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Alm, Torbjörn
Publications (10 of 11) Show all publications
Alm, T., Alfredson, J. & Ohlsson, K. (2007). Business process reengineering in the automotive area by simulator-based design (1ed.). In: Asim Abdel Rahman El Sheikh, Abid Al Ajeeli, Evon M. O. Abu-Taieh (Ed.), Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications (pp. 337-358). Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Business process reengineering in the automotive area by simulator-based design
2007 (English)In: Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications / [ed] Asim Abdel Rahman El Sheikh, Abid Al Ajeeli, Evon M. O. Abu-Taieh, Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc. , 2007, 1, p. 337-358Chapter in book (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The science of simulation and modeling (SM) strives to showcase the highest possible level of reality in order to determine the conditions necessary for optimal performance. SM is a multifaceted and complex field due to the numerous applications involved, particularly since SM applications range from nuclear reaction to supermarket queuing. Simulation and Modeling: Current Technologies and Applications includes examinations of current issues related to simulation such as: Web-based simulation, virtual reality, augmented reality, and artificial intelligence. This book combines different methods, views, theories, and applications of simulations into one volume, and offers insight into the computer science aspect of simulation and modeling while integrating the business practices of SM.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Hershey, PA, USA: IGI-Global Inc., 2007 Edition: 1
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-12756 (URN)978-15-9904-198-8 (ISBN)159-90-4198-7 (ISBN)
Available from: 2007-11-09 Created: 2007-11-09 Last updated: 2013-06-28Bibliographically approved
Alm, T. (2007). Simulator-Based Design: Methodology and vehicle display application. (Doctoral dissertation). Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Simulator-Based Design: Methodology and vehicle display application
2007 (English)Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Human-in-the-loop simulators have long been used in the research community as well as in industry. The aviation field has been the pioneers in the use of simulators for design purposes. In contrast, corresponding activities in the automotive area have been less widespread. Published reports on experimental activities based on human-in-the-loop simulations have focused on methods used in the study, but nobody seems to have taken a step back and looked at the wider methodological picture of Simulator-Based Design. The purpose of this thesis is to fill this gap by drawing, in part, upon the author’s long experience in this field.

In aircraft and lately also in ground vehicles there has been a technology shift from pure mechanics to computer-based systems. The physical interface has turned into screen-based solutions. This trend towards glass has just begun for ground vehicles. This development in vehicle technology has opened the door for new design approaches, not only for design itself, but also for the development process. Simulator-Based Design (SBD) is very compatible with this trend. The first part of this thesis proposes a structure for the process of SBD and links it to the corresponding methodology for software design.

In the second part of the thesis the focus changes from methodology to application and specifically to the design of three-dimensional situation displays. Such displays are supposed to support the human operator with a view of a situation beyond the more or less limited visual range. In the aircraft application interest focuses on the surrounding air traffic in the light of the evolving free-flight concept, where responsibility for separation between aircraft will be (partly) transferred from ground-based flight controllers to air crews. This new responsibility must be supported by new technology and the situational view must be displayed from the perspective of the aircraft. Some basic design questions for such 3D displays were investigated resulting in an adaptive interface approach, where the current situation and task govern the details of information presentation.

The thesis also discusses work on situation displays for ground vehicles. The most prominent example may be the Night Vision system, where the road situation ahead is depicted on a screen in the cab. The existing systems are based on continuous presentation, an approach that we have questioned, since there is strong evidence for negative behavioral adaptation. This means, for example, that the driver will drive faster, since vision has been enhanced, and thereby consume the safety margins that the system was supposed to deliver. Our investigation supports a situation-dependant approach and no continuous presentation.

In conclusion, the results from our simulator-based studies showed advantages for adaptive interface solutions. Such design concepts are much more complicated than traditional static interfaces. This finding emphasizes the need for more dynamic design resources in order to have a complete understanding of the situation-related interface changes. The use of human-in-the-loop simulators and deployment of Simulator-Based Design will satisfy this need.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2007
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1078
Keywords
Simulator-Based Design (SBD), Human-in-the-loop simulators, Virtual prototyping, In-vehicle systems, Human-machine interaction (HMI), 3D situation displays, Adaptive interfaces
National Category
Production Engineering, Human Work Science and Ergonomics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-8465 (URN)978-91-85715-53-4 (ISBN)
Public defence
2007-03-15, Case, Hus A, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2007-03-02 Created: 2007-03-02 Last updated: 2009-04-17Bibliographically approved
Alm, T. & Lif, P. (2007). The Value of Spatial Cues in 3D Air Traffic Displays. The International journal of aviation psychology, 17(2), 109-129
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Value of Spatial Cues in 3D Air Traffic Displays
2007 (English)In: The International journal of aviation psychology, ISSN 1050-8414, E-ISSN 1532-7108, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 109-129Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Interest in implementing 3D pictorial displays for traffic information in aircraft has been prevalent for decades without any obvious implementation in the cockpit. Our research is focused on design issues for these displays. The purpose of the experiments discussed here was to investigate where and when additional spatial cues, e.g., drop-lines, could contribute to better performance and whether such additions could replace shifts between 2D and 3D presentation for different tasks. Our results show that drop-lines are beneficial in focused attention tasks but are not necessarily beneficial in more integrated tasks. This speaks to the need for an adaptive approach to the presentation of flight situation displays.

