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Eklund, Mats
Alternative names
Publications (10 of 98) Show all publications
Gunaratne, T., Krook, J., Eklund, M. & Andersson, H. (2018). Initial feasibility assessment of potential applications for valorisation of shredder fines: A Swedish case study on gate requirements and legislative conditions. In: : . Paper presented at ISWA 2018 World Congress, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 22-24 October, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Initial feasibility assessment of potential applications for valorisation of shredder fines: A Swedish case study on gate requirements and legislative conditions
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Shredder fines is a residue of the shredding industry and is currently landfilled or used as landfill cover in Sweden. Throughout the time, the heterogeneity and small particle size have rendered resource recovery and recycling of it challenging. In spite of that, European policies envisioning circular economy, in concomitance with stringent resource recovery requirements and increased landfill taxes are challenging the current disposal practices of the shredding industry. As an attempt to address this issue, the present study has developed a systematic approach for performing an initial assessment of the feasibility of several selected mainstream applications for valorisation of shredder fines.

First, sampling of shredder fines from a major shredding plant was obtained twice a week over a 10 weeks period. The main focus of the sampling program was to encompass the variation in the material’s physical and chemical composition. The two samples from each week were then mixed and divided into six subsamples. That is, one original fraction and five size fractions; ZA (7.10-5.00 mm), ZB (5.00-3.35 mm), ZC (3.35-2.00 mm), ZD (2.00-0.25 mm), and ZE (0.25-0.063 mm). These sub-samples were subsequently sent for laboratory analysis for characterisation of contaminants, potentially valuable metals and energy recovery related properties. Second, three potential main stream applications for shredder fines were identified based on existing research on similar industrial residues (e.g. municipal waste incineration bottom ash) and current practices of the Swedish shredding industry. The selected applications are; Smelting for copper, Energy recovery in cement kilns and municipal solid waste incinerators, and Substitution of aggregates in concrete making and road construction. Third, the gate requirements of potential users and legislative requirements with regards to the identified applications were established, and the characteristics of shredder fines were benchmarked against them.

As far as copper smelting is concerned, the presence of high concentrations of lead and chromium is the biggest challenge. Otherwise, the fractions; ZA, ZB, and ZD show some potential due to manageable concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury. Concerning energy recovery, the calorific value apparently narrows down the options to municipal waste incinerators. There, the chlorine concentration only allows utilisation of the ZC fraction whereas heavy metal concentrations are too high with regards to all the fractions. With regards to the use as substitute material in construction, legislative requirements in Sweden for total content and leachate content of metals are too strict for shredder fines.

In conclusion, the benchmarking reveals the need for prior upgrading of shredder fines with respect to the different applications. Thus, integrated upgrading processes that could handle the complexity of the material in terms of contaminants and valuable recoverables is needed in order to achieve holistic valorisation of the material.

Keywords
Shredder fines, Feasibility, Circular economy
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153272 (URN)
Conference
ISWA 2018 World Congress, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 22-24 October, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Hagman, L., Blumenthal, A., Eklund, M. & Svensson, N. (2018). The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 3982-3989
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3982-3989Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biorefineries strive to maximise product mix and value while contributing to the bioeconomy. Circularityand waste valorisation are some important but often neglected concepts in this context. As such, biogassolutions in biorefineries could be a key technology to improve sustainability. This study has, through aliterature review and investigation into three Swedish case studies, analysed this relationship betweenbiogas solutions and biorefineries by assessing the added value and development potential to whichbiogas solutions may contribute. This analysis across agricultural, forest, and marine sectors indicatesthat biogas solutions contribute with several added values, including through making the biorefinerymore sustainable and competitive. The study also shows that biogas solutions can be an enabler ofbiorefinery development through making the system more resilient and versatile, as well as throughimproving the value of the product portfolio.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Biorefinery, biogas, bioeconomy, valorisation, anaerobic digestion, waste management, Bioraffinaderi, biogas, bioekonomi, avfallshantering
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143022 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.03.180 (DOI)000423002500084 ()2-s2.0-85016415075 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Funding agencies: Biogas Research Center (BRC); Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2018-11-26Bibliographically approved
Gunaratne, T., Krook, J., Eklund, M. & Andersson, H. (2017). Framework of principal guidelines for improved valorization of heterogenic industrial production residues. In: : . Paper presented at 2017 Joint Conference ISIE and ISSST, Chicago, US, 25th-29th June, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framework of principal guidelines for improved valorization of heterogenic industrial production residues
2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Residue products often pose a huge challenge to material recycling industry. Especially heterogenic and fine granular residues. It increases the cost and reduces the efficiency of material separation and recovery. Currently, the most common practice is to landfill such residue products. However, decreasing availability of landfills, increasing landfill costs, and new policy instruments require higher rates of resource recovery. In spite of that, business initiatives for recovering secondary raw material from residue products are often deterred by stringent environmental legislation emphasizing human toxicity concerns. Shredding industry plays a huge role in the context of circular economy via recycling important waste streams such as end-oflife vehicles (ELVs), municipal white goods, construction and demolition waste, and different industrial wastes. The core business model of industrial shredding is driven by recovering different metals while a variety of residue products including plastics, rubber, foam, wood, glass, and sand are generated. Shredder fine residue (also called shredder fines) is a fine granular residue product with intrinsic heterogeneity, which is produced by the shredding industry. A share of 15-20% of the input would end up as shredder fines in a typical plant.

