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Östgren, Carl Johan
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 103) Show all publications
Westerlind, B., Östgren, C. J., Midlöv, P. & Marcusson, J. (2019). Diagnostic Failure of Cognitive Impairment in Nursing Home Residents May Lead to Impaired Medical Care. Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Diagnostic Failure of Cognitive Impairment in Nursing Home Residents May Lead to Impaired Medical Care
2019 (English)In: Dementia and Geriatric Cognitive Disorders, ISSN 1420-8008, E-ISSN 1421-9824Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Background/Objectives: Dementia and cognitive impairment are common in nursing homes. Few studies have studied the impact of unnoted cognitive impairment on medical care. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of diagnostic failure of cognitive impairment in a sample of Swedish nursing home residents and to analyze whether diagnostic failure was associated with impaired medical care. Method: A total of 428 nursing home residents were investigated during 2008–2011. Subjects without dementia diagnosis were grouped by result of the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE), where subjects with <24 points formed a possible dementia group and the remaining subjects a control group. A third group consisted of subjects with diagnosed dementia. These three groups were compared according to baseline data, laboratory findings, drug use, and mortality. Results: Dementia was previously diagnosed in 181 subjects (42%). Among subjects without a dementia diagnosis, 72% were cognitively impaired with possible dementia (MMSE <24). These subjects were significantly older, did not get anti-dementia treatment, and had higher levels of brain natriuretic peptide compared to the diagnosed dementia group, but the risks of malnutrition and pressure ulcers were similar to the dementia group. Conclusions: Unnoted cognitive impairment is common in nursing home residents and may conceal other potentially treatable conditions such as heart failure. The results highlight a need to pay increased attention to cognitive impairment among nursing home residents.

Keywords
Cognitive impairment, Nursing homes, Morbidity, Dementia, Heart failure
National Category
Geriatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-159107 (URN)10.1159/000499671 (DOI)31269489 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-07-25 Created: 2019-07-25 Last updated: 2019-07-25
Westerlind, B., Östgren, C. J., Mölstad, S., Midlöv, P. & Hägg, S. (2019). Use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics is associated with falls in nursing home residents: a longitudinal cohort study. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, 31(8), 1078-1095
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics is associated with falls in nursing home residents: a longitudinal cohort study
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2019 (English)In: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 1594-0667, E-ISSN 1720-8319, Vol. 31, no 8, p. 1078-1095Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Falls and related injuries are common among older people, and several drug classes are considered to increase fall risk.

Aims

This study aimed to investigate the association between the use of certain drug classes and falls in older nursing home residents in Sweden, and relate these to different age groups.

Methods

Information on falls that occurred in the previous year and regular use of possible fall risk drugs including non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (zopiclone and zolpidem) was collected from 331 nursing home residents during 2008–2011. Over the following 6 months, the occurrence of serious falls, requiring a physician visit or hospital care, was registered. Association between serious falls and drug use was compared between an older (≥ 85 years) and a younger group.

Results

An increased fall risk (Downton Fall Risk Index ≥ 3) was found in 93% of the study subjects (aged 65–101 years). Baseline data indicated an association between falls that occurred in the previous year and regular use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics (p = 0.005), but not with the other studied drug classes. During the following 6 months, an association between use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics and serious falls in the older group (p = 0.017, odds ratio 4.311) was found. No association was found between the other studied drug classes and serious falls.

Discussion

These results indicate an association between falls and the use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, compounds that previously have been considered generally well-tolerated in older people.

Conclusions

Caution is advocated when using non-benzodiazepine hypnotics regularly in older people living in nursing homes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2019
Keywords
Accidental falls, Frail elderly, Nursing homes, Hypnotics and sedatives, Adverse effects, Longitudinal study
National Category
Rheumatology and Autoimmunity Geriatrics Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156240 (URN)10.1007/s40520-018-1056-0 (DOI)000477664800007 ()30341643 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85055751099 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding agencies:  Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden (FORSS); Futurum-Academy of Health and Care, Region Jonkoping County