National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14324 (URN)10.1080/10508410701328490 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-03-02 Created: 2007-03-02 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Alm, T., Kovordányi, R. & Ohlsson, K. (2006). Continuous versus Situation-dependent Night Vision Presentation in Automotive Applications. Paper presented at Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting. Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Continuous versus Situation-dependent Night Vision Presentation in Automotive Applications
2006 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

As the number of advanced driver assistance systems in modern cars increases the question of possible negative behavioral adaptation is raised. We have investigated this phenomenon for night vision systems in a driving simulator. One common opinion is that there is a risk for using the enhanced visual conditions that come with these systems to increase speed during nighttime driving and thereby eliminate the safety margins the system was designed to provide. In our study two system approaches were compared, one with continuous presentation and one with presentation only when dangerous objects were detected by the system. The latter approach was meant to minimize the risk of negative adaptation, which was partly confirmed in the study. Moreover, the results showed better and more consistent driver performance with the situation-dependent system and all subjects preferred this approach from a workload perspective.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society, 2006
Series
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting Proceedings, ISSN 1071-1813 ; 50
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14325 (URN)
Conference
Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 50th Annual Meeting
Available from: 2007-03-02 Created: 2007-03-02 Last updated: 2014-11-28
Kovordanyi, R., Alm, T. & Ohlsson, K. (2006). Night-vision display unlit during uneventful periods may improve traffic safety. In: 2006 Intelligent Vehicles Symposium sponsored by the IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Society,2006: . Paper presented at IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium 2006, June 13-15, 2006, Tokyo, Japan (pp. 282-287). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Night-vision display unlit during uneventful periods may improve traffic safety
2006 (English)In: 2006 Intelligent Vehicles Symposium sponsored by the IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Society,2006, IEEE conference proceedings, 2006, p. 282-287Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

It is always uncertain if a new assistance system enhances traffic safety or not: empirical studies indicate that driving style may deteriorate when the driver experiences the increased safety margin created by an advanced driver assistance system. To minimize this negative effect on driving style, we redesigned a night vision system so that it appeared differently to the driver: we let the system's head-up display be turned off during operation, to be lit up only when the system detected an obstacle (e.g., a pedestrian or animal) on the road ahead. This presentation style was compared in a simulator study to the traditional solution of constantly lit-up display. The results indicate that drivers reacted more reliably (showed less variance in reaction times) using the new system, which implies that the lighting up of the IR-display constituted an effective warning. Also, drivers to a greater extent drove at normal (slower) speeds when using the re-designed system. More generally, systems offering discontinuous support (i.e. only in critical situations) may have less of a negative effect on driving style, as their presence is not felt as vividly by the driver

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2006
Keywords
advanced driver assistance systems, discontinuous support, driving style, negative behavioral adaptation, night vision systems, re-design
National Category
Computer Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35867 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2006.1689642 (DOI)28885 (Local ID)4-901122-86-X (ISBN)28885 (Archive number)28885 (OAI)
Conference
IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium 2006, June 13-15, 2006, Tokyo, Japan
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2018-01-13Bibliographically approved
Kovordanyi, R., Ohlsson, K. & Alm, T. (2005). Dynamically Deployed Support as a Potential Solution to Negative Behavioral Adaptation. In: 2005 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Proceedings, 2005: . Paper presented at IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Proceedings, 2005 (pp. 613-618). IEEE conference proceedings
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dynamically Deployed Support as a Potential Solution to Negative Behavioral Adaptation
2005 (English)In: 2005 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Proceedings, 2005, IEEE conference proceedings, 2005, p. 613-618Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Advanced driver assistance systems are designed to make driving easier that is, to alleviate the driver's workload, and to increase traffic safety. However, traffic safety is affected by negative behavioral adaptation, meaning that drivers tend to increase speed and pay less attention to driving when supported by an advanced assistance system. We relate behavioral adaptation to reinforcement learning at a subconscious level, and propose that driver assistance is dynamically varied within predetermined safety limits. The aim of employing a dynamic assistance policy is to prevent the driver from noticing a constant improvement in vehicle handling. We conclude by describing ongoing work for empirically evaluating an improved lane departure warning system that uses a dynamic assistance policy.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IEEE conference proceedings, 2005
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-31903 (URN)10.1109/IVS.2005.1505171 (DOI)17736 (Local ID)0-7803-8961-1 (ISBN)17736 (Archive number)17736 (OAI)
Conference
IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium Proceedings, 2005
Note

