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Milberg, P., Tälle, M., Fogelfors, H. & Westerberg, L. (2018). Corrigendum to "The biodiversity cost of reducing management intensity in species-rich grasslands: Mowing annually vs. every third year" [Basic Appl. Ecol. 22 (2017) 61-74]. Basic and Applied Ecology, 97-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Corrigendum to "The biodiversity cost of reducing management intensity in species-rich grasslands: Mowing annually vs. every third year" [Basic Appl. Ecol. 22 (2017) 61-74]
2018 (English)In: Basic and Applied Ecology, ISSN 1439-1791, E-ISSN 1618-0089, p. 97-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier GmbH, 2018
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-146180 (URN)10.1016/j.baae.2018.02.005 (DOI)000429303500010 ()2-s2.0-85042881357 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-03-29 Created: 2018-03-29 Last updated: 2018-04-26
Tälle, M., Deak, B., Poschlod, P., Valko, O., Westerberg, L. & Milberg, P. (2018). Similar effects of different mowing frequencies on the conservation value of semi-natural grasslands in Europe. Biodiversity and Conservation, 27(10), 2451-2475
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Similar effects of different mowing frequencies on the conservation value of semi-natural grasslands in Europe
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2018 (English)In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 27, no 10, p. 2451-2475Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Both agricultural intensification and abandonment have led to the loss of European semi-natural grasslands. Nature conservation management measures like mowing are essential for preserving the biodiversity of remaining grasslands. However, there are no conclusive results from studies examining effects of different mowing frequencies across Europe. To fill this gap, we evaluated data from European studies comparing mowing frequencies to determine which are the most beneficial from a nature conservation viewpoint. We searched literature for short- and long-term studies comparing the effects of different mowing frequencies on outcome measures relevant for biodiversity conservation. We found 29 relevant studies where mowing once per year was compared to higher or lower mowing frequencies. The studies covered various grassland types and organisms. The effects were analysed using response ratios, where mowing once per year, i.e. the traditional mowing frequency in semi-natural grasslands, was compared to mowing every fifth, third or second year and mowing two, three or four times a year. Overall, we found similar effects of the different mowing frequencies on the biodiversity of flora and fauna. More frequent mowing generally had a more positive effect, but differences between frequencies were small. Effects were habitat-specific, differing between site and study conditions. For example, a higher mowing frequency was more beneficial in more productive grasslands. These results suggest that in most European semi-natural grasslands, mowing less frequently is a way of using the limited funds available for management more efficiently while still maintaining grassland conservation values, but e.g. site productivity must be considered when determining a suitable mowing frequency.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SPRINGER, 2018
Keywords
Biomass removal; Cutting; Management intensity; Meadow; Meta-analysis; Species diversity
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-149680 (URN)10.1007/s10531-018-1562-6 (DOI)000436794700001 ()
Available from: 2018-07-25 Created: 2018-07-25 Last updated: 2018-08-14
Milberg, P., Bergman, K.-O., Sancak, K. & Jansson, N. (2016). Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak. Ecology and Evolution, 6(6), 1614-1625
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Assemblages of saproxylic beetles on large downed trunks of oak
2016 (English)In: Ecology and Evolution, ISSN 2045-7758, E-ISSN 2045-7758, Vol. 6, no 6, p. 1614-1625Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Old living oaks (Quercus robur) are known as a very species-rich habitat for saproxylic beetles, but it is less clear to what extent such veteran trees differ from an even rarer feature: downed trunks of large oaks. In this study, we set out to sample this habitat, using window traps, with two aims: (1) to describe the variation of assemblages among downed trunks of different type and (2) to compare beetles on downed oaks with data from veteran standing trees. The results showed that trunk volume and sun exposure better explained assemblages as well as species numbers on downed trunks than did decay stage. Furthermore, species classified as facultative saproxylic species showed weak or no differentiation among downed trunks. Species with different feeding habits showed no apparent differentiation among downed trunks. Furthermore, species composition on dead, downed oak trunks differed sharply from that of living, veteran oaks. Wood or bark feeders were more common on veterans than downed trunks, but there was no difference for those species feeding on fungi or those feeding on insects and their remains. In conclusion, for a successful conservation of the saproxylic beetle fauna it is important to keep downed oak trunks, and particularly large ones, in forest and pastures as they constitute a saproxylic habitat that differs from that of living trees.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
John Wiley & Sons, 2016
Keywords
Coleoptera, log, Quercus robur, snag, Sweden, veteran tree
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126288 (URN)10.1002/ece3.1935 (DOI)000372488300004 ()26904184 (PubMedID)
Note

