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Larsson, Petter
Publications (9 of 9) Show all publications
Pedersen, H., Larsson, P., Aijaz, A., Jensen, J. & Lundin, D. (2012). A novel high-power pulse PECVD method. Surface & Coatings Technology, 206(22), 4562-4566
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A novel high-power pulse PECVD method
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2012 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 206, no 22, p. 4562-4566Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A novel plasma enhanced CVD (PECVD) technique has been developed in order to combine energetic particle bombardment and high plasma densities found in ionized PVD with the advantages from PECVD such as a high deposition rate and the capability to coat complex and porous surfaces. In this PECVD method, an ionized plasma is generated above the substrate by means of a hollow cathode discharge. The hollow cathode is known to generate a highly ionized plasma and the discharge can be sustained in direct current (DC) mode, or in high-power pulsed (HiPP) mode using short pulses of a few tens of microsecond. The latter option is similar to the power scheme used in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), which is known to generate a high degree of ionization of the sputtered material, and thus providing new and added means for the synthesis of tailor-made thin films. In this work amorphous carbon coatings containing copper, have been deposited using both HiPP and DC operating conditions. Investigations of the bulk plasma using optical emission spectroscopy verify the presence of Ar+, C+ as well as Cu+ when running in pulsed mode. Deposition rates in the range 30 mu m/h have been obtained and the amorphous, copper containing carbon films have a low hydrogen content of 4- 5 at%. Furthermore, the results presented here suggest that a more efficient PECVD process is obtained by using a superposition of HiPP and DC mode, compared to using only DC mode at the same average input power.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Keywords
PECVD, Hollow cathode, Pulsed plasma discharges, Amorphous carbon
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-81223 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2012.05.007 (DOI)000306350600011 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Innovation Agency (VINNOVA) and Angpanneforeningens forskningsstiftelse (AForsk)||

Available from: 2012-09-10 Created: 2012-09-10 Last updated: 2017-12-07
Aiempanakit, M., Helmersson, U., Aijaz, A., Larsson, P., Magnusson, R., Jensen, J. & Kubart, T. (2011). Effect of peak power in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium dioxide. Surface & Coatings Technology, 205(20), 4828-4831
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of peak power in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium dioxide
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2011 (English)In: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 205, no 20, p. 4828-4831Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effect of peak power in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) reactive deposition of TiO(2) films has been studied with respect to the deposition rate and coating properties. With increasing peak power not only the ionization of the sputtered material increases but also their energy. In order to correlate the variation in the ion energy distributions with the film properties, the phase composition, density and optical properties of the films grown with different HiPIMS-parameters have been investigated and compared to a film grown using direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS). All experiments were performed for constant average power and pulse on time (100W and 35 mu s, respectively), different peak powers were achieved by varying the frequency of pulsing. Ion energy distributions for Ti and O and its dependence on the process conditions have been studied. It was found that films with the highest density and highest refractive index were grown under moderate HiPIMS conditions (moderate peak powers) resulting in only a small loss in mass-deposition rate compared to DCMS. It was further found that TiO2 films with anatase and rutile phases can be grown at room temperature without substrate heating and without post-deposition annealing.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam., 2011
Keywords
HiPIMS; Titanium dioxide; Rutile; Anatase; Reactive sputtering; TiO(2)
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-69795 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.04.071 (DOI)000292361400013 ()
Note

Original Publication: Montri Aiempanakit, Ulf Helmersson, Asim Aijaz, Petter Larsson, Roger Magnusson, Jens Jensen and Tomas Kubart, Effect of peak power in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of titanium dioxide, 2011, Surface & Coatings Technology, (205), 20, 4828-4831. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surfcoat.2011.04.071 Copyright: Elsevier Science B.V., Amsterdam. http://www.elsevier.com/

Available from: 2011-08-10 Created: 2011-08-08 Last updated: 2017-12-08
Aiempanakit, M., Kubart, T., Larsson, P., Sarakinos, K., Jensen, J. & Helmersson, U. (2011). Hysteresis and process stability in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of metal oxides. Thin Solid Films, 519(22), 7779-7784
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hysteresis and process stability in reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering of metal oxides
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2011 (English)In: Thin Solid Films, ISSN 0040-6090, E-ISSN 1879-2731, Vol. 519, no 22, p. 7779-7784Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the further development of reactive sputter deposition, strategies which allow for stabilization of the transition zone between the metallic and compound modes, elimination of the process hysteresis, and increase of the deposition rate, are of particular interest. In this study, the hysteresis behavior and the characteristics of the transition zone during reactive high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) of Al and Ce targets in an Ar-O(2) atmosphere as a function of the pulsing frequency and the pumping speed are investigated. Comparison with reactive direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) reveals that HiPIMS allows for elimination/suppression of the hysteresis and a smoother transition from the metallic to the compound sputtering mode. For the experimental conditions employed in the present study, optimum behavior with respect to the hysteresis width is obtained at frequency values between 2 and 4 kHz, while HiPIMS processes with values below or above this range resemble the DCMS behavior. Al-O films are deposited using both HiPIMS and DCMS. Analysis of the film properties shows that elimination/suppression of the hysteresis in HiPIMS facilitates the growth of stoichiometric and transparent Al(2)O(3) at relatively high deposition rates over a wider range of experimental conditions as compared to DCMS.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keywords
Reactive sputtering, High power impulse magnetron sputtering, Aluminum oxide, Cerium oxide, Hysteresis, Process stability
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-71797 (URN)10.1016/j.tsf.2011.06.021 (DOI)000295057000027 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Research Council (VR)|621-2008-3222|Strategic Research Center in Materials Science for Nanoscale Surface Engineering (MS2E)||Ministry of Science and Technology, Thailand||VR|623-2009-7348|

