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Brüggemann, A. J., Forsberg, C., Colnerud, G., Wijma, B. & Thornberg, R. (2019). Bystander passivity in health care and school settings: Moral disengagement, moral distress, and opportunities for moral education. Journal of Moral Education, 48(2), 199-213
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bystander passivity in health care and school settings: Moral disengagement, moral distress, and opportunities for moral education
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Moral Education, ISSN 0305-7240, E-ISSN 1465-3877, Vol. 48, no 2, p. 199-213Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Bystander passivity has received increased attention in the prevention of interpersonal harm, but it is poorly understood in many settings. In this article we explore bystander passivity in three settings based on existing literature: patient abuse in health care; bullying among schoolchildren; and oppressive treatment of students by teachers. Throughout the article we develop a theoretical approach that connects Obermann's unconcerned and guiltybystanders to theories of moral disengagement and moral distress respectively. Despite differences between the three settings, we show striking similarities between processes of disengagement, indicators of distress, and the constraints for intervention that bystanders identify. In relation to this, we discuss moral educational efforts that aim to strengthen bystanders’ moral agency in health care and school settings. Many efforts emphasize shared problem descriptions and collective responsibilities. As challenging as such efforts may be, there can be much to gain in terms of welfare and justice.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2019
Keywords
bystander passivity, moral disengagement, moral distress, school, health care
National Category
Social Psychology Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150900 (URN)10.1080/03057240.2018.1471391 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049631558 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-04 Created: 2018-09-04 Last updated: 2019-04-17Bibliographically approved
Brüggemann, J., Forsberg, C. & Thornberg, R. (2019). Re-negotiating agency: patients using comics to reflect upon acting in situations of abuse in health care. BMC Health Services Research, 19(1), Article ID 58.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Re-negotiating agency: patients using comics to reflect upon acting in situations of abuse in health care
2019 (English)In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 58Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background

There is a growing body of international research that displays the prevalence and character of abuse in health care. Even though most of these studies are conducted from a patient perspective little is known about how patients conceptualize their agency in relation to such situations. This study aimed to explore how patients reason about their potential to act in abusive situations.

Methods

Qualitative interviews were conducted with thirteen patients in Sweden. Central in the interviews were three comics, inspired by Boal’s Forum Theatre and part of an earlier online intervention study in which the informants had participated. Each comic showed a situation in which a patient feels abused, and on the opposite side were suggestions for how the patient could act in response. Informants were asked to reflect about situations of abuse and in specific upon the comics. We used the methodology of constructivist grounded theory throughout the study, including the analysis.

Results

It appeared that the informants constantly re-negotiated their and other patients’ agency in relation to the specifics of the event, patients’ and staff’s responsibilities, and the patients’ needs and values. This process questions views of agency as fixed and self-evident, and can be understood as part of changing discourses about patients’ social role and possibilities to organize their care. Using a feminist theory of power we expected the informants to elicit instances of resistance to domination, which is central to the comics. While doing that, the informants also hinted at parallel stories of empowerment and less visible forms of agency in spite of domination.