The overall aim of this study is to draw technical, market and regulatory boundary conditions for improved material recovery from shredder fines. Thereby to build a framework of principal guidelines to support systematic identification, development, and evaluation of different valorization options for shredder fines. The outcome of this study is also envisioned to provide generic conclusions to the valorization of heterogenic residue products in general.

The study is performed in collaboration with a major shredding company in Sweden. The methodology reflects the Swedish context and consists of two phases. During the initial phase, firstly, the overall shredding industry structure of Sweden is studied to understand the governing regulatory framework, level of competition, and the scale of operation. Secondly, the collaborating company is studied to gain knowledge on technical feasibility of implementing recovery processes, economic, business and market aspects, and implications of national and local legislation, from the shredding company perspective. Empirical methods such as interviews and study of documentation are used in this phase.

During the second phase, detailed material and elemental characterization tests are performed on shredder fine samples. Thereby the distribution of basic elements, metals, heating value, and ash, in shredder fines as well as across different size fractions of shredder fines is established. The results are compared and contrasted against literature values. An extensive survey is also carried out to identify potential users for different materials which are possibly recoverable from shredder fines. Such potential users are then mapped against materials. Leaching tests are also performed to assess the mobility of heavy metals and thereby the potential environmental risk and human toxicity.

As the main contribution of this study, knowledge is developed and synthesized, boundary conditions are set, and principal guidelines of general relevance are drawn in order to facilitate improved valorization of fine granular residue products.

National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153271 (URN)
Conference
2017 Joint Conference ISIE and ISSST, Chicago, US, 25th-29th June, 2017
Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Gunaratne, T., Krook, J., Eklund, M. & Andersson, H. (2017). Framework of principal guidelines for improved valorization of heterogenic industrial production residues. In: : . Paper presented at 2017 Joint Conference ISIE and ISSST, Chicago, US, 25th June-29th June, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framework of principal guidelines for improved valorization of heterogenic industrial production residues
2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Residue products often pose a huge challenge to material recycling industry. Especially heterogenic and fine granular residues. It increases the cost and reduces the efficiency of material separation and recovery. Currently, the most common practice is to landfill such residue products. However, decreasing availability of landfills, increasing landfill costs, and new policy instruments require higher rates of resource recovery. In spite of that, business initiatives for recovering secondary raw material from residue products are often deterred by stringent environmental legislation emphasizing human toxicity concerns. Shredding industry plays a huge role in the context of circular economy via recycling important waste streams such as end-oflife vehicles (ELVs), municipal white goods, construction and demolition waste, and different industrial wastes. The core business model of industrial shredding is driven by recovering different metals while a variety of residue products including plastics, rubber, foam, wood, glass, and sand are generated. Shredder fine residue (also called shredder fines) is a fine granular residue product with intrinsic heterogeneity, which is produced by the shredding industry. A share of 15-20% of the input would end up as shredder fines in a typical plant.

The overall aim of this study is to draw technical, market and regulatory boundary conditions for improved material recovery from shredder fines. Thereby to build a framework of principal guidelines to support systematic identification, development, and evaluation of different valorization options for shredder fines. The outcome of this study is also envisioned to provide generic conclusions to the valorization of heterogenic residue products in general.

