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Nilsson, Gert
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Publications (10 of 118) Show all publications
Toll John, R., Henricson, J., Junker, J., Jonson, C.-O., Nilsson, G., Björk Wilhelms, D. & Anderson, C. D. (2018). A cool response: the influence of ambient temperature on capillary refill time. Journal of Biophotonics
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A cool response: the influence of ambient temperature on capillary refill time
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2018 (English)In: Journal of Biophotonics, ISSN 1864-063X, E-ISSN 1864-0648Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective

To describe the effect of low ambient temperature on skin temperature and capillary refill (CR) time in forehead, sternum and finger pulp.

Methods

An observational, nonrandomized experimental study on 15 healthy subjects (6 females) in a cold room (8°C). Outcome measures were skin temperature and quantified CR test after application of a standardized blanching pressure (9 N/cm2) using digital photographic polarization spectroscopy to generate CR times.

Results

The finger pulp showed marked temperature fall and prolonged CR times (>10 seconds). The CR registrations of the forehead and sternum were more comparable to curves observed in a control material at room temperature, and skin temperature falls were less marked. CR times were not prolonged in forehead measurements. At the sternum, some individuals showed CR times beyond guideline recommendations despite only a marginal reduction in skin temperature.

Conclusions

Low ambient temperature is a strong independent factor for CR time at peripheral sites. Reservation about sternum as a site of measurement is warranted since cold provocation produced prolonged CR times in some individuals. We found that the forehead is the most thermostable of the 3 sites and thus the preferred site to avoid ambient temperature artifact in measuring CR time.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-VCH Verlagsgesellschaft, 2018
National Category
Atom and Molecular Physics and Optics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145527 (URN)10.1002/jbio.201700371 (DOI)29384267 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2018-03-05 Created: 2018-03-05 Last updated: 2018-03-15Bibliographically approved
O'Doherty, J., Henricson, J., Enfield, J., Nilsson, G. E., Leahy, M. J. & Anderson, C. D. (2011). Tissue viability imaging (TiVi) in the assessment of divergent beam UV-B provocation. Archives of Dermatological Research, 303(2), 79-87
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tissue viability imaging (TiVi) in the assessment of divergent beam UV-B provocation
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2011 (English)In: Archives of Dermatological Research, ISSN 0340-3696, E-ISSN 1432-069X, Vol. 303, no 2, p. 79-87Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In routine clinical phototesting and in basic research, naked eye dermatological assessment is the "gold standard" for determining the patient's minimal erythemal dose (MED). In UV-B testing with a divergent, radially attenuating beam of characterised dosimetry, laser Doppler perfusion imaging has been previously used to give quantitative description of reactivity to doses above the MED in addition to a "single-dose" objective determination of the MED itself. In the present paper, the recently developed tissue viability imaging (TiVi) technology is presented for the first time as a reliable, easily applicable, high-resolution alternative to LDPI in the divergent beam testing concept. Data obtained after provocation with a range of doses was analysed in order to determine the reaction diameter, which can be related to the MED using field dosimetry. The dose-response features of exposure above the MED and the relationship between naked eye readings and the diameter were determined from the image data. TiVi data were obtained faster than LDPI data and at a higher spatial resolution of 100 μm instead of 1 mm. A tool was developed to centre over the erythema area of the acquired image. Response data could be plotted continuously against dose. Thresholding of processed images compared to naked eye "gold standard" readings showed that the normal skin value +4 standard deviations produced a good fit between both methods. A linear fitting method for the dose-response data provided a further method of determination of the reaction diameter (MED). Erythemal "volume under the surface (VUS)" for the reaction provided a new concept for visualising information. TiVi offers advantages over LDPI in the acquisition and analysis of data collected during divergent beam testing. An increased amount of data compared to traditional phototesting is easily and more objectively obtained which increases applicability in the clinical and research environment.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2011
Keyword
Photo-testing – Tissue viability imaging – UV-B – Microcirculation – Polarization spectroscopy – Minimal erythemal dose
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-66519 (URN)10.1007/s00403-010-1055-2 (DOI)000287500600002 ()20524004 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2011-03-18 Created: 2011-03-18 Last updated: 2017-12-11
Clancy, N. T., Nilsson, G., Anderson, C. & Leahy, M. J. (2010). A new device for assessing changes in skin viscoelasticity using indentation and optical measurement. SKIN RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, 16(2), 210-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A new device for assessing changes in skin viscoelasticity using indentation and optical measurement
2010 (English)In: SKIN RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0909-752X, Vol. 16, no 2, p. 210-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background/aims Skin is a viscoelastic material, comprised of fluidic and fibrous components. Changes in viscoelasticity can arise due to a number of conditions including dehydration, swelling (associated with injury or disease), impaired heart function, rehydration therapy, ageing, scarring, sun exposure and genetic conditions affecting connective tissue. Quantification of changes in skin viscoelasticity due to these processes is of great clinical interest in the fields of therapy monitoring, wound healing and disease screening. However, devices currently available to measure aspects of the mechanical properties of skin have limitations in ease-of-use, accessibility, and depth of measurement. This paper describes a new technique to follow changes in the viscoelasticity of the skin, using a novel approach to an indentation manoeuvre. The device is portable, low-cost and easy to use while at the same time providing rich information on the mechanical response of the skin. Methods The method proposed optically tracks the skins recovery from an initial strain, made with a novel linear indentor, using