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Henriksson, P., Leppanen, M. H., Henriksson, H., Nystrom, C. D., Cadenas-Sanchez, C., Ek, A., . . . Löf, M. (2019). Physical fitness in relation to later body composition in pre-school children. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22(5), 574-579
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical fitness in relation to later body composition in pre-school children
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 5, p. 574-579Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives

Although physical fitness is considered a marker of health in youth, little is known whether physical fitness in pre-school age is related to later body composition. Thus, this study investigated (i) associations of physical fitness at 4.5 years of age with body composition 12 months later and (ii) whether improvements in physical fitness during the 12-month follow-up were associated with changes in body composition.

Design

This study included 142 children, measured at 4.5 and 5.5 years, from the control group of the MINISTOP trial.

Methods

Physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower- and upper-body muscular strength and motor fitness) was measured using the PREFIT test battery. Body composition was assessed using air-displacement plethysmography.

Results

In adjusted regression analyses, greater cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-body muscular strength and motor fitness at 4.5 years were associated with a lower fat mass index at 5.5 years (standardized β= −0.182 to −0.229, p ≤ 0.028). Conversely, greater cardiorespiratory fitness, lower- and upper-body muscular strength as well as motor fitness at 4.5 years of age were associated with a higher fat-free mass index (standardized β = 0.255–0.447, p ≤ 0.001). Furthermore, improvements in cardiorespiratory fitness, lower-body muscular strength and motor fitness during the 12-month follow-up period were associated with decreases in fat mass index and/or % fat mass.

Conclusions

In conclusion, the results of this study provide evidence of the importance of physical fitness early in life. Nevertheless, further studies are needed in order to clarify the influence of physical fitness in the pre-school age with later health outcomes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2019
Keywords
Fat-free mass; Fat mass; Cardiorespiratory fitness; Muscular strength; Motor fitness; Pre-school
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-158365 (URN)10.1016/j.jsams.2018.11.024 (DOI)000468256300015 ()30573178 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85058494155 (Scopus ID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2012-2883]; Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2012-0906]; Bo and Vera Axson John sons Foundation; Karolinska Institutet; Strategic Research Area Health Care Science, Karolinska Institutet/Umed University; Juho Vainio Foundation; Swedish Society of Medicine; County Council of Ostergotland, Sweden; Henning and Johan Throne -Hoist Foundation; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness [RYC-2010-05957, RYC-2011-09011, BES-2014-068829]

Available from: 2019-07-02 Created: 2019-07-02 Last updated: 2019-08-09Bibliographically approved
Cadenas-Sanchez, C., Intemann, T., Labayen, I., Peinado, A. B., Vidal-Conti, J., Sanchis-Moysi, J., . . . Ortega, F. B. (2019). Physical fitness reference standards for preschool children: The PREFIT project.. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22(4), 430-437, Article ID S1440-2440(18)30911-3.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical fitness reference standards for preschool children: The PREFIT project.
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no 4, p. 430-437, article id S1440-2440(18)30911-3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

OBJECTIVES: Reference values are necessary for classifying children, for health screening, and for early prevention as many non-communicable diseases aggravate during growth and development. While physical fitness reference standards are available in children aged 6 and older, such information is lacking in preschool children. Therefore, the purposes of this study were (1) to provide sex-and age-specific physical fitness reference standards for Spanish preschool children; and (2) to study sex differences across this age period and to characterise fitness performance throughout the preschool period.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional.

METHODS: A total of 3179 preschool children (1678 boys) aged 2.8-6.4 years old from Spain were included in the present study. Physical fitness was measured using the PREFIT battery.

RESULTS: Age- and sex-specific percentiles for the physical fitness components are provided. Boys performed better than girls in the cardiorespiratory fitness, muscular strength, and speed-agility tests over the whole preschool period studied and for the different percentiles. In contrast, girls performed slightly better than boys in the balance test. Older children had better performance in all fitness tests than their younger counterparts.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides age- and sex-specific physical fitness reference standards in preschool children allowing interpretation of fitness assessment. Sexual dimorphism in fitness tests exists already at preschool age, and these differences become larger with age. These findings will help health, sport, and school professionals to identify preschool children with a high/very low fitness level, to examine changes in fitness over time, and to analyse those changes obtained due to intervention effects.