Funding agencies: Eklandskapsfonden (Linkoping municipality) Ostergotland County Administration Board

Available from: 2016-03-21 Created: 2016-03-21 Last updated: 2017-11-30Bibliographically approved
Carlsson, S., Bergman, K.-O., Jansson, N., Ranius, T. & Milberg, P. (2016). Boxing for biodiversity: evaluation of an artificiallycreated decaying wood habitat. Biodiversity and Conservation, 25(2), 393-405
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Boxing for biodiversity: evaluation of an artificiallycreated decaying wood habitat
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2016 (English)In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 25, no 2, p. 393-405Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Many saproxylic species are threatened in Europe because of habitat decline.Hollow trees represent an important habitat for saproxylic species. Artificial habitats mayneed to be created to maintain or increase the amount of habitat due to natural habitat decline.This study investigated the extent to which saproxylic beetles use artificial habitats in woodenboxes. The boxes were placed at various distances (0–1800 m) from known biodiversityhotspots with hollow oaks and studied over 10 years. Boxes were mainly filled with oak sawdust, oak leaves, hay and lucerne flour. In total, 2170 specimens of 91 saproxylic beetlespecies were sampled in 43 boxes. The abundance of species associated with tree hollows,wood rot and animal nests increased from the fourth to the final year, but species richnessdeclined for all groups. This study shows that wooden boxes can function as saproxylicspecies habitats. The artificial habitats developed into a more hollow-like environment duringthe decade long experiment with fewer but more abundant tree hollow specialists.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Science+Business Media B.V., 2016
Keywords
Artificial habitats Hollow trees Intervention Saproxylic beetles Succession Wood mould
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125192 (URN)10.1007/s10531-016-1057-2 (DOI)000370137100012 ()
Note

Funding agencies:  Stiftelsen Oscar och Lili Lamms minne; Eklandskapsfonden i Linkopings kommun

Available from: 2016-02-15 Created: 2016-02-15 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Burman, J., Westerberg, L., Ostrow, S., Ryrholm, N., Bergman, K.-O., Winde, I., . . . Milberg, P. (2016). Revealing hidden species distribution with pheromones: the caseof Synanthedon vespiformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Sweden. Journal of Insect Conservation, 20(1), 11-21
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Revealing hidden species distribution with pheromones: the caseof Synanthedon vespiformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Sweden
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2016 (English)In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 11-21Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Synanthedon vespiformis L. (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae) is considered a rare insect in Sweden, discoveredin 1860, with only a few observations recorded until a sexpheromone attractant became available recently. This studydetails a national survey conducted using pheromones as asampling method for this species. Through pheromonetrapping we captured 439 specimens in Southern Sweden at77 sites, almost tripling the number of previously reportedrecords for this species. The results suggest that S. vespiformisis truly a rare species with a genuinely scattereddistribution, but can be locally abundant. Habitat analyseswere conducted in order to test the relationship betweenhabitat quality and the number of individuals caught. InSweden, S. vespiformis is thought to be associated with oakhosts, but our attempts to predict its occurrence by theabundance of oaks yielded no significant relationships. Wetherefore suggest that sampling bias and limited knowledgeon distribution may have led to the assumption that thisspecies is primarily reliant on oaks in the northern part ofits range, whereas it may in fact be polyphagous, similar toS. vespiformis found as an agricultural pest in Central andSouthern Europe. We conclude that pheromones canmassively enhance sampling potential for this and otherrare lepidopteran species. Large-scale pheromone-basedsurveys provide a snapshot of true presences and absencesacross a considerable part of a species national distributionrange, and thus for the first time provide a viable means ofsystematically assessing changes in distribution over timewith high spatiotemporal resolution.

