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Drangert, J.-O., Tonderski, K. & McConville, J. (2018). Extending the European Union Waste Hierarchy to Guide Nutrient-Effective Urban Sanitation toward Global Food Security: Opportunities for Phosphorus Recovery. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 2, 1-13, Article ID 3.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending the European Union Waste Hierarchy to Guide Nutrient-Effective Urban Sanitation toward Global Food Security: Opportunities for Phosphorus Recovery
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, E-ISSN 2571-581X, Vol. 2, p. 1-13, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With growing urbanization cities become hotspots for nutrients. Food items are imported, and food residues, including excreta and not-eaten food, are often exported to landfill sites and water bodies. However, urban sanitation systems can be designed to achieve a high degree of nutrient recovery and food security while counteracting current nutrient resources depletion, environmental degradation, and wasteful energy use. This article illustrates how an extended solid waste hierarchy also including human excreta and wastewater can guide actions to save and recover phosphorus (P) by the three sectors: food industry, households, and waste utilities. P use in diets and agricultural production is not part of the analysis, despite the potential to save P. Novel systems thinking and material flow analysis show that waste prevention can replace over 40% of mined P presently used for making fertilizers. Reuse and recycling of P in excreta and food waste can replace another 15–30%, depending on P efficiency from mine to plate. Keeping excreta separated from other wastewater facilitates such measure. Incineration and land filling are deemed the least appropriate measures since mainly P is recovered in the ashes. The European Union (EU) waste management policy is analyzed for real barriers and opportunities for this approach. The EU Parliament policy guidelines were watered down in the EU Commission’s Directives, and today most biowastes are still being landfilled or incinerated instead of recovered. An anticipated overcapacity of incineration plants in Europe threatens to attract all combustible materials and therefore, irrevocably, reduce nutrient recovery. On the other hand, reduced generation and enhanced recovery can delay exhaustion of P resources by several centuries and simultaneously reduce environmental degradation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
biowaste, European Union waste hierarchy, food security, human excreta, nutrient reuse/recycling, phosphorus, urban sanitation
National Category
Natural Sciences Social Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145650 (URN)10.3389/fsufs.2018.00003 (DOI)
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, SanWatPUA network
Available from: 2018-03-12 Created: 2018-03-12 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Johannesson, K., Tonderski, K. S., Ehde, P. M. & Weisner, S. E. .. (2017). Temporal phosphorus dynamics affecting retention estimates in agricultural constructed wetlands. Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, 103, 436-445
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Temporal phosphorus dynamics affecting retention estimates in agricultural constructed wetlands
2017 (English)In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 103, p. 436-445Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Data from seven constructed wetlands (CWs) in the south of Sweden were analyzed to investigate the effects of water flow and season on inflow phosphorus (P) concentrations and temporal P retention variations in CWs receiving runoff from arable land. The form of P (dissolved or particulate) during different water flows (high and low) and seasons (warm and cold) was investigated using the results of total P (TP) and phosphate analyzed in grab samples that had been collected regularly or occasionally during two to nine years, along with continuous water flow measurements.

The form of inflow and outflow P (particulate or dissolved P) differed between CWs, and also varied with season and flow. For instance, in three of the CWs, particulate P (PP) dominated the inflow during the cold period with high flow, while during the other periods the proportion of PP was approximately 50%. In one CW situated in a catchment with high clay content, PP dominated both inflow and outflow at all times. The average clay content in catchment top soils was positively correlated to the flow-weighted inflow TP concentrations.

In three CWs receiving runoff through drainage pipes, the relationship between TP concentrations (TPin) and water flow was positive, both during high and low flow, and during warm and cold period. However, in four CWs that received surface water runoff, the relationship between TPin and water flow was positive during high flow periods (i.e. the 25% sampling occasions with the highest flow), and during low flow and warm period, the relationship was negative in these four wetlands, indicating either anoxic stagnant water upstream or influence from rural wastewater.