Keywords
Cardiorespiratory fitness, Motor skills, Muscular strength, Reference values
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155811 (URN)10.1016/j.jsams.2018.09.227 (DOI)000462416500011 ()30316738 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Ramon y Cajal grant [RYC-2011-09011]; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness [BES-2014-068829]; Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation [RYC-2011-09011, RYC-2010-05957]; University of Granada, Plan Propio de Investigation 2016, Excellence acti

Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-06-28
Sanchez-Delgado, G., Alcantara, J. M., Acosta, F. M., Martinez-Tellez, B., Amaro-Gahete, F. J., Ortiz-Alvarez, L., . . . Ruiz, J. R. (2018). Estimation of non-shivering thermogenesis and cold-induced nutrient oxidation rates: Impact of method for data selection and analysis.. Clinical Nutrition, Article ID S0261-5614(18)32445-2.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Estimation of non-shivering thermogenesis and cold-induced nutrient oxidation rates: Impact of method for data selection and analysis.
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2018 (English)In: Clinical Nutrition, ISSN 0261-5614, E-ISSN 1532-1983, article id S0261-5614(18)32445-2Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Since the discovery of active brown adipose tissue in human adults, non-shivering cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT) has been regarded as a promising tool to combat obesity. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the method of choice to analyze indirect calorimetry data from a CIT study. We analyzed the impact of methods for data selection and methods for data analysis on measures of cold-induced energy expenditure (EE) and nutrient oxidation rates.

METHODS: Forty-four young healthy adults (22.1 ± 2.1 years old, 25.6 ± 5.2 kg/m2, 29 women) participated in the study. Resting metabolic rate (RMR), cold-induced thermogenesis (CIT), and cold-induced nutrient oxidation rates were estimated by indirect calorimetry under fasting conditions during 1 h of cold exposure combining air conditioning (19.5-20 °C) and a water perfused cooling vest set at a temperature of 4 °C above the individual shivering threshold. We applied three methods for data selection: (i) time intervals every 5 min (5min-TI), (ii) the most stable 5-min period of every forth part of the cold exposure (5min-SS-4P), and (iii) the most stable 5-min period of every half part of the cold exposure (5min-SS-2P). Lately we applied two methods for data analysis: (i) area under the curve as a percentage of the baseline RMR (AUC) and; (ii) the difference between EE at the end of the cold exposure and baseline RMR (Last-RMR).

RESULTS: Mean overall CIT estimation ranged from 11.6 ± 10.0 to 20.1 ± 17.2 %RMR depending on the methods for data selection and analysis used. Regarding methods for data selection, 5min-SS-2P did not allow to observe physiologically relevant phenomena (e.g. metabolic shift in fuel oxidation; P = 0.547) due to a lack of resolution. The 5min-TI and 5min-SS-4P methods for data selection seemed to be accurate enough to observe physiologically relevant phenomena (all P < 0.014), but not comparable for estimating over-all CIT and cold-induced nutrient oxidation rates (P < 0.01). Regarding methods for data analysis, the AUC seemed to be less affected for data artefacts and to be more representative in participants with a non-stable energy expenditure during cold exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: The methods for data selection and analysis can have a profound impact on CIT and cold-induced nutrient oxidation rates estimations, and therefore, it is mandatory to unify it across scientific community to allow inter-study comparisons. Based on our findings, 5min-TI should be considered the method of choice to study dynamics (i.e. changes across time) of CIT and cold-induced nutrient oxidation rates, while 5min-SS-4P and AUC should be the method of choice when computing CIT and cold-induced nutrient oxidation rates as a single value.

