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Holmgren, Per
Publications (10 of 21) Show all publications
Holmgren, A., Holmgren, P., Kugelberg, F., Jones, A. W. & Ahlner, J. (2008). High re-arrest rates among drug-impaired drivers despite zero-tolerance legislation. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 40(2), 534-540
Open this publication in new window or tab >>High re-arrest rates among drug-impaired drivers despite zero-tolerance legislation
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2008 (English)In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 40, no 2, p. 534-540Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: A zero-tolerance law for driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) in Sweden led to a 10-fold increase in the number of cases submitted by the police for toxicological analysis. The statutory blood-alcohol concentration (BAC) limit for driving is 0.2 mg/g (∼0.02 g%). Methods: An in-house database (TOXBASE) was used to investigate re-arrests for impaired driving over 4 years (2001-2004), which comprised 36,799 cases. The age, gender, re-arrest rate of the offenders and the concentrations of ethanol and amphetamine in blood samples were evaluated. Results: We found that 44% of individuals (N = 16,277) re-offended 3.2 times on average (range 1-23 arrests). Between 85 and 89% of first-time offenders were men and there was also a male dominance among the recidivists (88-93%). The mean age of drunken drivers was ∼40 years compared with ∼35 years for driving under the influence of amphetamine, which was the drug identified in 50-60% of DUID cases, either alone or together with other licit or illicit drugs. The median BAC was 1.5 mg/g (∼0.15 g%), which suggests a dominance of heavy drinkers. The median BAC was even higher in recidivists (1.6-1.7 mg/g). The median concentration of amphetamine in blood was 1.0 mg/L in recidivists compared with 0.5 mg/L in the first-time offenders. About 14% of drunken drivers re-offended 1-10 times compared with 68% of DUID suspects, who were re-arrested 1-23 times. People with only a scheduled prescription drug in blood were re-arrested much less frequently (∼17%) compared with those taking illicit drugs (68%). Conclusions: The appreciable increase in number of arrests for DUID after a zero-tolerance law might reflect a heightened enthusiasm by the police authorities armed with knowledge that a prosecution is easier to obtain. Zero-tolerance laws do not deter people from impaired driving judging by the high re-arrest rates. During the sentencing of hardcore offenders, the courts should give more consideration to the underlying substance abuse problem. © 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-43512 (URN)10.1016/j.aap.2007.08.009 (DOI)74033 (Local ID)74033 (Archive number)74033 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Jönsson, A., Holmgren, P., Druid, H. & Ahlner, J. (2007). Cause of death and drug use pattern in deceased drug addicts in Sweden, 2002-2003. Forensic Science International, 169(2-3), 101-107
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cause of death and drug use pattern in deceased drug addicts in Sweden, 2002-2003
2007 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 169, no 2-3, p. 101-107Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Compared with their contemporaries, individuals abusing illicit drugs suffer a higher risk of premature death. In Sweden, a simple protocol for registration of fatalities among abusers of alcohol, pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, or other substances, has been used by the forensic pathologists since 2001. This routine was introduced to allow for an evaluation of the cause and manner of death, and patterns of abuse among different groups of abusers. We explored the data on drug abusers (i.e. abusers of illicit drugs) subjected to a forensic autopsy 2002-2003. The Swedish forensic pathologists examined 10,273 dead victims during the study period and 7% (743/10,273) of the cases were classified as drug abusers. Toxicological analyses were carried out in 99% (736/743) and illicit drugs were detected in 70% (514/736) of these. On average, 3.8 substances (legal or illegal) were found per case. The most common substances were ethanol and morphine, detected in 43 and 35% of the cases, respectively. When exploring the importance of the different substances for the cause of death, we found that the detection of some substances, such as fentanyl and morphine, strongly indicated a poisoning, whereas certain other substances, such as benzodiazepines more often were incidental findings. In total, 50% (372/743) died of poisoning, whereas only 22% (161/743) died of natural causes. Death was considered to be directly or indirectly due to drug abuse in 47% (346/743), whereas evidence of drug abuse was an incidental finding in 21% (153/743) or based on case history alone in 33% (244/743). We believe that this strategy to prospectively categorize deaths among drug addicts constitutes a simple means of standardizing the surveillance of the death toll among drug addicts that could allow for comparisons over time and between countries. © 2006 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-40889 (URN)10.1016/j.forsciint.2006.08.002 (DOI)54469 (Local ID)54469 (Archive number)54469 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Steentoft, A., Teige, B., Holmgren, P., Vuori, E., Kristinsson, J., Hansen, A. C., . . . Rollmann, D. (2006). Fatal poisoning in Nordic drug addicts in 2002. Forensic Science International, 160(03-Feb), 148-156
