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Milberg, P., Bergman, K.-O., Sancak, K. & Jansson, N. (2016). Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak. Ecology and Evolution, 6(6), 1614-1625.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak
2016 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 6, 1614-1625 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Old living oaks (Quercus robur) are known as a very species-rich habitat for saproxylic beetles, but it is less clear to what extent such veteran trees differ from an even rarer feature: downed trunks of large oaks. In this study, we set out to sample this habitat, using window traps, with two aims: (1) to describe the variation of assemblages among downed trunks of different type and (2) to compare beetles on downed oaks with data from veteran standing trees. The results showed that trunk volume and sun exposure better explained assemblages as well as species numbers on downed trunks than did decay stage. Furthermore, species classified as facultative saproxylic species showed weak or no differentiation among downed trunks. Species with different feeding habits showed no apparent differentiation among downed trunks. Furthermore, species composition on dead, downed oak trunks differed sharply from that of living, veteran oaks. Wood or bark feeders were more common on veterans than downed trunks, but there was no difference for those species feeding on fungi or those feeding on insects and their remains. In conclusion, for a successful conservation of the saproxylic beetle fauna it is important to keep downed oak trunks, and particularly large ones, in forest and pastures as they constitute a saproxylic habitat that differs from that of living trees.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keyword
Coleoptera, log, Quercus robur, snag, Sweden, veteran tree
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126288 (URN)10.1002/ece3.1935 (DOI)000372488300004 ()26904184 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Eklandskapsfonden (Linkoping municipality) Ostergotland County Administration Board

Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, S., Bergman, K.-O., Jansson, N., Ranius, T. & Milberg, P. (2016). Boxing for biodiversity: evaluation of an artificiallycreated decaying wood habitat. Biodiversity and Conservation, 25(2), 393-405.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boxing for biodiversity: evaluation of an artificiallycreated decaying wood habitat
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2016 (English)In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 25, no 2, 393-405 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many saproxylic species are threatened in Europe because of habitat decline.Hollow trees represent an important habitat for saproxylic species. Artificial habitats mayneed to be created to maintain or increase the amount of habitat due to natural habitat decline.This study investigated the extent to which saproxylic beetles use artificial habitats in woodenboxes. The boxes were placed at various distances (0–1800 m) from known biodiversityhotspots with hollow oaks and studied over 10 years. Boxes were mainly filled with oak sawdust, oak leaves, hay and lucerne flour. In total, 2170 specimens of 91 saproxylic beetlespecies were sampled in 43 boxes. The abundance of species associated with tree hollows,wood rot and animal nests increased from the fourth to the final year, but species richnessdeclined for all groups. This study shows that wooden boxes can function as saproxylicspecies habitats. The artificial habitats developed into a more hollow-like environment duringthe decade long experiment with fewer but more abundant tree hollow specialists.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2016
Keyword
Artificial habitats Hollow trees Intervention Saproxylic beetles Succession Wood mould
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125192 (URN)10.1007/s10531-016-1057-2 (DOI)000370137100012 ()
Note

Funding agencies:  Stiftelsen Oscar och Lili Lamms minne; Eklandskapsfonden i Linkopings kommun

Available from: 2016-02-15 Created: 2016-02-15 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Manton, M., Angelstam, P., Milberg, P. & Elbakidze, M. (2016). Wet Grasslands as a Green Infrastructure for Ecological Sustainability: Wader Conservationin Southern Sweden as a Case Study. Sustainability, 8(4), 340.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wet Grasslands as a Green Infrastructure for Ecological Sustainability: Wader Conservationin Southern Sweden as a Case Study
2016 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 4, 340- p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biosphere Reserves aim at being role models for biodiversity conservation. This studyfocuses on the unsuccessful conservation of waders (Charadrii) on wet grasslands in the KristianstadVattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR) in southern Sweden. Predation on nests and young hasbeen proposed as one reason contributing to the decline of waders. We explored this hypothesisby comparing two landscapes, one with declining (KVBR) and one with stable (Östergötland)wader populations on managed wet grasslands in southern Sweden. Specifically, we tested threepredictions linked to predation on wader nests and young, namely that (1) the relative abundanceof avian predators and waders; (2) the avian predator abundance; and (3) the predation rate onartificial wader nests, should all be higher in declining versus stable populations. All predictionswere clearly supported. Nevertheless, predation may not be the ultimate factor causing waderpopulation declines. We discuss the cumulative effects of landscape change linked to increased foodresources for predators, reduced wet grassland patch size and quality. Holistic analyses of multiplewet grassland landscapes as social-ecological systems as case studies, including processes such aspredation and other factors affecting waders, is a promising avenue towards collaborative learningfor wet grasslands as a functional green infrastructure. However, if governance and managementapproaches can be improved is questionable without considerable investment in both ecological andsocial systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2016
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126919 (URN)10.3390/su8040340 (DOI)000375155800050 ()
Projects
avian predation; biosphere reserve; birds of prey; charadrii; corvids; Kristianstad Vattenrike; predation; shorebirds; wet meadows
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish research council FORMAS

Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-07 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Milberg, P., Bergman, K.-O., Norman, H., Pettersson, R. B., Westerberg, L., Wikars, L.-O. & Jansson, N. (2015). A burning desire for smoke? Sampling insects favoured by forestfire in the absence of fire. Journal of Insect Conservation, 19(1), 55-65.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A burning desire for smoke? Sampling insects favoured by forestfire in the absence of fire
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 19, no 1, 55-65 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fire-favoured insects are difficult to sampleexcept opportunistically after forest fires. Here, we tested ifsmoke from a small fire could be an efficient way to samplesuch insects. Insects were sampled over ca. 10 h hours, byhand-picking and netting on screens put up around the fire.Two specimens of the rare and redlisted Hormopeza spp.(Diptera, Empididae) were caught. Large numbers([20,000) of Microsania spp. (Diptera, Platypezidae) werecaught, but none in the absence of smoke. The numbers ofMicrosania spp. clearly peaked in late afternoon, and ashort sampling period would be sufficient if targeting onlythis taxon. Of the almost 200 species of Coleoptera, 17 %were considered as fire-favoured, contributing 9 % of thespecimens, suggesting low efficiency of the method for thisgroup. Using 23 sites differing in fire history, catches ofMicrosania spp. were unaffected by numbers and area offorest fire (preceding 5 years and within 10 km radius overthe sampling sites). In contrast, there was a weak trend forthe proportion of fire-favoured Coleoptera to increase withincreasing number of fires. To conclude, smoke as producedin our study can clearly attract fire-favoured Diptera,but smoke had only a weak effect on fire-favoured Coleopterain the study area. It is still likely that selectivelypicking specimens of species attracted to smoke is a morecost-efficient method than using, e.g., Malaise traps thatcatch indiscriminately.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115293 (URN)10.1007/s10841-014-9742-5 (DOI)000350887700006 ()
Available from: 2015-03-12 Created: 2015-03-12 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Blixt, T., Bergman, K.-O., Milberg, P., Westerberg, L. & Jonason, D. (2015). Clear-cuts in production forests: From matrix to neo-habitat forbutterflies. Acta Oecologica, 69, 71-77.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clear-cuts in production forests: From matrix to neo-habitat forbutterflies
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2015 (English)In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 69, 71-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Butterfly conservation in Europe is mainly focused on well-defined grassland habitat patches. Such anapproach ignores the impact of the surrounding landscape, which may contain complementary resourcesand facilitate dispersal. Here, we investigated butterfly species richness and abundance in a habitatnormally regarded as unsuitable matrix: production forestry clear-cuts. Butterflies were recorded in 48clear-cuts in southern Sweden differing with regards to the time since clear-cutting and land-use history(meadow or forest based on historical maps from the 1870s). All clear-cuts had been managed as productionforests for at least 80e120 years. A total of 39 species were found in clear-cuts of both land-usehistories, but clear-cuts with a history as meadow had on average 34% higher species richness and 19%higher abundance than did clear-cuts with a history as forest. No effect of the time since clear-cuttingwas found, irrespective of land-use history, which was likely due to the narrow timespan sampled (<8years). The absence of temporal effect suggests that clear-cuts may provide butterflies with valuableresources for 10e15 years. Assuming a 100 year forest rotational cycle, this means that 10e15% of thetotal forested area are made up by clear-cuts valuable to butterflies, which corresponds to an area aboutfour times as large as that of species-rich semi-natural grasslands. The study illustrates the importance ofconsidering land-use legacies in ecological research and question the landscape-ecological view thatclear-cuts make up an unsuitable matrix for butterflies. Moreover, forest conservation management withspecial attention to land-use history may increase the quality of the landscape, thus facilitating butterflymetapopulation persistence. Given their large area and assets of nectar and host plant resources, clearcutsmust be considered as a butterfly habitat in its own right. Being a man-made environment withshort history, we might call it a neo-habitat.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Boreal forest Butterfly conservation Historical maps Land-use history Production forestry Semi-natural grasslands
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121874 (URN)10.1016/j.actao.2015.09.006 (DOI)000366079700009 ()
Available from: 2015-10-12 Created: 2015-10-12 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Florentine, S., Milberg, P., di Stefani, J., Westbrooke, M. & Graz, P. (2015). Decade-long response of arid-land mallee vegetation to fire, flooding and grazing in south-eastern Australia. Journal of Arid Environments, 121, 7-14.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decade-long response of arid-land mallee vegetation to fire, flooding and grazing in south-eastern Australia
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Arid Environments, ISSN 0140-1963, E-ISSN 1095-922X, Vol. 121, 7-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Australian arid vegetation has evolved within highly variable environments characterised by low rainfall and sporadic fire events. Episodic high rainfall events are a significant factor in plant species recruitment, but their unpredictability makes them difficult to study. We report on the response of vascular plants to a major rainfall event and flood in an arid region of south-eastern Australia. Fire that occurred two months before the flood was incorporated into the study. Paired fenced and unfenced plots were established at control locations and also in areas that had been either flooded, burnt, or flooded and burnt. Objectives were to quantify the long-term effects of fire, flood and vertebrate herbivory, and their interactions, on vegetation composition, plant life forms and species diversity. We found that relative to controls (i) there was a significant effect of flooding on vegetation composition, (ii) changes in life form abundance were driven by flooding and grazing, (iii) there was a strong positive relationship between grazer exclusion and species diversity that was maintained over time and (iv) there was little effect of fire. Understanding the long-term effects of both natural disturbances and vertebrate herbivory will benefit plant conservation in the arid zone.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118778 (URN)10.1016/j.jaridenv.2015.05.006 (DOI)000358628500002 ()
Note