The study is performed in collaboration with a major shredding company in Sweden. The methodology reflects the Swedish context and consists of two phases. During the initial phase, firstly, the overall shredding industry structure of Sweden is studied to understand the governing regulatory framework, level of competition, and the scale of operation. Secondly, the collaborating company is studied to gain knowledge on technical feasibility of implementing recovery processes, economic, business and market aspects, and implications of national and local legislation, from the shredding company perspective. Empirical methods such as interviews and study of documentation are used in this phase.

During the second phase, detailed material and elemental characterization tests are performed on shredder fine samples. Thereby the distribution of basic elements, metals, heating value, and ash, in shredder fines as well as across different size fractions of shredder fines is established. The results are compared and contrasted against literature values. An extensive survey is also carried out to identify potential users for different materials which are possibly recoverable from shredder fines. Such potential users are then mapped against materials. Leaching tests are also performed to assess the mobility of heavy metals and thereby the potential environmental risk and human toxicity.

As the main contribution of this study, knowledge is developed and synthesized, boundary conditions are set, and principal guidelines of general relevance are drawn in order to facilitate improved valorization of fine granular residue products.

National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153273 (URN)
Conference
2017 Joint Conference ISIE and ISSST, Chicago, US, 25th June-29th June, 2017
Available from: 2018-12-08 Created: 2018-12-08 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Mirata, M., Eklund, M. & Gundberg, A. (2017). Industrial symbiosis and biofuels industry: Business value and organisational factors within cases of ethanol and biogas production. Göteborg: The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Industrial symbiosis and biofuels industry: Business value and organisational factors within cases of ethanol and biogas production
2017 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Industrial symbiosis (IS) involves collaborations among diverse, and predominantly local and re- gional, actors that create additional economic and environmental value through by-product ex- changes, utility and service sharing, and joint innovations. While the importance of IS for the de- velopment of biofuels is commonly recognised hypothetically, this study aims at advancing under- standing of the actual contribution provided in two real life examples–one focusing on grain-based ethanol production and the other focusing on biogas production in a co-digestion unit. Moreover, this study highlights the importance of organisational factors that help shape, and explain relevant organizational and inter-organizational behaviour relevant for emergence and development of suc- cessful symbiotic partnerships – here referred to as “social determinants”.

Studied cases provide clear insights on multiple business and environmental benefits of IS. Reduc- ing input and operational costs, increasing material and energy productivity, creatively improving access to substrate with improved social acceptance, reducing exposure to market volatilities, and providing improved environmental performance–with market differentiation advantages–are among key impacts observed. Moreover, IS strategies are also found to enable creation of new mar- kets, assist the evolution towards more complex bio-refineries, and help with recognising biofuel industry as an integral part of sustainable resource use at a wider societal level.

With regards to organisational determinants of synergistic partnerships, the findings of the study reinforce the importance of organisational proximity, alignment of strategic objectives and organi- sational cultures, intensity and quality of communication, inter-organisational knowledge exchange and learning, formulation of effective and efficient governance mechanisms, trust building, and level of support from different public governance bodies. While the organisational proximity pro- vided by common ownership and being part of the same organisational field assists synergy devel- opment in initial phases, as the parties accumulate relevant capabilities, they are able to move to- wards more complex and more rewarding partnerships. The findings also emphasise that with dedi- cated support from governance bodies, particularly at the local and regional levels, development of knowledge-, relational- and mobilisation capacities for IS can be enhanced, and these can catalyse accelerated development of synergistic relations benefiting both the biofuel industry and the wider society. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Göteborg: The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels, 2017. p. 54
Series
f3 The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Renewable Transportation Fuels ; 2017:11
Keywords
industrial symbiosis, industrial and urban symbiosis, biofuels, bio-based economy, renewable energy, collaboration
National Category
Environmental Management Renewable Bioenergy Research Energy Systems Business Administration
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143119 (URN)
Funder
Linköpings universitet
Available from: 2018-01-31 Created: 2018-01-31 Last updated: 2018-02-01Bibliographically approved
Hagman, L. & Eklund, M. (2016). The role of biogas solutions in the circular and bio-based economy. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of biogas solutions in the circular and bio-based economy
2016 (English)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This report contains a literature review over the values connected with anaerobic digestion and biogas production. After mapping all values found in scientific literature the values are used in an analysis based on the UN sustainability goals. The idea is to show how biogas solutions contribute to sustainability. The results show that biogas solutions contribute to all of the UN sustinability goals in one way or another. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. p. 32
Series
Biogas Research Center (BRC) Report ; 2016:1
Keywords
Biogas, SDG, sustainable development goals, circular economy, Biogas, hållbarhetsmål, nyttor, cirkulär ekonomi
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143023 (URN)
Projects
Europeiska Regionala UtvecklingsfondenBiogas Research Center
Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2017-11-29Bibliographically approved
Ammenberg, J., Svensson, B., Karlsson, M., Svensson, N., Björn, A., Karlsson, M., . . . Eklund, M. (2015). Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 1. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 1
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Biogas Research Center (BRC) är ett kompetenscentrum för biogasforskning som finansieras av Energimyndigheten, LiU och ett flertal externa organisationer med en tredjedel vardera. BRC har en mycket bred tvärvetenskaplig inriktning och sammanför biogasrelaterad kompetens från flera olika områden för att skapa interaktion på flera olika plan:

  • mellan näringsliv, akademi och samhälle,
  • mellan olika perspektiv, samt
  • mellan olika discipliner och kompetensområden.

BRC:s vision är:

Resurseffektiva biogaslösningar finns genomförda i många nya tillämpningar och bidrar till en mer hållbar energiförsörjning, förbättrat miljötillstånd och goda affärer.

BRC:s särskilda roll för att uppnå denna vision är att bidra med kunskapsförsörjning och process-/teknikutveckling för att facilitera utveckling, innovation och implementering av biogaslösningar. Resurseffektivitet är ett nyckelord, vilket handlar om att förbättra befintliga processer och system samt utveckla biogaslösningar i nya sektorer och möjliggöra användning av nya substrat.

For BRC:s etapp 1, den första tvåårsperioden mellan 2012-2014, var forskningsprojekten organiserade enligt tabellen nedan. Den visar viktiga utmaningar för biogasproducenter och andra intressenter, samt hur dessa ”angreps” med åtta forskningsprojekt. Fem av projekten var av explorativ karaktär i bemärkelsen att de var bredare och mer framtidsorienterade - exempelvis utvärderade flera möjliga tekniska utvecklingsmöjligheter (EP1-5). Tre projekt hade ett tydligare fokus på teknik- och processutveckling (DP6-8).

I den här slutrapporten ges en kortfattad bakgrundsbeskrivning och det finns en introduktion till vad den här typen av kompetenscentrum innebär generellt. Därefter finns mer detaljerad information om BRC, exempelvis gäller det centrumets etablering, relevans, vision, hörnstenar och utveckling. De deltagande organisationerna presenteras, både forskargrupperna vid Linköpings universitet och partners och medlemmar. Vidare finns en mer utförlig introduktion till och beskrivning av utmaningarna i tabellen och kortfattat information om forskningsprojekten, följt av ett kapitel som berör måluppfyllelse och den externa utvärdering som gjorts av BRC:s verksamhet. Detaljerad, listad information finns till stor del i bilagorna.

Kortfattat kan det konstateras att måluppfyllelsen överlag är god. Det är speciellt positivt att så många vetenskapliga artiklar publicerats (eller är på gång att publiceras) kopplat till forskningsprojekten och även i det vidare centrumperspektivet. Helt klart förekommer en omfattande verksamhet inom och kopplat till BRC. I etapp 2 är det viktigt att öka andelen mycket nöjda partner och medlemmar, där nu hälften är nöjda och hälften mycket nöjda. Det handlar framför allt om stärkt kommunikation, interaktion och projektledning. Under 2015 förväntas åtminstone två doktorsexamina, där avhandlingarna har stor koppling till forskningen inom etapp 1.

I början på år 2014 skedde en extern utvärdering av verksamheten vid BRC med huvudsyftet att bedöma hur väl centrumet lyckats med etableringen samt att granska om det fanns förutsättningar för framtida framgångsrik verksamhet. Generellt var utfallet mycket positivt och utvärderarna konstaterade att BRC på kort tid lyckats etablera en verksamhet som fungerar väl och engagerar det stora flertalet deltagande aktörer, inom relevanta områden och där de flesta involverade ser BRC som en befogad och väl fungerande satsning, som de har för avsikt att även fortsättningsvis stödja. Utvärderingen bidrog också med flera relevant tips och till att belysa utmaningar.