LITH-IKP-CR--05/1267--SE

Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2014-11-28Bibliographically approved
Alm, T. & Lif, P. (2005). Evaluation of Artificial Cues in 3D Aircraft Displays. In: International Conference on Human Computer Interaction, 2005,2005. Las Vegas, USA: MIRA Digital Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evaluation of Artificial Cues in 3D Aircraft Displays
2005 (English)In: International Conference on Human Computer Interaction, 2005,2005, Las Vegas, USA: MIRA Digital Publishing , 2005Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Las Vegas, USA: MIRA Digital Publishing, 2005
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-31381 (URN)LiTH-IKP-CR-1238 (ISRN)17149 (Local ID)17149 (Archive number)17149 (OAI)
Note
Posters volumeAvailable from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09
Alm, T., Ohlsson, K. & Kovordanyi, R. (2005). Glass Cockpit Simulators - Tools for IT-based Car Systems Design and Evaluation. In: . Paper presented at Driving Simulator Conference - North America (pp. 192). Orlando, Fl, USA: CATSS/UCF
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Glass Cockpit Simulators - Tools for IT-based Car Systems Design and Evaluation
2005 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Orlando, Fl, USA: CATSS/UCF, 2005
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-31380 (URN)LiTH-IKP-CR-1237 (ISRN)17148 (Local ID)17148 (Archive number)17148 (OAI)
Conference
Driving Simulator Conference - North America
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2014-11-28
Lif, P. & Alm, T. (2004). Relative Height in 3D Aircraft Displays. In: Human Performance, Situation Awareness and Automation, HPSAAII, Volume II,2004 (pp. 159). Daytona Beach, Florida, USA: Erlbaum
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Relative Height in 3D Aircraft Displays
2004 (English)In: Human Performance, Situation Awareness and Automation, HPSAAII, Volume II,2004, Daytona Beach, Florida, USA: Erlbaum , 2004, p. 159-Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Our work is motivated by three considerations. First, relative height is a key factor in aviation safety, not least from the pilot´s perspective. Second, in a series of experiments on 3D air-traffic displays we have shown the benefits of 3D presentation. In the experiment here we evaluate the utility of relative height in a 3D display. Third, our task is an example of a focused attention task. While there are findings suggesting that 3D displays are not suitable at all for focused tasks, our hypothesis was that this suitability may be dependent on the cues in the display design. To address these three points, three different cue alternatives were investigated in scenarios with own-ship and targets on a 3D pictorial air traffic display. We found that the addition of more elaborated cues (depth cues and height cues) significantly improved pilots´assessments of relative height. This means that more nuanced design guidelines coud be used.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Daytona Beach, Florida, USA: Erlbaum, 2004
Keywords
3D displays; relative height, monocular depth cues; monocular height cues; spatial relations
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-24011 (URN)3566 (Local ID)3566 (Archive number)3566 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-07 Created: 2009-10-07
Andersson, P. & Alm, T. (2003). Perception Aspects on Perspective Aircraft Displays. Displays (Guildford), 24(1), 1-13
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Perception Aspects on Perspective Aircraft Displays
2003 (English)In: Displays (Guildford), ISSN 0141-9382, E-ISSN 1872-7387, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This report presents two experiments in the area of perspective aircraft displays. The research focus was to explore the possibilities to understand symbolic and symbol relations in the 3D environment. In the first experiment the subjects' ability to distinguish between five different aircraft symbol shapes were investigated together with the perception of their heading in the 3D space. The perspective used in this experiment was egocentric. In the second experiment the judgment of the spatial relation between an own-ship symbol and a target symbol was investigated. Thus, in this case, the perspective was exocentric and two aspect angles were used for the camera position. Both experiments were carried out in non-dynamic scenarios. The display character was topographic with a superposed grid at the ground surface. The overall conclusion from the experiments is that judgment of direction in 3D presentations is very difficult in these static scenarios. Symbol recognition of 3D pictorial symbols is problematic for complicated symbol shapes as well, depending on different appearances for various symbol headings in the 3D space.

Keywords
3D displays; Symbol identification; Spatial relations
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-14323 (URN)10.1016/S0141-9382(02)00054-9 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-03-02 Created: 2007-03-02 Last updated: 2018-05-23Bibliographically approved
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