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Terman, Alexei
Publications (10 of 48) Show all publications
Zheng, L., Kågedal, K., Dehvari, N., Benedikz, E., Cowburn, R., Marcusson, J. & Terman, A. (2009). Oxidative stress induces macroautophagy of amyloid beta-protein and ensuing apoptosis. Free Radical Biology & Medicine, 46(3), 422-429
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Oxidative stress induces macroautophagy of amyloid beta-protein and ensuing apoptosis
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2009 (English)In: Free Radical Biology & Medicine, ISSN 0891-5849, E-ISSN 1873-4596, Vol. 46, no 3, p. 422-429Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

There is increasing evidence for the toxicity of intracellular amyloid beta-protein (A beta) to neurons and the involvement of lysosomes in this process in Alzheimer disease (AD). We have recently shown that oxidative stress, a recognized determinant of AD. enhances macroautophagy and leads to intralysosomal accumulation of A beta in Cultured neuroblastoma cells. We hypothesized that oxidative stress promotes AD by stimulating macroautophagy of A that further may induce cell death by destabilizing lysosomal membranes. To investigate such possibility, we compared the effects of hyperoxia (40% ambient oxygen) in cultured HEK293 cells that were transfected with an empty vector (Vector), wild-type APP (APPwt), or Swedish mutant APP (APPswe). Exposure to hyperoxia for 5 days increased the number of cells with A beta-containing lysosomes, as well as the number of apoptotic cells, compared to normoxic conditions. The rate of apoptosis in all three cell lines demonstrated dependence on intralysosomal A beta content (Vector<APPwt<APPswe). Furthermore, the degree of apoptosis was positively correlated with lysosomal membrane permeabilization, whereas inhibitors Of macroautophagy and lysosomal function decreased oxidant-induced apoptosis and diminished the differences in apoptotic response between different cell lines. These results suggest that oxidative stress can induce neuronal death through macroautophagy of A beta and consequent lysosomal membrane permeabilization, which may help explain the mechanisms behind neuronal loss in AD.

Keywords
Alzheimer disease, Amyloid beta-protein, Amyloid precursor protein, Apoptosis, Autophagy, Lysosomes, Oxidative stress, Free radicals
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-16625 (URN)10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2008.10.043 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-02-08 Created: 2009-02-06 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Navratil, M., Terman, A. & Arriaga, E. (2008). Giant mitochondria do not fuse and exchange their contents with normal mitochondria. Experimental Cell Research, 314(1), 164-172
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Giant mitochondria do not fuse and exchange their contents with normal mitochondria
2008 (English)In: Experimental Cell Research, ISSN 0014-4827, E-ISSN 1090-2422, Vol. 314, no 1, p. 164-172Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Giant mitochondria accumulate within aged or diseased postmitotic cells as a consequence of insufficient autophagy, which is normally responsible for mitochondrial degradation. We report that giant mitochondria accumulating in cultured rat myoblasts due to inhibition of autophagy have low inner membrane potential and do not fuse with each other or with normal mitochondria. In addition to the low inner mitochondrial membrane potential in giant mitochondria, the quantity of the OPA1 mitochondrial fusion protein in these mitochondria was low, but the abundance of mitofusin-2 (Mfn2) remained unchanged. The combination of these factors may explain the lack of mitochondrial fusion in giant mitochondria and imply that the dysfunctional giant mitochondria cannot restore their function by fusing and exchanging their contents with fully functional mitochondria. These findings have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of accumulation of age-related mitochondrial damage in postmitotic cells. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Giant mitochondria, L6 rat myoblasts, Mitochondrial fusion proteins, Mitochondrial membrane potential, Mitofusin-2, OPA1
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-47266 (URN)10.1016/j.yexcr.2007.09.013 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Klionsky, D. J., Abeliovich, H., Agostinis, P., Agrawal, D. K., Aliev, G., S. Askew, D., . . . Tabas, I. (2008). Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes. Autophagy, 4(2), 151-175
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy in higher eukaryotes
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2008 (English)In: Autophagy, ISSN 1554-8627, E-ISSN 1554-8635, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 151-175Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research in autophagy continues to accelerate,1 and as a result many new scientists are entering the field. Accordingly, it is important to establish a standard set of criteria for monitoring macroautophagy in different organisms. Recent reviews have described the range of assays that have been used for this purpose.2,3 There are many useful and convenient methods that can be used to monitor macroautophagy in yeast, but relatively few in other model systems, and there is much confusion regarding acceptable methods to measure macroautophagy in higher eukaryotes. A key point that needs to be emphasized is that there is a difference between measurements that monitor the numbers of autophagosomes versus those that measure flux through the autophagy pathway; thus, a block in macroautophagy that results in autophagosome accumulation needs to be differentiated from fully functional autophagy that includes delivery to, and degradation within, lysosomes (in most higher eukaryotes) or the vacuole (in plants and fungi). Here, we present a set of guidelines for the selection and interpretation of the methods that can be used by investigators who are attempting to examine macroautophagy and related processes, as well as by reviewers who need to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of papers that investigate these processes. This set of guidelines is not meant to be a formulaic set of rules, because the appropriate assays depend in part on the question being asked and the system being used. In addition, we emphasize that no individual assay is guaranteed to be the most appropriate one in every situation, and we strongly recommend the use of multiple assays to verify an autophagic response.