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Holmer, E., Heimann, M. & Rudner, M. (2017). Computerized Sign Language-Based Literacy Trainingfor Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children. Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, 22(4), 404-421
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Computerized Sign Language-Based Literacy Trainingfor Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Children
2017 (English)In: Journal of Deaf Studies and Deaf Education, ISSN 1081-4159, E-ISSN 1465-7325, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 404-421Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Strengthening the connections between sign language and written language may improve reading skills in deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children. The main aim of the present study was to investigate whether computerized sign language-based literacy training improves reading skills in DHH signing children who are learning to read. Further, longitudinal associations between sign language skills and developing reading skills were investigated. Participants were recruited from Swedish state special schools for DHH children, where pupils are taught in both sign language and spoken language. Reading skills were assessed at five occasions and the intervention was implemented in a cross-over design. Results indicated that reading skills improved over time and that development of word reading was predicted by the ability to imitate unfamiliar lexical signs, but there was only weak evidence that it was supported by the intervention. These results demonstrate for the first time a longitudinal link between sign-based abilities and word reading in DHH signing children who are learning to read. We suggest that the active construction of novel lexical forms may be a supramodal mechanism underlying word reading development.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2017
National Category
Language Technology (Computational Linguistics) Computer and Information Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141161 (URN)10.1093/deafed/enx023 (DOI)000412206300006 ()28961874 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0846]; Swedish Hearing Foundation [B2015/480]

Available from: 2017-09-25 Created: 2017-09-25 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Kenward, B., Koch, F.-S., Forssman, L., Brehm, J., Tidemann, I., Sundqvist, A. (., . . . Gredebäck, G. (2017). Saccadic reaction times in infants and adults: Spatiotemporal factors, gender, and interlaboratory variation.. Paper presented at US. Developmental Psychology, 53(9), 1750-1764
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Saccadic reaction times in infants and adults: Spatiotemporal factors, gender, and interlaboratory variation.
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2017 (English)In: Developmental Psychology, ISSN 0012-1649, E-ISSN 1939-0599, Vol. 53, no 9, p. 1750-1764Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Saccade latency is widely used across infant psychology to investigate infants’ understanding of events. Interpreting particular latency values requires knowledge of standard saccadic RTs, but there is no consensus as to typical values. This study provides standard estimates of infants’ (n = 194, ages 9 to 15 months) saccadic RTs under a range of different spatiotemporal conditions. To investigate the reliability of such standard estimates, data is collected at 4 laboratories in 3 countries. Results indicate that reactions to the appearance of a new object are much faster than reactions to the deflection of a currently fixated moving object; upward saccades are slower than downward or horizontal saccades; reactions to more peripheral stimuli are much slower; and this slowdown is greater for boys than girls. There was little decrease in saccadic RTs between 9 and 15 months, indicating that the period of slow development which is protracted into adolescence begins in late infancy. Except for appearance and deflection differences, infant effects were weak or absent in adults (n = 40). Latency estimates and spatiotemporal effects on latency were generally consistent across laboratories, but a number of lab differences in factors such as individual variation were found. Some but not all differences were attributed to minor procedural differences, highlighting the importance of replication. Confidence intervals (95%) for infants’ median reaction latencies for appearance stimuli were 242 to 250 ms and for deflection stimuli 350 to 367 ms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved)

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Psychological Association (APA), 2017
Keyword
Eye Movements, Infant Development, Reaction Time, Spatial Ability, Human Sex Differences, Object Recognition
National Category
Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-142756 (URN)10.1037/dev0000338 (DOI)000414264000012 ()28682097 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85021839350 (Scopus ID)
Conference
US
Note

Funding agencies: Norwegian Directorate for Children, Youth and Family Affairs [13/60525]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation [KAW.2012.0120]; Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research [2008-0875]; Swedish Research Council [2011-1913]; European Research Counci

