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Eklund, Mats, ProfessorORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0157-6573
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Publications (10 of 104) Show all publications
Lindfors, A., Feiz, R., Eklund, M. & Ammenberg, J. (2019). Assessing the Potential, Performance and Feasibility of Urban Solutions: Methodological Considerations and Learnings from Biogas Solutions. Sustainability, 11(14), Article ID 3756.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessing the Potential, Performance and Feasibility of Urban Solutions: Methodological Considerations and Learnings from Biogas Solutions
2019 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 14, article id 3756Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many cities of the world are faced with multiple sustainability challenges, for example related to food and energy supply, transportation, waste management, clean air, and more. Preferably, these challenges are addressed with broad and interconnected solutions with the ambition of addressing several challenges simultaneously, in this paper referred to as multi-functional urban solutions. Implementation of multi-functional urban solutions requires well informed decisions, supported by knowledge about the potential contributions that the solutions can make to a more sustainable city as well as on issues that may hinder or facilitate their implementation. Thus, in this paper, we suggest a soft multi-criteria decision analysis method that can be used to gather and structure this knowledge. This method acknowledges the importance of incorporating local knowledge, is based on life-cycle thinking, and is flexible and open-ended by design so that it can be tailored to specific needs and conditions. The method contributes to existing practices in sustainability assessment and feasibility studies, linking and integrating potential and performance assessment with issues affecting solutions’ feasibility of implementation. This method offers a way for local authorities, researchers and exporting companies to organize and structure the diverse range of knowledge to be considered for more informed decisions regarding the implementation of multi-functional urban solutions. While the main contributions of the paper are methodological, brief descriptions of two studies that have applied this method to assess biogas solutions are shown as clarifying examples. One of these studies was performed in Chisinau, Moldova and the other in Johannesburg, South Africa.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2019
Keywords
sustainability assessment; multi-criteria assessment; multi-criteria decision analysis; anaerobic digestion; environmental assessment; integrative solutions
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158693 (URN)10.3390/su11143756 (DOI)000482261800001 ()2-s2.0-85068917284 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Funding agencies:  Biogas Research Center; Energy Agency of Sweden, Linkoping University

Available from: 2019-07-11 Created: 2019-07-11 Last updated: 2019-11-07Bibliographically approved
Hagman, L., Eklund, M. & Svensson, N. (2019). Assessment of By-product Valorisation in a Swedish Wheat-Based Biorefinery. Waste and Biomass Valorization
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of By-product Valorisation in a Swedish Wheat-Based Biorefinery
2019 (English)In: Waste and Biomass Valorization, ISSN 1877-2641, E-ISSN 1877-265XArticle in journal, Editorial material (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biorefineries are examples of industries striving towards a circular and bio-based economy through valorising natural raw materials to a spectrum of products. This is a resource-efficient process which also decreases overall environmental impact, as the products from a biorefinery can replace fossil-based products such as plastics or fuels. To become even more resource efficient, an optimisation of the by-product use can increase the performance. This study will evaluate different scenarios for the valorisation of stillage coming from a wheat-based biorefinery. The alternatives range from the direct use of the stillage for fodder, fertiliser or incineration to three different biogas production-based scenarios. The biogas scenarios are divided into the production of fuel at a local or distant plant and the alternative of creating heat and power at the local plant. The results show how locally produced biogas for vehicle fuel and fodder usage are the better alternatives regarding greenhouse gas emissions, the finances of the biorefinery, energy balance and nutrient recycling. The results also indicate that biorefineries with several high-value products may receive lower quality by-product flows, and to these, the biogas solutions become more relevant for valorising stillage while improving value and performance for the biorefinery.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Netherlands, 2019
Keywords
Biorefinery, Upcycling, Waste, Biogas, Fodder, Bioraffinaderi, avfall, biogas, värde
National Category
Bioprocess Technology Other Industrial Biotechnology Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160001 (URN)10.1007/s12649-019-00667-0 (DOI)
Projects
Biogas Research Center,
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency, P35624-3
Available from: 2019-09-03 Created: 2019-09-03 Last updated: 2019-11-22
Gustafsson, M., Lindfors, A., Anderberg, S., Ammenberg, J. & Eklund, M. (2019). Local potential production, use and conditions for implementation of biogas solutions in Norrköping, Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at Nordic Biogas Conference.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Local potential production, use and conditions for implementation of biogas solutions in Norrköping, Sweden
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Biogas is expected to make an important contribution to the vision of fossil-free transports in Sweden. However, estimates of the national production potential have taken a top-down perspective, without detailing where the potential exists and how to realise it. This study is made with a bottom-up perspective, investigating the potential for production and use of biogas within different sectors and individual industries in the municipality of Norrköping. Moreover, critical factors and driving actors for realising these potentials are raised and analysed.  The study was conducted with a participatory approach involving 22 representatives from the municipality, biogas producers, interest organisations and companies dealing with potential biogas substrates. The results indicate a potential biogas production of 500 GWh/year by 2030, out of which 60% would come from the agricultural sector and 30% from local pulp and paper industries. A more modest estimate indicate that the production would cover 10 – 15% of the local energy demand for road transport and shipping as well as industrial energy gas.  Substrates are distributed over a large geographical area and between several actors, requiring cooperation between substrate owners to reach an economically feasible scale. In addition, collaboration with biogas companies could provide the substrate owners with necessary specialist knowledge. In order to realise the biogas potential, Norrköping municipality has a central role to play as coordinator and knowledge hub, as well as by directing procurements towards biogas and plan for biogas fuelling stations.

