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Agebratt, C., Ström, E., Romu, T., Dahlqvist Leinhard, O., Borga, M., Leandersson, P. & Nyström, F. H. (2016). A Randomized Study of the Effects of Additional Fruit and Nuts Consumption on Hepatic Fat Content, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Basal Metabolic Rate. PLoS ONE, 11(1), e0147149
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Randomized Study of the Effects of Additional Fruit and Nuts Consumption on Hepatic Fat Content, Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Basal Metabolic Rate
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2016 (English)In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, no 1, p. e0147149-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

Fruit has since long been advocated as a healthy source of many nutrients, however, the high content of sugars in fruit might be a concern.

Objectives

To study effects of an increased fruit intake compared with similar amount of extra calories from nuts in humans.

Methods

Thirty healthy non-obese participants were randomized to either supplement the diet with fruits or nuts, each at +7 kcal/kg bodyweight/day for two months. Major endpoints were change of hepatic fat content (HFC, by magnetic resonance imaging, MRI), basal metabolic rate (BMR, with indirect calorimetry) and cardiovascular risk markers.

Results

Weight gain was numerically similar in both groups although only statistically significant in the group randomized to nuts (fruit: from 22.15±1.61 kg/m2 to 22.30±1.7 kg/m2, p = 0.24 nuts: from 22.54±2.26 kg/m2 to 22.73±2.28 kg/m2, p = 0.045). On the other hand BMR increased in the nut group only (p = 0.028). Only the nut group reported a net increase of calories (from 2519±721 kcal/day to 2763±595 kcal/day, p = 0.035) according to 3-day food registrations. Despite an almost three-fold reported increased fructose-intake in the fruit group (from 9.1±6.0 gram/day to 25.6±9.6 gram/day, p<0.0001, nuts: from 12.4±5.7 gram/day to 6.5±5.3 gram/day, p = 0.007) there was no change of HFC. The numerical increase in fasting insulin was statistical significant only in the fruit group (from 7.73±3.1 pmol/l to 8.81±2.9 pmol/l, p = 0.018, nuts: from 7.29±2.9 pmol/l to 8.62±3.0 pmol/l, p = 0.14). Levels of vitamin C increased in both groups while α-tocopherol/cholesterol-ratio increased only in the fruit group.

Conclusions

Although BMR increased in the nut-group only this was not linked with differences in weight gain between groups which potentially could be explained by the lack of reported net caloric increase in the fruit group. In healthy non-obese individuals an increased fruit intake seems safe from cardiovascular risk perspective, including measurement of HFC by MRI.

Keyword
Fruits Basal metabolic rate measurement Fats Vitamin C Fructoses Diet Fatty liver Magnetic resonance imaging
National Category
Endocrinology and Diabetes
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-124605 (URN)10.1371/journal.pone.0147149 (DOI)000368529100062 ()26788923 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: County Council of Ostergotland; Linkoping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences

Available from: 2016-02-05 Created: 2016-02-05 Last updated: 2018-03-27
Romu, T., Camilla, V., Dahlqvist Leinhard, O., Tallberg, J., Dahlström, N., Persson, A., . . . Nyström, F. (2016). A randomized trial of cold-exposure on energy expenditure and supraclavicular brown adipose tissue volume in humans. Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, 65(6), 926-934
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A randomized trial of cold-exposure on energy expenditure and supraclavicular brown adipose tissue volume in humans
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2016 (English)In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, ISSN 0026-0495, E-ISSN 1532-8600, Vol. 65, no 6, p. 926-934Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective

To study if repeated cold-exposure increases metabolic rate and/or brown adipose tissue (BAT) volume in humans when compared with avoiding to freeze.

Design

Randomized, open, parallel-group trial.

Methods

Healthy non-selected participants were randomized to achieve cold-exposure 1 hour/day, or to avoid any sense of feeling cold, for 6 weeks. Metabolic rate (MR) was measured by indirect calorimetry before and after acute cold-exposure with cold vests and ingestion of cold water. The BAT volumes in the supraclavicular region were measured with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).

Results

Twenty-eight participants were recruited, 12 were allocated to controls and 16 to cold-exposure. Two participants in the cold group dropped out and one was excluded. Both the non-stimulated and the cold-stimulated MR were lowered within the group randomized to avoid cold (MR at room temperature from 1841 ± 199 kCal/24 h to 1795 ± 213 kCal/24 h, p = 0.047 cold-activated MR from 1900 ± 150 kCal/24 h to 1793 ± 215 kCal/24 h, p = 0.028). There was a trend towards increased MR at room temperature following the intervention in the cold-group (p = 0.052). The difference between MR changes by the interventions between groups was statistically significant (p = 0.008 at room temperature, p = 0.032 after cold-activation). In an on-treatment analysis after exclusion of two participants that reported ≥ 8 days without cold-exposure, supraclavicular BAT volume had increased in the cold-exposure group (from 0.0175 ± 0.015 l to 0.0216 ± 0.014 l, p = 0.049).

