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Böhlmark, Johan
Publications (10 of 18) Show all publications
Böhlmark, J. (2008). High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering; An Overview of History, Properties and Current Status. In: 7th Iberian VCacuum Meeting 5th European Topical Conference on Hard Coatings,2008.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering; An Overview of History, Properties and Current Status
2008 (English)In: 7th Iberian VCacuum Meeting 5th European Topical Conference on Hard Coatings,2008, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-42815 (URN)69024 (Local ID)69024 (Archive number)69024 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10
Alami, J., Eklund, P., Andersson, J. M., Lattemann, M., Wallin, E., Böhlmark, J., . . . Helmersson, U. (2007). Phase tailoring of Ta thin films by highly ionized pulsed magnetron sputtering. Thin Solid Films, 515(7-8), 3434-3438
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phase tailoring of Ta thin films by highly ionized pulsed magnetron sputtering
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2007 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 7-8, p. 3434-3438Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ta thin films were grown on Si substrates at different inclination angles with respect to the sputter source using high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), an ionized physical vapor deposition technique. The ionization allowed for better control of the energy and directionality of the sputtered species, and consequently for improved properties of the deposited films. Depositions were made on Si substrates with the native oxide intact. The structure of the as deposited films was investigated using X-ray diffraction, while a four-point probe setup was used to measure the resistivity. A substrate bias process-window for growth of bcc-Ta was observed. However, the process-window position changed with changing inclination angles of the substrate. The formation of this low-resistivity bcc-phase could be understood in light of the high ion flux from the HIPIMS discharge.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2007
Keywords
HPPMS, Ionized PVD, IPVD, Pulsed sputtering
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10442 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2006.10.013 (DOI)
Note
Original publication: J. Alamia, P. Eklunda, J.M. Anderssona, M. Lattemanna, E. Wallina, J. Bohlmarka, P. Perssona, and U. Helmersson, Phase tailoring of Ta thin films by highly ionized pulsed magnetron sputtering, 2007, Thin Solid Films, (515), 7-8, 3434-3438. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2006.10.013. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/Available from: 2007-12-14 Created: 2007-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14Bibliographically approved
Böhlmark, J. (2006). Fundamentals of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering. (Doctoral dissertation). : Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fundamentals of High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering
2006 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In plasma assisted thin film growth, control over the energy and direction of the incoming species is desired. If the growth species are ionized this can be achieved by the use of a substrate bias or a magnetic field. Ions may be accelerated by an applied potential, whereas neutral particles may not. Thin films grown by ionized physical vapor deposition (I-PVD) have lately shown promising results regarding film structure and adhesion. High power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) is a relatively newly developed technique, which relies on the creation of a dense plasma in front of the sputtering target to produce a large fraction of ions of the sputtered material. In HIPIMS, high power pulses with a length of ~100 μs are applied to a conventional planar magnetron. The highly energetic nature of the discharge, which involves power densities of several kW/cm2, creates a dense plasma in front of the target, which allows for a large fraction of the sputtered material to be ionized.

The work presented in this thesis involves plasma analysis using electrostatic probes, optical emission spectroscopy (OES), magnetic probes, energy resolved mass spectrometry, and other fundamental observation techniques. These techniques used together are powerful plasma analysis tools, and used together give a good overview of the plasma properties is achieved.

from the erosion zone of the magnetron. The peak plasma density during the active cycle of the discharge exceeds 1019 electrons/m3. The expanding plasma is reflected by the chamber wall back into the center part of the chamber, resulting in a second density peak several hundreds of μs after the pulse is turned off.

Optical emission spectroscopy (OES) measurements of the plasma indicate that the degree of ionization of sputtered Ti is very high, over 90 % in the peak of the pulse. Even at relatively low applied target power (~200 W/cm2 peak power) the recorded spectrum is totally dominated by radiation from ions. The recorded HIPIMS spectra were compared to a spectrum taken from a DC magnetron discharge, showing a completely different appearance.

Magnetic field measurements performed with a coil type probe show significant deformation in the magnetic field of the magnetrons during the pulse. Spatially resolved measurements show evidence of a dense azimuthally E×B drifting current. Circulating currents mainly flow within 2 away cm from the target surface in an early part of the pulse, to later diffuse axially into the chamber and decrease in intensity. We record peak current densities of the E×B drift to be of the order of 105 A/m2.