Keywords
Adaptive thermogenesis, Cold-induced thermogenesis, Energy balance, Indirect calorimetry, Metabolic rate, Obesity
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-155814 (URN)10.1016/j.clnu.2018.09.009 (DOI)30297258 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-28 Created: 2019-03-28 Last updated: 2019-06-28
Delisle Nystrom, C., Forsum, E., Henriksson, H., Trolle-Lagerros, Y., Larsson, C., Maddison, R., . . . Löf, M. (2016). A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls. Nutrients, 8(1), 50
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Mobile Phone Based Method to Assess Energy and Food Intake in Young Children: A Validation Study against the Doubly Labelled Water Method and 24 h Dietary Recalls
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2016 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 50-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Mobile phones are becoming important instruments for assessing diet and energy intake. We developed the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH), which uses a mobile phone to assess energy and food intake in pre-school children. The aims of this study were: (a) to compare energy intake (EI) using TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured via doubly labelled water (DLW); and (b) to compare intakes of fruits, vegetables, fruit juice, sweetened beverages, candy, ice cream, and bakery products using TECH with intakes acquired by 24 h dietary recalls. Participants were 39 healthy, Swedish children (5.5 +/- 0.5 years) within the ongoing Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers (MINISTOP) obesity prevention trial. Energy and food intakes were assessed during four days using TECH and 24 h telephone dietary recalls. Mean EI (TECH) was not statistically different from TEE (DLW) (5820 +/- 820 kJ/24 h and 6040 +/- 680kJ/24 h, respectively). No significant differences in the average food intakes using TECH and 24 h dietary recalls were found. All food intakes were correlated between TECH and the 24 h dietary recalls (r = 0.665-0.896, p &lt; 0.001). In conclusion, TECH accurately estimated the average intakes of energy and selected foods and thus has the potential to be a useful tool for dietary studies in pre-school children, for example obesity prevention trials.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keywords
mobile phones; energy intake; food intake; total energy expenditure; child; DLW; 24 h dietary recall
National Category
Clinical Medicine Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128982 (URN)10.3390/nu8010050 (DOI)000374589300048 ()26784226 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2012-2883]; Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2012-0906]; Bo and Vera Axson Johnsons Foundation; Karolinska Institutet

Available from: 2016-06-09 Created: 2016-06-07 Last updated: 2019-06-28
Leppänen, M. H., Delisle Nyström, C., Henriksson, P., Pomeroy, J., Ruiz, J. R., Ortega, F. B., . . . Löf, M. (2016). Physical activity intensity, sedentary behavior, body composition and physical fitness in 4-year-old children: results from the ministop trial. International Journal of Obesity, 40(7), 1126-1133
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physical activity intensity, sedentary behavior, body composition and physical fitness in 4-year-old children: results from the ministop trial
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2016 (English)In: International Journal of Obesity, ISSN 0307-0565, E-ISSN 1476-5497, Vol. 40, no 7, p. 1126-1133Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

BACKGROUND: Existing knowledge on associations of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness in preschoolers is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations of PA and SB with body composition and physical fitness in healthy Swedish 4-year-old children. METHODS: We utilized baseline data collected in 2014 for the population-based MINISTOP trial (n = 307). Light-intensity PA (LPA), moderate-intensity PA (MPA), vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and SB were measured using accelerometry (ActiGraph-wGT3x-BT). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography, and physical fitness (that is, cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper body muscular strength and motor fitness) was measured using the PREFIT fitness test battery. Multiple linear regression models adjusted for relevant confounders, and in addition, isotemporal substitution models were applied. RESULTS: Greater MVPA was associated with lower fat mass percent (%FM, P = 0.015), and greater VPA and MVPA were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI, P = 0.002 and P = 0.011). In addition, greater VPA and MVPA were associated with higher scores for all physical fitness tests (P = 0.042 to Pamp;lt;0.001). The results for MVPA were primarily due to VPA. SB was associated with weaker handgrip strength (P = 0.031) when PA was not adjusted, but after adjusting also for VPA, the significant association disappeared (P = 0.25). Substituting 5 min per day of SB, LPA or MPA with 5 min per day of VPA was associated with higher FFMI and better scores for cardiorespiratory fitness and motor fitness. Correspondingly, substituting 5 min per day of VPA with SB or LPA was associated with weaker performance for lower muscular strength. CONCLUSIONS: Time spent on VPA was associated with higher FFMI and better physical fitness. The results suggest that promoting VPA may be important to improve childhood body composition and physical fitness already at an early age.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2016
National Category
Sport and Fitness Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130400 (URN)10.1038/ijo.2016.54 (DOI)000379498200012 ()27087109 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2012-2883]; Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2012-0906]; Bo and Vera Axson Johnsons Foundation; Karolinska Institutet; Juho Vainio Foundation; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness [RYC-2010-05957, RYC-2011-09011, BES-2014-068829]; Johan Throne-Holsts Foundation