diffuse side-lighting and a CCD video camera. Upon indentation, the skins elastin fibres are stretched and fluid is displaced from the compressed region. When the indentor is removed, the rate of recovery of the skin from this imprint is therefore principally dependent on its hydration and elasticity. Using the blue colour plane of the image and polarisation filtering, it is possible to examine the surface topography only, and track the decay of the imprint over time. Results The decrease in size of the imprint over time (decay curve) recorded by the device is shown to agree with the theoretical predictions of an appropriate viscoelastic model of skin mechanical behaviour. The contributors to the response measured using the indentation device are fully characterised and evaluated using separate measurement techniques including high-frequency ultrasound, polarisation spectroscopy and optical coherence tomography. Conclusion The device developed is capable of tracking the viscoelastic response of skin to minimal indentation. The high precision achieved using low-cost materials means that the device could be a viable alternative to current technologies.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2010
Keyword
skin indentation, viscoelasticity, side illumination, skin recovery
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-55048 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0846.2010.00433.x (DOI)000276468100012 ()
Available from: 2010-04-28 Created: 2010-04-28 Last updated: 2010-04-28
Magnusson, B., Henricson, J., Nilsson, G. & Anderson, C. (2010). Intra- and inter-individual variability in the development of erythema after application of methyl nicotinate evaluated by polarization spectroscopy imaging. In: JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY, vol 62, issue 6, pp 801-801, ISSN: 002-3573. Paper presented at Perspectives in Percutaneous Penetration, 12th International Conference, La Grande Motte, France (pp. 801-801). Pharmaceutical Press, 62(6)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Intra- and inter-individual variability in the development of erythema after application of methyl nicotinate evaluated by polarization spectroscopy imaging
2010 (English)In: JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACOLOGY, vol 62, issue 6, pp 801-801, ISSN: 002-3573, Pharmaceutical Press , 2010, Vol. 62, no 6, p. 801-801Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The concept that the time to onset of erythema after the application of the rubefacient and urticant substance methyl nicotinate (MN) indicates skin barrier competence was introduced 30 years ago. MN produces a dose-dependent erythema on topical application to intact skin, the nature of which is known to be fast moving (in the order of minutes) and variable. Using tissue viability imaging (TiVi) the time course and degree of the reaction can be conveniently followed and analysed. Inter-individual variability can be quite marked but intra-individual variability is less pronounced. At the upper end of provocation (higher doses, more sensitive individuals) urtication can occur, which decreases blood flow by increasing pressure on and thus emptying capillaries. The TiVi system can quantitate urtication and inherent (blanched) skin colour. The utility of MN application in the study of individual barrier function and microvascular reactivity is increased by the use of the TiVi system for collection and analysis of data.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pharmaceutical Press, 2010
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-58366 (URN)10.1211/jpp.62.06.0016 (DOI)000278527300063 ()
Conference
Perspectives in Percutaneous Penetration, 12th International Conference, La Grande Motte, France
Available from: 2010-08-13 Created: 2010-08-11 Last updated: 2011-03-22
McNamara, P. N., O'Doherty, J., O'Connell, M.-L., Fitzgerald, B. W., Anderson, C., Nilsson, G., . . . Leahy, M. J. (2010). Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: temporal effects of local occlusion studies in the volar forearm. Journal of Biophotonics, 3(1-2), 66-74
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tissue viability (TiVi) imaging: temporal effects of local occlusion studies in the volar forearm
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2010 (English)In: Journal of Biophotonics, ISSN 1864-063X, E-ISSN 1864-0648, Vol. 3, no 1-2, p. 66-74Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tissue Viability (TiVi) imaging is a promising new technology for the assessment of microcirculation in the upper human dermis. Although the technique is easily implemented and develops large amounts of observational data, its role in the clinical workplace awaits the development of standardised protocols required for routine clinical practice. The present study investigates the use of TiVi technology in a human, in vivo, localized, skin blood flow occlusion protocol. In this feasibility study, the response of the cutaneous microcirculation after provocation on the volar surface of the forearm was evaluated using a high temporal-low spatial resolution TiVi camera. 19 healthy subjects - 10 female and 9 male - were studied after a localized pressure was applied for 5 different time periods ranging from 5 to 25 seconds. Areas corresponding to 100 x 100 pixels (2.89 cm(2)) were monitored for 60 seconds prior to, during and after each occlusion period. Our results demonstrated the removal of blood from the local area and a hyperaemic response supporting the suitability of TiVi imaging for the generation of detailed provocation response data of relevance for the physiological function of the skin microcirculation in health and disease.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2010
Keyword
tissue viability, TiVi, biophotonics, optical imaging, occlusion, PORH, reactive hyperaemia
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54069 (URN)10.1002/jbio.200910061 (DOI)000274262900013 ()
Available from: 2010-02-22 Created: 2010-02-22 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Zhai, H., Chan, H. P., Farahmand, S., Nilsson, G. & Maibach , H. I. (2009). Comparison of tissue viability imaging and colorimetry: skin blanching. Skin research and technology, 15(1), 20-23
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparison of tissue viability imaging and colorimetry: skin blanching
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2009 (English)In: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 20-23Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Operator-independent assessment of skin blanching is important in the development and evaluation of topically applied steroids. Spectroscopic instruments based on hand-held probes, however, include elements of operator dependence such as difference in applied pressure and probe misalignment, while laser Doppler-based methods are better suited for demonstration of skin vasodilatation than for vasoconstriction.