A mass spectrometry (MS) study of the plasma reveals that the HIPIMS discharge contains a larger fraction of highly energetic ions as compared to the continuous DC discharge. Especially ions of the target material are more energetic. Time resolved studies show broad distributions of ion energies in the early stage of the discharge, which quickly narrows down after pulse switch-off. Ti ions with energies up to 100 eV are detected. The time average plasma contains mainly low energy Ar ions, but during the active phase of the discharge, the plasma is highly metallic. Shortly after pulse switch-on, the peak value of the Ti1+/Ar1+ ratio is over 2. The HIPIMS discharge also contains a significant amount of doubly charged ions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, 2006
Series
Linköping Studies in Science and Technology. Dissertations, ISSN 0345-7524 ; 1014
Keywords
Plasma, Pulsed plasma, High Power Pulsed Magnetron Sputtering, Plasma Characterization
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-7359 (URN)91-85523-96-8 (ISBN)
Public defence
2006-04-13, Planck, Fysikhuset, Campus Valla, Linköpings universitet, Linköping, 09:15 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2006-09-12 Created: 2006-09-12 Last updated: 2013-10-30
Böhlmark, J., Östbye, M., Lattemann, M., Ljungcrantz, H., Rosell, T. & Helmersson, U. (2006). Guiding the deposition flux in an ionized magnetron discharge. Thin Solid Films, 515(4), 1928-1931
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Guiding the deposition flux in an ionized magnetron discharge
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2006 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 4, p. 1928-1931Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A study of the ability to control the deposition flux in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge using an external magnetic field is presented in this article. Pulses with peak power of 1.4 kWcm-2 were applied to a conventional planar magnetron equipped with an Al target. The high power creates a high degree of ionization of the sputtered material, which opens for an opportunity to control of the energy and direction of the deposition species. An external magnetic field was created with a current carrying coil placed in front of the target. To measure the distribution of deposition material samples were placed in an array surrounding the target and the depositions were made with and without the external magnetic field. The distribution is significantly changed when the magnetic field is present. An increase of 80 % in deposition rate is observed for the sample placed in the central position (right in front of the target center) and the deposition rate is strongly decreased on samples placed to the side of the target. The measurements were also performed on a conventional direct current magnetron discharge, but no major effect of the magnetic field was observed in that case.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Amsterdam, Netherlands: Elsevier, 2006
Keywords
thin films, sputtering, IPVD, HIPIMS, HPPMS
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10441 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2006.07.183 (DOI)000242931900112 ()
Note

Original publication: J. Bohlmark, M. Östbye, M. Lattemann, H. Ljungcrantz, T. Rosell, and U. Helmersson, Guiding the deposition flux in an ionized magnetron discharge, 2006, Thin Solid Films, (515), 4, 1928-1931. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2006.07.183. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/

Available from: 2007-12-14 Created: 2007-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-14
Helmersson, U., Lattemann, M., Alami, J., Böhlmark, J., Ehiasarian, A. & Gudmundsson, J. (2006). Highly Ionized Sputter Discharges for Thin Film Fabrication. Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Physics, 70(8), 1421-1424
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Highly Ionized Sputter Discharges for Thin Film Fabrication
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2006 (English)In: Bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. Physics, ISSN 1062-8738, Vol. 70, no 8, p. 1421-1424Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-42873 (URN)69661 (Local ID)69661 (Archive number)69661 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-10-30
Lattemann, M., Ehiasarian, A., Böhlmark, J., Persson, P. .. .. & Helmersson, U. (2006). Investigation of high power impulse magnetron sputtering pretreated interfaces for adhesion enhancement of hard coatings on steel. Surface & Coatings Technology, 200(22-23), 6495-6499
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Investigation of high power impulse magnetron sputtering pretreated interfaces for adhesion enhancement of hard coatings on steel
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2006 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 200, no 22-23, p. 6495-6499Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to improve the adhesion of hard coatings such as CrN, a surface pretreatment by the novel high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) technique followed by reactive unbalanced d.c. magnetron sputtering deposition was performed using a Cr target. The HIPIMS plasma comprising a high metal ion-to-neutral ratio consisting of single- and double-charged metal species identified by mass spectrometry increased the metal ion flux to the substrate. When applying a negative substrate bias Ub the adhesion was enhanced due to sputter cleaning of the surface and metal ion intermixing in the interface region. This intermixing, resulting in a gradual change of the composition, is considered to enhance the adhesion of the hard coatings on steel substrates. The pretreatment was carried out in an inert gas atmosphere at a pressure of pAr = 1 mTorr, the duration was varied between 25 and 75 min, whereas the negative substrate bias was varied between 400 V and 1200 V. The adhesion was found to depend on the substrate bias as well as on the target power and, for low substrate bias, on the duration of the pretreatment. For CrN the critical load of failure determined by scratch test could be increased in comparison to the values reported for specimens pretreated by conventional Ar etching. The influence of the target peak voltage, the substrate bias as well as pretreatment time on the constitution and morphology of the interface after the pretreatment is discussed applying analytical transmission electron microscopy.