The temporal dynamics of P concentrations mean that in some of the CWs, the main part of the annual P retention may occur during a few days with high water flows. The correlation between concentration and water flow suggests that the water sampling strategy may have a considerable impact on retention estimates, as exemplified by some calculation examples.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Constructed wetlands, Agricultural catchments, Flow–concentration relationships, Phosphorus retention estimates, Sampling strategy
National Category
Ecology Other Biological Topics Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117969 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoleng.2015.11.050 (DOI)000402830800014 ()
Note

At the time for thesis presentation publication was in status: Manuscript

Funding agencies: Swedish Research Council Formas; Federation of Swedish Farmers (LRF); Bertebos foundation; Sparbanksstiftelsen Kronan; Swedish Water Management Research Program (VASTRA); The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research (MISTRA)

Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Weisner, S. E. .., Thiere, G., Johannesson, K., Svengren, H., Ehde, P.-M. & Tonderski, K. (2016). National Large-Scale Wetland Creation inAgricultural Areas: Potential versus Realized Effectson Nutrient Transports. Water, 8, 1-11, Article ID 544.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>National Large-Scale Wetland Creation inAgricultural Areas: Potential versus Realized Effectson Nutrient Transports
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2016 (English)In: Water, ISSN 2073-4441, E-ISSN 2073-4441, Vol. 8, p. 1-11, article id 544Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During 2007–2013, the Swedish Board of Agriculture granted support within a national program to about 1000 wetlands, corresponding to a 5300-hectare wetland area, with the dual goal to remove nutrients from water and to improve biodiversity in agricultural landscapes. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects on nutrient transports that are realized within the national program to what could be obtained with the same area of wetlands if location and design of wetlands were optimized. In single, highly nutrient-loaded wetlands, a removal of around 1000 kg nitrogen and 100 kg phosphorus per hectare wetland area and year was estimated from monitoring data. Statistical models were developed to estimate the overall nutrient removal effects of wetlands created within the national program. Depending on model, the effect of the national program as a whole was estimated to between 27 and 38 kg nitrogen and between 2.7 and 4.5 kg phosphorus per hectare created wetland area and year. Comparison of what is achieved in individual wetlands to what was achieved in the national program indicates that nutrient removal effects could be increased substantially in future wetland programs by emphasising location and design of wetlands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Basel, Switzerland: MDPI AG, 2016
Keywords
constructed wetlands; nitrogen; phosphorus; removal; retention; catchments
National Category
Water Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145653 (URN)10.3390/w8110544 (DOI)000389660700067 ()2-s2.0-85003678467 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Swedish Research Council for Environment, Agricultural Sciences and Spatial Planning, 21.5/2003-1111 and 215-2005-507Mistra - The Swedish Foundation for Strategic Environmental Research
Available from: 2018-03-12 Created: 2018-03-12 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Kynkäänniemi, P., Johannesson, K. M., Ulén, B. & Sundblad-Tonderski, K. (2015). Assessment of particle deposition and accumulation in newly constructed wetlands receiving agricultural runoff.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assessment of particle deposition and accumulation in newly constructed wetlands receiving agricultural runoff
2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

This study analysed variations in sediment deposition and accumulation to improve understanding of retention processes in small wetlands constructed on clay soils. Sediment deposition (in traps) and accumulation (on plates) was measured in four wetlands in east-central Sweden.

Particle deposition generally exceeded (up to eight-fold) the total particle load to the wetlands, especially in the spring-summer period, suggesting that the settled particles in the traps were generated from internal processes. The particles probably originated from erosion of the bottom and sides of the wetlands, or from production of organic material which deposited in the traps.

Particle resuspension was evident in all wetlands and considered an important process. Only 13-23% of the deposited material in the traps remained on the plates in the wetlands. Both particle deposition and accumulation was very low in one wetland receiving high hydraulic load (HL, 400 m yr-1), suggesting that such high-loaded wetlands are not efficient as particle sinks in clay soil areas. In the other wetlands, more than 80% of the total sediment accumulation occurred in the initial parts of the wetlands (which represented the first 20% of the total wetland area), indicating the importance of designing wetlands with an initial wetland section that is easy accessed for sediment removal as maintenance.

The results from this study point to the importance of internal processes and resuspension for annual particle accumulation in constructed wetlands.