Conclusion

The current analysis showed different ways in which the informants constantly re-negotiated their agency in potentially abusive situations. Not only did the informants engage in reflections about immediate responses to these untoward situations, they also engaged in thoughts about strategies that could protect them and counteract abuse in health care over the long-term. This opens up for future research into ways patients organize their care and identify threats and barriers to the care they need, which could be valuable knowledge for care quality improvement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
BioMed Central, 2019
Keywords
Patient agency; Abuse in health care; Constructivist grounded theory; Comics; Sweden
National Category
Medical Ethics Nursing Health Care Service and Management, Health Policy and Services and Health Economy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-154028 (URN)10.1186/s12913-019-3902-y (DOI)000456529800006 ()30674310 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85060371005 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-24 Created: 2019-01-24 Last updated: 2019-03-01Bibliographically approved
Thornberg, R., Landgren, L. & Wiman, E. (2018). It Depends': A qualitative study on how adolescent students explain bystander intervention and non-intervention in bullying situations. School Psychology International, 39(4), 400-415
Open this publication in new window or tab >>It Depends': A qualitative study on how adolescent students explain bystander intervention and non-intervention in bullying situations
2018 (English)In: School Psychology International, ISSN 0143-0343, E-ISSN 1461-7374, Vol. 39, no 4, p. 400-415Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the current study was to examine how junior high school students interpret, motivate, and explain various bystander behaviors in bullying situations. The participants were 17 junior high school students recruited from four schools in Sweden. Semi-structured interviews were conducted and analysed with grounded theory methods. The analysis generated a conceptual model of bystander interpreting-considering process in school bullying. A core category named it depends' was developed to explain how the participants in the study motivated their own and their peers' actions as bystanders in various bullying situations. Whether they intervened or not depended on how they interpreted the situation in terms of: (a) seriousness of the situation, including trivialization; (b) social relationships with the involved; (c) locus of responsibility, including displacement of responsibility, and victim blame; (d) social status; (e) perception of risk; and (f) defender self-efficacy. The implications of these results for bullying prevention and intervention efforts are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
SAGE PUBLICATIONS LTD, 2018
Keywords
bullying; bystander; defender; displacement of responsibility; victim blame
National Category
Didactics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150218 (URN)10.1177/0143034318779225 (DOI)000440690900004 ()
Available from: 2018-08-22 Created: 2018-08-22 Last updated: 2019-03-05
Bouchard, K., Forsberg, C., Smith, D. J. & Thornberg, R. (2018). Showing friendship. fighting back, and getting even: resisting bullying victimisation within adolescent girls´friendships. Journal of Youth Studies, 21(9), 1141-1158
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Showing friendship. fighting back, and getting even: resisting bullying victimisation within adolescent girls´friendships
2018 (English)In: Journal of Youth Studies, ISSN 1367-6261, E-ISSN 1469-9680, Vol. 21, no 9, p. 1141-1158Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Research suggests that about a quarter of bullying incidences occur within friendships. Yet little attention is given to the underlying social processes and wider macro-system forces that shape friendship victimization experiences. Guided by constructivist grounded theory and Wade's work on resistance, this research explored the phenomenon of victimization within adolescent girls’ friendships. Canadian women reflecting on their school-based victimization experiences were interviewed for this study. Results suggest that participants resisted victimization in important ways but that their resistance strategies were negotiated within gender expectations and ambient discursive constructions of resistance and victimization. Our findings illuminate the ways that discourses concealing women's resistance and privileging overt responses to bullying run counter to gendered expectations for resistance, leaving women in a double bind. Consequently, we found that retaliatory relational aggression allowed girls to deny their victim status while complying with gendered expectations for resistance but led to their bullying experiences being normalized and overlooked.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Routledge, 2018
Keywords
Resistance, bullying, victimization, qualitative, friendship, gender
National Category
Sociology (excluding Social Work, Social Psychology and Social Anthropology) Social Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-150901 (URN)10.1080/13676261.2018.1450970 (DOI)000444091200001 ()2-s2.0-85044073563 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-04 Created: 2018-09-04 Last updated: 2018-10-04Bibliographically approved
Lindqvist, H., Weurlander, M., Wernerson, A. & Thornberg, R. (2018). Talk of Teacher Burnout among Student Teachers.. In: : . Paper presented at 2018 Annual Meeting of AERA, New York, USA. April 13 – April 17, 2018..
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Talk of Teacher Burnout among Student Teachers.
2018 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation only (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Student teachers recurrently and spontaneously talk of burnout when considering coping with future teacher duties. The following paper aims to investigate how student teachers relate to the concept of burnout before starting to teach. In this qualitative constructivist grounded theory, data material from four focus groups and 52 semi-structured interviews (N=67) were analyzed. Findings reveal that student teachers use the concepts of burnout as the ultimate and potential risk of not being able to cope with future teacher duties. In using this talk of teachers as prone to suffer burnout, student teachers portrayed the work of teaching as negotiations of individual boundaries to protect against work demands. The student teachers saw these negotiations as part of future teaching endeavors.