Available from: 2017-11-02 Created: 2017-11-02 Last updated: 2017-11-28Bibliographically approved
Heimann, M., Nordqvist, E., Strid, K., Connant Almrot, J. & Tjus, T. (2016). Children with autism respond differently to spontaneous, elicited and deferred imitation. Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, 60(5), 491-501
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children with autism respond differently to spontaneous, elicited and deferred imitation
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research, ISSN 0964-2633, E-ISSN 1365-2788, Vol. 60, no 5, p. 491-501Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BackgroundImitation, a key vehicle for both cognitive and social development, is often regarded as more difficult for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) than for children with Down syndrome (DS) or typically developing (TD) children. The current study investigates similarities and differences in observed elicited, spontaneous and deferred imitation using both actions with objects and gestures as imitation tasks in these groups. MethodsImitation among 19 children with autism was compared with 20 children with DS and 23 TD children matched for mental and language age. ResultsElicited imitation resulted in significantly lower scores for the ASD group compared with the other two groups, an effect mainly carried by a low level of gesture imitation among ASD children. We observed no differences among the groups for spontaneous imitation. However, children with ASD or DS displayed less deferred imitation than the TD group. Proneness to imitate also differed among groups: only 10 (53%) of the children with autism responded in the elicited imitation condition compared with all children with DS and almost all TD children (87%). ConclusionsThese findings add to our understanding of the kind of imitation difficulties children with ASD might have. They also point to the necessity of not equating various imitation measures because these may capture different processes and be differently motivating for children with autism.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
WILEY-BLACKWELL, 2016
Keyword
autism spectrum disorder; communication; Down syndrome; imitation
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128738 (URN)10.1111/jir.12272 (DOI)000375049400009 ()27018212 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, Stockholm, Sweden [2008-0875, 2005-1700, 2008-0518]; European Science Foundation Cooperation in Science and Technology Action (ESF COST Action); Stena Foundation, Gothenburg, Sweden; Mayflower Research Foundation

Available from: 2016-05-31 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Sundqvist, A., Nordqvist, E., Koch, F.-S. & Heimann, M. (2016). Early declarative memory predicts productive language: A longitudinal study of deferred imitation and communication at 9 and 16 months. Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), 151, 109-119
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Early declarative memory predicts productive language: A longitudinal study of deferred imitation and communication at 9 and 16 months
2016 (English)In: Journal of experimental child psychology (Print), ISSN 0022-0965, E-ISSN 1096-0457, Vol. 151, p. 109-119Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Deferred imitation (DI) may be regarded as an early declarative-like memory ability shaping the infant's ability to learn about novelties and regularities of the surrounding world. In the current longitudinal study, infants were assessed at 9 and 16months. DI was assessed using five novel objects. Each infant's communicative development was measured by parental questionnaires. The results indicate stability in DI performance and early communicative development between 9 and 16months. The early achievers at 9months were still advanced at 16months. Results also identified a predictive relationship between the infant's gestural development at 9months and the infant's productive and receptive language at 16months. Moreover, the results show that declarative memory, measured with DI, and gestural communication at 9months independently predict productive language at 16months. These findings suggest a connection between the ability to form non-linguistic and linguistic mental representations. These results indicate that the child's DI ability when predominantly preverbal might be regarded as an early domain-general declarative memory ability underlying early productive language development.

Keyword
Declarative memory; Deferred imitation; Gestural Communication; Infant development; Productive Language; Receptive Language
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126873 (URN)10.1016/j.jecp.2016.01.015 (DOI)000383941600010 ()26925719 (PubMedID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2008-2454, 2011-1913Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008-0875
Note

The previous status of this article Manuscript and the previous title was The stability of memory development and its predictive value of lexical development from 9 months to 16 months.

Available from: 2016-04-06 Created: 2016-04-06 Last updated: 2017-11-06Bibliographically approved
Holmer, E., Heimann, M. & Rudner, M. (2016). Evidence of an association between sign language phonological awareness and word reading in deaf and hard-of-hearing children. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 48, 145-159
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evidence of an association between sign language phonological awareness and word reading in deaf and hard-of-hearing children
2016 (English)In: Research in Developmental Disabilities, ISSN 0891-4222, E-ISSN 1873-3379, Vol. 48, p. 145-159Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND AND AIMS:

Children with good phonological awareness (PA) are often good word readers. Here, we asked whether Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) children who are more aware of the phonology of Swedish Sign Language, a language with no orthography, are better at reading words in Swedish.