Conclusions

We found evidence for plasticity in metabolic rate by avoiding to freeze compared with cold-exposure in a randomized setting in non-selected humans.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016
Keyword
Brown adipose tissue; Cold exposure; Magnetic resonance imaging; Metabolic rate
National Category
Pharmacology and Toxicology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128200 (URN)10.1016/j.metabol.2016.03.012 (DOI)000376145100013 ()27173471 (PubMedID)
Funder
Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation
Note

Funding agencies: Linkoping University; County Council of Ostergotland (LUA-ALF), Sweden; Swedish Research Council [2013-4466, 2012-1652, 2014-2516]; Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation; Sahlgrenskas University Hospital (LUA-ALF); European Union grant (DIABAT) [HEALTH-F2-

Available from: 2016-05-22 Created: 2016-05-22 Last updated: 2018-03-22
West, J., Dahlqvist Leinhard, O., Romu, T., Thomas, E. L., Borga, M. & Bell, J. (2016). Body Composition Analysis In Large Scale Population Studies using Dixon Water-Fat Separated Imaging. In: : . Paper presented at International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Singapore, May 7-13, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Body Composition Analysis In Large Scale Population Studies using Dixon Water-Fat Separated Imaging
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Water-fat separated MRI, based on Dixon imaging techniques enables high soft-tissue contrast and the separation of fat and muscle compartments. This study investigate the feasibility and success-rate of one recently described method for MR data-acquisition and body composition analysis, in a large-scale population study. The first 1,000 subjects in the UK Biobank imaging cohort were scanned, quality assured and included for body composition analysis. Volumes of visceral adipose tissue, abdominal subcutaneous tissue, and thigh muscles were calculated. This study showed that the rapid MR-examination was sufficiently robust to achieve very high success-rate for body composition analysis. 

National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Medical Image Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128987 (URN)
Conference
International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Singapore, May 7-13, 2016
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2016-06-22Bibliographically approved
Cros, O., Knutsson, H., Andersson, M., Pawels, E., Borga, M. & Gaihede, M. (2016). Determination of the mastoid surface area and volume based on micro-CT scanning of human temporal bone: Geometrical parameters dependence on scanning resolutions. Hearing Research, 340, 127-134
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of the mastoid surface area and volume based on micro-CT scanning of human temporal bone: Geometrical parameters dependence on scanning resolutions
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2016 (English)In: Hearing Research, ISSN 0378-5955, E-ISSN 1878-5891, Vol. 340, p. 127-134Article in journal (Other academic) Published
Abstract [en]

The mastoid air cell system (MACS) with its large complex of interconnected air cells reflects an enhanced surface area (SA) relative to its volume (V), which may indicate that the MACS is adapted to gas exchange and has a potential role in middle ear pressure regulation. Thus, these geometric parameters of the MACS have been studied by high resolution clinical CT scanning. However, the resolution of these scans is limited to a voxel size of around 0.6 mm in all dimensions, and so, the geometrical parameters are also limited. Small air cells may appear below the resolution and cannot be detected. Such air cells may contribute to a much higher SA than the V, and thus, also the SA/V ratio. More accurate parameters are important for analysis of the function of the MACS including physiological modeling.

Our aim was to determine the SA, V, and SA/V ratio in MACS in human temporal bones at highest resolution by using micro-CT-scanning. Further, the influence of the resolution on these parameters was investigated by downsampling the data. Eight normally aerated temporal bones were scanned at the highest possible resolution (30-60 μm). The SA was determined using a triangular mesh fitted onto the segmented MACS. The V was determined by summing all the voxels containing air. Downsampling of the original data was applied four times by a factor of 2.

The mean SA was 194 cm2, the mean V was 9 cm3, and the mean SA/V amounted to 22 cm-1. Decreasing the resolution resulted in a non-linear decrement of SA and SA/V, whereas V was mainly independent of the resolution.

The current study found significantly higher SA and SA/V compared with previous studies using clinical CT scanning at lower resolutions. These findings indicate a separate role of the MACS compared with the tympanum, and the results are important for a more accurate modeling of the middle ear physiology.