Available from: 2016-08-15 Created: 2016-08-05 Last updated: 2019-06-28
Hedelin, M., Löf, M., Sandin, S., Adami, H.-O. & Weiderpass, E. (2016). Prospective Study of Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer. Nutrition and Cancer, 68(3), 388-395
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospective Study of Dietary Phytoestrogen Intake and the Risk of Colorectal Cancer
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2016 (English)In: Nutrition and Cancer, ISSN 0163-5581, E-ISSN 1532-7914, Vol. 68, no 3, p. 388-395Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Dietary phytoestrogen intake has been inversely associated with the risk of prostate and breast cancer and might also affect the risk of colorectal cancer. We evaluated the associations between dietary lignan intake, dietary isoflavonoid intake, dietary coumestrol intake, and dietary enterolignans and equol intake, and risk of colorectal cancer. Data from the Womens Lifestyle and Health (WLH) Cohort study was used. The WLH study is a prospective population-based cohort study including 48,268 Swedish women aged 30-49years at the time of enrolment in 1991-92. Follow-up for colorectal cancer incidence, death, and emigration until the end of 2010 was performed through record linkage to the Swedish Cancer Registry and Total Population Register. During follow-up 206 incident colorectal cancer cases were identified. Cox proportional hazards models were fitted to estimate adjusted risk ratios with 95% confidence intervals. We found no statistically significant association between the intake of dietary lignans, dietary isoflavonoids, coumestrol, or enterolignans and equol, and risk of colorectal cancer. We found no association between dietary phytoestrogen intake and the risk of colorectal cancer. However, since the number of cancer cases was small, our results need to be confirmed. Future studies should investigate colon and rectal cancer separately.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2016
National Category
Clinical Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-128774 (URN)10.1080/01635581.2016.1152380 (DOI)000374779800003 ()27010988 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council; Swedish Cancer Society

Available from: 2016-05-30 Created: 2016-05-30 Last updated: 2019-06-28
Delisle Nystrom, C., Henriksson, P., Alexandrou, C. & Löf, M. (2016). The Tanita SC-240 to Assess Body Composition in Pre-School Children: An Evaluation against the Three Component Model. Nutrients, 8(6), 371
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The Tanita SC-240 to Assess Body Composition in Pre-School Children: An Evaluation against the Three Component Model
2016 (English)In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 8, no 6, p. 371-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Quick, easy-to-use, and valid body composition measurement options for young children are needed. Therefore, we evaluated the ability of the bioelectrical impedance (BIA) device, Tanita SC-240, to measure fat mass (FM), fat free mass (FFM) and body fatness (BF%) in 40 healthy, Swedish 5.5 years old children against the three component model (3C model). Average BF%, FM, and FFM for BIA were: 19.4% +/- 3.9%, 4.1 +/- 1.9 kg, and 16.4 +/- 2.4 kg and were all significantly different (p amp;lt; 0.001) from corresponding values for the 3C model (25.1% +/- 5.5%, 5.3 +/- 2.5 kg, and 15.2 +/- 2.0 kg). Bland and Altman plots had wide limits of agreement for all body composition variables. Significant correlations ranging from 0.81 to 0.96 (p amp;lt; 0.001) were found for BF%, FM, and FFM between BIA and the 3C model. When dividing the children into tertiles for BF%, 60% of children were classified correctly by means of BIA. In conclusion, the Tanita SC-240 underestimated BF% in comparison to the 3C model and had wide limits of agreement. Further work is needed in order to find accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing body composition in pre-school children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2016
Keywords
Tanita SC-240; bioelectrical impedance; three component model; pre-school
National Category
Pediatrics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-130293 (URN)10.3390/nu8060371 (DOI)000378783200056 ()27322313 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council [2012-2883]; Swedish Research Council for Health, Working Life and Welfare [2012-0906]; Bo and Vera Axson Johnsons Foundation; Karolinska Institutet; Swedish Nutrition Foundation; Henning and Johan Throne-Holst Foundation