Keywords
Biogas solutions, local perspective, potential study, participatory study, critical factors
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-160216 (URN)
Conference
Nordic Biogas Conference
Projects
BRC - Biogas Research Center
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2019-09-11 Created: 2019-09-11 Last updated: 2019-11-13
Lindfors, A. & Eklund, M. (2019). Samhällseffekter av alternativa drivmedel. Linköping: Region Östergötland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Samhällseffekter av alternativa drivmedel
2019 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

För att uppnå en fossiloberoende fordonsflotta i Östergötlands krävs ökad elektrifiering och mer biodrivmedel, så kallade alternativa drivmedel. För att uppnå detta mål undersöks i rapporten följande: samhällseffekter från produktion och användning av alternativa drivmedel, samhällseffekternas storleksordningar, samhällseffekternas ursprung (produktion eller användning) samt hur olika alternativa drivmedel ger upphov till olika samhällseffekter.

Rapporten utgår från Sveriges miljömål och BRP+ för att beskriva vilka samhällseffekter produktion och användning av alternativa drivmedel för med sig. 12 huvudområden och 16 indikatorer formulerades, utifrån Sveriges miljömål och BRP+, och dessa används i rapporten för att bedöma samhällseffekterna av fem olika alternativa drivmedel (biogas, etanol, HVO, el och vätgas). Huvudområdena som bedömdes var ökad resursåtervinning, förbättrad luftkvalitet, ökade investeringar i alternativa drivmedel, ökad biodiversitet och minskad ekotoxicitet, ökad tillgänglighet, minskat buller, minskad försurning & övergödning, ökad regional sysselsättning, ökad regional lönesumma, mer förnybar energi och ökad energisäkerhet, minskad klimatpåverkan samt ökad näringsåtervinning.

För att belysa samhällseffekternas storleksordningar användes även fyra scenarion med olika stor mängd produktion och användning av alternativa drivmedel. Dessa scenarion applicerades på fyra av huvudområdena: ökad regional sysselsättning, ökad regional lönesumma, mer förnybar energi och ökad energisäkerhet samt minskad klimatpåverkan. Resultatet av detta blev exempelvis att produktion av alternativa drivmedel i framtiden utgöra mellan 0,8 och 1,2 % av den regionala lönesumman samt användning av dessa reducera Östergötlands totala klimatgasutsläpp med mellan 17 % och 52 %. Det stora spannet beror på vilka alternativa drivmedel som produceras samt i vilken mängd.

Illustrationer gjordes för att visa vilka alternativa drivmedel som ger upphov till vilka samhällseffekter. Dessa visar relativ storlek och om effekten är positiv eller negativ för samhället. Dessa illustrationer visar att det är viktigt att utvärdera alternativa drivmedel ur ett multi-dimensionellt perspektiv för att inte missa externa effekter och mervärden.

