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Duc Tran, T., Pozina, G., Amano, H., Monemar, B., Janzén, E. & Hemmingsson, C. (2016). Deep level study of Mg-doped GaN using deep level transient spectroscopy and minority carrier transient spectroscopy. Physical Review B, 94(4), Article ID 045206.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deep level study of Mg-doped GaN using deep level transient spectroscopy and minority carrier transient spectroscopy
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2016 (English)In: Physical Review B, ISSN 2469-9950, Vol. 94, no 4, 045206Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Deep levels in Mg doped GaN have been studied using deep level transient spectroscopyand minority charge carrier transient spectroscopy. Two traps are revealed in the investigatedtemperature range. In the substrate, one electron trap labelled ET1 (EC – 0.158 eV) is observedand in the Mg-doped layer, one hole trap labelled HT1 has been revealed. By varying theelectric field, it is found that the hole trap HT1 exhibits an electric field enhanced hole emissionrate. Using four theoretical models based on 3-dimensional Coulombic Poole-Frenkel effect, 3-dimensional square well Poole-Frenkel effect, phonon assisted tunneling, and 1-dimensionalCoulombic Poole-Frenkel effect including phonon assisted tunneling, the experimental data arefitted in order to justify the field enhanced emission process. It is found that the 1-dimensionalCoulombic Poole-Frenkel model including phonon assisted tunneling is consistent with theexperimental data. Since the trap exhibits Poole-Frenkel effect, we suggest it is acceptor like.From the theoretical model, the zero field activation energy of HT1 and an estimate of the holecapture cross section have been determined as Ev+0.57 eV and 1.9x10-15 cm2, respectively.Since the level is only observed in Mg-doped material, it is suggested that the trap can beassociated with a Mg related defect.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2016
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121705 (URN)10.1103/PhysRevB.94.045206 (DOI)000381484500007 ()
Note

Funding agenices: Swedish Research Council [621-2010-3850]; Swedish Energy Agency [38338-1]

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Available from: 2015-10-02 Created: 2015-10-02 Last updated: 2016-09-26Bibliographically approved
Duc Tran, T., Pozina, G., Nguyen, T. S., Kordina, O., Janzén, E., Ohshima, T. & Hemmingsson, C. (2016). Deep levels in as-grown and electron-irradiated n-type GaN studied by deep level transient spectroscopy and minority carrier transient spectroscopy. Journal of Applied Physics, 119(9).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deep levels in as-grown and electron-irradiated n-type GaN studied by deep level transient spectroscopy and minority carrier transient spectroscopy
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 119, no 9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

By minority carrier transient spectroscopy on as-grown n-type bulk GaN produced by halide vapor phase epitaxy (HVPE) one hole trap labelled H1 (EV + 0.34 eV) has been detected. After 2 MeV-energy electron irradiation, the concentration of H1 increases and at fluences higher than 5×1014 cm-2, a second hole trap labelled H2 is observed. Simultaneously, the concentration of two electron traps, labelled T1 (EC - 0.12 eV) and T2 (EC - 0.23 eV) increases. By studying the increase of the concentration versus electron irradiation fluences, the introduction rate of T1 and T2 using 2 MeV-energy electrons was determined to 7X10-3 cm-1 and 0.9 cm-1, respectively. Due to the low introduction rate of T1 and the low threading dislocation density in the HVPE bulk GaN material, it is suggested that the defect is associated with a primary defect decorating extended structural defects. The high introduction rate of the trap H1 suggests that the H1 defect is associated with a primary intrinsic defect or a complex.

Keyword
Deep level, GaN, DLTS, irradiation
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121709 (URN)10.1063/1.4943029 (DOI)000372351900075 ()
Note