Available from: 2011-11-04 Created: 2011-11-04 Last updated: 2017-12-08
Ekholm, M., Larsson, P., Alling, B., Helmersson, U. & Abrikosov, I. (2010). Ab initio calculations and synthesis of the off-stoichiometric half-Heusler phase Ni1-xMn1+xSb. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 108(9)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ab initio calculations and synthesis of the off-stoichiometric half-Heusler phase Ni1-xMn1+xSb
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2010 (English)In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 108, no 9Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

We perform a combined theoretical and experimental study of the phase stability and magnetism of the off-stoichiometric Ni1-xMn1+xSb in the half-Heusler crystal phase. Our work is motivated by the need for strategies to engineer the magnetism of potentially half-metallic materials, such as NiMnSb, for improved performance at elevated temperatures. By means of ab initio calculations we investigate Ni1-xMn1+xSb over the whole composition range 0 andlt;= x andlt;= 1 of Ni replacing Mn and show that at relevant temperatures, the half-Heusler phase should be thermodynamically stable up to at least x=0.20 with respect to the competing C38 structure of Mn2Sb. Furthermore we find that half-Heusler Ni1-xMn1+xSb retains half-metallic band structure over the whole concentration range and that the magnetic moments of substitutional Mn-Ni atoms display magnetic exchange interactions an order of magnitude larger than the Ni-Mn interaction in NiMnSb. We also demonstrate experimentally that the alloys indeed can be created by synthesizing off-stoichiometric Ni1-xMn1+xSb films on MgO substrates by means of magnetron sputtering.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
American Institute of Physics, 2010
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-63149 (URN)10.1063/1.3476282 (DOI)000284270900068 ()
Note
Original Publication: Marcus Ekholm, Petter Larsson, Björn Alling, Ulf Helmersson and Igor Abrikosov, Ab initio calculations and synthesis of the off-stoichiometric half-Heusler phase Ni1-xMn1+xSb, 2010, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, (108), 9, 093712. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3476282 Copyright: American Institute of Physics http://www.aip.org/Available from: 2010-12-13 Created: 2010-12-13 Last updated: 2015-08-19Bibliographically approved
Aijaz, A., Lundin, D., Larsson, P. & Helmersson, U. (2010). Dual-magnetron open field sputtering system for sideways deposition of thin films. SURFACE and COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, 204(14), 2165-2169
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dual-magnetron open field sputtering system for sideways deposition of thin films
2010 (English)In: SURFACE and COATINGS TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0257-8972, Vol. 204, no 14, p. 2165-2169Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

A dual-magnetron system for deposition inside tubular substrates has been developed. The two magnetrons are facing each other and have opposing magnetic fields forcing electrons and thereby also ionized material to be transported radially towards the substrate. The depositions were made employing direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) and high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS). To optimize the deposition rate, the system was characterized at different separation distances between the magnetrons under the same sputtering conditions. The deposition rate is found to increase with increasing separation distance independent of discharge technique. The emission spectrum from the HiPIMS plasma shows a highly ionized fraction of the sputtered material. The electron densities of the order of 10(16) m(-3) and 10(18) m(-3) have been determined in the DCMS and the HiPIMS plasma discharges respectively. The results demonstrate a successful implementation of the concept of sideways deposition of thin films providing a solution for coating complex shaped surfaces.