National Category
Ecology Water Engineering Other Biological Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117970 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Ammenberg, J., Svensson, B., Karlsson, M., Svensson, N., Björn, A., Karlsson, M., . . . Eklund, M. (2015). Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 1. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas Research Center, BRC: Slutrapport för etapp 1
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2015 (Swedish)Report (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Biogas Research Center (BRC) är ett kompetenscentrum för biogasforskning som finansieras av Energimyndigheten, LiU och ett flertal externa organisationer med en tredjedel vardera. BRC har en mycket bred tvärvetenskaplig inriktning och sammanför biogasrelaterad kompetens från flera olika områden för att skapa interaktion på flera olika plan:

  • mellan näringsliv, akademi och samhälle,
  • mellan olika perspektiv, samt
  • mellan olika discipliner och kompetensområden.

BRC:s vision är:

Resurseffektiva biogaslösningar finns genomförda i många nya tillämpningar och bidrar till en mer hållbar energiförsörjning, förbättrat miljötillstånd och goda affärer.

BRC:s särskilda roll för att uppnå denna vision är att bidra med kunskapsförsörjning och process-/teknikutveckling för att facilitera utveckling, innovation och implementering av biogaslösningar. Resurseffektivitet är ett nyckelord, vilket handlar om att förbättra befintliga processer och system samt utveckla biogaslösningar i nya sektorer och möjliggöra användning av nya substrat.

For BRC:s etapp 1, den första tvåårsperioden mellan 2012-2014, var forskningsprojekten organiserade enligt tabellen nedan. Den visar viktiga utmaningar för biogasproducenter och andra intressenter, samt hur dessa ”angreps” med åtta forskningsprojekt. Fem av projekten var av explorativ karaktär i bemärkelsen att de var bredare och mer framtidsorienterade - exempelvis utvärderade flera möjliga tekniska utvecklingsmöjligheter (EP1-5). Tre projekt hade ett tydligare fokus på teknik- och processutveckling (DP6-8).

I den här slutrapporten ges en kortfattad bakgrundsbeskrivning och det finns en introduktion till vad den här typen av kompetenscentrum innebär generellt. Därefter finns mer detaljerad information om BRC, exempelvis gäller det centrumets etablering, relevans, vision, hörnstenar och utveckling. De deltagande organisationerna presenteras, både forskargrupperna vid Linköpings universitet och partners och medlemmar. Vidare finns en mer utförlig introduktion till och beskrivning av utmaningarna i tabellen och kortfattat information om forskningsprojekten, följt av ett kapitel som berör måluppfyllelse och den externa utvärdering som gjorts av BRC:s verksamhet. Detaljerad, listad information finns till stor del i bilagorna.

Kortfattat kan det konstateras att måluppfyllelsen överlag är god. Det är speciellt positivt att så många vetenskapliga artiklar publicerats (eller är på gång att publiceras) kopplat till forskningsprojekten och även i det vidare centrumperspektivet. Helt klart förekommer en omfattande verksamhet inom och kopplat till BRC. I etapp 2 är det viktigt att öka andelen mycket nöjda partner och medlemmar, där nu hälften är nöjda och hälften mycket nöjda. Det handlar framför allt om stärkt kommunikation, interaktion och projektledning. Under 2015 förväntas åtminstone två doktorsexamina, där avhandlingarna har stor koppling till forskningen inom etapp 1.

I början på år 2014 skedde en extern utvärdering av verksamheten vid BRC med huvudsyftet att bedöma hur väl centrumet lyckats med etableringen samt att granska om det fanns förutsättningar för framtida framgångsrik verksamhet. Generellt var utfallet mycket positivt och utvärderarna konstaterade att BRC på kort tid lyckats etablera en verksamhet som fungerar väl och engagerar det stora flertalet deltagande aktörer, inom relevanta områden och där de flesta involverade ser BRC som en befogad och väl fungerande satsning, som de har för avsikt att även fortsättningsvis stödja. Utvärderingen bidrog också med flera relevant tips och till att belysa utmaningar.

Utöver denna slutrapport finns separata publikationer från forskningsprojekten.

Arbetet som presenteras i rapporten har finansierats av Energimyndigheten och de medverkande organisationerna.

Abstract [en]

Biogas Research Center (BRC) is a center of excellence in biogas research funded by the Swedish Energy Agency, Linköping University and a number of external organizations with one-third each. BRC has a very broad interdisciplinary approach, bringing together biogas-related skills from several areas to create interaction on many levels:

  • between industry, academia and society,
  • between different perspectives, and
  • between different disciplines and areas of expertise.