Available from: 2019-04-09 Created: 2019-04-09 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Jonasson, H., Fredriksson, I., Bergstrand, S., Östgren, C. J., Larsson, M. & Strömberg, T. (2018). In vivo characterization of light scattering properties of human skin in the 475- to 850-nm wavelength range in a Swedish cohort. Journal of Biomedical Optics, 23(12), Article ID 121608.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In vivo characterization of light scattering properties of human skin in the 475- to 850-nm wavelength range in a Swedish cohort
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Biomedical Optics, ISSN 1083-3668, E-ISSN 1560-2281, Vol. 23, no 12, article id 121608Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We have determined in vivo optical scattering properties of normal human skin in 1734 subjects, mostly with fair skin type, within the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study. The measurements were performed with a noninvasive system, integrating spatially resolved diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry. Data were analyzed with an inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, accounting for both scattering, geometrical, and absorbing properties of the tissue. The reduced scattering coefficient was found to decrease from 3.16 ± 0.72 to 1.13 ± 0.27 mm-1 (mean ± SD) in the 475- to 850-nm wavelength range. There was a negative correlation between the reduced scattering coefficient and age, and a significant difference between men and women in the reduced scattering coefficient as well as in the fraction of small scattering particles. This large study on tissue scattering with mean values and normal variation can serve as a reference when designing diagnostic techniques or when evaluating the effect of therapeutic optical systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPIE - International Society for Optical Engineering, 2018
Keywords
optical properties; scattering; skin; spectroscopy; tissue
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-156020 (URN)10.1117/1.JBO.23.12.121608 (DOI)000463883500009 ()30267487 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85054487844 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-04-02 Created: 2019-04-02 Last updated: 2019-05-03Bibliographically approved
Nowak, C., Carlsson, A. C., Östgren, C. J., Nyström, F., Alam, M., Feldreich, T., . . . Arnlov, J. (2018). Multiplex proteomics for prediction of major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes. Diabetologia, 61(8), 1748-1757
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Multiplex proteomics for prediction of major cardiovascular events in type 2 diabetes
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2018 (English)In: Diabetologia, ISSN 0012-186X, E-ISSN 1432-0428, Vol. 61, no 8, p. 1748-1757Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims/hypothesis Multiplex proteomics could improve understanding and risk prediction of major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) in type 2 diabetes. This study assessed 80 cardiovascular and inflammatory proteins for biomarker discovery and prediction of MACE in type 2 diabetes. Methods We combined data from six prospective epidemiological studies of 30-77-year-old individuals with type 2 diabetes in whom 80 circulating proteins were measured by proximity extension assay. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression was used in a discovery/replication design to identify biomarkers for incident MACE. We used gradient-boosted machine learning and lasso regularised Cox regression in a random 75% training subsample to assess whether adding proteins to risk factors included in the Swedish National Diabetes Register risk model would improve the prediction of MACE in the separate 25% test subsample. Results Of 1211 adults with type 2 diabetes (32% women), 211 experienced a MACE over a mean (+/- SD) of 6.4 +/- 2.3 years. We replicated associations (amp;lt; 5% false discovery rate) between risk of MACE and eight proteins: matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12, IL-27 subunit alpha (IL-27a), kidney injury molecule (KIM)-1, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-23, protein S100-A12, TNF receptor (TNFR)-1, TNFR-2 and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor (TRAIL-R)2. Addition of the 80-protein assay to established risk factors improved discrimination in the separate test sample from 0.686 (95% CI 0.682, 0.689) to 0.748 (95% CI 0.746, 0.751). A sparse model of 20 added proteins achieved a C statistic of 0.747 (95% CI 0.653, 0.842) in the test sample. Conclusions/interpretation We identified eight protein biomarkers, four of which are novel, for risk of MACE in community residents with type 2 diabetes, and found improved risk prediction by combining multiplex proteomics with an established risk model. Multiprotein arrays could be useful in identifying individuals with type 2 diabetes who are at highest risk of a cardiovascular event.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2018
Keywords
Biomarkers; Major adverse cardiovascular event; Proteomics; Risk; Type 2 diabetes
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149837 (URN)10.1007/s00125-018-4641-z (DOI)000437432200006 ()29796748 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|European Union Horizon 2020 project [634869]; Swedish Research Council [2012-2215, 2015-03477]; Landstinget Dalarna (Falun, Sweden); Dalarna University (Falun, Sweden); Sparbanksstiftelsen Nya [552, 693, 932, 2297]; Region Vastmanland (Vasteras, Sweden); Swedish Medical Association; Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation [20150429]

