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Borén, S., Nurhadi, L., Ny, H., Robért, K.-H., Broman, G. & Trygg, L. (2017). A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development – part 2: the case of a vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden. Journal of Cleaner Production, 140, 62-71
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A strategic approach to sustainable transport system development – part 2: the case of a vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 140, p. 62-71Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Electric vehicles seem to offer a great potential for sustainable transport development. The Swedish pioneer project GreenCharge Southeast is designed as a cooperative action research approach that aims to explore a roadmap for a fossil-free transport system by 2030 with a focus on electric vehicles. In the first paper of this tandem publication, the authors propose a new generic process model embedding the Framework of Strategic Sustainable Development. The purpose of applying it in an action-research mode as described in this paper was twofold: (i) to develop a vision for sustainable regional transport and a coarse roadmap towards that vision, and, while doing so, (ii) get additional empirical experiences to inform the development of the new generic process model. Experts from many sectors and organizations involved in the GreenCharge project provided vital information and reviewed all planning perspectives presented in Paper 1 in two sequential multi-stakeholder seminars. The results include a sustainable vision for electric vehicle systems in southeast Sweden within a sustainable regional transport system within a sustainable global society, as well as an initial development plan towards such a vision for the transport sector. The vision is framed by the universal sustainability principles, and the development plan is informed by the strategic guidelines, of the above-mentioned framework. Among other things, the vision and plan imply a shift to renewable energy and a more optimized use of areas and thus a new type of spatial planning. For example, the vision and plan implies a lower built-in demand for transport, more integrated traffic modes, and more multi-functional use of areas for energy and transport infrastructures, for example. Some inherent benefits of electric vehicles are highlighted in the vision and plan, including near-zero local emissions and flexibility as regards primary energy sources. The vision and plan also imply improved governance for more effective cross-sector collaboration to ensure coordinated development within the transport sector and between the transportation sector and other relevant sectors. Meanwhile, the new generic process model was refined and is ready to be applied and further tested in the GreenCharge project and in other projects within the transport sector as well as other sectors. The study confirmed that the new generic process model suggested in support of sustainable transport system and community development is helpful for giving diverse stakeholders, with various specialties and perspectives, a way of working that is goal-oriented and builds on effective, iterative learning loops and co-creation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2017
Keywords
Sustainability;Cross-sector;Traffic;Electric vehicles;planning;Vision
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125788 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2016.02.055 (DOI)000388775100007 ()
Available from: 2016-03-03 Created: 2016-03-03 Last updated: 2017-11-30
Trygg, L., Blomqvist, S., La Fleur, L. & Rosén, T. (2016). Hållbar Region Etapp 1: Energibolag och fastighetsbolag i samverkan. Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hållbar Region Etapp 1: Energibolag och fastighetsbolag i samverkan
2016 (Swedish)Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
Abstract [sv]

Syfte

Projekt Hållbar region har som syfte att visa hur energibolag och fastighetsbolag tillsammans kan driva utvecklingen till en hållbar och resurseffektiv region med minskad primärenergianvändning och minskad klimatpåverkan för fastighetsägare och energibolag. Projektet drivs av Linköpings universitet i nära samarbete med projektets partner och består av forskning av det sammansatta energisystemet av energibolag och större fastighetsbolag. Utifrån olika framtida scenarioalternativ studeras olika åtgärders effekt på pimärenergi och klimatpåverkan för det totala regionala energisystemet.