Till sist visade samhällseffektsbedömningen att vissa samhällseffekter endast uppkommer i produktionen respektive användningen av alternativa drivmedel. Om målet är att uppnå så många positiva samhällseffekter som möjligt krävs det alltså både produktion och användning. Idag importeras majoriteten av våra alternativa drivmedel, alltså går vi miste om produktionseffekterna. Detta är med hög sannolikhet en konsekvens av det fokus på användningseffekter, främst klimatpåverkan, som länge dominerat samhällsdebatten på detta ämnesområde. Nu behövs policy, strategier och initiativ som både stimulerar produktion och användning av alternativa drivmedel så att alla positiva samhällseffekter uppnås.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Region Östergötland, 2019. p. 41
National Category
Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161914 (URN)
Projects
Hållbara transporter i Östergötland
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Available from: 2019-11-13 Created: 2019-11-13 Last updated: 2019-11-13Bibliographically approved
Gustafsson, M., Lindfors, A., Anderberg, S., Ammenberg, J. & Eklund, M. (2018). Biogaslösningar i Norrköping: Potential för produktion och marknad. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogaslösningar i Norrköping: Potential för produktion och marknad
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2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Norrköpings kommun har i sin Energiplan för 2030 satt som mål att energieffektivisera med minst 30 % jämfört med 2005, samt att 100 % av de energislag och bränslen som används inom kommunens geografiska område (ej inräknat sjöfart och flyg) ska vara förnybara. Lokalt producerad biogas skulle kunna bidra till arbetet mot dessa mål och möjligheten att producera biogas har undersökts i tidigare förstudier på enskilda anläggningar i kommunen. Medan grannkommunen Linköping under många år har haft en kontinuerlig egen biogasproduktion i stor skala har Norrköping endast haft en mindre produktion av biogas, trots ett liknande invånarantal och flera stora industrier vars avfallsströmmar utgör potentiella biogassubstrat.

I denna rapport redovisas resultaten från ett projekt med målsättning att kartlägga och kvantifiera potentialerna för produktion och användning av biogas i Norrköpings kommun, att utröna vad som krävs för att dessa ska kunna realiseras, samt vilken betydelse detta skulle ha för Norrköping. Projektet genomfördes i form av en workshopserie med deltagare från BRC:s partners samt Region Östergötland, Östgötautmaningen, Biogas Öst, Norrköping Vatten och Avfall, Holmen Paper och Kolmårdens djurpark. Frågeställningarna angreps med en så kallad ”bottom-up”-metodik, med utgångspunkt i de lokala förutsättningarna, och uppskattningar av den potentiella produktionen och användningen av biogas gjordes med fokus på olika substratströmmar respektive olika marknader.

Resultaten visar på en stor outnyttjad potential för biogasproduktion i Norrköping, framförallt inom jordbrukssektorn samt lokala pappers- och massabruk. Samtidigt finns det en stor potentiell lokal marknad för biogas. Den beräknade produktionspotentialen kan, om den uppfylls, täcka i storleksordningen 10 – 15 % av energibehovet för vägtransporter och sjöfart samt det industriella energigasbehovet i Norrköping.

Ett av de stora hindren för att utveckla produktionen av biogas i Norrköping är att substraten, förutom vid enskilda industrier, är spridda på ett stort antal anläggningar och aktörer. Många potentiella producenter saknar dessutom nödvändig kunskap om produktion och försäljning av biogas. Detta ställer krav på samverkan mellan olika aktörer, till exempel ägare av substrat och biogasproducenter. Samarbete mellan olika substratägare för storskalig samrötning och centraliserad uppgradering till fordonsgas skulle kunna ge ekonomiska fördelar jämfört med småskaliga anläggningar.

Norrköpings kommun kan själva spela en viktig roll i utvecklingen mot ökad produktion och användning av biogas genom strategisk infrastrukturplanering, upphandling och förmedling av kunskap om biogas till potentiella producenter och användare. Ett sätt för kommunen att effektivare kunna bedriva arbete inom området kan vara att tillsätta en särskild biogas- eller biobränslesamordnare.

Abstract [en]

In the municipal Energy plan for 2030, Norrköping has set the goal to increase its energy efficiency by at least 30 % compared to 2005, and that 100 % of the energy sources and fuels used within the geographical area of Norrköping (not including sea and air) will be renewable. Locally produced biogas could contribute towards these goals, and the possibility to produce biogas has previously been investigated in pre-studies on individual facilities in the municipality. While the neighboring municipality of Linköping has had a continuous large-scale biogas production for many years, Norrköping has only had a small production of biogas, despite a similar number of inhabitants and several large industries with waste streams that could potentially be used as substrate for biogas.