We would like to thank Peter Sedgewick, Jenny Sedgewick, Dr. Fiona Christie (University of Melbourne) and Tim Simpson (Federation University Australia) for their help in the field. We would like to thank three anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback on earlier version of this manuscript. We also thank Sara Munawar for preparation of study site map. The Federation University Australia provided financial support for the 2002-2004 field work.

Available from: 2015-06-04 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Tälle, M., Wissman, J. & Milberg, P. (2015). Gräsröjaren: ett skötselalternativ i artrika gräsmarker.. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 108, 254-259.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gräsröjaren: ett skötselalternativ i artrika gräsmarker.
2015 (Swedish)In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 108, 254-259 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123635 (URN)
Available from: 2016-01-03 Created: 2016-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Bergner, A., Avci, M., Eryigit, H., Jansson, N., Niklasson, M., Westerberg, L. & Milberg, P. (2015). Influences of forest type and habitat structure on bird assemblagesof oak (Quercus spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.) stands in southwesternTurkey. Forest Ecology and Management, 336, 137-147.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influences of forest type and habitat structure on bird assemblagesof oak (Quercus spp.) and pine (Pinus spp.) stands in southwesternTurkey
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2015 (English)In: Forest Ecology and Management, ISSN 0378-1127, E-ISSN 1872-7042, Vol. 336, 137-147 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The Mediterranean basin exhibits a multitude of forest habitats affected by former and current exploitation and management. Recent afforestation programs have resulted in an increase in the proportion of coniferous trees, while oak stands, formerly utilized for coppicing and grazing, are abandoned or converted into coniferous plantations. The loss of oak stands might negatively affect birds dependent upon broadleaved forests. Studies confirming or rejecting that statement are scarce, particularly in the eastern part of the region. Using a study area in southwestern Turkey we applied a guild-based approach to investigate how pine and oak stands across a chronosequence differ in their capacity to support forest bird assemblages. Variables describing the vegetation were sampled to characterize the stands and relate bird assemblages to stand structure. Bird abundance and species richness was positively associated with age for both stand types. Richness and diversity was highest in oak stands, while there were no differences in bird abundance between the two forest types. Pine stands supported a different bird species composition compared to oak stands of the same age. Stand age and structure, rather than forest type, held the highest explanatory powers for bird assembly structure. Primary cavity-nesters and ground-nesters were more abundant in oak stands, possibly reflecting differences in stand structure and resource distribution. To support these birds with suitable habitats, oaks stands need conservation. Management practices in pine stands should strive for increasing the amount of old trees and retain vegetation in the understory to benefit breeding birds.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keyword
Birds, Forestry, Guilds, Management, Oak, Pine
National Category
Biological Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-111925 (URN)10.1016/j.foreco.2014.10.025 (DOI)000347740000015 ()
Available from: 2014-11-10 Created: 2014-11-10 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Tyler, T., Karlsson, T., Milberg, P., Sahlin, U. & Sundberg, S. (2015). Invasive plant species in the Swedish flora: Developing criteria and definitions, and assessing the invasiveness of individual taxa. Nordic Journal of Botany, 33(3), 300-317.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Invasive plant species in the Swedish flora: Developing criteria and definitions, and assessing the invasiveness of individual taxa