Utöver denna slutrapport finns separata publikationer från forskningsprojekten.

Arbetet som presenteras i rapporten har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och de medverkande organisationerna.

Abstract [en]

Biogas Research Center (BRC) is a center of excellence in biogas research funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, Linköping University and a number of external organizations with one-third each. BRC has a very broad interdisciplinary approach, bringing together biogas-related skills from several areas to create interaction on many levels:

  • between industry, academia and society,
  • between different perspectives, and
  • between different disciplines and areas of expertise.

BRC’s vision is:

BRC contributes to the vision by advancing knowledge and technical development, as well as by facilitating development, innovation and business. Resource efficiency is central, improving existing processes and systems as well as establishing biogas solutions in new sectors and enabling use of new substrates.

For BRC phase 1, the first two year period from 2012-2014, the research projects were organized in accordance with the table below showing important challenges for biogas producers and other stakeholders, and how these challenges were tackled in eight research projects. Five of the projects had an exploratory nature, meaning that they were broader, more future oriented and, for example, evaluated several different technology paths (EP1-5). Three projects focused more on technology and process development (DP6-8).

This final report briefly presents the background and contains some information about competence centers in general. Thereafter follows more detailed information about BRC, for example, regarding the establishment, relevance, organization, vision, corner stones and development. The participating organizations are presented, both the research groups within Linköping University and the partners and members. Further on, there is a more detailed introduction to and description of the challenges mentioned in the table above and a short presentation from each of the research projects, followed by some sections dealing with fulfillment of objectives and an external assessment of BRC. Detailed, listed information is commonly provided in the appendices.

Briefly, the fulfillment of objectives is good and it is very positive that so many scientific articles have been published (or are to be published) from the research projects and also within the wider center perspective. Clearly, extensive and relevant activities are ongoing within and around BRC. In phase 2 it essential to increase the share of very satisfied partners and members, where now half of them are satisfied and the other half is very satisfied. For this purpose, improved communication, interaction and project management are central. During 2015, at least two PhD theses are expected, to a large extent based on the research from BRC phase 1.

In the beginning of 2014 an external assessment of BRC was carried out, with the main purpose to assess how well the center has been established and to review the conditions for a future, successful competence center. Generally, the outcome was very positive and the assessors concluded that BRC within a short period of time had been able to establish a well-functioning organization engaging a large share of the participants within relevant areas, and that most of the involved actors look upon BRC as a justifiable and well working investment that they plan to continue to support. The assessment also contributed with several relevant tips of improvements and to clarify challenges to address.

This report is written in Swedish, but for each research project there will be reports and/or scientific papers published in English.