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Landes Bioscience, 2008
Keywords
autolysosome; autophagosome; flux; lysosome; phagophore; stress; vacuole
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-92743 (URN)000253008800003 ()18188003 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2013-05-20 Created: 2013-05-20 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Kurz, T., Terman, A., Gustafsson, B. & Brunk, U. (2008). Lysosomes and oxidative stress in aging and apoptosis. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects, 1780(11), 1291-1303
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lysosomes and oxidative stress in aging and apoptosis
2008 (English)In: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects, ISSN 0304-4165, E-ISSN 1872-8006, Vol. 1780, no 11, p. 1291-1303Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The lysosomal compartment consists of numerous acidic vesicles (pH ~ 4-5) that constantly fuse and divide. It receives a large number of hydrolases from the trans-Golgi network, while their substrates arrive from both the cell's outside (heterophagy) and inside (autophagy). Many macromolecules under degradation inside lysosomes contain iron that, when released in labile form, makes lysosomes sensitive to oxidative stress. The magnitude of generated lysosomal destabilization determines if reparative autophagy, apoptosis, or necrosis will follow. Apart from being an essential turnover process, autophagy is also a mechanism for cells to repair inflicted damage, and to survive temporary starvation. The inevitable diffusion of hydrogen peroxide into iron-rich lysosomes causes the slow oxidative formation of lipofuscin in long-lived postmitotic cells, where it finally occupies a substantial part of the volume of the lysosomal compartment. This seems to result in a misdirection of lysosomal enzymes away from autophagosomes, resulting in depressed autophagy and the accumulation of malfunctioning mitochondria and proteins with consequent cellular dysfunction. This scenario might put aging into the category of autophagy disorders. © 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43541 (URN)10.1016/j.bbagen.2008.01.009 (DOI)74137 (Local ID)74137 (Archive number)74137 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Kurz, T., Terman, A., Gustafsson, B. & Brunk, U. T. (2008). Lysosomes In Iron Metabolism, Ageing And Apoptosis. Histochemistry and Cell Biology, 129(4), 389-406
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lysosomes In Iron Metabolism, Ageing And Apoptosis
2008 (English)In: Histochemistry and Cell Biology, ISSN 0948-6143, E-ISSN 1432-119X, Vol. 129, no 4, p. 389-406Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The lysosomal compartment is essential for a variety of cellular functions, including the normal turnover of most long-lived proteins and all organelles. The compartment consists of numerous acidic vesicles (pH ~4-5) that constantly fuse and divide. It receives a large number of hydrolases (~50) from the trans-Golgi network, and substrates from both the cells’ outside (heterophagy) and inside (autophagy). Many macromolecules contain iron that gives rise to an iron-rich environment in lysosomes that recently have degraded such macromolecules. Iron-rich lysosomes are sensitive to oxidative stress, while ‘resting’ lysosomes, which have not recently participated in autophagic events, are not. The magnitude of oxidative stress determines the degree of lysosomal destabilization and, consequently, whether arrested growth, reparative autophagy, apoptosis, or necrosis will follow. Heterophagy is the first step in the process by which immunocompetent cells modify antigens and produce antibodies, while exocytosis of lysosomal enzymes may promote tumor invasion, angiogenesis, and metastasis. Apart from being an essential turnover process, autophagy is also a mechanism by which cells will be able to sustain temporary starvation and rid themselves of intracellular organisms that have invaded, although some pathogens have evolved mechanisms to prevent their destruction. Mutated lysosomal enzymes are the underlying cause of a number of lysosomal storage diseases involving the accumulation of materials that would be the substrate for the corresponding hydrolases, were they not defective. The normal, low-level diffusion of hydrogen peroxide into iron-rich lysosomes causes the slow formation of lipofuscin in long-lived postmitotic cells, where it occupies a substantial part of the lysosomal compartment at the end of the life span. This seems to result in the diversion of newly produced lysosomal enzymes away from autophagosomes, leading to the accumulation of malfunctioning mitochondria and proteins with consequent cellular dysfunction. If autophagy were a perfect turnover process, postmitotic ageing and several age-related neurodegenerative diseases would, perhaps, not take place.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, 2008
Keywords