Keyword
Mastoid air cells; medical imaging; micro-CT; surface area; volume
National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-122176 (URN)10.1016/j.heares.2015.12.005 (DOI)000386417900016 ()
Available from: 2015-10-23 Created: 2015-10-23 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Haufe, W., Hooker, J., Schlein, A., Szeverenyi, N., Borga, M., Dahlqvist Leinhard, O., . . . Sirlin, C. B. (2016). Feasibility of an automated tissue segmentation technique in a longitudinal weight loss study. In: : . Paper presented at International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Singapore, May 7-13, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feasibility of an automated tissue segmentation technique in a longitudinal weight loss study
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

To address the problems inherent in manual methods, a novel, semi-automated tissue segmentation image analysis technique has been developed. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the feasibility and describe preliminary observations of applying this technique to quantify and monitor longitudinal changes in abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle volume in obese adults during weight loss. Abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle volume decreased during weight loss. As a proportion of body weight, adipose tissue volumes decreased during weight loss. By comparison, as a proportion of body weight, thigh muscle volume increased.

National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Medical Image Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128990 (URN)
Conference
International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Singapore, May 7-13, 2016
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2016-06-22Bibliographically approved
Middleton, M., Haufe, W., Hooker, J., Borga, M., Dahlqvist Leinhard, O., Romu, T., . . . Sirlin, C. B. (2016). Repeatability and accuracy of a novel, MRI-based, semi-automated analysis method for quantifying abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle volumes. In: : . Paper presented at International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Singapore, May 7-13, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Repeatability and accuracy of a novel, MRI-based, semi-automated analysis method for quantifying abdominal adipose tissue and thigh muscle volumes
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Current MRI methods to estimate body tissue compartment volumes rely on manual segmentation, which is laborious, expensive, not widely available outside specialized centers, and not standardized. To address these concerns, a novel, semi-automated image analysis method has been developed. Image acquisition takes about six minutes, and uses widely available MRI pulse sequences. We found that this method permits comprehensive body compartment analysis and provides high repeatability and accuracy. Current and future clinical and drug development studies may benefit from this methodology, as may clinical settings where monitoring change in these measures is desired.

National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Medical Image Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128988 (URN)
Conference
International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Singapore, May 7-13, 2016
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2016-06-22Bibliographically approved
Chellappa, R., Heyden, A., Laurendeau, D., Felsberg, M. & Borga, M. (Eds.). (2016). Special issue on ICPR 2014 awarded papers. Elsevier
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Special issue on ICPR 2014 awarded papers
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2016 (English)Collection (editor) (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

We, the Guest Editors of this special issue of Pattern Recognition Letters are pleased to share these contributions with you. The papers included here are based on work from the 22nd International Conference on Pattern Recognition (IAPR) in Stockholm, Sweden, held August 24–28, 2014. The papers selected for this special issue were those winning one of the IAPR awards, as well as one paper by a former student of the winner of the KS Fu Prize, Prof. Jitendra Malik. Taken together, this body of work represents some of the finest research being conducted by the IAPR community worldwide, it builds on a rich legacy of accomplishment by the entire community, and it offers a view to the future, to where we are going as a scientific community.

For each of the award-winning papers, the authors were asked to revise and extend their contributions to full journal length and to provide true added value vis-à-vis the original conference submission. In some cases, the authors elected to modify the titles slightly, and in some cases the list of authors has also been modified. The resulting manuscripts were sent out for full review by a different set of referees than those who reviewed the conference versions. The process, including required revisions, was in accordance with the standing editorial policy of Pattern Recognition Letters, resulting in the final versions accepted and appearing here. These are thoroughly vetted, high-caliber scientific contributions.

It has been our honor to serve as Guest Editors for this special issue. We would like to thank the Editors of Pattern Recognition Letters for allowing us this opportunity. We are especially grateful to Dr. Gabriella Sanniti di Baja for her enthusiasm, support, and her willingness to keep prodding us along to bring the special issue through to completion. We would also like to thank all of those who reviewed the papers, both originally for the conference and subsequently for the journal, and those who served on the ICPR awards and KS Fu Prize committees.

Finally, we express our heartfelt gratitude to all of the authors for taking the time to prepare these versions for our collective enlightenment, sharing their knowledge, innovation, and discoveries with the rest of us.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2016. p. 1-3
Series
Pattern Recognition Letters, ISSN 0167-8655 ; Vol. 72
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126681 (URN)10.1016/j.patrec.2016.02.006 (DOI)
Available from: 2016-04-01 Created: 2016-04-01 Last updated: 2016-05-04Bibliographically approved
Newman, D., Kelly-Morland, C., Dahlqvist Leinhard, O., Kasmai, B., Greenwood, R., Malcolm, P., . . . Toms, A. (2016). Test–retest reliability of rapid whole body and compartmental fat volume quantification on a widebore 3T MR system in normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, 44(6), 1464-1473
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Test–retest reliability of rapid whole body and compartmental fat volume quantification on a widebore 3T MR system in normal-weight, overweight, and obese subjects
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging, ISSN 1053-1807, E-ISSN 1522-2586, Vol. 44, no 6, p. 1464-1473Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose

To measure the test–retest reliability of rapid (<15 min) whole body and visceral fat volume quantification in normal and obese subjects on a widebore 3T MR system and compare it with conventional manual segmentation.