Keywords
Ecology, Saproxylic, Moth, Indicator of species richness, Conservation, Monitoring
National Category
Ecology Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125596 (URN)10.1007/s10841-015-9835-9 (DOI)000371086000002 ()
Note

Funding agencies: Stiftelsen Eklandskapet i Linkopings kommun; Marie-Claire Cronstedts Stiftelse; Swedish WWF; Tranemala Foundation; Skogssallskapet; Region Skanes miljovardsfond; SLU Partnerskap Alnarp; IC-E3 Linnaeus grant (Formas, SLU)

Available from: 2016-02-26 Created: 2016-02-26 Last updated: 2018-10-08
Manton, M., Angelstam, P., Milberg, P. & Elbakidze, M. (2016). Wet Grasslands as a Green Infrastructure for Ecological Sustainability: Wader Conservationin Southern Sweden as a Case Study. Sustainability, 8(4), 340
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Wet Grasslands as a Green Infrastructure for Ecological Sustainability: Wader Conservationin Southern Sweden as a Case Study
2016 (English)In: Sustainability, ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 8, no 4, p. 340-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biosphere Reserves aim at being role models for biodiversity conservation. This studyfocuses on the unsuccessful conservation of waders (Charadrii) on wet grasslands in the KristianstadVattenrike Biosphere Reserve (KVBR) in southern Sweden. Predation on nests and young hasbeen proposed as one reason contributing to the decline of waders. We explored this hypothesisby comparing two landscapes, one with declining (KVBR) and one with stable (Östergötland)wader populations on managed wet grasslands in southern Sweden. Specifically, we tested threepredictions linked to predation on wader nests and young, namely that (1) the relative abundanceof avian predators and waders; (2) the avian predator abundance; and (3) the predation rate onartificial wader nests, should all be higher in declining versus stable populations. All predictionswere clearly supported. Nevertheless, predation may not be the ultimate factor causing waderpopulation declines. We discuss the cumulative effects of landscape change linked to increased foodresources for predators, reduced wet grassland patch size and quality. Holistic analyses of multiplewet grassland landscapes as social-ecological systems as case studies, including processes such aspredation and other factors affecting waders, is a promising avenue towards collaborative learningfor wet grasslands as a functional green infrastructure. However, if governance and managementapproaches can be improved is questionable without considerable investment in both ecological andsocial systems.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI, 2016
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126919 (URN)10.3390/su8040340 (DOI)000375155800050 ()
Projects
avian predation; biosphere reserve; birds of prey; charadrii; corvids; Kristianstad Vattenrike; predation; shorebirds; wet meadows
Note