Available from: 2016-08-01 Created: 2016-07-28 Last updated: 2019-06-28
Henriksson, H., Bonn, E. S., Bergström, A., Bälter, K., Bälter, O., Delisle, C., . . . Löf, M. (2015). A New Mobile Phone-Based Tool for Assessing Energy and Certain Food Intakes in Young Children: A Validation Study. JMIR mhealth and uhealth, 3(2), Article ID e38.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A New Mobile Phone-Based Tool for Assessing Energy and Certain Food Intakes in Young Children: A Validation Study
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2015 (English)In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 3, no 2, article id e38Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem globally. Obesity may be established already at pre-school age. Further research in this area requires accurate and easy-to-use methods for assessing the intake of energy and foods. Traditional methods have limited accuracy, and place large demands on the study participants and researchers. Mobile phones offer possibilities for methodological advancements in this area since they are readily available, enable instant digitalization of collected data, and also contain a camera to photograph pre- and post-meal food items. We have recently developed a new tool for assessing energy and food intake in children using mobile phones called the Tool for Energy Balance in Children (TECH). Objective: The main aims of our study are to (1) compare energy intake by means of TECH with total energy expenditure (TEE) measured using a criterion method, the doubly labeled water (DLW) method, and (2) to compare intakes of fruits and berries, vegetables, juice, and sweetened beverages assessed by means of TECH with intakes obtained using a Web-based food frequency questionnaire (KidMeal-Q) in 3 year olds. Methods: In this study, 30 Swedish 3 year olds were included. Energy intake using TECH was compared to TEE measured using the DLW method. Intakes of vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, as well as sweetened beverages were assessed using TECH and compared to the corresponding intakes assessed using KidMeal-Q. Wilcoxon matched pairs test, Spearman rank order correlations, and the Bland-Altman procedure were applied. Results: The mean energy intake, assessed by TECH, was 5400 kJ/24h (SD 1500). This value was not significantly different (P=.23) from TEE (5070 kJ/24h, SD 600). However, the limits of agreement (2 standard deviations) in the Bland-Altman plot for energy intake estimated using TECH compared to TEE were wide (2990 kJ/24h), and TECH overestimated high and underestimated low energy intakes. The Bland-Altman plots for foods showed similar patterns. The mean intakes of vegetables, fruits and berries, juice, and sweetened beverages estimated using TECH were not significantly different from the corresponding intakes estimated using KidMeal-Q. Moderate but statistically significant correlations (ρ=.42-.46, P=.01-.02) between TECH and KidMeal-Q were observed for intakes of vegetables, fruits and berries, and juice, but not for sweetened beverages. Conclusion: We found that one day of recordings using TECH was not able to accurately estimate intakes of energy or certain foods in 3 year old children.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
JMIR publications, 2015
Keywords
Cell phone, digital camera, food intake, energy intake, child, DLW, FFQ
National Category
Clinical Science Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117419 (URN)10.2196/mhealth.3670 (DOI)25910494 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Delisle, C., Sandin, S., Forsum, E., Henriksson, H., Trolle-Lagerros, Y., Larsson, C., . . . Löf, M. (2015). A web- and mobile phone-based intervention to prevent obesity in 4-year-olds (MINISTOP): a population-based randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 15(95)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A web- and mobile phone-based intervention to prevent obesity in 4-year-olds (MINISTOP): a population-based randomized controlled trial
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2015 (English)In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 95Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Childhood obesity is an increasing health problem globally. Overweight and obesity may be established as early as 2-5 years of age, highlighting the need for evidence-based effective prevention and treatment programs early in life. In adults, mobile phone based interventions for weight management (mHealth) have demonstrated positive effects on body mass, however, their use in child populations has yet to be examined. The aim of this paper is to report the study design and methodology of the MINSTOP (Mobile-based Intervention Intended to Stop Obesity in Preschoolers) trial. Methods/Design: A two-arm, parallel design randomized controlled trial in 300 healthy Swedish 4-year-olds is conducted. After baseline measures, parents are allocated to either an intervention-or control group. The 6-month mHealth intervention consists of a web-based application (the MINSTOP app) to help parents promote healthy eating and physical activity in children. MINISTOP is based on the Social Cognitive Theory and involves the delivery of a comprehensive, personalized program of information and text messages based on existing guidelines for a healthy diet and active lifestyle in pre-school children. Parents also register physical activity and intakes of candy, soft drinks, vegetables as well as fruits of their child and receive feedback through the application. Primary outcomes include body fatness and energy intake, while secondary outcomes are time spent in sedentary, moderate, and vigorous physical activity, physical fitness and intakes of fruits and vegetables, snacks, soft drinks and candy. Food and energy intake (Tool for Energy balance in Children, TECH), body fatness (pediatric option for BodPod), physical activity (Actigraph wGT3x-BT) and physical fitness (the PREFIT battery of five fitness tests) are measured at baseline, after the intervention (six months after baseline) and at follow-up (12 months after baseline). Discussion: This novel study will evaluate the effectiveness of a mHealth program for mitigating gain in body fatness among 4-year-old children. If the intervention proves effective it has great potential to be implemented in child-health care to counteract childhood overweight and obesity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2015
Keywords
Childhood obesity; Randomized controlled trial; Mobile phones; Body composition
National Category
Clinical Medicine Basic Medicine
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115821 (URN)10.1186/s12889-015-1444-8 (DOI)000349745800001 ()25778151 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council; Swedish Research Council for Health, Working life and Welfare; Karolinska Institute; Bo and Vera Ax:son Johnssons foundation; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness [RYC-2010-05957, RYC-2011-09011]