Ageing, Autophagy, Lipofuscin, Lysosomes, Mitochondria, Oxidative stress
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-11216 (URN)10.1007/s00418-008-0394-y (DOI)
Note

Original publication: Tino Kurz, Alexei Terman, Bertil Gustafsson, and Ulf T. Brunk, Lysosomes In Iron Metabolism, Ageing And Apoptosis, 2008, Histochemistry and Cell Biology. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00418-008-0394-y. Copyright: The original publication is available at www.springerlink.com

Available from: 2009-02-09 Created: 2008-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Terman, A., Kurz, T., Gustafsson, B. & Brunk, U. (2008). The involvement of lysosomes in myocardial aging and disease. Current Cardiology Reviews, 4(2), 107-115
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The involvement of lysosomes in myocardial aging and disease
2008 (English)In: Current Cardiology Reviews, ISSN 1573-403X, Vol. 4, no 2, p. 107-115Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The myocardium is mainly composed of long-lived postmitotic cells with, if there is any at all, a very low rate of replacement through the division and differentiation of stem cells. As a consequence, cardiac myocytes gradually undergo pronounced age-related alterations which, furthermore, occur at a rate that inversely correlates with the longevity of species. Basically, these alterations represent the accumulation of structures that have been damaged by oxidation and that are useless and often harmful. These structures (so-called 'waste' materials), include defective mitochondria, aberrant cytosolic proteins, often in aggregated form, and lipofuscin, which is an intralysosomal undegradable polymeric substance. The accumulation of 'waste' reflects the insufficient capacity for autophagy of the lysosomal compartment, as well, as the less than perfect functioning of proteasomes, calpains and other cellular digestive systems. Senescent mitochondria are usually enlarged, show reduced potential over their inner membrane, are deficient in ATP production, and often produce increased amounts of reactive oxygen species. The turnover of damaged cellular structures is hindered by an increased lipofuscin loading of the lysosomal compartment. This particularly restricts the autophagic turnover of enlarged, defective mitochondria, by diverting the flow of lysosomal hydrolases from autophagic vacuoles to lipofuscin-loaded lysosomes where the enzymes are lost, since lipofuscin is not degradable by lysosomal hydrolases. As a consequence, aged lipofuscin-rich cardiac myocytes become overloaded with damaged mitochondria, leading to increased oxidative stress, apoptotic cell death, and the gradual development of heart failure. Defective lysosomal function also underlies myocardial degeneration in various lysosomal storage diseases, while other forms of cardiomyopathies develop due to mitochondrial DNA mutations, resulting in an accumulation of abnormal mitochondria that are not properly eliminated by autophagy. The degradation of iron-saturated ferritin in lysosomes mediates myocardial injury in hemochromatosis, an acquired or hereditary disease associated with iron overload. Lysosomes then become sensitized to oxidative stress by the overload of low mass, redox-active iron that accumulates when iron-saturated ferritin is degraded following autophagy. Lysosomal destabilization is of importance in the induction and/or execution of programmed cell death (either classical apoptotic or autophagic), which is a common manifestation of myocardial aging and a variety of cardiac pathologies. © 2008 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Bussum, Netherlands: Bentham Science Publishers Ltd., 2008
Keywords
Aging, Apoptosis, Autophagy, Cardiac myocytes, Mitochondria, Oxidative stress
National Category
Cell Biology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-46333 (URN)10.2174/157340308784245801 (DOI)19936285 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-41049090468 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2015-11-19Bibliographically approved
Kurz, T., Terman, A. & Brunk, U. (2007). Autophagy, ageing and apoptosis: The role of oxidative stress and lysosomal iron. Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, 462(2), 220-230
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autophagy, ageing and apoptosis: The role of oxidative stress and lysosomal iron
2007 (English)In: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics, ISSN 0003-9861, E-ISSN 1096-0384, Vol. 462, no 2, p. 220-230Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As an outcome of normal autophagic degradation of ferruginous materials, such as ferritin and mitochondrial metalloproteins, the lysosomal compartment is rich in labile iron and, therefore, sensitive to the mild oxidative stress that cells naturally experience because of their constant production of hydrogen peroxide. Diffusion of hydrogen peroxide into the lysosomes results in Fenton-type reactions with the formation of hydroxyl radicals and ensuing peroxidation of lysosomal contents with formation of lipofuscin that amasses in long-lived postmitotic cells. Lipofuscin is a non-degradable polymeric substance that forms at a rate that is inversely related to the average lifespan across species and is built up of aldehyde-linked protein residues. The normal accumulation of lipofuscin in lysosomes seems to reduce autophagic capacity of senescent postmitotic cells-probably because lipofuscin-loaded lysosomes continue to receive newly formed lysosomal enzymes, which results in lack of such enzymes for autophagy. The result is an insufficient and declining rate of autophagic turnover of worn-out and damaged cellular components that consequently accumulate in a way that upsets normal metabolism. In the event of a more substantial oxidative