METHODS AND PROCEDURES:

We developed the Cross-modal Phonological Awareness Test (C-PhAT) that can be used to assess PA in both Swedish Sign Language (C-PhAT-SSL) and Swedish (C-PhAT-Swed), and investigated how C-PhAT performance was related to word reading as well as linguistic and cognitive skills. We validated C-PhAT-Swed and administered C-PhAT-Swed and C-PhAT-SSL to DHH children who attended Swedish deaf schools with a bilingual curriculum and were at an early stage of reading.

OUTCOMES AND RESULTS:

C-PhAT-SSL correlated significantly with word reading for DHH children. They performed poorly on C-PhAT-Swed and their scores did not correlate significantly either with C-PhAT-SSL or word reading, although they did correlate significantly with cognitive measures.

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS:

These results provide preliminary evidence that DHH children with good sign language PA are better at reading words and show that measures of spoken language PA in DHH children may be confounded by individual differences in cognitive skills.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Deafness; Handshape; Phonological awareness; Sign language; Word reading
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122930 (URN)10.1016/j.ridd.2015.10.008 (DOI)000367766100014 ()26561215 (PubMedID)
Funder
Forte, Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare, 2008-0846
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0846]

Available from: 2015-11-30 Created: 2015-11-30 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Holmer, E., Heimann, M. & Rudner, M. (2016). Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(107)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Imitation, Sign Language Skill and the Developmental Ease of Language Understanding (D-ELU) Model
2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, no 107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Imitation and language processing are closely connected. According to the Ease of Language Understanding (ELU) model (Ronnberg et al., 2013) pre-existing mental representation of lexical items facilitates language understanding. Thus, imitation of manual gestures is likely to be enhanced by experience of sign language. We tested this by eliciting imitation of manual gestures from deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing and hearing non-signing children at a similar level of language and cognitive development. We predicted that the DHH signing children would be better at imitating gestures lexicalized in their own sign language (Swedish Sign Language, SSL) than unfamiliar British Sign Language (BSL) signs, and that both groups would be better at imitating lexical signs (SSL and BSL) than non-signs. We also predicted that the hearing non-signing children would perform worse than DHH signing children with all types of gestures the first time (T1) we elicited imitation, but that the performance gap between groups would be reduced when imitation was elicited a second time (T2). Finally, we predicted that imitation performance on both occasions would be associated with linguistic skills, especially in the manual modality. A split-plot repeated measures ANOVA demonstrated that DHH signers imitated manual gestures with greater precision than non-signing children when imitation was elicited the second but not the first time. Manual gestures were easier to imitate for both groups when they were lexicalized than when they were not; but there was no difference in performance between familiar and unfamiliar gestures. For both groups, language skills at T1 predicted imitation at T2. Specifically, for DHH children, word reading skills, comprehension and phonological awareness of sign language predicted imitation at T2. For the hearing participants, language comprehension predicted imitation at T2, even after the effects of working memory capacity and motor skills were taken into account. These results demonstrate that experience of sign language enhances the ability to imitate manual gestures once representations have been established, and suggest that the inherent motor patterns of lexical manual gestures are better suited for representation than those of non-signs. This set of findings prompts a developmental version of the ELU model, D-ELU.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
FRONTIERS MEDIA SA, 2016
Keyword
imitation; sign language; manual gesture; representation; development
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125800 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00107 (DOI)000370127400001 ()26909050 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0846]

Available from: 2016-03-08 Created: 2016-03-04 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Helland, W. A., Posserud, M.-B., Helland, T., Heimann, M. & Lundervold, A. (2016). Language impairments in children with ADHD and in children with reading disorder. Journal of Attention Disorders, 20(7), 581-589
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Language impairments in children with ADHD and in children with reading disorder
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 581-589Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To investigate language impairments (LI) in a non –clinical sample of children with symptoms of AD/HD,  RD,   AD/HD + RD and controls, and to explore whether these groups could be differentiated from each other regarding different aspects of language.

Method: Out of a population-based sample  of 5672 children aged 7-9, four groups were derived.

Results: LI was identified in the vast majority of the AD/HD+RD group and in more than 40 % of both the AD/HD group and the RD group.