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Fatal poisoning in Nordic drug addicts in 2002
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2006 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 160, no 03-Feb, p. 148-156Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The present study from 2002 includes medicolegally examined fatal poisonings among drug addicts in the five Nordic countries: Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. A common definition "drug addict" is applied by the participating countries. The number of deaths, age, sex, place of death, main intoxicant and other drugs present in the blood are recorded in order to obtain national data, as well as comparable Nordic data and data comparable to earlier studies from 1997 and 1991. The Icelandic results are commented on separately due to the low number of cases The most fatal overdoses are seen in Norway, in both the death rate (number per 100,000 inhabitants = 8.44) and in absolute number (n = 232). The comparable figures for the other four countries are Denmark 5.43 (n = 175), Iceland 3.6 (n = 6), Finland 2.93 (n = 94) and Sweden 2.56 (n = 136). In earlier studies from 1991 and 1997, the highest death rate is seen in Denmark, with Norway as number two. Denmark is the only country where the death rate decreases from 1997 to 2002. A relatively large increase in deaths in the younger age groups(less than 30 years) is noted from 1997 to 2002, except in Denmark, where only a small increase in overdose deaths in very young people (15-19 years) is observed. Females account for 12-20% of the overdoses (three out of six deaths in Iceland). Relatively fewer deaths are recorded in the capital areas in 2002 than in 1997 and 199 1, suggesting more geographically widespread drug use in the Nordic countries Heroin/morphine is the single most frequently encountered main intoxicant, varying from 10% of the cases in Finland to 72% of the cases in Norway. Finland differs from the other countries in that a high percentage of the fatal overdoses in Finland are not caused by an illicit drug; buprenorphine, overdoses are seen, and relatively few deaths resulting from heroin are seen. Methadone is the main intoxicant in 41% of the Danish overdose cases, 15% of the Norwegian cases, 4% of the Swedish cases and none of the Finnish overdose cases, an observation probably linked to different national prescription rules for methadone The analytical screening reveals extended polydrug use. Frequently seen substances, in addition to the main intoxicant are amphetamine, tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), benzodiazepines and ethanol.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2006
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-59801 (URN)10.1016/j.forsciint.2005.09.004 (DOI)239468600009 ()
Available from: 2010-09-25 Created: 2010-09-24 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Petersson, A., Garle, M., Holmgren, P., Druid, H., Krantz, P. & Thiblin, I. (2006). Toxicological findings and manner of death in autopsied users of anabolic androgenic steroids. Drug And Alcohol Dependence, 81(3), 241-249
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Toxicological findings and manner of death in autopsied users of anabolic androgenic steroids
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2006 (English)In: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 81, no 3, p. 241-249Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With the aim to characterize patterns in toxicological profile and manner of death in deceased users of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS), a retrospective autopsy protocol study of 52 deceased users of AAS was undertaken. The AAS users were compared to 68 deceased users of amphetamine and/or heroin who were consecutively tested and found to be negative for AAS. Use of AAS was in the majority of cases (79%) associated with concomitant use of psychotropic substances. AAS-related deaths differed in several respects from deaths among users of heroin or amphetamine, most strikingly with regard to: (a) the median age at death, which was significantly lower for AAS users (24.5 years) than for users of heroin and/or amphetamine (34 and 40 years, respectively), (b) the manner of death, with AAS users dying significantly more often from homicide or suicide than users of other drugs, and (c) the body mass index (BMI), with AAS users exhibiting significantly higher BMI than users of other drugs. These results support the earlier reported association between use of AAS and use of other psychoactive substances. In addition, the data suggest that AAS users are more likely to become involved in incidents leading to violent death and have a higher risk of dying at a younger age than users of other drugs. © 2005 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords
Anabolic androgenic steroids, Autopsy, Death, Illegal drugs
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-50296 (URN)10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2005.07.003 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Holmgren, P., Holmgren, A. & Ahlner, J. (2005). Alcohol and drugs in drivers fatally injured in traffic accidents in Sweden during the years 2000-2002. Forensic Science International, 151(1), 11-17