Available from: 2018-08-02 Created: 2018-08-02 Last updated: 2019-05-01
Alvarsson, M. & Östgren, C. J. (2018). Ny era inom terapin för typ 2-diabetes – men vad är nytt?: Metformin fortfarande förstahandsval, men därefter rekommenderas att behandlingen individualiseras. Läkartidningen, 115
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ny era inom terapin för typ 2-diabetes – men vad är nytt?: Metformin fortfarande förstahandsval, men därefter rekommenderas att behandlingen individualiseras
2018 (English)In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 115Article in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

n/a

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm, Sweden: Läkartidningen Förlag AB, 2018
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155821 (URN)29461568 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-05-01Bibliographically approved
Blomstrand, P., Sjöblom, P., Nilsson, M., Wijkman, M., Engvall, M., Länne, T., . . . Engvall, J. (2018). Overweight and obesity impair left ventricular systolic function as measured by left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain. Cardiovascular Diabetology, 17, Article ID 113.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Overweight and obesity impair left ventricular systolic function as measured by left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain
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2018 (English)In: Cardiovascular Diabetology, ISSN 1475-2840, E-ISSN 1475-2840, Vol. 17, article id 113Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: Obesity is associated with type 2 diabetes mellitus, left ventricular diastolic dysfunction and heart failure but it is unclear to which extent it is related to left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The aim of the study was to explore the effects of overweight and obesity on left ventricular systolic function in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and a control group of non-diabetic persons. Methods: We prospectively investigated 384 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and 184 controls who participated in the CARDIPP and CAREFUL studies. The participants were grouped according to body mass index (normal weight amp;lt; 25 kg/m(2), overweight 25-29 kg/m(2), and obesity amp;gt;= 30 kg/m(2) ). Echocardiography was performed at the beginning of the study and after 4-years in the patient group. Results: Univariable and multivariable regression analysis revealed that variations in left ventricular ejection fraction, global longitudinal strain, left ventricular mass and diastolic function expressed as E/e (the ratio between early diastolic mitral flow and annular motion velocities) all are related to body mass index. The mean and standard deviation of left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain values were 57% (8%) vs. - 18.6% (2.3%) for normal weight patients, 53% (8%) vs. - 17.5% (2.3%) for overweight, and 49% (9%) vs. - 16.2% (3.0%) for obese (p amp;lt; 0.05 vs. p amp;lt;0.05). Corresponding results in the control group were 58% (6%) vs. -22.3% (3.0%), 55% (7%) vs. - 20.8% (3.1%) and 54% (8%) - 19.6% (4.0%) (p amp;lt;0.05 vs. p amp;lt;0.05). Patients who gained weight from baseline to follow-up changed left ventricular ejection fraction (median and interquartile range) by - 1.0 (9.0) % (n =187) and patients who lost weight changed left ventricular ejection fraction by 1.0 (10.0) % (n =179) (p amp;lt;0.05). Conclusion: Overweight and obesity impair left ventricular ejection fraction and global longitudinal strain in both patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and non-diabetic persons.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BMC, 2018
Keywords
Overweight; Obesity; Diabetes mellitus; Echocardiography
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150862 (URN)10.1186/s12933-018-0756-2 (DOI)000442121700001 ()30107798 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|FORSS; Research Council of Southeastern Sweden; Swedish Heart-Lung foundation; King Gustaf V and Queen Victoria Freemason Foundation, Sweden