Funding agencies: Swedish research council FORMAS

Available from: 2016-04-07 Created: 2016-04-07 Last updated: 2018-01-10
Milberg, P., Bergman, K.-O., Norman, H., Pettersson, R. B., Westerberg, L., Wikars, L.-O. & Jansson, N. (2015). A burning desire for smoke? Sampling insects favoured by forestfire in the absence of fire. Journal of Insect Conservation, 19(1), 55-65
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A burning desire for smoke? Sampling insects favoured by forestfire in the absence of fire
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 19, no 1, p. 55-65Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Fire-favoured insects are difficult to sampleexcept opportunistically after forest fires. Here, we tested ifsmoke from a small fire could be an efficient way to samplesuch insects. Insects were sampled over ca. 10 h hours, byhand-picking and netting on screens put up around the fire.Two specimens of the rare and redlisted Hormopeza spp.(Diptera, Empididae) were caught. Large numbers([20,000) of Microsania spp. (Diptera, Platypezidae) werecaught, but none in the absence of smoke. The numbers ofMicrosania spp. clearly peaked in late afternoon, and ashort sampling period would be sufficient if targeting onlythis taxon. Of the almost 200 species of Coleoptera, 17 %were considered as fire-favoured, contributing 9 % of thespecimens, suggesting low efficiency of the method for thisgroup. Using 23 sites differing in fire history, catches ofMicrosania spp. were unaffected by numbers and area offorest fire (preceding 5 years and within 10 km radius overthe sampling sites). In contrast, there was a weak trend forthe proportion of fire-favoured Coleoptera to increase withincreasing number of fires. To conclude, smoke as producedin our study can clearly attract fire-favoured Diptera,but smoke had only a weak effect on fire-favoured Coleopterain the study area. It is still likely that selectivelypicking specimens of species attracted to smoke is a morecost-efficient method than using, e.g., Malaise traps thatcatch indiscriminately.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer, 2015
National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-115293 (URN)10.1007/s10841-014-9742-5 (DOI)000350887700006 ()
Available from: 2015-03-12 Created: 2015-03-12 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Blixt, T., Bergman, K.-O., Milberg, P., Westerberg, L. & Jonason, D. (2015). Clear-cuts in production forests: From matrix to neo-habitat forbutterflies. Acta Oecologica, 69, 71-77
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Clear-cuts in production forests: From matrix to neo-habitat forbutterflies
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2015 (English)In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 69, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Butterfly conservation in Europe is mainly focused on well-defined grassland habitat patches. Such anapproach ignores the impact of the surrounding landscape, which may contain complementary resourcesand facilitate dispersal. Here, we investigated butterfly species richness and abundance in a habitatnormally regarded as unsuitable matrix: production forestry clear-cuts. Butterflies were recorded in 48clear-cuts in southern Sweden differing with regards to the time since clear-cutting and land-use history(meadow or forest based on historical maps from the 1870s). All clear-cuts had been managed as productionforests for at least 80e120 years. A total of 39 species were found in clear-cuts of both land-usehistories, but clear-cuts with a history as meadow had on average 34% higher species richness and 19%higher abundance than did clear-cuts with a history as forest. No effect of the time since clear-cuttingwas found, irrespective of land-use history, which was likely due to the narrow timespan sampled (<8years). The absence of temporal effect suggests that clear-cuts may provide butterflies with valuableresources for 10e15 years. Assuming a 100 year forest rotational cycle, this means that 10e15% of thetotal forested area are made up by clear-cuts valuable to butterflies, which corresponds to an area aboutfour times as large as that of species-rich semi-natural grasslands. The study illustrates the importance ofconsidering land-use legacies in ecological research and question the landscape-ecological view thatclear-cuts make up an unsuitable matrix for butterflies. Moreover, forest conservation management withspecial attention to land-use history may increase the quality of the landscape, thus facilitating butterflymetapopulation persistence. Given their large area and assets of nectar and host plant resources, clearcutsmust be considered as a butterfly habitat in its own right. Being a man-made environment withshort history, we might call it a neo-habitat.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
Keywords
Boreal forest Butterfly conservation Historical maps Land-use history Production forestry Semi-natural grasslands
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121874 (URN)10.1016/j.actao.2015.09.006 (DOI)000366079700009 ()
Available from: 2015-10-12 Created: 2015-10-12 Last updated: 2018-01-11Bibliographically approved
Florentine, S., Milberg, P., di Stefani, J., Westbrooke, M. & Graz, P. (2015). Decade-long response of arid-land mallee vegetation to fire, flooding and grazing in south-eastern Australia. Journal of Arid Environments, 121, 7-14
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decade-long response of arid-land mallee vegetation to fire, flooding and grazing in south-eastern Australia
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2015 (English)In: Journal of Arid Environments, ISSN 0140-1963, E-ISSN 1095-922X, Vol. 121, p. 7-14Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Australian arid vegetation has evolved within highly variable environments characterised by low rainfall and sporadic fire events. Episodic high rainfall events are a significant factor in plant species recruitment, but their unpredictability makes them difficult to study. We report on the response of vascular plants to a major rainfall event and flood in an arid region of south-eastern Australia. Fire that occurred two months before the flood was incorporated into the study. Paired fenced and unfenced plots were established at control locations and also in areas that had been either flooded, burnt, or flooded and burnt. Objectives were to quantify the long-term effects of fire, flood and vertebrate herbivory, and their interactions, on vegetation composition, plant life forms and species diversity. We found that relative to controls (i) there was a significant effect of flooding on vegetation composition, (ii) changes in life form abundance were driven by flooding and grazing, (iii) there was a strong positive relationship between grazer exclusion and species diversity that was maintained over time and (iv) there was little effect of fire. Understanding the long-term effects of both natural disturbances and vertebrate herbivory will benefit plant conservation in the arid zone.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2015
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-118778 (URN)10.1016/j.jaridenv.2015.05.006 (DOI)000358628500002 ()
Note

We would like to thank Peter Sedgewick, Jenny Sedgewick, Dr. Fiona Christie (University of Melbourne) and Tim Simpson (Federation University Australia) for their help in the field. We would like to thank three anonymous reviewers for their constructive feedback on earlier version of this manuscript. We also thank Sara Munawar for preparation of study site map. The Federation University Australia provided financial support for the 2002-2004 field work.

Available from: 2015-06-04 Created: 2015-06-04 Last updated: 2017-12-04
Tälle, M., Wissman, J. & Milberg, P. (2015). Gräsröjaren: ett skötselalternativ i artrika gräsmarker.. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 108, 254-259
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Gräsröjaren: ett skötselalternativ i artrika gräsmarker.
2015 (Swedish)In: Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0039-646X, Vol. 108, p. 254-259Article in journal (Refereed) Published
National Category
Ecology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123635 (URN)
Available from: 2016-01-03 Created: 2016-01-03 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-6128-1051

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