stress, enhanced formation of hydroxyl radicals within lysosomes jeopardizes the membrane stability of particularly iron-rich lysosomes, specifically of autophagolysosomes that have recently participated in the degradation of iron-rich materials. For some time, the rupture of a limited number of lysosomes has been recognized as an early upstream event in many cases of apoptosis, particularly oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, while necrosis results from a major lysosomal break. Consequently, the regulation of the lysosomal content of redox-active iron seems to be essential for the survival of cells both in the short- and the long-term. © 2007 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-40899 (URN)10.1016/j.abb.2007.01.013 (DOI)54484 (Local ID)54484 (Archive number)54484 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Terman, A., Gustafsson, B. & Brunk, U. (2007). Autophagy, organelles and ageing. Journal of Pathology, 211(2), 134-143
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autophagy, organelles and ageing
2007 (English)In: Journal of Pathology, ISSN 0022-3417, E-ISSN 1096-9896, Vol. 211, no 2, p. 134-143Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As a result of insufficient digestion of oxidatively damaged macromolecules and organelles by autophagy and other degradative systems, long-lived postmitotic cells, such as cardiac myocytes, neurons and retinal pigment epithelial cells, progressively accumulate biological 'garbage' ('waste' materials). The latter include lipofuscin (a non-degradable intralysosomal polymeric substance), defective mitochondria and other organelles, and aberrant proteins, often forming aggregates (aggresomes). An interaction between senescent lipofuscin-loaded lysosomes and mitochondria seems to play a pivotal role in the progress of cellular ageing. Lipofuscin deposition hampers autophagic mitochondrial turnover, promoting the accumulation of senescent mitochondria, which are deficient in ATP production but produce increased amounts of reactive oxygen species. Increased oxidative stress, in turn, further enhances damage to both mitochondria and lysosomes, thus diminishing adaptability, triggering mitochondrial and lysosomal pro-apoptotic pathways, and culminating in cell death. Copyright © 2007 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Keywords
Ageing, Apoptosis, Autophagy, Lipofuscin, Lysosomes, Mitochondria, Oxidative stress, Reactive oxygen species
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-50022 (URN)10.1002/path.2094 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Zheng, L., Roberg, K., Jerhammar, F., Marcusson, J. & Terman, A. (2006). Autophagy of amyloid beta-protein in differentiated neuroblastoma cells exposed to oxidative stress. Neuroscience Letters, 394(3), 184-189
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Autophagy of amyloid beta-protein in differentiated neuroblastoma cells exposed to oxidative stress
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2006 (English)In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 394, no 3, p. 184-189Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Oxidative stress is considered important for the pathogenesis of Alzheimer disease (AD), which is characterized by the formation of senile plaques rich in amyloid beta-protein (Aβ). Aβ cytotoxicity has been found dependent on lysosomes, which are abundant in AD neurons and are shown to partially co-localize with Aβ. To determine whether oxidative stress has any influence on the relationship between lysosomes and Aβ1-42 (the most toxic form of Aβ), we studied the effect of hyperoxia (40% versus 8% ambient oxygen) on the intracellular localization of Aβ1-42 (assessed by immunocytochemistry) in retinoic acid differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells maintained in serum-free OptiMEM medium. In control cells, Aβ1-42 was mainly localized to small non-lysosomal cytoplasmic granules. Only occasionally Aβ1-42 was found in large (over 1 μm) lysosomal-associated membrane protein 2 positive vacuoles, devoid of the early endosomal marker rab5. These large Aβ1-42-containing lysosomes were not detectable in the presence of serum (known to suppress autophagy), while their number increased dramatically (up to 24-fold) after exposure of cells to hyperoxia during 5 days. Activation of autophagy by hyperoxia was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. Furthermore, an inhibitor of autophagic sequestration 3-methyladenine prevented the accumulation of Aβ1-42-positive lysosomes due to hyperoxia. In parallel experiments, intralysosomal accumulation of Aβ1-40 following oxidative stress has been found as well. The results suggest that Aβ can be autophagocytosed and its accumulation within neuronal lysosomes is enhanced by oxidative stress. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Alzheimer disease; Amyloid beta-protein; Autophagy; Lysosomes; Reactive oxygen species
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35894 (URN)10.1016/j.neulet.2005.10.035 (DOI)28972 (Local ID)28972 (Archive number)28972 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Terman, A. (2006). Catabolic insufficiency and aging. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1067, 27-36
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Catabolic insufficiency and aging
2006 (English)In: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0077-8923, E-ISSN 1749-6632, Vol. 1067, p. 27-36Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Keywords
aging, autophagy, lysosomes; mitochondria; mutations; oxidative stress
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35999 (URN)29307 (Local ID)29307 (Archive number)29307 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
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