Funding agencies:  Swedish Research Council (VR); Swedish Energy Agency

Vid tiden för disputation förelåg publikationen som manuskript

Available from: 2015-10-02 Created: 2015-10-02 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Duc Tran, T., Pozina, G., Nguyen, T. S., Ohshima, T., Janzén, E. & Hemmingsson, C. (2016). Electronic properties of defects in high-fluence electron irradiated bulk GaN. Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, 253(3), 521-526.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Electronic properties of defects in high-fluence electron irradiated bulk GaN
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2016 (English)In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 253, no 3, 521-526 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using deep level transient spectroscopy, deep levels and capture cross sections of defects introduced by high-fluence electron irradiation of thick halide vapour phase epitaxy grown GaN has been studied. After irradiation with 2 MeV electrons to a high-fluence of 5×1016 cm-2, four deep trap levels, labelled T1 (EC – 0.13 eV), T2 (EC – 0.18 eV), T3 (EC – 0.26 eV) T4 and a broad band of peaks consisting of at least two levels could be observed. These defects, except T1 and T3, were annealed out after annealing at 650 K for 2 hours. The capture cross section is found to be temperature independent for T2 and T3, while T1 shows an decresing capture cross section with increasing temperature, suggesting that electron capturing to this deep level is governed by a cascade capturing process.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keyword
Deep level, GaN, DLTS, irradiation
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121707 (URN)10.1002/pssb.201552521 (DOI)000371634800018 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council (VR); Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2015-10-02 Created: 2015-10-02 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Shubina, T. V., Jmerik, V. N., Davydov, V. Y., Kazanov, D. R., Smirnov, A. N., Nechaev, D. V., . . . Ivanov, S. V. (2016). III-nitride microcrystal cavities with quasi whispering gallery modes grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, 253(5), 845-852.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>III-nitride microcrystal cavities with quasi whispering gallery modes grown by molecular beam epitaxy
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2016 (English)In: Physica status solidi. B, Basic research, ISSN 0370-1972, E-ISSN 1521-3951, Vol. 253, no 5, 845-852 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper analyzes current trends in fabrication of III-nitride microresonators exploiting whispering gallery modes. Novel cup-cavities are proposed and their fabrication from GaN and InN by molecular beam epitaxy on patterned substrates is described. These cup-cavities can concentrate the mode energy in a subwavelength volume. Their mode energies are stable up to room temperature, being identical in large microcrystals. In these cavities, mode switching can be realized by means of refractive index variation. Cup-cavity modes, being inferior to plasmonic resonances in the respect of integral emission enhancement, have advantages for spectrally selective amplification of quantum transitions in site-controlled nano-emitters. (C) 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH amp; Co. KGaA, Weinheim

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-V C H VERLAG GMBH, 2016
Keyword
III-nitride semiconductors; microresonators; molecular beam epitaxy; whispering gallery modes
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-129499 (URN)10.1002/pssb.201552657 (DOI)000376593800009 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Russian Science Foundation [14-22-00107]

Available from: 2016-06-20 Created: 2016-06-20 Last updated: 2017-11-28
Forsberg, M., Hemmingsson, C., Amano, H. & Pozina, G. (2015). Dynamic properties of excitons in ZnO/AlGaN/GaN hybrid nanostructures. Scientific Reports, 5(7889), 1-5.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamic properties of excitons in ZnO/AlGaN/GaN hybrid nanostructures
2015 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, no 7889, 1-5 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Hybrid samples based on ZnO colloidal nanocrystals (NCs) deposited on AlGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures with different top barrier thickness d = 3, 6 and 9 nm are studied by time-resolved photoluminescence. Thermal behavior of the QW exciton lifetime in the hybrids and in the bare QW structures has been compared and it has been found that the QW exciton recombination rate increases in the hybrid having d = 3 nm and decreases in the hybrid with d = 6 nm, while no change has been observed for the structure with d = 9 nm. It is suggested that non-radiative resonance energy transfer from the QW excitons to the ZnO NCs and a variation of the surface potential can both influence the QW exciton lifetime in the hybrids.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Nature Publishing Group, 2015
Keyword
Ultrafast photonics; Two-dimensional materials
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-113739 (URN)10.1038/srep07889 (DOI)000348028300008 ()25601650 (PubMedID)
Note

Article

Available from: 2015-01-29 Created: 2015-01-29 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Shubina, T. V., Pozina, G., Jmerik, V. N., Davydov, V. Y., Hemmingsson, C., Andrianov, A. V., . . . Ivanov, S. V. (2015). III-nitride tunable cup-cavities supporting quasi whispering gallery modes from ultraviolet to infrared. Scientific Reports, 5(17970).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>III-nitride tunable cup-cavities supporting quasi whispering gallery modes from ultraviolet to infrared
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2015 (English)In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, no 17970Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Rapidly developing nanophotonics needs microresonators for different spectral ranges, formed by chip-compatible technologies. In addition, the tunable ones are much in demand. Here, we present site-controlled III-nitride monocrystal cup-cavities grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The cup-cavities can operate from ultraviolet to near-infrared, supporting quasi whispering gallery modes up to room temperature. Besides, their energies are identical in large ripened crystals. In these cavities, the refractive index variation near an absorption edge causes the remarkable effect of mode switching, which is accompanied by the spatial redistribution of electric field intensity with concentration of light into a subwavelength volume. Our results shed light on the mode behavior in semiconductor cavities and open the way for single-growth-run manufacturing the devices comprising an active region and a cavity with tunable mode frequencies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2015
National Category
Physical Sciences Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123749 (URN)10.1038/srep17970 (DOI)000366190000001 ()26656267 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Russian Science Foundation [14-22-00107]; Swedish Research Council (VR); Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Li, X., Hemmingsson, C., Forsberg, U., Janzén, E. & Pozina, G. (2015). Optical properties of AlGaN/GaN epitaxial layers grown on free-standing Ga-face and N-face GaN substrates. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Optical properties of AlGaN/GaN epitaxial layers grown on free-standing Ga-face and N-face GaN substrates
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2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Comparative studies have been made on AlGaN/GaN epitaxial layers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition on both Ga- and N-face free-standing GaN substrates fabricated by halide vapor phase epitaxy. By time-resolved photoluminescence studies, we conclude that two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) only appears for heterostructures grown on Ga-face. We studied the temporal behavior of the 2DEG emission, which correlates well with recombination processes in an asymmetric triangular potential well formed by an AlGaN/GaN structure grown in [0001] direction.