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Alcohol and drugs in drivers fatally injured in traffic accidents in Sweden during the years 2000-2002
2005 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 151, no 1, p. 11-17Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

During the years 2000-2002, alcohol, pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs were analysed in blood samples from fatally injured drivers in Sweden. The total number of drivers was 920 and in 855 of these, corresponding to 93%, a toxicological investigation was performed. About 85% of the drivers were men and 15% were women. All but three women (96%) were car drivers while the corresponding figure for men was about 78% and about 13% were motorcyclists. The number of positive cases increased from 38.9% in year 2000 to 45.9% in year 2002 and alcohol was the most common drug with frequencies of 19.8%, 25.0% and 21.8% for the studied years 2000, 2001 and 2002, respectively. The median blood alcohol concentration ranged from 1.6 to 2.0 mg/mL for men and from 1.2 to 1.8 mg/mL for women. There was a decrease in cases where alcohol was the only drug detected, from 52 out of 58 cases (90%) in year 2000 to 41 out of 61 cases (67%) in 2002. At the same time there was an increase, from 5.4% to 10.0% of illicit drugs, mainly amphetamine, and the cases with multiple drug intake increased from 10% to 26%. The prevalence of pharmaceuticals as the only drug or drugs detected decreased from 14.0% to 10.4% and in the majority of these cases the drug concentrations were within the therapeutic range.

Keywords
forensic toxicology; driving traffic accident; alcohol; drugs
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53507 (URN)10.1016/j.forsciint.2004.06.031 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-01-25 Created: 2010-01-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Nordgren, H. K., Holmgren, P., Liljeberg, P., Eriksson, N. & Beck, O. (2005). Application of direct urine LC-MS-MS analysis for screening of novel substances in drug abusers. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 29(4), 234-239
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Application of direct urine LC-MS-MS analysis for screening of novel substances in drug abusers
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2005 (English)In: Journal of Analytical Toxicology, ISSN 0146-4760, E-ISSN 1945-2403, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 234-239Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A newly developed liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method was used to study 3000 human urine samples from 3 different populations for 23 analytes covering phenylethylamines, benzylpiperazine, and non-benzodiazepine hypnotics. Direct injection of urine and LC-MS-MS with rapid chromatography and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization was used in the screening step. The cutoff levels were chosen to be at the limit of detection for most analytes to identify as many positive samples as possible. Typically one ion transition was monitored from the pseudo-molecular ions in the multiple reaction monitoring mode. Of the 797 positive screening findings, 518 (65%) were confirmed by a second LC-MS-MS analysis including solid-phase extraction. Confirmed analytical findings included 22 cases positive for N-benzylpiperazine, 88 for 3,4-methylenedioxy-N-methylamphetamine and metabolites, 4 for 1-phenyl-2-butylamine, 24 for zolpidem and metabolites, 118 for zopiclone and metabolites, and 1 for zaleplon. In conclusion, LC-MS-MS was found to be a robust alternative for drugs of abuse screening, offering high sensitivity compared with immunochemical screening methodology.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53510 (URN)15975252 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-01-25 Created: 2010-01-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Isacsson, G., Holmgren, P. & Ahlner, J. (2005). Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and the risk of suicide: a controlled forensic database study of 14,857 suicides. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 111(4), 286-290
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants and the risk of suicide: a controlled forensic database study of 14,857 suicides
2005 (English)In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-690X, E-ISSN 1600-0447, Vol. 111, no 4, p. 286-290Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To test the hypothesis that selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants may have a suicide emergent effect, particularly in children and adolescents. Detections of different antidepressants in the forensic toxicological screening of 14 857 suicides were compared with those in 26 422 cases of deaths by accident or natural causes in Sweden 1992-2000. There were 3411 detections of antidepressants in the suicides and 1538 in the controls. SSRIs had lower odds ratios than the other antidepressants. In the 52 suicides under 15 years, no SSRIs were detected. In 15-19-year age group, SSRIs had lower relative risk in suicides compared with non-SSRIs. The hypothesis that treatment of depressed individuals with SSRIs leads to an increased risk of suicide was not supported by this analysis of the total suicidal outcome of the nationwide use of SSRIs in Sweden over a period of 9 years, either in adults or in children or adolescents.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Blackwell Publishing Ltd, 2005