This report presents the results of a project with the goal of mapping and quantifying the potentials for production and use of biogas in Norrköping, to elucidatehow these can  be realized, and what importance  this would have for Norrköping. The project was conducted through a workshop series with participants from BRC partners as well as Region Östergötland, Östgötautmaningen, Biogas Öst, Norrköping Water and Waste, Holmen Paper and Kolmården Zoo. The research questions were approached with a “bottom-up” methodology, departing from the local conditions, and estimates of the potential production and use of biogas were made with focus on different substrate streams and markets, respectively.

The results show a great, unexploited potential for biogas production in Norrköping, mainly in the agricultural sector and in local pulp and paper mills. There is also a large potential market for biogas in Norrköping. The estimated production potential could, if actualized, cover around 10 – 15 % of the energy demand road transport and shipping as well as the industrial energy gas demand in Norrköping.

One of the main obstacles to develop the production of biogas in Norrköping is the fact that the substrates, except for at individual industrial plants, are scattered among a large number of facilities and actors. In addition, many potential producers lack the knowledge to produce and sell biogas. Thus, cooperation between different actors is required, for example between substrate owners and biogas producers. Cooperation between different substrate owners for large-scale co-digestion and upgrading to vehicle gas could give economic advantages compared to small-scale facilities.

Norrköping municipality could be a key actor in the development towards increased local production and use of biogas through strategic infrastructure planning, procurement strategies and mediation of knowledge about biogas to potential producers and users. One way for the municipality to make the work in this area more efficient and effective can be to employ a biogas- or biofuel-coordinator.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2018. p. 28
Series
BRC Report ; 2018:3
Keywords
Biogas, Potential, Lokalt, Produktion, Marknad
National Category
Other Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161349 (URN)
Projects
BRC, Biogas Research Center
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2019-10-30 Created: 2019-10-30 Last updated: 2019-11-13Bibliographically approved
Gunaratne, T., Krook, J., Eklund, M. & Andersson, H. (2018). Initial feasibility assessment of potential applications for valorisation of shredder fines: A Swedish case study on gate requirements and legislative conditions. In: : . Paper presented at ISWA 2018 World Congress, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 22-24 October, 2018 (pp. 1-1).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Initial feasibility assessment of potential applications for valorisation of shredder fines: A Swedish case study on gate requirements and legislative conditions
2018 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Shredder fines is a residue of the shredding industry and is currently landfilled or used as landfill cover in Sweden. Throughout the time, the heterogeneity and small particle size have rendered resource recovery and recycling of it challenging. In spite of that, European policies envisioning circular economy, in concomitance with stringent resource recovery requirements and increased landfill taxes are challenging the current disposal practices of the shredding industry. As an attempt to address this issue, the present study has developed a systematic approach for performing an initial assessment of the feasibility of several selected mainstream applications for valorisation of shredder fines.

First, sampling of shredder fines from a major shredding plant was obtained twice a week over a 10 weeks period. The main focus of the sampling program was to encompass the variation in the material’s physical and chemical composition. The two samples from each week were then mixed and divided into six subsamples. That is, one original fraction and five size fractions; ZA (7.10-5.00 mm), ZB (5.00-3.35 mm), ZC (3.35-2.00 mm), ZD (2.00-0.25 mm), and ZE (0.25-0.063 mm). These sub-samples were subsequently sent for laboratory analysis for characterisation of contaminants, potentially valuable metals and energy recovery related properties. Second, three potential main stream applications for shredder fines were identified based on existing research on similar industrial residues (e.g. municipal waste incineration bottom ash) and current practices of the Swedish shredding industry. The selected applications are; Smelting for copper, Energy recovery in cement kilns and municipal solid waste incinerators, and Substitution of aggregates in concrete making and road construction. Third, the gate requirements of potential users and legislative requirements with regards to the identified applications were established, and the characteristics of shredder fines were benchmarked against them.

As far as copper smelting is concerned, the presence of high concentrations of lead and chromium is the biggest challenge. Otherwise, the fractions; ZA, ZB, and ZD show some potential due to manageable concentrations of arsenic, cadmium, and mercury. Concerning energy recovery, the calorific value apparently narrows down the options to municipal waste incinerators. There, the chlorine concentration only allows utilisation of the ZC fraction whereas heavy metal concentrations are too high with regards to all the fractions. With regards to the use as substitute material in construction, legislative requirements in Sweden for total content and leachate content of metals are too strict for shredder fines.