To demonstrate the potential of the emerging technology of Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) in the objective and operator-independent assessment of skin blanching.

The WheelsBridge TiVi600 Tissue Viability Imager was used for quantification of human skin blanching with the Minolta chromameter CR 200 as an independent colorimeter reference method. Desoximetasone gel 0.05% was applied topically on the volar side of the forearm under occlusion for 6 h in four healthy adults. In a separate study, the induction of blanching in the occlusion phase was mapped using a transparent occlusion cover.

The relative uncertainty in the blanching estimate produced by the Tissue Viability Imager was about 5% and similar to that of the chromameter operated by a single user and taking the a(*) parameter as a measure of blanching. Estimation of skin blanching could also be performed in the presence of a transient paradoxical erythema, using the integrated TiVi software. The successive induction of skin blanching during the occlusion phase could readily be mapped by the Tissue Viability Imager.

TiVi seems to be suitable for operator-independent and remote mapping of human skin blanching, eliminating the main disadvantages of methods based on hand-held probes.

Keyword
skin blanching, vasoconstriction, tissue viability imaging
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16613 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0846.2008.00346.x (DOI)
Available from: 2009-02-07 Created: 2009-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14
Nilsson, G., Zhai, H., P Chan, H., Farahmand, S. & Maibach , H. I. (2009). Cutaneous bioengineering instrumentation standardization: the Tissue Viability Imager. Skin research and technology, 15(1), 6-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cutaneous bioengineering instrumentation standardization: the Tissue Viability Imager
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2009 (English)In: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 6-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) is a new bioengineering technology intended for remote two-dimensional mapping of skin red blood cell concentration (RBCconc). Before use in the laboratory, work-site and dermatology clinic, critical performance parameters of this emerging technology require careful evaluation.

To assess short- and long-term stability, image uniformity, distance and image size dependence, ambient light and curvature influence in a production batch of Tissue Viability Imagers.

Four Tissue Viability Imagers from the same production batch were evaluated at two laboratories (one industrial and one dermatological) with respect to critical parameter performance.

The average systematic drift in sensitivity over time was 0.27% and < 1.02% for all four units tested. Difference in sensitivity between units was limited to 4.1% and was due to offset rather than gain deviation. Spatial variation in image uniformity was below 3.08% and 1.93% in the corners and centre of an individual image, respectively. This spatial variation could be further reduced to 0.25% and 0.13%, respectively by image normalization. Ambient light from a 40 W bulb or a 11 W fluorescent light source at a distance of 50-60 cm above the object, reduced the recorded values by about 10%, while the camera to object distance and image size had no detectable influence on sensitivity. Curved objects, such as human forearm, demonstrated an edge effect limited to below 10%.

The critical TiVi performance parameters evaluated proved stable in relation to expected variations in skin RBCconc over time. Calibration by way of a two-point method may reduce differences in sensitivity between instruments to further facilitate inter-laboratory comparison of results.