Partner

Under etapp 1 av projektet har, utöver Linköpings universitet, två energibolag samt fem större fastighetsägare varit aktiva inom projektet. Dessa är:

  • Akademiska Hus 
  • E.ON Sverige AB
  • Fastighets AB L E Lundbergs
  • Lejonfastigheter AB
  • AB Stångåstaden
  • Tekniska verken i Linköping AB
  • ÖrebroBostäder AB

Genomförande

Projektet har genomförts med gemensamma workshops samt med systemoptimering av det sammankopplade fjärrvärmesystemet av både tillförsel och efterfrågan. Modelleringar har utförs i programmen OPERA, IDA ICE och MODEST. Workshoparna har fungerat som kreativa övningar där utmaningar och behov identifieras och där sedan tidiga projektresultat har spridits och diskuterats. I workshoparna har det underlag som legat till grund för projektets frågeställningar itereras och förfinas kontinuerligt. Beräkningar har sedan utförts genom systemoptimeringar av frågeställningar baserat på det underlag som framkommit vid workshoparna. I samtliga workshopar har representanter från partner inom projektet deltagit.

Resultat

Resultatet från projektet kan sammanfattas i följande punkter:

  • Klimatskalsåtgärder samt introduktion av FTX i de fjärvärmeanslutna fastigheterna i studien (fall 3) leder till halverat fjärrvärmebehov och ökade utsläpp av globala CO2eq med ca 1 300 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
  • Klimatskalsåtgärder samt FTX i de värmepumpsanslutna fastigheterna leder till minskat elbehov med 38% och minskade utsläpp av CO2eq med ca 13 000 ton för en sammanlagd bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
  • När FTX introduceras samtidigt som klimatskalsåtgärder genomförs i de fjärrvärmeanslutna fastigheterna i studien minskar effektbehovet med 28%.
  • När FTX introduceras samtidigt som klimatskalsåtgärder genomförs i de värmepumpsanslutna fastigheterna minskar effektbehovet med 37%.
  • Byte av värmekälla från fjärrvärme till värmepump leder till ökade globaka utsläpp av CO2eq med ca 22 000 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
  • Byte från fjärrvärme till värmepump i de fastigheter som genomfört både klimatåtgärder samt introducerat FTX ökar de globala utsläppen av CO2eq med ca 8 000 ton för en bostadsyta på 273 000 m2.
  • Om 500 000 nya fastigheter, med en sammanlagd bostadsyta på 50 000 000 m2, byggs enligt BBRs krav på nära-nollenergibyggnader innebär uppvärmning med fjärrvärme istället för uppvärmning med värmepump att kraftbalansen förbättras med motsvarande ca 1 900 GWh/år.
  • 1 kWh fjärrvärme har inte samma värde som 1 kWh el. För att ta hänsyn till att el är en mer högvärdig energibärare bör en primärenergifaktor på 2,5 användas för el. När primärenergi inkluderas i jämförelse mellan att värma en fastighet med fjärrvärme eller med värmepump leder alternativet med fjärrvärme till en lägre energianvändning, och följaktligen till lägre globala emissioner av CO2eq.

Fortsatt arbete - etapp 2

Projekt Hållbar region fortsätter med en etapp 2 där fokus kommer att ligga på tjänstedrivna affärsmodeller samt studier av hinder och drivkrafter för att genomföra identifierade lönsamma åtgärder för energibolag och fastighetsägare.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2016. p. 32
Keywords
Hållbar region, energisystem, samverkan, energibolag, fastighetsbolag, systemperspektiv, fjärrvärme, simulering, optimering, modellerande
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-152545 (URN)
Note

Delrapport 1 från forskningsprojektet Hållbar region vid Linköpings universitet.

Available from: 2018-11-06 Created: 2018-11-06 Last updated: 2018-11-16Bibliographically approved
Lidberg, T., Olofsson, T. & Trygg, L. (2016). System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment within a district heated region. Energy, 106, 45-53
Open this publication in new window or tab >>System impact of energy efficient building refurbishment within a district heated region
2016 (English)In: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442;1873-6785, Vol. 106, p. 45-53Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The energy efficiency of the European building stock needs to be increased in order to fulfill the climate goals of the European Union. To be able to evaluate the impact of energy efficient refurbishment in matters of greenhouse gas emissions, it is necessary to apply a system perspective where not only the building but also the surrounding energy system is taken into consideration.