BRC’s vision is:

BRC contributes to the vision by advancing knowledge and technical development, as well as by facilitating development, innovation and business. Resource efficiency is central, improving existing processes and systems as well as establishing biogas solutions in new sectors and enabling use of new substrates.

For BRC phase 1, the first two year period from 2012-2014, the research projects were organized in accordance with the table below showing important challenges for biogas producers and other stakeholders, and how these challenges were tackled in eight research projects. Five of the projects had an exploratory nature, meaning that they were broader, more future oriented and, for example, evaluated several different technology paths (EP1-5). Three projects focused more on technology and process development (DP6-8).

This final report briefly presents the background and contains some information about competence centers in general. Thereafter follows more detailed information about BRC, for example, regarding the establishment, relevance, organization, vision, corner stones and development. The participating organizations are presented, both the research groups within Linköping University and the partners and members. Further on, there is a more detailed introduction to and description of the challenges mentioned in the table above and a short presentation from each of the research projects, followed by some sections dealing with fulfillment of objectives and an external assessment of BRC. Detailed, listed information is commonly provided in the appendices.

Briefly, the fulfillment of objectives is good and it is very positive that so many scientific articles have been published (or are to be published) from the research projects and also within the wider center perspective. Clearly, extensive and relevant activities are ongoing within and around BRC. In phase 2 it essential to increase the share of very satisfied partners and members, where now half of them are satisfied and the other half is very satisfied. For this purpose, improved communication, interaction and project management are central. During 2015, at least two PhD theses are expected, to a large extent based on the research from BRC phase 1.

In the beginning of 2014 an external assessment of BRC was carried out, with the main purpose to assess how well the center has been established and to review the conditions for a future, successful competence center. Generally, the outcome was very positive and the assessors concluded that BRC within a short period of time had been able to establish a well-functioning organization engaging a large share of the participants within relevant areas, and that most of the involved actors look upon BRC as a justifiable and well working investment that they plan to continue to support. The assessment also contributed with several relevant tips of improvements and to clarify challenges to address.

This report is written in Swedish, but for each research project there will be reports and/or scientific papers published in English.

The work presented in this report has been financed by the Swedish Energy Agency and the participating organizations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2015. p. 99
Series
Biogas Research Center (BRC) Report ; 2014:1
National Category
Environmental Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-114037 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Energy Agency
Available from: 2015-02-05 Created: 2015-02-05 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Johannesson, K. M., Lindström, G., Heeb, A., Milver, A., Rönnberg, R., Sundblad-Tonderski, K. & Andersson, L. (2015). Can spatial and temporal nutrient concentration variability be captured by catchment agro-geographical characteristics and water quality modelling?.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Can spatial and temporal nutrient concentration variability be captured by catchment agro-geographical characteristics and water quality modelling?
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2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In water management, source areas need to be identified and seasonal variability of nutrient flows assessed to facilitate design of cost-efficient mitigation programs. This study aimed at investigating to what degree sub-catchment spatial and temporal nutrient concentration variability could be captured by their agro-geographical characteristics and water quality modelling.

An agricultural catchment (160 km2) in Southeast Sweden was investigated with respect to source areas for phosphorus (P), nitrogen and particle losses. The specific aims were to 1) investigate the spatial variability of nutrient and particle concentrations and transport from different sub-catchments, 2) analyze if sub-catchment characteristics could explain differences in nutrient and particle concentration dynamics and overall nutrient losses, and 3) evaluate how well monitored temporal and spatial variability in nutrient concentrations could be simulated by a catchment model (HYPE). The purpose with the latter was to find recommendations for further model development and identify limitations for the use of catchment models in local water management.