Keyword
Tissue Viability Imaging, skin red blood cell concentration, spectroscopy, instrument performance, skin bioengineering
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16611 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0846.2008.00330.x (DOI)
Available from: 2009-02-07 Created: 2009-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14
Zhai, H., Chan, H. P., Farahmand, S., Nilsson, G. & Maibach , H. I. (2009). Tissue viability imaging: mapping skin erythema. Skin research and technology, 15(1), 14-19
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tissue viability imaging: mapping skin erythema
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2009 (English)In: Skin research and technology, ISSN 0909-752X, E-ISSN 1600-0846, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 14-19Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Tissue Viability Imaging (TiVi) is an emerging bioengineering technology intended for two-dimensional mapping of skin erythema and blanching. Before TiVi can be effectively used in studies of diseased or damaged skin, the variability in normal skin red blood cell concentration (RBCconc) requires evaluation.

To demonstrate how TiVi maps spatial and temporal variations in normal skin RBCconc at the dorsal side of the hand at rest and during post-occlusive hyperemia.

Short-term and day-to-day variations in skin RBCconc were quantified at the dorsal side of the hand in four healthy volunteers at rest. In a separate study, the increase in skin RBCconc was recorded during post-occlusive hyperemia.

A lower skin RBCconc (179-184 TiVi units) was observed at the back of the hand and base of the thumb compared with areas adjacent to the nailfoldfold region of the fingers (190-213 TiVi units). The short-term variation (within 70 s) was < 2% in all areas of the dorsal side of the hand, while day-to-day variations were in the range 5-7% in the back of the hand and up to 10% in areas adjacent to the nailfold region. In the post-occlusive hyperemia phase, up to a 60% increase in skin RBCconc was observed in the early part of the reactive hyperemia phase. This increase in skin RBCconc successively decreased but remained about 18% above the pre-occlusion level after 30 min.

Establishment of healthy skin RBCconc reference values is important for the design of versatile test procedures for assessment of skin damage caused by vibration tools, chemical exposure or peripheral vascular disease.

Keyword
skin red blood cell concentration, erythema, Tissue Viability Imaging, reactive hyperemia
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16612 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0846.2008.00345.x (DOI)
Available from: 2009-02-07 Created: 2009-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14
Henricson, J., Nilsson, A., Tesselaar, E., Nilsson, G. & Sjöberg, F. (2009). Tissue viability imaging: Microvascular response to vasoactive drugs induced by iontophoresis. Microvascular Research, 78(2), 199-205
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tissue viability imaging: Microvascular response to vasoactive drugs induced by iontophoresis
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2009 (English)In: Microvascular Research, ISSN 0026-2862, Vol. 78, no 2, p. 199-205Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

When one is studying the physiology of the cutaneous microcirculation there is a need for relevant non-invasive and versatile techniques. In this study we used a new optical device, the tissue viability imager (TiVi), to map changes in cutaneous microvascular concentrations of red blood cells during iontophoresis of vasoactive substances (noradrenaline (NA) and phenylephrine (Phe) for vasoconstriction and acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) for vasodilatation). We aimed to present data both individually and pooled, using a four-variable logistic dose response model that is commonly used in similar in vitro vascular studies. The accuracy of the TiVi was also investigated by calculating the coefficient of variation and comparing it with similar tests previously done using laser Doppler imaging.

Tests were also performed using the TiVi and LDPI simultaneously to further compare the two methods. Results showed that the TiVi is capable of quantifying vascular responses to iontophorised noradrenaline and phenylephrine without the need to increase background flow first. Fitting the TiVi data to the dose response model resulted in ED50-values with narrow confidence intervals and acceptable r2 values. Mean ED50-values for the TiVi did not differ significantly from similar values obtained using laser Doppler.

Results further seem to suggest that when the blood perfusion increases during vasodilatation in skin the initial phase relies mainly on an increase in red blood cell concentration whereas the further perfusion increase is due to an increase in red blood cell velocity.

Keyword
Cutaneous microcirculation; Iontophoresis; Laser Doppler; Tissue viability imager
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-21238 (URN)10.1016/j.mvr.2009.04.008 (DOI)
Note
Original Publication: Joakim Henricson, Anders Nilsson, Erik Tesselaar, Gert Nilsson and Folke Sjöberg, Tissue viability imaging: Microvascular response to vasoactive drugs induced by iontophoresis, 2009, Microvascular Research, (78), 2, 199-205. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mvr.2009.04.008 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2009-09-30 Created: 2009-09-30 Last updated: 2009-10-30Bibliographically approved
Nilsson, G., Zhai, H., Chan, H. P., Farahmand, S. & Maibach, H. I. (2008). Assessment of skin vasoconstriction using Tissue Viability Imaging. In: 13th International Congress of Biorheology and 6th International Conference on Clinical Hemorheology,2008.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of skin vasoconstriction using Tissue Viability Imaging
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2008 (English)In: 13th International Congress of Biorheology and 6th International Conference on Clinical Hemorheology,2008, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

     

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-44275 (URN)76158 (Local ID)76158 (Archive number)76158 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10
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