This study examines the impact that energy efficient refurbishment of multi-family buildings has on the district heating and the electricity production. It also investigates the impact on electricity utilization and emissions of greenhouse gases.

The results from the simulation of four energy efficiency building refurbishment packages were used to evaluate the impact on the district heating system. The packages were chosen to show the difference between refurbishment actions that increase the use of electricity when lowering the heat demand, and actions that lower the heat demand without increasing the electricity use. The energy system cost optimization modeling tool MODEST (Model for Optimization of Dynamic Energy Systems with Time-Dependent Components and Boundary Conditions) was used.

When comparing two refurbishment packages with the same annual district heating use, this study shows that a package including changes in the building envelope decreases the greenhouse gas emissions more than a package including ventilation measures.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Pergamon Press, 2016
Keywords
Energy efficiency; District heating system; Refurbishment; Simulation; Greenhouse gases; Buildings
National Category
Other Environmental Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-126774 (URN)10.1016/j.energy.2016.03.043 (DOI)000378659700005 ()
Note

Funding agencies:The authors would like to thank Ricardo Ramirez Villegas from Byggpartner i Dalarna AB for significant help with the building simulations and Malin Karlsson from AB Borlange Energi and Goran Ugrenovic from AB Stora Tunabyggen for contributing with their professional advice. The work has been carried out under the auspices of the industrial post-graduate school Reesbe, which is financed by the Knowledge Foundation, 20120273 (KK-stiftelsen).

Available from: 2016-04-05 Created: 2016-04-05 Last updated: 2018-03-19
Djuric Ilic, D. & Trygg, L. (2014). Economic and environmental benefits of converting industrial processes to district heating. Energy Conversion and Management, 87, 305-317
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Economic and environmental benefits of converting industrial processes to district heating
2014 (English)In: Energy Conversion and Management, ISSN 0196-8904, E-ISSN 1879-2227, Vol. 87, p. 305-317Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study is to analyse the possibilities of converting production and support processes from electricity and fossil fuels to district heating in 83 manufacturing companies in three different Swedish counties. A tool for heat load analysis called Method for Heat Load Analysis (MeHLA) is used to explore how the conversions would affect the heat load duration curves in local district heating systems. Economic effects and impacts on global emissions of greenhouse gases are studied from a system perspective. The study has been conducted considering two different energy market conditions for the year 2030.

The results show that there is a potential for increasing industrial district heating use in all analysed counties. When comparing all three counties, the greatest potential regarding percentage is found in Jönköping, where the district heating use in the manufacturing companies could increase by nine times (from 5 GWh to 45 GWh annually). The industrial district heating use could increase by two times (from 84 GWh to 168 GWh annually) in Östergötland and by four times (from 14 GWh to 58 GWh annually) in Västra Götaland. The conversion of the industrial production processes to district heating would lead to a district heating demand curve which is less dependent on outdoor temperature. As a result, the utilization period of the combined heat and power plants would be prolonged, which would decrease district heating production costs due to the increased income from the electricity production.