Water flow was measured in two stations during 2009-2011. Grab samples were collected in synoptic sampling campaigns covering 10 sampling points during periods that represented various water flow regimes. Water samples were analyzed for total P (TP), dissolved phosphate (PO4-P), nitrate (NO3-N) and suspended matter (SUSP). The HYPE model was setup with the same detailed agro-geographical data as used for the statistical analyses of spatial and temporal correlations. The results showed that the sub-catchment variability of all measured nutrient concentrations were correlated with agro-geographical characteristics. All fractions of P concentrations were strongly correlated with soil type, whereas NO3-N concentrations were more related to crop factors. With regard to temporal dynamics of monitored concentrations, links to seasonality and water flow were more significant for NO3-N than for TP. Concentrations generated from the water quality model (HYPE) did not capture the subcatchment or temporal variability indicated from monitoring, particularly not for P concentrations. Neither did the modelled correlation between agro-geographical factors and concentrations correspond to that found for monitored concentrations. Some suggestions for model improvement were identified. Although water quality models are useful for local water management when it comes to modelling the impact of e.g. measures or climate change, our results suggest that their value might still be more limited when assessing variability on the subcatchment scale.

National Category
Ecology Water Engineering Other Biological Topics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117971 (URN)
Available from: 2015-05-19 Created: 2015-05-19 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
McConville, J., Drangert, J.-O., Tidåker, P., Neset, T.-S., Rauch, S., Strid, I. & Tonderski, K. (2015). Closing the food loops: guidelines and criteria for improving nutrient management. Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, 11(2), 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Closing the food loops: guidelines and criteria for improving nutrient management
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2015 (English)In: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As global consumption expands, the world is increasingly facing threats to resource availability and food security. To meet future food demands, agricultural resource efficiency needs to be optimized for both water and nutrients. Policy makers should start to radically rethink nutrient management across the entire food chain. Closing the food loop by recycling nutrients in food waste and excreta is an important way of limiting the use of mineral nutrients, as well as improving national and global food security. This article presents a framework for sustainable nutrient management and discusses the responsibility of four key stakeholder groups—agriculture, the food industry, consumers, and waste management—for achieving an effective food loop. In particular, we suggest a number of criteria, policy actions, and supporting strategies based on a cross-sectoral application of the waste hierarchy.

Keywords
Food processing industry wastes, agricultural wastes, waste utilization, food additives, material balance
National Category
Environmental Management Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121876 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-12 Created: 2015-10-12 Last updated: 2018-03-13
Sharpley, A. N., Bergstrom, L., Aronsson, H., Bechmann, M., Bolster, C. H., Borling, K., . . . Withers, P. J. A. (2015). Future agriculture with minimized phosphorus losses to waters: Research needs and direction. Ambio, 44, S163-S179
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Future agriculture with minimized phosphorus losses to waters: Research needs and direction
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2015 (English)In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, p. S163-S179Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The series of papers in this issue of AMBIO represent technical presentations made at the 7th International Phosphorus Workshop (IPW7), held in September, 2013 in Uppsala, Sweden. At that meeting, the 150 delegates were involved in round table discussions on major, predetermined themes facing the management of agricultural phosphorus (P) for optimum production goals with minimal water quality impairment. The six themes were (1) P management in a changing world; (2) transport pathways of P from soil to water; (3) monitoring, modeling, and communication; (4) importance of manure and agricultural production systems for P management; (5) identification of appropriate mitigation measures for reduction of P loss; and (6) implementation of mitigation strategies to reduce P loss. This paper details the major challenges and research needs that were identified for each theme and identifies a future roadmap for catchment management that cost-effectively minimizes P loss from agricultural activities.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Verlag (Germany), 2015
Keywords
Implementation; Manure; Mitigation measures; Monitoring; P management; Transport pathways
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115312 (URN)10.1007/s13280-014-0612-x (DOI)000349411600001 ()25681975 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-03-13 Created: 2015-03-13 Last updated: 2018-03-13
Johannesson, K. M., Kynkäänniemi, P., Ulén, B., Weisner, S. & Tonderski, K. (2015). Phosphorus and particle retention in constructed wetlands—A catchment comparison. Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, 80, 20-31
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphorus and particle retention in constructed wetlands—A catchment comparison
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2015 (English)In: Ecological Engineering: The Journal of Ecotechnology, ISSN 0925-8574, E-ISSN 1872-6992, Vol. 80, p. 20-31Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Seven constructed wetlands (0.05–0.69 ha), situated in agricultural catchments (22–267 ha) in the south of Sweden, were studied for two years with two aims: to (i) quantify their function as sinks for particles and phosphorus (P) lost from the catchments, and (ii) investigate to what degree catchment and wetland characteristics and modeled loads (using hydrochemical catchment models) could be used to explain differences in retention between the wetlands. The wetland areas ranged from 0.04 to 0.8% of the respective catchment area, and they were situated in areas dominated by fine-textured soils with relatively high P losses and the main proportion of P transported in particulate form. Net P and particle retention were estimated during two years from annual accumulation of particles on sedimentation plates (40 × 40 cm) on the bottom of the wetlands.