Keywords
Dual-magnetron, Open field configuration, Sideways deposition, HiPIMS, HPPMS, DCMS
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-54766 (URN)10.1016/j.surfcoat.2009.11.044 (DOI)000275920900009 ()
Available from: 2010-04-09 Created: 2010-04-09 Last updated: 2015-05-28
Gudmundsson, J. T., Sigurjonsson, P., Larsson, P., Lundin, D. & Helmersson, U. (2009). On the electron energy in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge. JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, 105(12)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>On the electron energy in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge
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2009 (English)In: JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, ISSN 0021-8979, Vol. 105, no 12Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The temporal variation of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) was measured with a Langmuir probe in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge at 3 and 20 mTorr pressures. In the HiPIMS discharge a high power pulse is applied to a planar magnetron giving a high electron density and highly ionized sputtered vapor. The measured EEDF is Maxwellian-like during the pulse; it is broader for lower discharge pressure and it becomes narrower as the pulse progresses. This indicates that the plasma cools as the pulse progresses, probably due to high metal content of the discharge.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-20224 (URN)10.1063/1.3151953 (DOI)
Note

Original Publication: J T Gudmundsson, P. Sigurjonsson, Petter Larsson, Daniel Lundin and Ulf Helmersson, On the electron energy in the high power impulse magnetron sputtering discharge, 2009, JOURNAL OF APPLIED PHYSICS, (105), 12, 123302. http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.3151953 Copyright: American Institute of Physics http://www.aip.org/

Available from: 2009-09-02 Created: 2009-08-31 Last updated: 2015-05-28
Lundin, D., Brenning, N., Jädernäs, D., Larsson, P., Wallin, E., Lattemann, M., . . . Helmersson, U. (2009). Transition between the discharge regimes of high power impulse magnetron sputtering and conventional direct current magnetron sputtering. PLASMA SOURCES SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY, 18(4), 045008
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Transition between the discharge regimes of high power impulse magnetron sputtering and conventional direct current magnetron sputtering
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2009 (English)In: PLASMA SOURCES SCIENCE and TECHNOLOGY, ISSN 0963-0252, Vol. 18, no 4, p. 045008-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Current and voltage have been measured in a pulsed high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) system for discharge pulses longer than 100 mu s. Two different current regimes could clearly be distinguished during the pulses: (1) a high-current transient followed by (2) a plateau at lower currents. These results provide a link between the HiPIMS and the direct current magnetron sputtering (DCMS) discharge regimes. At high applied negative voltages the high-current transient had the characteristics of HiPIMS pulses, while at lower voltages the plateau values agreed with currents in DCMS using the same applied voltage. The current behavior was found to be strongly correlated with the chamber gas pressure, where increasing gas pressure resulted in increasing peak current and plateau current. Based on these experiments it is suggested here that the high-current transients cause a depletion of the working gas in the area in front of the target, and thereby a transition to a DCMS-like high-voltage, lower current regime.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-51382 (URN)10.1088/0963-0252/18/4/045008 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-30 Created: 2009-10-30 Last updated: 2015-05-28
Lundin, D., Larsson, P., Wallin, E., Lattemann, M., Brenning, N. & Helmersson, U. (2008). Cross-field ion transport during high power impulse magnetron sputtering. Plasma Sources Science and Technology, 17(035021)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Cross-field ion transport during high power impulse magnetron sputtering
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2008 (English)In: Plasma Sources Science and Technology, ISSN 0963-0252, Vol. 17, no 035021Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, the effect on thin film growth due to an anomalous electron transport, found in high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS), has been investigated for the case of a planar circular magnetron. An important consequence of this type of transport is that it affects the way ions are being transported in the plasma. It was found that a significant fraction of ions are transported radially outwards in the vicinity of the cathode, across the magnetic field lines, leading to increased deposition rates directly at the side of the cathode (perpendicular to the target surface). Furthermore, this mass transport parallel to the target surface leads to that the fraction of sputtered material reaching a substrate placed directly in front of the target is substantially lower in HiPIMS compared with conventional direct current magnetron sputtering (dcMS). This would help to explain the lower deposition rates generally observed for HiPIMS compared with dcMS. Moreover, time-averaged mass spectrometry measurements of the energy distribution of the cross-field transported ions were carried out. The measured distributions show a direction-dependent high-energy tail, in agreement with predictions of the anomalous transport mechanism.

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13209 (URN)10.1088/0963-0252/17/3/035021 (DOI)
Note
Original Publication: Daniel Lundin, Petter Larsson, Erik Wallin, Martina Lattemann, Nils Brenning and Ulf Helmersson, Cross-field ion transport during high power impulse magnetron sputtering, 2008, Plasma Sources Science and Technology, (17), 035021. http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/0963-0252/17/3/035021 Copyright: Iop Publishing http://www.iop.org/ Available from: 2009-02-26 Created: 2009-02-26 Last updated: 2013-10-30Bibliographically approved
Aiempanakit, M., Lundin, D., Larsson, P., Jädernäs, D. & Helmersson, U. (2008). Effects on deposition rate when varying the magnetic field strength in magnetron sputtering. In: 14th International Congress on Thin Films,2008.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects on deposition rate when varying the magnetic field strength in magnetron sputtering
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2008 (English)In: 14th International Congress on Thin Films,2008, 2008Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Poster

National Category
Natural Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-44564 (URN)77104 (Local ID)77104 (Archive number)77104 (OAI)
Available from: 2009-10-10 Created: 2009-10-10 Last updated: 2013-10-30
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