In all analysed counties, the energy costs for the companies decrease after the conversions. Furthermore, the increased electricity production in the combined heat and power plants, and the decreased electricity and fossil fuel use in the industrial sector opens up a possibility for a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. The potential for the reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass and on the type of the marginal electricity producers. When the marginal effects from biomass use are not considered, the greenhouse gas emissions reduction is between 10 thousand tonnes of CO2eq and 58 thousand tonnes of CO2eq per year, depending on the county and the type of marginal electricity production plants. The highest reduction is achieved in Östergötland. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating systems may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. If this assumption is included in the calculations, the conversion of the industrial processes to district heating still signify a  potential for reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, but this potential is considerable lower.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
District heating; Energy cooperation; Industry sector
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106898 (URN)10.1016/j.enconman.2014.07.025 (DOI)000343337200032 ()
Available from: 2014-05-23 Created: 2014-05-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Trygg, L. (2014). Increased diffusion of renewable energy technologies – barriers and driving forces. In: : . Paper presented at Highlights from the 2014 Annual Meeting in Tampa 2014 Tampa Awards — April 8-12 Tampa, Florida.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Increased diffusion of renewable energy technologies – barriers and driving forces
2014 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Energy Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125791 (URN)
Conference
Highlights from the 2014 Annual Meeting in Tampa 2014 Tampa Awards — April 8-12 Tampa, Florida
Available from: 2016-03-04 Created: 2016-03-04 Last updated: 2016-03-17
Djuric Ilic, D., Dotzauer, E., Trygg, L. & Broman, G. (2014). Integration of biofuel production into district heating - part I: an evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies. Journal of Cleaner Production, 69, 176-187
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of biofuel production into district heating - part I: an evaluation of biofuel production costs using four types of biofuel production plants as case studies
2014 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, p. 176-187Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This paper evaluates the effects on profitability of biofuel production if biofuel producers would sell the waste heat from the production to a local district heating system. All analyses have been performed considering four different technology cases for biofuel production. Two technology cases include ethanol production which is followed by by-production of raw biogas. This biogas can be upgraded and sold as biofuel (the first technology case) or directly used for combined heat and power production (the second technology case). The third and the fourth technology cases are Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production plants based on biomass gasification. Two different district heating price levels and two different future energy market scenarios were considered. The sensitivity analyses of the discount rate were performed as well.

In the case of energy market conditions, the profitability depends above all on the price ratio between biomass (used as the feedstock for biofuel production) and crude oil (used as the feedstock for fossil diesel and gasoline production). The reason for this is that the gate biofuel prices (the prices on which the biofuel would be sold) were calculated assuming that the final prices at the filling stations are the same as the prices of the replaced fossil fuel. The price ratios between biomass and district heating, and between biomass and electricity, also have an influence on the profitability, since higher district heating and electricity prices lead to higher revenues from the heat/electricity by-produced.

Due to high biofuel (ethanol + biogas) efficiency, the ethanol production plant which produces upgraded biogas has the lowest biofuel production costs. Those costs would be lower than the biofuel gate prices even if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources were not included. If the raw biogas that is by-produced would instead be used directly for combined heat and power production, the revenues from the electricity and heat would increase, but at the same time the biofuel efficiency would be lower, which would lead to higher production costs. On the other hand, due to the fact that it has the highest heat efficiency compared to the other technologies, the ethanol production in this plant shows a high sensitivity to the district heating price level, and the economic benefit from introducing such a plant into a district heating system is most obvious. Assuming a low discount rate (6%), the introduction of such a plant into a district heating system would lead to between 28% and 52% (depending on the district heating price level and energy market scenario) lower biofuel production costs. Due to the lower revenues from the heat and electricity co-produced, and higher capital investments compared to the ethanol production plants, Fischer-Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether productions are shown to be profitable only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

The results also show that an increase of the discount rate from 6% to 10% does not have a significant influence on the biofuel production costs. Depending on the biofuel production plant, and on the energy market and district heating conditions, when the discount rate increases from 6% to 10%, the biofuel production costs increase within a range from 2.2% to 6.8%.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
Biofuel production, Polygeneration, Energy cooperation, District heating
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106895 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.035 (DOI)000335102900020 ()
Note