National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-147546 (URN)
Conference
2018 Annual Meeting of AERA, New York, USA. April 13 – April 17, 2018.
Available from: 2018-04-25 Created: 2018-04-25 Last updated: 2018-05-18
Thornberg, R., Wänström, L., Hong, J. S. & Espelage, D. (2017). Classroom Relationship Qualities and Social-Cognitive Correlates of Defending and Passive Bystanding in School Bullying in Sweden: A Multilevel Analysis. Journal of School Psychology, 63, 49-62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Classroom Relationship Qualities and Social-Cognitive Correlates of Defending and Passive Bystanding in School Bullying in Sweden: A Multilevel Analysis
2017 (English)In: Journal of School Psychology, ISSN 0022-4405, E-ISSN 1873-3506, ISSN 0022-4405, Vol. 63, p. 49-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Using the social-ecological and social cognitive theories as integrated guiding frameworks, the present study examined whether moral disengagement and defender self-efficacy at the individual level, and moral disengagement, quality of teacher–student relationships and quality of student–student relationships at the classroom level were associated with passive bystanding and defending in bullying situations. Participants were 900 Swedish students from 43 classrooms, ranging in age from 9 to 13 years. Multilevel regression analyses revealed that passive reactions by bystanders were associated with greater moral disengagement and less defender self-efficacy. Defending, in turn, was associated with less moral disengagement and greater defender self-efficacy and classroom student–student relationship quality. Furthermore, students who scored high in moral disengagement were even less prone to defend victims when the classroom student–student relationship quality was low, but more prone to act as defenders when the classroom student–student relationship quality was high. In addition, the negative association between defender self-efficacy and passive bystanding was stronger both in classrooms with higher student–student relationship quality and in those with lower class moral disengagement. Implications for prevention are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2017
Keywords
Classroom climate, Bullying, Bystander, Self-efficacy, Moral disengagement
National Category
Psychology (excluding Applied Psychology)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-141873 (URN)10.1016/j.jsp.2017.03.002 (DOI)000405061800004 ()28633938 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85016810702 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-10-11 Created: 2017-10-11 Last updated: 2017-10-17Bibliographically approved
Charmaz, K., Thornberg, R. & Keane, E. (2017). Evolving grounded theory and social justice inquiry (5ed.). In: Norman K. Denzin & Yvonna S. Lincoln (Ed.), The SAGE handbook of qualitative research: . Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Evolving grounded theory and social justice inquiry
2017 (English)In: The SAGE handbook of qualitative research / [ed] Norman K. Denzin & Yvonna S. Lincoln, Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2017, 5Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 2017 Edition: 5
Keywords
grounded theory, constructivist grounded theory, qualitative analysis, qualitative method, qualitative methodology, qualitative research, grundad teori, konstruktivistisk grundad teori, kvalitativ analys, kvalitativ metod, kvalitativ forskning
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126966 (URN)
Available from: 2016-04-09 Created: 2016-04-09 Last updated: 2017-01-17
Thornberg, R. (2017). Grounded theory. In: Dominic Wyse, Neil Selwyn, Emma Smith, Larry E. Suter (Ed.), The BERA/SAGE handbook of educational research: (pp. 355-375). London: Sage Publications
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Grounded theory
2017 (English)In: The BERA/SAGE handbook of educational research / [ed] Dominic Wyse, Neil Selwyn, Emma Smith, Larry E. Suter, London: Sage Publications, 2017, p. 355-375Chapter in book (Refereed)
Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: Sage Publications, 2017
Keywords
grounded theory, Glaserian grounded theory, classic grounded theory, Straussian grounded theory, constructivist grounded theory, qualitative analysis, qualitative method, qualitative methodology, qualitative research, grundad teori, Glaser, Strauss, Corbin, konstruktivistisk grundad teori, Charmaz, kvalitativ analys, kvalitativ metod, kvalitativ forskning
National Category
Educational Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126967 (URN)9781473918917 (ISBN)
Available from: 2016-04-09 Created: 2016-04-09 Last updated: 2017-11-08Bibliographically approved
Thornberg, R., Wänström, L. & Pozzoli, T. (2017). Peer victimisation and its relation to class relational climate and class moral disengagement. Educational Psychology, 37(5), 524-536
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Peer victimisation and its relation to class relational climate and class moral disengagement
2017 (English)In: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 37, no 5, p. 524-536Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of the present study was to examine whether class climate and class moral disengagement each contribute to explain different levels of victimisation among classes. Eight-hundred-and-ninety-nine children from 43 Swedish elementary school classes participated in the current study. Class moral disengagement, class relational climate and peer victimisation were assessed by a self-report questionnaire. In order to account for the clustered nature of the data with students nested within school classes, a multilevel regression model was analysed. Consistent with our hypotheses, and after controlling for age, gender and ethnic background at the individual level and class size and the proportion of boys at the class level, both class relational climate and class moral disengagement uniquely contributed to explaining the between-class variance in victimisation. Thus, the findings suggested that victimisation is less likely to occur in classes characterised by a positive, warm, fair and supportive relational pattern between children and between teachers and children, and by lower levels of class moral disengagement.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
victimization, aggression, bullying, classroom climate, class relational climate, moral disengagement, class moral disengagement, moral climate, mobbning, kränkningar, utsatthet, viktimisering, klassklimat, socialt klimat, moraliskt disengagemang, moral
National Category
Pedagogy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126961 (URN)10.1080/01443410.2016.1150423 (DOI)000399327200002 ()
Note