Keywords
Ionized PVD, Pulsed magnetron sputtering, Analytical TEM, Adhesion, Ion implantation
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-15030 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.11.082 (DOI)
Note
Original publication: M. Lattemann, A.P. Ehiasarian, J. Bohlmark, P.Å.O. Persson and U. Helmersson, Investigation of high power impulse magnetron sputtering pretreated interfaces for adhesion enhancement of hard coatings on steel, 2006, Surface and Coatings Technology, (200), 22-23, 6495-6499. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2005.11.082. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/ Available from: 2008-10-10 Created: 2008-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-11
Helmersson, U., Lattemann, M., Böhlmark, J., Ehiasarian, A. P. & Gudmundsson, J. T. (2006). Ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD): A review of technology and applications. Thin Solid Films, 513(1-2), 1-24
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD): A review of technology and applications
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2006 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 513, no 1-2, p. 1-24Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In plasma-based deposition processing, the importance of low-energy ion bombardment during thin film growth can hardly be exaggerated. Ion bombardment is an important physical tool available to materials scientists in the design of new materials and new structures. Glow discharges and in particular the magnetron sputtering discharge have the advantage that the ions of the discharge are abundantly available to the deposition process. However, the ion chemistry is usually dominated by the ions of the inert sputtering gas while ions of the sputtered material are rare. Over the past few years, various ionized sputtering techniques have appeared that can achieve a high degree of ionization of the sputtered atoms, often up to 50 % but in some cases as much as approximately 90%. This opens a complete new perspective in the engineering and design of new thin film materials. The development and application of magnetron sputtering systems for ionized physical vapor deposition (IPVD) is reviewed. The application of a secondary discharge, inductively coupled plasma magnetron sputtering (ICP-MS) and microwave amplified magnetron sputtering, is discussed as well as the high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS), the self-sustained sputtering (SSS) magnetron, and the hollow cathode magnetron (HCM) sputtering discharges. Furthermore, filtered arc-deposition is discussed due to its importance as an IPVD technique. Examples of the importance of the IPVD-techniques for growth of thin films with improved adhesion, improved microstructures, improved coverage of complex shaped substrates, and increased reactivity with higher deposition rate in reactive processes are reviewed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2006
Keywords
Ionized physical vapor deposition, Sputtering, Plasma processing and deposition, Arc-evaporation
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10434 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2006.03.033 (DOI)
Available from: 2007-12-13 Created: 2007-12-13 Last updated: 2018-06-13
Böhlmark, J., Lattemann, M., Stranning, H., Selinder, T., Carlsson, J. & Helmersson, U. (2006). Reactive Film Growth of TiN by Using High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS). In: Society of Vacuum Coaters, 49th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings,2006 (pp. 334-337).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Reactive Film Growth of TiN by Using High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering (HIPIMS)
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2006 (English)In: Society of Vacuum Coaters, 49th Annual Technical Conference Proceedings,2006, 2006, p. 334-337Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-35678 (URN)28107 (Local ID)28107 (Archive number)28107 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-10-30
Böhlmark, J., Lattemann, M., Gudmundsson, J., Ehiasarian, A., Aranda Gonzalvo, Y., Brenning, N. & Helmersson, U. (2006). The ion energy distributions and ion flux composition from a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge. Thin Solid Films, 515(4), 1522-1526
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The ion energy distributions and ion flux composition from a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge
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2006 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 515, no 4, p. 1522-1526Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The energy distribution of sputtered and ionized metal atoms as well as ions from the sputtering gas is reported for a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) discharge. High power pulses were applied to a conventional planar circular magnetron Ti target. The peak power on the target surface was 1-2 kW/cm2 with a duty factor of about 0.5 %. Time resolved, and time averaged ion energy distributions were recorded with an energy resolving quadrupole mass spectrometer. The ion energy distributions recorded for the HIPIMS discharge are broader with maximum detected energy of 100 eV and contain a larger fraction of highly energetic ions (about 50 % with Ei > 20 eV) as compared to a conventional direct current magnetron sputtering discharge. The composition of the ion flux was also determined, and reveals a high metal fraction. During the most intense moment of the discharge, the ionic flux consisted of approximately 50 % Ti1+, 24 % Ti2+, 23 % Ar1+, and 3 % Ar2+ ions.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, 2006
Keywords
Sputtering, HIPIMS, Mass spectometry, Plasma characterization
National Category
Physical Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-10448 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2006.04.051 (DOI)
Note
Original publication: J. Bohlmark, M. Lattemann, J. T. Gudmundsson, A. P. Ehiasarian, Y. Aranda Gonzalvo, N. Brenning & U. Helmersson, The ion energy distributions and ion flux composition from a high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharg, 2006, Thin Solid Films, (515), 4, 1522-1526. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tsf.2006.04.051. Copyright: Elsevier B.V., http://www.elsevier.com/Available from: 2007-12-17 Created: 2007-12-17 Last updated: 2017-12-14
Helmersson, U., Lattemann, M., Alami, J., Böhlmark, J., Ehiasarian, A. & Gudmundsson, J. (2005). High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Discharges and Thin Film Growth: A Brief Review. In: 48th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters,2005 (pp. 458-464).
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High Power Impulse Magnetron Sputtering Discharges and Thin Film Growth: A Brief Review
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2005 (English)In: 48th Annual Technical Conference of the Society of Vacuum Coaters,2005, 2005, p. 458-464Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Keywords
HIPIMS, Thin films
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-30912 (URN)16580 (Local ID)16580 (Archive number)16580 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-09 Created: 2009-10-09 Last updated: 2013-10-30
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