Funding Agencies|Swedish Energy Agency||

Available from: 2014-05-23 Created: 2014-05-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Djuric Ilic, D., Dotzauer, E., Trygg, L. & Broman, G. (2014). Integration of biofuel production into district heating – Part II: an evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study. Journal of Cleaner Production, 69, 188-198
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Integration of biofuel production into district heating – Part II: an evaluation of the district heating production costs using Stockholm as a case study
2014 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 69, p. 188-198Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Biofuel production through polygeneration with heat as one of the by-products implies a possibility for cooperation between transport and district heating sectors by introducing large-scale biofuel production into district heating systems. The cooperation may have effects on both the biofuel production costs and the district heating production costs. This paper is the second part of the study that investigates those effects. The biofuel production costs evaluation, considering heat and electricity as by-products, was performed in the first part of the study. In this second part of the study, an evaluation of how such cooperation would influence the district heating production costs using Stockholm's district heating system as a case study was performed. The plants introduced in the district heating system were chosen depending on the future development of the transport sector. In order to perform sensitivity analyses of different energy market conditions, two energy market scenarios were applied.

Despite the higher revenues from the sale of by-products, due to the capital intense investments required, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system does not guarantee economic benefits. Profitability is highly dependent on the types of biofuel production plants and energy market scenarios. The results show that large-scale biogas and ethanol production may lead to a significant reduction in the district heating production costs in both energy market scenarios, especially if support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. If the total biomass capacity of the biofuel production plants introduced into the district heating system is 900 MW, the district heating production costs would be negative and the whole public transport sector and more than 50% of the private cars in the region could be run on the ethanol and biogas produced. The profitability is shown to be lower if the raw biogas that is by-produced in the biofuel production plants is used for combined and power production instead of being sold as transportation fuel; however, this strategy may still result in profitability if the support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included. Investments in Fischer–Tropsch diesel and dimethyl ether production are competitive to the investments in combined and power production only if high support for transportation fuel produced from renewable energy sources is included.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
District heating; Biofuel; Energy cooperation; Transport sector
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-106897 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2014.01.042 (DOI)000335102900021 ()
Available from: 2014-05-23 Created: 2014-05-23 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Djuric Ilic, D., Dotzauer, E., Trygg, L. & Broman, G. (2014). Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system - an opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions. Journal of Cleaner Production, 64, 552-561
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Introduction of large-scale biofuel production in a district heating system - an opportunity for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions
2014 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 64, p. 552-561Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this study, cooperation between Stockholm's transport and district heating sectors is analysed. The cooperation concerns the integration of biofuel polygeneration production. A MODEST optimisation model framework is used, assuming various energy market and transport sector scenarios for the year 2030. The scenarios with biofuel production and increased biofuel use in the region are compared with reference scenarios where all new plants introduced into the district heating sector are combined heat and power plants, and the share of biofuel used in the transport sector is the same as today. The results show that the cooperation implies an opportunity to reduce fossil fuel consumption in the sectors by between 20% and 65%, depending on energy market conditions and assumed transport sector scenarios. If we consider biomass an unlimited resource, the potential for greenhouse gas emissions reduction is significant. However, considering that biomass is a limited resource, the increase of biomass use in the district heating system may lead to a decrease of biomass use in other energy systems. The potential for reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions is thus highly dependent on the alternative use of biomass. If this alternative is used for co-firing in coal condensing power plants, biomass use in combined heat and power plants would be more desirable than biofuel production through polygeneration. On the other hand, if this alternative is used for traditional biofuel production (without co-production of heat and electricity), the benefits of biofuel production through polygeneration from a greenhouse gas emissions perspective is superior. However, if carbon capture and storage technology is applied on the biofuel polygeneration plants, the introduction of large-scale biofuel production into the district heating system would result in a reduction of global greenhouse gas emissions independent of the assumed alternative use of biomass.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2014
Keywords
District heating; Biofuel; Energy cooperation; Transport sector; Greenhouse gas emissions
National Category
Environmental Biotechnology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-103643 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.08.029 (DOI)000329595700051 ()
Available from: 2014-01-21 Created: 2014-01-21 Last updated: 2017-12-06Bibliographically approved
Thollander, P., Rohdin, P., Moshfegh, B., Karlsson, M., Söderström, M. & Trygg, L. (2013). Energy in Swedish industry 2020 – current status, policy instruments, and policy implications. Journal of Cleaner Production, 51, 109-117
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Energy in Swedish industry 2020 – current status, policy instruments, and policy implications
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2013 (English)In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 51, p. 109-117Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The EU has established so-called 20–20–20 targets, which in relation to energy mean that each Member State shall improve energy intensity levels by 3.3% annually, leading to a reduced primary energy use of 20% by the year 2020, calculated from a projected level based on the primary energy use in 2005. Sweden has established a less ambitious target of 1.7% annual energy intensity improvement through 2020. The aim of this paper is to evaluate, ex-ante, the EU 2020 primary energy target for the Swedish industrial sector. An applied backcasting methodology is used. The assessment made in this paper is that actions that lead to between 31.6 and 33.2 TWh/year reductions in energy end-use are needed if the EU target is to be achieved. Results from this paper shows that the current energy policy instruments are not sufficient to the EU or Swedish targets. Estimations in this paper are that a primary energy target of about 22.3 TWh/year is reasonable. The paper concludes by presenting a roadmap on how the Swedish 2020 target can be achieved through: i) energy management; ii) energy-efficient technology; and iii) energy supply measures, with an approximate cost of 280–300 MEUR or 75–80 kWh per public EUR. Three major additional policy measures are needed compared with the current policy: including all energy carriers, not just electricity, in the Swedish long-term agreements program PFE; setting up networks; and making it possible for third parties, i.e., industry, to deliver excess heat into the monopolized Swedish district heating grids.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2013
Keywords
Industrial energy efficiency; EU 2020 primary energy target; Industrial energy policy; Industrial energy efficiency potential; Backcasting
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96172 (URN)10.1016/j.jclepro.2013.01.021 (DOI)000320419500011 ()
Available from: 2013-08-14 Created: 2013-08-14 Last updated: 2017-12-06
Fuller, R. & Trygg, L. (2013). Six million in Melbourne or a network of sustainablemidi-cities? – a thought experiment. In: Six million in Melbourne or a network of sustainablemidi-cities? – a thought experiment: . Paper presented at the State of Australia Cities Conference, 26-29 Nov. 2013Sydney, NSW.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Six million in Melbourne or a network of sustainablemidi-cities? – a thought experiment
2013 (English)In: Six million in Melbourne or a network of sustainablemidi-cities? – a thought experiment, 2013Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

