sub-millimeter patterns with electronic conductivities of 800 Scm-1 are obtained. Next, laser ablation is used to cleanly cut the final device structures including the printed patterns, resulting in fingers with individually controllable digits and miniaturized hands. The methods presented in this paper will enable integration of patterned electrically active conjugated polymer layers in many types of complex 3-D structures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Chemical Society (ACS), 2018
Keywords
Vapor phase polymerization, Printing, soft Lithography, Conjugated Polymers actuators, patterning, microfabrication
National Category
Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-146132 (URN)10.1021/acsami.8b01059 (DOI)000431723400081 ()29557639 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies:This study was financially supported by Linköping University, COST Action MP1003 ESNAM (European Scientific Network for Artificial Muscles), the Swedish Research Council (VR – 2010-6672, 2014-3079, 2015-03298), the Knut & Alice Wallenberg Stiftelse (LiU-2010-00318 & LiU-2012- 01361), and the EU FP7 Marie Curie action IEF (625923 POLYACT)

Available from: 2018-03-28 Created: 2018-03-28 Last updated: 2019-10-08Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2071-7768

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