Conclusions: More phonological and expressive language problems were seen in RD compared to AD/HD, while receptive language problems were more prominent in AD/HD. As to pragmatics, more problems were identified in AD/HD, but the difference did not reach significance. These results support findings from clinical samples pointing to a considerable rate of LI both in children with symptoms of AD/HD and in children with symptoms of RD.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage Publications, 2016
Keyword
ADHD, Comorbidity, Epidemiology
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology) Psychiatry
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-80613 (URN)10.1177/1087054712461530 (DOI)000378748100003 ()
Note

Funding agencies;The author(s) disclosed receipt of the following financial support for the research and/or authorship of this article: The present study was supported by the Norwegian Research Network on ADHD, the Helse Fonna HF, the Statped Vest, the University of Bergen, the Norwegian Directorate for Health and Social Affairs, the Norwegian Research Council, and the Western Norway Regional Health Authority.

Available from: 2012-08-27 Created: 2012-08-27 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Holmer, E., Heimann, M. & Rudner, M. (2016). Theory of Mind and Reading Comprehension in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Signing Children. Frontiers in Psychology, 7(854)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Theory of Mind and Reading Comprehension in Deaf and Hard-of-Hearing Signing Children
2016 (English)In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 7, no 854Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Theory of Mind (ToM) is related to reading comprehension in hearing children. In the present study, we investigated progression in ToM in Swedish deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) signing children who were learning to read, as well as its assocation with reading comprehension. Thirteen children at Swedish state primary schools for DHH children performed a Swedish Sign Language (SSL) version of the Wellman and Liu (2004) ToM scale, along with tests of reading comprehension, SSL comprehension, and working memory. Results indicated that ToM progression did not differ from that reported in previous studies, although ToM development was delayed despite age-appropriate sign language skills. Correlation analysis revealed that ToM was associated with reading comprehension and working memory, but not sign language comprehension. We propose that some factor not investigated in the present study, possibly represented by inference making constrained by working memory capacity, supports both ToM and reading comprehension and may thus explain the results observed in the present study.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers, 2016
Keyword
Deaf and hard-of-hearing, Theory of Mind, sign language, working memory, reading comprehension, Children
National Category
Psychology Specific Languages Clinical Medicine Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128253 (URN)10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00854 (DOI)000377254900001 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2008-0846]

Available from: 2016-05-24 Created: 2016-05-24 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Salomone, E., Beranova, S., Bonnet-Brilhault, F., Briciet Lauritsen, M., Budisteanu, M., Buitelaar, J., . . . Charman, T. (2016). Use of early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder across Europe. Autism, 20(2), 233-249
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Use of early intervention for young children with autism spectrum disorder across Europe
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2016 (English)In: Autism, ISSN 1362-3613, E-ISSN 1461-7005, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 233-249Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Little is known about use of early interventions for autism spectrum disorder in Europe. Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder aged 7 years or younger (N = 1680) were recruited through parent organisations in 18 European countries and completed an online survey about the interventions their child received. There was considerable variation in use of interventions, and in some countries more than 20% of children received no intervention at all. The most frequently reported interventions were speech and language therapy (64%) and behavioural, developmental and relationship-based interventions (55%). In some parts of Europe, use of behavioural, developmental and relationship-based interventions was associated with higher parental educational level and time passed since diagnosis, rather than with child characteristics. These findings highlight the need to monitor use of intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder in Europe in order to contrast inequalities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2016
Keyword
autism; Europe; intervention; use of early intervention
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-127454 (URN)10.1177/1362361315577218 (DOI)000372880100011 ()25916866 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|COST Action - European Science Foundation [BM1004]; Innovative Medicines Initiative Joint Undertaking [115300]; European Union; EFPIA

Available from: 2016-04-30 Created: 2016-04-26 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Nordqvist, E., Rudner, M., Lindgren, M., Johansson, M. & Heimann, M. (2015). Deferred imitation, associative memory and communication in 14-month-old children. In: : . Paper presented at International Society for Developmental Psychobiology (ISDP), San Sebastian, Spain, July 20-23, 2015..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deferred imitation, associative memory and communication in 14-month-old children
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2015 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Other academic)
National Category
Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126043 (URN)
Conference
International Society for Developmental Psychobiology (ISDP), San Sebastian, Spain, July 20-23, 2015.
Available from: 2016-03-11 Created: 2016-03-11 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5025-9975

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