In conclusion, the benchmarking reveals the need for prior upgrading of shredder fines with respect to the different applications. Thus, integrated upgrading processes that could handle the complexity of the material in terms of contaminants and valuable recoverables is needed in order to achieve holistic valorisation of the material.

Keywords
Shredder fines, Feasibility, Circular economy
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153272 (URN)
Conference
ISWA 2018 World Congress, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 22-24 October, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2020-03-10Bibliographically approved
Hagman, L., Blumenthal, A., Eklund, M. & Svensson, N. (2018). The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries. Journal of Cleaner Production, 172, 3982-3989
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The role of biogas solutions in sustainable biorefineries
2018 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 172, p. 3982-3989Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biorefineries strive to maximise product mix and value while contributing to the bioeconomy. Circularityand waste valorisation are some important but often neglected concepts in this context. As such, biogassolutions in biorefineries could be a key technology to improve sustainability. This study has, through aliterature review and investigation into three Swedish case studies, analysed this relationship betweenbiogas solutions and biorefineries by assessing the added value and development potential to whichbiogas solutions may contribute. This analysis across agricultural, forest, and marine sectors indicatesthat biogas solutions contribute with several added values, including through making the biorefinerymore sustainable and competitive. The study also shows that biogas solutions can be an enabler ofbiorefinery development through making the system more resilient and versatile, as well as throughimproving the value of the product portfolio.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2018
Keywords
Biorefinery, biogas, bioeconomy, valorisation, anaerobic digestion, waste management, Bioraffinaderi, biogas, bioekonomi, avfallshantering
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-143022 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.03.180 (DOI)000423002500084 ()2-s2.0-85016415075 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Note

Funding agencies: Biogas Research Center (BRC); Swedish Energy Agency

Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Lindfors, A., Eklund, M. & Peltonen Ramkvist, E. (2018). Östergötlands potential för biodrivmedelsproduktion och utökad elektrifiering: Delprojektrapport delprojekt 2: Hållbara transporter i Östergötland. Linköping: Region Östergötland
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Östergötlands potential för biodrivmedelsproduktion och utökad elektrifiering: Delprojektrapport delprojekt 2: Hållbara transporter i Östergötland
2018 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

För att möta bestämmelser om en fossiloberoende fordonsflotta och uppfylla direktivet om förnybar energi krävs en ökad mängd biodrivmedel- och elanvändning i fordon. Dessa mål införlivas genom lokala och regionala initiativ runt om i Sverige. Inhemsk produktion av biodrivmedel för med sig en mängd positiva effekter så som säkrad bränsletillgång, ökad lokal sysselsättning, mer skatteintäkter och en säker avfallshantering av organiskt avfall. För att ge underlag till hur Östergötland bör agera för att bidra till en fossiloberoende fordonsflotta inventeras i denna rapport Östergötlands biomassa- och biodrivmedelpotential samt länets elnätskapacitet.

Studien har applicerat en metod där tidigare studier och intervjuer med sakkunniga legat till grund för datainsamlingen. Därefter har en syntes om hur framtiden för Östergötlands biodrivmedelpotential kan se ut arbetats fram av projektgruppen. Under hela projektets arbetsgång har intressenter varit delaktiga, både med information och data men även i att utforma projektets tillvägagångssätt, upplägg och presentation. Denna höga grad av intressentengagemang bidrar till att resultatet blir mer relevant och att intressenter känner sig mer delaktiga i projektets resultat. Dessutom ökar lärandet från projektet då projektgruppen och intressenter delar med sig mer fritt av erfarenheter och kunskap.

Resultatet visar att Östergötland har goda förutsättningar för ökad biodrivmedelproduktion och ökad elektrifiering av vägtrafiken. Idag kommer större delen av biodrivmedel i Östergötland från primärråvaror eller avfall från hushåll och kommunala aktiviteter. För att realisera en större potential krävs att lantbruks- och skogsbrukssektorerna involveras i högre grad. De mest lovande substraten som inte idag används är flytgödsel, fastgödsel, vall, avloppsvatten från pappers- och massabruk samt skogsrester. Dessa kan tidigt realiseras och tillsammans står de för en betydande del av potentialen. Östergötlands biodrivmedelspotential uppskattas till 3 400 GWh per år. En stor del av denna potential är svårrealiserad och kräver stora insatser om den ska realiseras till 2030.