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2015 (English)In: Nordic Journal of Botany, ISSN 0107-055X, E-ISSN 1756-1051, Vol. 33, no 3, 300-317 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In a north European context, identifying invasive species is far from trivial because the vegetation has been influenced by human activities for thousands of years. New species have immigrated continuously since the end of the last glaciation, both spontaneously and through direct or indirect help by man. Still, newly immigrated species may be problematic in a nature conservation context and may harm biodiversity, and cause changes in ecosystem services. In this study, all 721 presently established vascular plant and bryophyte taxa known to have been introduced to, or to have immigrated to, Sweden since the year 1700 are assessed for their invasive potential. The assessment is based on six components considered relevant for their invasiveness: 1) ability to compete in natural vegetation, 2) ability to form dense populations, 3) realized dispersal ability, 4) gene flow to native relatives, 5) time since immigration and 6) distance to their native range. Although the relative importance of these components is context dependent, a compound general index of invasive concern is proposed and calculated for all taxa. The index of invasive concern is validated by comparing it to assessments by a Bayesian Belief Network in which the influences of the same six components are assigned by expert opinions. In addition, rough estimates of the present-day abundance of each taxon in Sweden are presented. The origin, biology and possible impact of the 150 taxa with the highest index values are discussed. Based on the index of invasive concern, Campylopus introflexus, Epilobium adenocaulon, E. ciliatum, Rosa rugosa, Lamiastrum galeobdolon subsp. argentatum, Orthodontium lineare, Solidago canadensis, Calystegia sepium subsp. spectabilis, Rubus armeniacus and Prunus serotina are identified as the ten most problematic alien vascular plant and bryophyte taxa in Sweden.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Wiley-Blackwell, 2015
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118777 (URN)10.1111/njb.00773 (DOI)000355734200002 ()
Available from: 2015-06-04 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Goug, L. A., Sverdrup-Thygeson, A., Milberg, P., Pilskog, H. E., Jansson, N., Jonsell, M. & Birkemoe, T. (2015). Specialists in ancient trees are more affected by climate than generalists. Ecology and Evolution, 5(23), 5632-5641.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Specialists in ancient trees are more affected by climate than generalists
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2015 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 5, no 23, 5632-5641 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ancient trees are considered one of the most important habitats for biodiversityin Europe and North America. They support exceptional numbers of specializedspecies, including a range of rare and endangered wood-living insects. In thisstudy, we use a dataset of 105 sites spanning a climatic gradient along the oakrange of Norway and Sweden to investigate the importance of temperature andprecipitation on beetle species richness in ancient, hollow oak trees. We expectedthat increased summer temperature would positively influence all wood-livingbeetle species whereas precipitation would be less important with a negligible ornegative impact. Surprisingly, only oak-specialist beetles with a northern distributionincreased in species richness with temperature. Few specialist beetles and nogeneralist beetles responded to the rise of 4°C in summer as covered by our climaticgradient. The negative effect of precipitation affected more specialist speciesthan did temperature, whereas the generalists remained unaffected. In summary,we suggest that increased summer temperature is likely to benefit a few specialistbeetles within this dead wood community, but a larger number of specialists arelikely to decline due to increased precipitation. In addition, generalist species willremain unaffected. To minimize adverse impacts of climate change on this importantcommunity, long-term management plans for ancient trees are important.

Keyword
Beetles, climate gradient, coleoptera, precipitation, saproxylic, temperature
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123377 (URN)10.1002/ece3.1799 (DOI)000367433000017 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Norwegian Environment Agency

Available from: 2015-12-14 Created: 2015-12-14 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6128-1051

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