Available from: 2015-03-20 Created: 2015-03-20 Last updated: 2019-06-28
Henriksson, H., Eriksson, B., Forsum, E., Flinke Carlsson, E. & Löf, M. (2015). Development of body composition and its relationship with physical activity: A longitudinal study of Swedish children until 4·5 years of age.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Development of body composition and its relationship with physical activity: A longitudinal study of Swedish children until 4·5 years of age
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2015 (English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

In order to develop strategies to prevent early childhood obesity more knowledge about longitudinal body composition development is needed. Previous studies have shown that there is a negative relationship between the physical activity level (PAL) and total body fat (TBF) in children. The aims of this study were: 1) To describe the longitudinal development of body composition from 1 week to 4·5 years of age. 2) To study the relationships between measures of body composition and PAL at 3 years of age. 3) To compare the relationships between body composition measures and PAL at 3 years of age to the corresponding relationships at 1·5 years of age. Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography at 1 week, 12 weeks and at 4·5 years of age. At 1·5 and 3 years body composition and PAL were assessed using the doubly labelled water method and indirect calorimetry. The results showed that TBF% and fat mass index (FMI) were higher than corresponding reference values, during infancy and childhood. We found a relationship between TBF% and PAL at 3 years of age but this was explained by a relationship between PAL and fat-free mass index (FFMI). The corresponding relationship at 1·5 years of age could not be explained by a relationship between PAL and FFMI. In conclusion, the children in this study had higher body fatness compared to the corresponding reference values. This may indicate an identification of a secular trend in body composition development which is characterized by a high body fatness. Our findings also suggest that body fatness might counteract physical activity at 1·5 years of age when the capacity to perform physical activity is limited, however this result was not observed at 3 years of age when such a capacity has been developed.

Keywords
Body composition, energy expenditure, physical activity, children, doubly labelled water
National Category
Clinical Science Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-117418 (URN)
Available from: 2015-04-27 Created: 2015-04-27 Last updated: 2019-06-28Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0002-2273-4430

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