Available from: 2018-09-06 Created: 2018-09-06 Last updated: 2019-05-01
Bell, K. J. L., Azizi, L., Nilsson, P. M., Hayen, A., Irwig, L., Östgren, C. J. & Sundrom, J. (2018). Prognostic impact of systolic blood pressure variability in people with diabetes. PLoS ONE, 13(4), Article ID e0194084.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prognostic impact of systolic blood pressure variability in people with diabetes
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2018 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 13, no 4, article id e0194084Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective Blood pressure variability (BPV) has been associated with risk of cardiovascular events in observational studies, independently of mean BP levels. In states with higher autonomic imbalance, such as in diabetes, the importance of BP variability may theoretically be even greater. We aimed to investigate the incremental value of BPV for prediction of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes. Methods We identified 9,855 patients without pre-existing cardiovascular disease who did not change BP-lowering treatment during the observation period from a Swedish primary health care cohort of patients with type 2 diabetes. BPV was summarized as the standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), or variation independent of mean (VIM). Patients were followed for a median of 4 years and associations with cardiovascular and all-cause mortality were investigated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results BPV was not associated with cardiovascular specific or all-cause mortality in the total sample. In patients who were not on BP-lowering drugs during the observation period (n = 2,949), variability measures were associated with all-cause mortality: hazard ratios were 1.05, 1.04 and 1.05 for 50% increases in SD, CV and VIM, respectively, adjusted for Framingham risk score risk factors, including mean BP. However, the addition of the variability measures in this subgroup only led to very minimal improvement in discrimination, indicating they may have limited clinical usefulness (change in C-statistic ranged from 0.000-0.003 in all models). Conclusions Although BPV was independently associated with all-cause mortality in diabetes patients in primary care who did not have pre-existing cardiovascular disease or BP-lowering drugs, it may be of minimal clinical usefulness above and beyond that of other routinely measured predictors, including mean BP.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 2018
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147938 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0194084 (DOI)000429742900023 ()29641538 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Australian National Health and Medical Research Council [1013390, 633003]

Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2019-05-01
Wuopio, J., Östgren, C. J., Länne, T., Lind, L., Ruge, T., Carlsson, A. C., . . . Arnlov, J. (2018). The association between circulating endostatin and a disturbed circadian blood pressure pattern in patients with type 2 diabetes. Blood Pressure, 27(4), 215-221
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The association between circulating endostatin and a disturbed circadian blood pressure pattern in patients with type 2 diabetes
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2018 (English)In: Blood Pressure, ISSN 0803-7051, E-ISSN 1651-1999, Vol. 27, no 4, p. 215-221Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Endostatin, cleaved from collagen XVIII in the extracellular matrix, is a promising circulating biomarker for cardiovascular damage. It possesses anti-angiogenic and anti-fibrotic functions and has even been suggested to be involved in blood pressure regulation. Less is known if endostatin levels relate to circadian blood pressure patterns. In the present paper we studied the association between circulating levels of endostatin and nocturnal dipping in blood pressure.Methods: We used the CARDIPP-study, a cohort of middle aged, type 2 diabetics (n=593, 32% women), with data on both 24-hour and office blood pressure, serum-endostatin, cardiovascular risk factors, and incident major cardiovascular events. Nocturnal dipping was defined as a amp;gt;10% difference between day- and night-time blood pressures.Results: Two-hundred four participants (34%) were classified as non-dippers. The mean endostatin levels were significantly higher in non-dippers compared to dippers (meanstandard deviation: 62.6 +/- 1.8 mu g/l vs. 58.7 +/- 1.6 mu g/l, respectively, p=.007). Higher serum levels of endostatin were associated with a diminished decline in nocturnal blood pressure adjusted for age, sex, HbA1c, mean systolic day blood pressure, hypertension treatment, glomerular filtration rate, and prevalent cardiovascular disease (regression coefficient per SD increase of endostatin -0.01, 95% CI, -0.02-(-0.001), p=.03). Structural equation modelling analyses suggest that endostatin mediates 7% of the association between non-dipping and major cardiovascular events.Conclusion: We found an independent association between higher circulating levels of endostatin and a reduced difference between day- and night-time systolic blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes. Yet endostatin mediated only a small portion of the association between non-dipping and cardiovascular events arguing against a clinical utility of our findings.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
TAYLOR & FRANCIS LTD, 2018
Keywords
Ambulatory blood pressure; circadian blood pressure variation; endostatin; non-dipping; type 2 diabetes mellitus
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149894 (URN)10.1080/08037051.2018.1444941 (DOI)000437328100006 ()29488402 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|European Union [634869]; Swedish Research Council [2012-2215, 2015-03477]; Marianne and Marcus Wallenberg foundation [2012.0082]; Thureus Foundation; Landstinget Dalarna; Dalarna University; Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation [20150429, 20120169]; Lasarettslakare F. Olaisons foundation