National Category
Physical Sciences Physical Chemistry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118114 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-22 Created: 2015-05-22 Last updated: 2015-09-22Bibliographically approved
Li, X., Hemmingsson, C., Forsberg, U., Janzén, E. & Pozina, G. (2015). Properties of GaN layers grown on N-face free-standing GaN substrates. Journal of Crystal Growth, 413, 81-85.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Properties of GaN layers grown on N-face free-standing GaN substrates
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Crystal Growth, ISSN 0022-0248, E-ISSN 1873-5002, Vol. 413, 81-85 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

GaN layers were homoepitaxially grown on N-face free-standing GaN substrates using a hot-wall metalorganic chemical vapor deposition method. By using optimized growth parameters, layers with a smooth morphology were obtained. The crystalline quality of epilayers was studied by a high resolution X-ray diffraction technique and compared to the substrates. Optical properties of the epilayers studied by low temperature time-resolved photoluminescence have shown longer recombination time for donor-bound exciton compared to the substrates. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Characterization; Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition; Nitrides; Semiconducting III-V materials; Hot-wall epitaxy
National Category
Chemical Sciences Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114562 (URN)10.1016/j.jcrysgro.2014.11.020 (DOI)000348037000015 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency; Swedish Research Council

Available from: 2015-03-02 Created: 2015-02-26 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Duc Tran, T., Pozina, G., Nguyen, T. S., Janzén, E., Kordina, O., Ohshima, T. & Hemmingsson, C. (2015). Thermal behavior of irradiation-induced-deep levels in bulk GaN. .
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Thermal behavior of irradiation-induced-deep levels in bulk GaN
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2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Bulk GaN grown by halide vapor phase epitaxy and irradiated by 2 MeV electrons at a fluence of 5×1016 cm-2 were studied by deep level transient spectroscopy. After irradiation, two new peaks labelled D0 (EC – 0.18 eV) and D1 (EC – 0.13 eV) are observed. From isochronal annealing studies in the temperature range of 350 - 600 K, it is observed that peak D0 is completely annealed out already at 550 K while the broad peak D1 has a more complex annealing behavior. The concentration of D1 is decreasing during annealing and its peak position is shifted to higher temperatures, until a relatively stable peak labelled D2 (EC – 0.24 eV) is formed. From an isothermal annealing study of D2, it is concluded that the annealing process can be described by a first order annealing process with an activation energy and prefactor of 1.2 eV and 6.6 × 105 s-1, respectively. From the large pre-factor it is concluded that the annihilation of D2 is governed by a long-range migration process. From its annealing behavior, it is suggested that trap D2 may be related to the VGa.

Keyword
Deep level, GaN, DLTS, irradiation
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121708 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-02 Created: 2015-10-02 Last updated: 2015-10-02Bibliographically approved
Forsberg, M., Hemmingsson, C., Amano, H. & Pozina, G. (2015). Time-resolved photoluminescence properties of hybrids based on inorganic AlGaN/GaN quantum wells and colloidal ZnO nanocrystals. Superlattices and Microstructures, 87, 38-41.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Time-resolved photoluminescence properties of hybrids based on inorganic AlGaN/GaN quantum wells and colloidal ZnO nanocrystals
2015 (English)In: Superlattices and Microstructures, ISSN 0749-6036, E-ISSN 1096-3677, Vol. 87, 38-41 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dynamic properties are studied for the AlGaN/GaN quantum well (QW) structures with and without the coating of colloidal ZnO nanocrystals (NCs). The QW exciton recombination rate was reduced in such hybrids compared to the bare QW structure only in the sample with the thinnest cap layer of 3 nm. Assuming that one of the recombination mechanisms in this hybrid is non-radiative resonant energy transfer (NRET) between the QW and the energy acceptor material i.e. ZnO NCs, the maximum pumping efficiency was estimated to be similar to 42% at 60 K. The NRET effect is, however, vanished after several months despite that the hybrid structures are composed of chemically stable components. (C) 2015 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ACADEMIC PRESS LTD- ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2015
Keyword
Quantum well structures; Energy transfer
National Category
Physical Sciences Chemical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123818 (URN)10.1016/j.spmi.2015.07.017 (DOI)000366876100007 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR); Carl Trygger Foundation; Angpanneforeningens Foundation for Research and Development

Available from: 2016-01-11 Created: 2016-01-11 Last updated: 2017-12-01
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ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2597-3322

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