There was an annual net retention of particles and P, but with a large variation (for particles 13–108 t ha−1 yr−1 and for P 11–175 kg ha−1 yr−1), both between wetlands and between years. The difference between the two years was larger than the difference in mean P retention between the seven wetlands. There was a positive relationship between P and particle retention and three catchment factors, i.e. P status (P-AL) of agricultural soils, average slope in the catchments and the livestock density, and a negative relationship with the agricultural soil clay content. In addition, there was a positive relationship with the wetland length:width ratio. Contrary to expectations, neither the modeled hydraulic load nor P load was significantly correlated with the measured particle and P retention. There was also a positive relationship between P concentration in the sediment and soil P status in the catchment. The results imply that considerable errors are introduced when down-scaling modeled regional nutrient losses to estimate the P loads to small wetlands in agriculturally dominated catchments. A more qualitative approach, using catchment characteristics for identification of hot-spot fields, may be equally good to identify suitable locations for constructed wetlands to reduce diffuse P loads.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Agricultural soilsCatchment characteristicsConstructed wetlandsPhosphorus retentionSediment plates
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-110405 (URN)10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.08.014 (DOI)000355131600003 ()
Available from: 2014-09-10 Created: 2014-09-10 Last updated: 2018-03-13
Land, M., Granéli, W., Grimvall, A., Hoffmann, C. C., Mitsch, W. J., Tonderski, K. & Verhoeven, J. T. (2013). How effective are created or restored freshwater wetlands for nitrogen and phosphorus removal? A systematic review protocol. Environmental Evidence, 2(16)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How effective are created or restored freshwater wetlands for nitrogen and phosphorus removal? A systematic review protocol
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2013 (English)In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 2, no 16Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Eutrophication of aquatic environments is a major environmental problem in large parts of the world.In Europe, EU legislation (the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive),international conventions (OSPAR, HELCOM) and national environmental objectives emphasize the need to reducethe input of plant nutrients to freshwater and marine environments. A widely used method to achieve this is to letwater pass through a constructed or restored wetland (CW). However, the large variation in measured nutrientremoval rates in such wetlands calls for a systematic review. The objective of this review is to quantify nitrogen andphosphorus removal rates in constructed or restored wetlands and relate them to wetland characteristics, loading characteristics, and climate factors. Wetlands are created to treat water from a number of different sources. Sources that will be considered in this review include agricultural runoff and urban storm water run-off, as well as aquaculture wastewater and outlets from domestic wastewater treatment plants, with particular attention to thesituation in Sweden. Although the performance of wetlands in temperate and boreal regions is most relevant tothe Swedish stakeholders a wider range of climatic conditions will be considered in order to make a thorough evaluation of climatic factors.

Methods: Searches for primary studies will be performed in electronic databases as well as on the internet. Oneauthor will perform the screening of all retrieved articles at the title and abstract level. To check that the screeningis consistent and complies with the agreed inclusion/exclusion criteria, subsets of 100 articles will be screened by the other authors. When screening at full-text level the articles will be evenly distributed among the authors. Kappatests will be used to evaluate screening consistency. Data synthesis will be based on meta-regression. The nutrient removal rates will be taken as response variables and the effect modifiers will be used as explanatory variables. More specifically, the meta-regression will be performed using generalized additive models that can handle nonlinear relationships and major interaction effects. Furthermore, subgroup analyses will be undertaken to elucidate statistical relationships that are specific to particular types of wetlands.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2013
Keywords
Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Nutrient, Retention rate, Removal efficiency, Wetland creation, Restored wetland, Constructed wetland, Pond, Eutrophication
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-107932 (URN)10.1186/2047-2382-2-16 (DOI)
Available from: 2014-06-23 Created: 2014-06-23 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-0722-6083

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