Keywords
suicide; antidepressive agents; second-generation; paroxetine; toxicology; pharmacoepidemiology
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-55099 (URN)10.1111/j.1600-0447.2004.00504.x (DOI)000227313300004 ()
Available from: 2010-04-29 Created: 2010-04-29 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Wikström, M., Holmgren, P. & Ahlner, J. (2004). A2 (N-benzylpiperazine) a new drug of abuse in Sweden. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 28(1), 67-70
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A2 (N-benzylpiperazine) a new drug of abuse in Sweden
2004 (English)In: Journal of Analytical Toxicology, ISSN 0146-4760, E-ISSN 1945-2403, Vol. 28, no 1, p. 67-70Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

N-Benzylpiperazine was tested in the beginning of the 1970s as a possible antidepressant drug. However, in both animal and human studies, it was shown to possess amphetamine-like properties, and any further studies were stopped. In a forensic autopsy case in 1999, we found a substance so far unknown to us in the chromatogram of our method used for amphetamines. We could swiftly identify this compound as N-benzylpiperazine because of information given to us by a newly formed network comprising, among others, customs and the police. Since then, we have found N-benzylpiperazine in several cases, among them 11 cases from a number of prisons.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53538 (URN)14987428 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2010-01-25 Created: 2010-01-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Holmgren, P., Norden-Pettersson, L. & Ahlner, J. (2004). Caffeine fatalities - four case reports. Forensic Science International, 139(1), 71-73
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Caffeine fatalities - four case reports
2004 (English)In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 139, no 1, p. 71-73Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Four cases of fatal intoxications with caffeine are described. Caffeine is widely available in beverages and in different OTC-products, in many of them in combinations with other drugs like ephedrine. Caffeine is not as harmless as one might believe. An overdose of caffeine alone, intentional or not, might be deadly. It seems to be warranted to include caffeine in the drug-screening of forensic autopsy cases. It is not motivated from a medical point of view to sell pure caffeine over the counter.

Keywords
forensic medicine; toxicology; poisoning; caffeine; fatal
National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53537 (URN)10.1016/j.forsciint.2003.09.019 (DOI)
Available from: 2010-01-25 Created: 2010-01-25 Last updated: 2017-12-12
Holmgren, P., Carlsson, B., Zackrisson, A.-L., Lindblom, B., Dahl, M.-L., Scordo, M. G., . . . Ahlner, J. (2004). Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and its metabolites in postmortem blood and genotyping for CYD2D6 and CYP2C19. Journal of Analytical Toxicology, 28(2), 94-104
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and its metabolites in postmortem blood and genotyping for CYD2D6 and CYP2C19
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2004 (English)In: Journal of Analytical Toxicology, ISSN 0146-4760, E-ISSN 1945-2403, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 94-104Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Citalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, is one of the most commonly found drugs in Swedish forensic autopsy cases. Citalopram is a racemic drug with 50:50 of the S- and R- enantiomers. Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and its metabolites desmethylcitalopram and didesmethylcitalopram were performed in femoral blood from 53 autopsy cases by a chiral high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method. The mean (± standard deviation) S/R ratio for citalopram was 0.67 ± 0.25 and for desmethylcitalopram, 0.68 ± 0.20. We found increasing S/R ratios with increasing concentrations of citalopram. We also found that high citalopram S/R ratios were associated with a high parent drug-to-metabolite ratio and may be an indicator of recent intake. Citalopram is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, 2C19, and 2D6. Genotyping for the polymorphic CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 revealed no poor metabolizers regarding CYP2C19 and only 2 (3.8%) poor metabolizers regarding CYP2D6. The presence of drugs metabolized by and/or inhibiting these enzymes in several of the cases suggests that such pharmacokinetic interactions are a more important (practical) problem than metabolic deficiency. Enantioselective analysis of citalopram and its metabolites can provide additional information when interpreting forensic toxicology results and might be a necessity in the future.

National Category
Medical and Health Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13692 (URN)10.1093/jat/28.2.94 (DOI)
Available from: 2003-06-20 Created: 2003-06-20 Last updated: 2017-12-13
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