Funding agencies: The Swedish Research Council [D0775301]

Available from: 2016-04-09 Created: 2016-04-09 Last updated: 2017-05-05
Thornberg, R., Birberg Thornberg, U., Alamaa, R. & Daud, N. (2016). Children’s conceptions of bullying and repeated conventional transgressions: Moral, conventional, structuring and personal-choice reasoning. Educational Psychology, 36(1), 95-111
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Children’s conceptions of bullying and repeated conventional transgressions: Moral, conventional, structuring and personal-choice reasoning
2016 (English)In: Educational Psychology, ISSN 0144-3410, E-ISSN 1469-5820, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 95-111Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study examined 307 elementary school children’s judgements and reasoning about bullying and other repeated transgressions when school rules regulating these transgressions have been removed in hypothetical school situations. As expected, children judged bullying (repeated moral transgressions) as wrong independently of rules and as more wrong than all the other repeated transgressions. They justified their judgement in terms of harm that the actions caused. Moreover, whereas children tended to judge repeated structuring transgressions as wrong independently of rules (but to a lesser degree than when they evaluated bullying) and justified their judgements in terms of the disruptive, obstructive or disturbing effects that the actions caused, they tended to accept repeated etiquette transgressions by arguing that the acts had no negative effects or simply that the rule had been removed. The findings confirm as well as extend previous social-cognitive domain research on children’s socio-moral reasoning.

Keywords
bullying, aggression, domain theory, moral development, moral reasoning, moral judgement, rule transgression, school rules, moral education, mobbning, domänteori, moral, etik, värdepedagogik, värdegrund, skolregler, regelöverträdelse
National Category
Pedagogy Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-123713 (URN)10.1080/01443410.2014.915929 (DOI)000366730500005 ()
Available from: 2016-01-10 Created: 2016-01-10 Last updated: 2017-12-01
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-9233-3862

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