The work presented in this report has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the participating organizations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. p. 99
Series
Biogas Research Center (BRC) Report ; 2014:1
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114037 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2015-02-05 Created: 2015-02-05 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Boons, F., Spekkink, W., Isenmann, R., Baas, L., Eklund, M., Brullot, S., . . . Baumann, H. (2015). Comparing industrial symbiosis in Europe: towards a conceptual framework and research methodology. In: Pauline Deutz, Donald I Lyons, Jun Bi (Ed.), International perspectives on industrial ecology: (pp. 69-88). Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Comparing industrial symbiosis in Europe: towards a conceptual framework and research methodology
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2015 (English)In: International perspectives on industrial ecology / [ed] Pauline Deutz, Donald I Lyons, Jun Bi, Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015, p. 69-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Industrial symbiosis (IS) continues to raise the interest of researchers and practitioners alike. Individual and haphazard attempts to increase linkages among co-located firms have been complemented by concerted efforts to stimulate the development of industrial regions with intensified resource exchanges that reduce environmental impact. Additionally, there are examples of both spontaneous and facilitated linkages between two or more firms involving flows of materials/energy waste. A striking feature of IS activities is that they are found across diverse social contexts and vary considerably in form (Lombardi et al., 2012); there are substantial differences in the ways in which IS manifests itself. Equally diverse are the activities of policy makers to stimulate such linkages. Such diversity can already be found within Europe, as became apparent in a first meeting among some of the present authors in 2009 (Isenmann and Chernykh, 2009). Researchers present there decided to create a network of European researchers on IS, with the explicit aim to develop a comparative analysis. We can thus provide insight to the relationship between the style of IS and its context and thereby the potential for policy makers in different contexts to learn from each other. Policy learning can be a tempting route to IS, but is fraught with difficulties if the influence of context is not appreciated (e.g., Wang et al., Chapter 6, this volume).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Cheltenham: Edward Elgar Publishing, 2015
Keywords
Business and management, corporate social responsibility, management and sustainability, environment, corporate social responsibility, environmental management, environmental sociology
National Category
Industrial Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122801 (URN)10.4337/9781781003572.00013 (DOI)978-17-8100-356-5 (ISBN)978-17-8100-357-2 (ISBN)
Available from: 2015-11-24 Created: 2015-11-24 Last updated: 2015-12-01Bibliographically approved
Ersson, C., Ammenberg, J. & Eklund, M. (2015). Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry. Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, 9(3), 269-295
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Connectedness and its dynamics in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry
2015 (English)In: Progress in Industrial Ecology, An International Journal, ISSN 1476-8917, E-ISSN 1478-8764, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 269-295Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Connectedness through cooperation with other sectors regarding feedstock, energy, products and by-products is important for environmental performance of industrial production. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the level of connectedness in the Swedish biofuels for transport industry, involving producers of ethanol, biogas and biodiesel. In interviews, the CEOs of four important companies provided information about current strategies, historic and planned development. The production systems are dynamic and have changed significantly over time, including material and energy exchanges between traditionally separate industries. Interesting development was noted where revised business strategies have led to changed cooperation structures and thus altered material and energy flows. Fuel and raw material prices are very influential and all of the respondents said that political decisions to a large extent affect their competitiveness and emphasised the importance of clear long-term institutional conditions, ironically very much in contrast to the current situation within EU and Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
InderScience Publishers, 2015
Keywords
biofuels, biogas, ethanol, biodiesel, industrial ecology and symbiosis, synergies, material and energy flows, connectedness, resource efficiency
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123223 (URN)10.1504/PIE.2015.073416 (DOI)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

Available from: 2015-12-08 Created: 2015-12-08 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Feiz, R., Ammenberg, J., Baas, L., Eklund, M., Helgstrand, A. & Marshall, R. (2015). Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry. Journal of Cleaner Production, 98, 272-281
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Improving the CO2 performance of cement, part I: Utilizing life-cycle assessment and key performance indicators to assess development within the cement industry
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 98, p. 272-281Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Cement is a vital and commonly used construction material that requires large amounts of resources and the manufacture of which causes significant environmental impact. However, there are many different types of cement products, roughly ranging from traditional products with rather linear resource flows to more synergistic alternatives where industrial byproducts are utilized to a large extent. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) studies indicate the synergistic products are favorable from an environmental perspective.

In co-operation with the global cement producing company CEMEX a research project has been carried out to contribute to a better understanding of the CO2 performance of different ways of producing cement, and different cement products. The focus has been on Cluster West, which is a cement production cluster consisting of three plants in Germany.

This paper is the first in a series of three, all of which are included in this special issue. It has two main aims. The first is to carry out an attributional LCA and compare three different cement products produced in both linear and synergistic production setups. This has been done for cradle to gate, focusing on CO2-eq emissions for Cluster West. The second aim of this part is to develop and test a simplified LCA model for this production cluster, with the intention to be able to compare different versions of the production system based on the information of a few parameters.

The attributional LCA showed that cement products that contain a large proportion of byproducts, in this case, ground granulated blast furnace slag from the iron and steel industry, had the lowest unit emissions of CO2-eq. The difference between the lowest emission product (CEM III/B) and the highest (CEM I) was about 66% per tonne. A simplified LCA model based on six key performance indicators, instead of approximately 50 parameters for the attributional LCA, was established. It showed that Cluster West currently emits about 45% less CO2-eq per tonne of average product compared to 1997. The simplified LCA model can be used effectively to model future changes of both plants and products (which is further discussed in part II and part III).

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Cement production, Life Cycle Assessment, CO2 emissions, Modeling Performance indicators
National Category
Environmental Management
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-105939 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.083 (DOI)000356194300028 ()
Available from: 2014-04-15 Created: 2014-04-15 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
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