By 2050, it is projected that Melbourne will have a population of between 5.6 and 6.4 million (DPCD, 2012), an increase of nearly 50% above its current level. Despite Melbourne's status as the world's most liveable city, a recent survey found that Australians in general found smaller cities are better places to live and bring up families (Perkins, 2013). The Grattan Institute's report entitled "The Cities We Need" was "an invitation to a conversation" about our future cities (Kelly, 2010:5). One idea not canvassed in the report was that of decentralization to accommodate Melbourne's projected growth. In its discussion paper, "Let's Talk about the Future", the Victorian State Government proposes that Melbourne become a 'polycentric city' linked to its regional cities (DPCD, 2012). While growth in the present regional cities is acknowledged, the possibility that these and other new regional cities could absorb the future population projected for Melbourne is not considered, nor that these regional cities could be transformed into 'sustainable cities'. This paper explores the idea that a network of smaller 'midi-cities, based on the sustainable city concept of Sweden, might provide a better alternative to concentrated growth in one city. Fifteen new cities of 150,000 would be required to absorb the projected extra 2.3 million Victorian residents. The paper analyses the energy, food, water and land requirements of a typical sustainable city. The new cities would require approximately 12% of the State's land area for food and energy supply, as well as the built environment.             

National Category
Human Geography Environmental Analysis and Construction Information Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-125358 (URN)1740440331 (ISBN)
Conference
the State of Australia Cities Conference, 26-29 Nov. 2013Sydney, NSW
Available from: 2016-02-20 Created: 2016-02-20 Last updated: 2016-02-29
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2860-1820

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