Materials and Methods

Thirty participants (body mass index [BMI] 20.1–48.6 kg/m2) underwent two whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations on a widebore 3T machine using a 2-point Dixon technique. Phase sensitive reconstruction and intensity inhomogeneity correction produced quantitative datasets of total adipose tissue (TAT), abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue (ASAT), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT). The quantification was performed automatically using nonrigid atlas-based segmentation and compared with manual segmentation (SliceOmatic).

Results

The mean TAT was 31.74 L with a coefficient of variation (CV) of 0.79% and a coefficient of repeatability (CR) of 0.49 L. The ASAT was 7.92 L with a CV of 2.98% and a CR of 0.46 L. There was no significant difference in the semiautomated and manually segmented VAT (P = 0.73) but there were differences in the reliability of the two techniques. The mean semiautomated VAT was 2.56 L, CV 1.8%, and CR 0.09 L compared to the mean manually segmented VAT of 3.12 L, where the CV was 6.3% and the CR was 0.39 L.

Conclusion

Rapid semiautomated whole body and compartmental fat volume quantification can be derived from a widebore 3T system, for a range of body sizes including obese patients, with “almost perfect” test–retest reliability.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2016
Keyword
semiautomated quantification; manual segmentation; MRI; adipose; visceral adipose; reliability
National Category
Medical Image Processing Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128881 (URN)10.1002/jmri.25326 (DOI)000387859600010 ()27249363 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2016-06-04 Created: 2016-06-04 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Romu, T., West, J., Spetz, A.-C., Lindblom, H., Lindh Åstrand, L., Hammar, M., . . . Dahlqvist Leinhard, O. (2016). The effect of flip-angle on body composition using calibrated water-fat MRI.. In: : . Paper presented at International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Singapore, May 7-13, 2016.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The effect of flip-angle on body composition using calibrated water-fat MRI.
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2016 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study tested how the flip angle affects body composition analysis by MRI, if adipose tissue is used as an internal intensity reference. Whole-body water-fat images with flip angle 5° and 10° were collected from 29 women in an ongoing study. The images were calibrated based on the adipose tissue signal and whole-body total adipose, lean and soft tissue volumes were measured. A mean difference of 0.29 L, or 0.90 % of the average volume, and a coefficient of variation of 0.40 % was observed for adipose tissue.

National Category
Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and Medical Imaging Medical Image Processing
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128989 (URN)
Conference
International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine Annual Meeting & Exhibition, Singapore, May 7-13, 2016
Available from: 2016-06-07 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2016-06-22Bibliographically approved
Gharehbaghi, A., Borga, M., Janerot Sjöberg, B. & Per, A. (2015). A novel method for discrimination between innocent and pathological heart murmurs. Medical Engineering and Physics, 37(7), 674-682
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel method for discrimination between innocent and pathological heart murmurs
2015 (English)In: Medical Engineering and Physics, ISSN 1350-4533, E-ISSN 1873-4030, Vol. 37, no 7, p. 674-682Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper presents a novel method for discrimination between innocent and pathological murmurs using the growing time support vector machine (GTSVM). The proposed method is tailored for characterizing innocent murmurs (IM) by putting more emphasis on the early parts of the signal as IMs are often heard in early systolic phase. Individuals with mild to severe aortic stenosis (AS) and IM are the two groups subjected to analysis, taking the normal individuals with no murmur (NM) as the control group. The AS is selected due to the similarity of its murmur to IM, particularly in mild cases. To investigate the effect of the growing time windows, the performance of the GTSVM is compared to that of a conventional support vector machine (SVM), using repeated random sub-sampling method. The mean value of the classification rate/sensitivity is found to be 88%/86% for the GTSVM and 84%/83% for the SVM. The statistical evaluations show that the GTSVM significantly improves performance of the classification as compared to the SVM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Growing-time support vector machine, support vector machine, phonocardiogram signal, heart murmurs, innocent murmurs.
National Category
Medical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117825 (URN)10.1016/j.medengphy.2015.04.013 (DOI)000357354400007 ()26003286 (PubMedID)
Note

At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

Available from: 2015-05-08 Created: 2015-05-08 Last updated: 2017-12-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-9267-2191

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