Elnätets kapacitet i Östergötland identifieras inte som något kortsiktigt problem av elnätsbolagen i Östergötland. Om elnätet får problem att hantera en ökad elfordonsflotta ger detta först upphov till elkvalitetsproblem och sedan att nätet kan slås ut. Gällande personbilar kan hushållsnära laddning medföra att elserviser och transformatorer måste förstärkas i vissa områden (framförallt i förorter och på landsbygden). På längre sikt kan en kraftig ökning av eldrivna fordon göra att kapacitet i vissa lokala elnät måste byggas ut. I dessa områden kan finansiering bli en kritisk fråga då potentiella elbilsägare kan välja att avstå från att byta bil om det medför att de måste betala en högre nätavgift. Samtidigt blir sannolikt icke-elbilsägare inte glada om de måste betala en högre avgift för att andra skaffar elbil i deras område. För tung- och busstrafik kan vissa punkter bli kritiska och kräva stora förstärkningar. Större vägstråk, bussdepåer och rastplatser kommer behöva klara av att flera fordon kan ladda med iii hög effekt under samma tid på dagen. På dessa platser behövs sannolikt elnätet förstärkas.

På grund av att elnätsprojekt ofta har lång ledtid visar analysen av resultatet att el bör prioriteras i personbilar och mindre fordon då de påfrestar elnätet mindre. Denna fordonskategori kan även kompletteras med CBG-fordon (komprimerad biogas) och etanolfordon för att uppnå en högre grad av fossilfria fordon. För tyngre transporter pekar analysen på ED95 (etanoldiesel), LBG (förvätskad biogas), HVO och RME. HVO och RME kan redan idag sättas in i tyngre transporter medan ED95 och LBG är några år bort. På detta sätt fås en kontinuerlig ökning av fossilfria fordon fram till 2030 vilket gynnar klimat, miljö och drivmedelsproducenter.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Region Östergötland, 2018. p. 43
National Category
Bioenergy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-161913 (URN)
Projects
Hållbara transporter i Östergötland
Funder
European Regional Development Fund (ERDF)
Available from: 2019-11-13 Created: 2019-11-13 Last updated: 2019-11-13Bibliographically approved
Gunaratne, T., Krook, J., Eklund, M. & Andersson, H. (2017). Framework of principal guidelines for improved valorization of heterogenic industrial production residues. In: : . Paper presented at 2017 Joint Conference ISIE and ISSST, Chicago, US, 25th-29th June, 2017.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framework of principal guidelines for improved valorization of heterogenic industrial production residues
2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Residue products often pose a huge challenge to material recycling industry. Especially heterogenic and fine granular residues. It increases the cost and reduces the efficiency of material separation and recovery. Currently, the most common practice is to landfill such residue products. However, decreasing availability of landfills, increasing landfill costs, and new policy instruments require higher rates of resource recovery. In spite of that, business initiatives for recovering secondary raw material from residue products are often deterred by stringent environmental legislation emphasizing human toxicity concerns. Shredding industry plays a huge role in the context of circular economy via recycling important waste streams such as end-oflife vehicles (ELVs), municipal white goods, construction and demolition waste, and different industrial wastes. The core business model of industrial shredding is driven by recovering different metals while a variety of residue products including plastics, rubber, foam, wood, glass, and sand are generated. Shredder fine residue (also called shredder fines) is a fine granular residue product with intrinsic heterogeneity, which is produced by the shredding industry. A share of 15-20% of the input would end up as shredder fines in a typical plant.

The overall aim of this study is to draw technical, market and regulatory boundary conditions for improved material recovery from shredder fines. Thereby to build a framework of principal guidelines to support systematic identification, development, and evaluation of different valorization options for shredder fines. The outcome of this study is also envisioned to provide generic conclusions to the valorization of heterogenic residue products in general.

The study is performed in collaboration with a major shredding company in Sweden. The methodology reflects the Swedish context and consists of two phases. During the initial phase, firstly, the overall shredding industry structure of Sweden is studied to understand the governing regulatory framework, level of competition, and the scale of operation. Secondly, the collaborating company is studied to gain knowledge on technical feasibility of implementing recovery processes, economic, business and market aspects, and implications of national and local legislation, from the shredding company perspective. Empirical methods such as interviews and study of documentation are used in this phase.