Available from: 2018-08-02 Created: 2018-08-02 Last updated: 2019-05-01
Samefors, M., Scragg, R., Länne, T., Nyström, F. H. & Östgren, C. J. (2017). Association between serum 25(OH)D-3 and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes: a community-based cohort study. Diabetic Medicine, 34(3), 372-379
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Association between serum 25(OH)D-3 and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes: a community-based cohort study
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2017 (English)In: Diabetic Medicine, ISSN 0742-3071, E-ISSN 1464-5491, Vol. 34, no 3, p. 372-379Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aim We aimed to explore the association between vitamin D and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes recruited from a community-based study because there is limited and inconsistent research of this group. Methods A prospective community-based cohort study among people aged 55-66 years with Type 2 diabetes as part of The Cardiovascular Risk in Type 2 Diabetes -A Prospective Study in Primary Care (CARDIPP). We analysed serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D-3 [25(OH)D-3] at baseline. Cox regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios (HR) for the first myocardial infarction, stroke or cardiovascular mortality according to 25(OH)D-3. Results We examined 698 people with a mean follow-up of 7.3 years. Serum 25(OH)D-3 was inversely associated with the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality: HR 0.98 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.96 to 0.99, P = 0.001]. Compared with the fourth quartile (Q4) [25(OH)D-3 amp;gt; 61.8 nmol/l], HR (with 95% CI) was 3.46 (1.60 to 7.47) in Q1 [25(OH)D-3 amp;lt; 35.5 nmol/l] (P = 0.002); 2.26 (1.01 to 5.06) in Q2 [25(OH)D-3 35.5-47.5 nmol/l] (P = 0.047); and 1.62 (0.70 to 3.76) in Q3 [25(OH)D-3 47.5-61.8 nmol/l] (P = 0.26) when adjusting for age, sex and season. The results remained significant after adjusting also for cardiovascular risk factors, physiological variables including parathyroid hormone and previous cardiovascular disease (P = 0.027). Conclusions Low 25(OH)D-3 is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in people with Type 2 diabetes independent of parathyroid hormone. Vitamin D could be considered as a prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to explore whether vitamin D deficiency is a modifiable risk factor in Type 2 diabetes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY, 2017
National Category
Cardiac and Cardiovascular Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136630 (URN)10.1111/dme.13290 (DOI)000397404200009 ()27862247 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Medical Research Council of Southeast Sweden; Futurum; King Gustaf V and Queen Victoria Freemason Foundation; Department of Medical and Health Sciences at Linkoping University; County Council of Ostergotland; Swedish Society of Medicine; National Research School in General Practice

Available from: 2017-04-21 Created: 2017-04-21 Last updated: 2018-05-03
Kalkan, A., Bodegård, J., Sundstrom, J., Svennblad, B., Östgren, C. J., Nilsson Nilsson, P., . . . Ekman, M. (2017). Increased healthcare utilization costs following initiation of insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes: A long-term follow-up in clinical practice. Primary Care Diabetes, 11(2), 184-192
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased healthcare utilization costs following initiation of insulin treatment in type 2 diabetes: A long-term follow-up in clinical practice
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2017 (English)In: Primary Care Diabetes, ISSN 1751-9918, E-ISSN 1878-0210, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 184-192Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Aims: To compare long-term changes in healthcare utilization and costs for type 2 diabetes patients before and after insulin initiation, as well as healthcare costs after insulin versus non-insulin anti-diabetic (NIAD) initiation. Methods: Patients newly initiated on insulin (n = 2823) were identified in primary health care records from 84 Swedish primary care centers, between 1999 to 2009. First, healthcare costs per patient were evaluated for primary care, hospitalizations and secondary outpatient care, before and up to seven years after insulin initiation. Second, patients prescribed insulin in second line were matched to patients prescribed NIAD in second line, and the healthcare costs of the matched groups were compared. Results: The total mean annual healthcare cost increased from 1656 per patient 2 years before insulin initiation to 3814 seven years after insulin initiation. The total cumulative mean healthcare cost per patient at year 5 after second-line treatment was 13,823 in the insulin group compared to 9989 in the NIAD group. Conclusions: Initiation of insulin in type 2 diabetes patients was followed by increased healthcare costs. The increases in costs were larger than those seen in a matched patient population initiated on NIAD treatment in second-line. (C) 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd on behalf of Primary Care Diabetes Europe. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2017
Keywords
Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Healthcare utilization; Healthcare costs; Observational study
National Category
Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-136887 (URN)10.1016/j.pcd.2016.11.002 (DOI)000396955300012 ()27894781 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|AstraZeneca

Available from: 2017-04-29 Created: 2017-04-29 Last updated: 2018-05-03
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