During the second phase, detailed material and elemental characterization tests are performed on shredder fine samples. Thereby the distribution of basic elements, metals, heating value, and ash, in shredder fines as well as across different size fractions of shredder fines is established. The results are compared and contrasted against literature values. An extensive survey is also carried out to identify potential users for different materials which are possibly recoverable from shredder fines. Such potential users are then mapped against materials. Leaching tests are also performed to assess the mobility of heavy metals and thereby the potential environmental risk and human toxicity.

As the main contribution of this study, knowledge is developed and synthesized, boundary conditions are set, and principal guidelines of general relevance are drawn in order to facilitate improved valorization of fine granular residue products.

National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153271 (URN)
Conference
2017 Joint Conference ISIE and ISSST, Chicago, US, 25th-29th June, 2017
Available from: 2018-12-07 Created: 2018-12-07 Last updated: 2019-06-13Bibliographically approved
Gunaratne, T., Krook, J., Eklund, M. & Andersson, H. (2017). Framework of principal guidelines for improved valorization of heterogenic industrial production residues. In: : . Paper presented at The 9th biennial conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology (ISIE) and the 25th annual conference of the International Symposium on Sustainable Systems and Technology (ISSST), Chicago, US, 25th June-29th June, 2017 (pp. 1-1).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Framework of principal guidelines for improved valorization of heterogenic industrial production residues
2017 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Residue products often pose a huge challenge to material recycling industry. Especially heterogenic and fine granular residues. It increases the cost and reduces the efficiency of material separation and recovery. Currently, the most common practice is to landfill such residue products. However, decreasing availability of landfills, increasing landfill costs, and new policy instruments require higher rates of resource recovery. In spite of that, business initiatives for recovering secondary raw material from residue products are often deterred by stringent environmental legislation emphasizing human toxicity concerns. Shredding industry plays a huge role in the context of circular economy via recycling important waste streams such as end-oflife vehicles (ELVs), municipal white goods, construction and demolition waste, and different industrial wastes. The core business model of industrial shredding is driven by recovering different metals while a variety of residue products including plastics, rubber, foam, wood, glass, and sand are generated. Shredder fine residue (also called shredder fines) is a fine granular residue product with intrinsic heterogeneity, which is produced by the shredding industry. A share of 15-20% of the input would end up as shredder fines in a typical plant.

The overall aim of this study is to draw technical, market and regulatory boundary conditions for improved material recovery from shredder fines. Thereby to build a framework of principal guidelines to support systematic identification, development, and evaluation of different valorization options for shredder fines. The outcome of this study is also envisioned to provide generic conclusions to the valorization of heterogenic residue products in general.

The study is performed in collaboration with a major shredding company in Sweden. The methodology reflects the Swedish context and consists of two phases. During the initial phase, firstly, the overall shredding industry structure of Sweden is studied to understand the governing regulatory framework, level of competition, and the scale of operation. Secondly, the collaborating company is studied to gain knowledge on technical feasibility of implementing recovery processes, economic, business and market aspects, and implications of national and local legislation, from the shredding company perspective. Empirical methods such as interviews and study of documentation are used in this phase.

During the second phase, detailed material and elemental characterization tests are performed on shredder fine samples. Thereby the distribution of basic elements, metals, heating value, and ash, in shredder fines as well as across different size fractions of shredder fines is established. The results are compared and contrasted against literature values. An extensive survey is also carried out to identify potential users for different materials which are possibly recoverable from shredder fines. Such potential users are then mapped against materials. Leaching tests are also performed to assess the mobility of heavy metals and thereby the potential environmental risk and human toxicity.

As the main contribution of this study, knowledge is developed and synthesized, boundary conditions are set, and principal guidelines of general relevance are drawn in order to facilitate improved valorization of fine granular residue products.

National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-153273 (URN)
Conference
The 9th biennial conference of the International Society for Industrial Ecology (ISIE) and the 25th annual conference of the International Symposium on Sustainable Systems and Technology (ISSST), Chicago, US, 25th June-29th June, 2017
Available from: 2018-12-08 Created: 2018-12-08 Last updated: 2020-03-10Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-0157-6573

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