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Drangert, Jan-Olof
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Publications (10 of 31) Show all publications
Drangert, J.-O., Tonderski, K. & McConville, J. (2018). Extending the European Union Waste Hierarchy to Guide Nutrient-Effective Urban Sanitation toward Global Food Security: Opportunities for Phosphorus Recovery. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 2, 1-13, Article ID 3.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Extending the European Union Waste Hierarchy to Guide Nutrient-Effective Urban Sanitation toward Global Food Security: Opportunities for Phosphorus Recovery
2018 (English)In: Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, E-ISSN 2571-581X, Vol. 2, p. 1-13, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

With growing urbanization cities become hotspots for nutrients. Food items are imported, and food residues, including excreta and not-eaten food, are often exported to landfill sites and water bodies. However, urban sanitation systems can be designed to achieve a high degree of nutrient recovery and food security while counteracting current nutrient resources depletion, environmental degradation, and wasteful energy use. This article illustrates how an extended solid waste hierarchy also including human excreta and wastewater can guide actions to save and recover phosphorus (P) by the three sectors: food industry, households, and waste utilities. P use in diets and agricultural production is not part of the analysis, despite the potential to save P. Novel systems thinking and material flow analysis show that waste prevention can replace over 40% of mined P presently used for making fertilizers. Reuse and recycling of P in excreta and food waste can replace another 15–30%, depending on P efficiency from mine to plate. Keeping excreta separated from other wastewater facilitates such measure. Incineration and land filling are deemed the least appropriate measures since mainly P is recovered in the ashes. The European Union (EU) waste management policy is analyzed for real barriers and opportunities for this approach. The EU Parliament policy guidelines were watered down in the EU Commission’s Directives, and today most biowastes are still being landfilled or incinerated instead of recovered. An anticipated overcapacity of incineration plants in Europe threatens to attract all combustible materials and therefore, irrevocably, reduce nutrient recovery. On the other hand, reduced generation and enhanced recovery can delay exhaustion of P resources by several centuries and simultaneously reduce environmental degradation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Frontiers Media S.A., 2018
Keywords
biowaste, European Union waste hierarchy, food security, human excreta, nutrient reuse/recycling, phosphorus, urban sanitation
National Category
Natural Sciences Social Sciences Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-145650 (URN)10.3389/fsufs.2018.00003 (DOI)
Funder
Sida - Swedish International Development Cooperation Agency, SanWatPUA network
Available from: 2018-03-12 Created: 2018-03-12 Last updated: 2018-04-13Bibliographically approved
Drangert, J.-O., Barbara, K., Ulén, B., Tonderski, K. & Tonderski, A. (2017). Generating Applicable Environmental Knowledge among Farmers: Experiences from Two Regions in Poland. Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, 41(6), 671-690
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Generating Applicable Environmental Knowledge among Farmers: Experiences from Two Regions in Poland
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2017 (English)In: Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, ISSN 2168-3565, E-ISSN 2168-3573, Vol. 41, no 6, p. 671-690Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Raising environmental awareness among farmers is the key to successfully reaching environmental goals. The present study assessed the knowledge development process and the raising of environmental awareness among 30 farmers from Poland exposed to four approaches aimed to reduce phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) losses to water. The farmers were interviewed with open-ended questions on-farm both before and after the project intervention. As hoped, the farmers attempted to adjust their farm practices to the European Union regulations, which are in some cases supported by subsidies. As a complement, the project offered tools for system-thinking based on farm data and support from agricultural advisors: a) a survey of plant-available P, potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), and soil pH, resulting in soil maps; b) assessment of nitrogen leaching risks from individual fields; c) compilation of a farm-gate balance. Farmers were positive to soil surveys and maps, but had limited understanding of the nutrient balance concept and calculations. They generally relied on their own experiences regarding fertilization rather than on calculated farm nutrient balances and leaching risks. Farmers’ understanding and willingness to adopt new approaches to improve nutrient efficiency and reduce negative environmental impacts are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis, 2017
Keywords
Baltic Sea, environmental protection, farm nutrient management, Poland
National Category
Environmental Sciences related to Agriculture and Land-use
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-151259 (URN)10.1080/21683565.2017.1310786 (DOI)000402995900007 ()2-s2.0-85019196786 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-09-14 Created: 2018-09-14 Last updated: 2018-09-20Bibliographically approved
McConville, J., Drangert, J.-O., Tidåker, P., Neset, T.-S., Rauch, S., Strid, I. & Tonderski, K. (2015). Closing the food loops: guidelines and criteria for improving nutrient management. Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, 11(2), 1-11
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Closing the food loops: guidelines and criteria for improving nutrient management
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2015 (English)In: Sustainability: Science, Practice, & Policy, ISSN 1548-7733, Vol. 11, no 2, p. 1-11Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

As global consumption expands, the world is increasingly facing threats to resource availability and food security. To meet future food demands, agricultural resource efficiency needs to be optimized for both water and nutrients. Policy makers should start to radically rethink nutrient management across the entire food chain. Closing the food loop by recycling nutrients in food waste and excreta is an important way of limiting the use of mineral nutrients, as well as improving national and global food security. This article presents a framework for sustainable nutrient management and discusses the responsibility of four key stakeholder groups—agriculture, the food industry, consumers, and waste management—for achieving an effective food loop. In particular, we suggest a number of criteria, policy actions, and supporting strategies based on a cross-sectoral application of the waste hierarchy.

Keywords
Food processing industry wastes, agricultural wastes, waste utilization, food additives, material balance
National Category
Environmental Management Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-121876 (URN)
Available from: 2015-10-12 Created: 2015-10-12 Last updated: 2018-03-13
Drangert, J.-O. (2012). Phosphorus - a Limited Resource that could be made Limitless. In: SYMPHOS 2011 - 1ST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE PHOSPHATE INDUSTRY: . Paper presented at 1st International Symposium on Innovation and Technology in the Phosphate Industry (SYMPHOS) (pp. 228-233). Elsevier, 46
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Phosphorus - a Limited Resource that could be made Limitless
2012 (English)In: SYMPHOS 2011 - 1ST INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON INNOVATION AND TECHNOLOGY IN THE PHOSPHATE INDUSTRY, Elsevier , 2012, Vol. 46, p. 228-233Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Phosphorus is a non-substitutable component in all living plants and organisms and thus a crucial element in the food chain. The use of fertilizers derived from phosphate rock has made increases in food production possible and reduced malnourishment since the mid-20th century. Recent worries about a future shortage of phosphorus have sparked a debate over the lifespan of existing reserves. In this article, the author focuses on improved management of the phosphorus we have access to, and argue the case that halting present wastage of phosphorus and reuse/recycling nutrients in waste products can make phosphorus (almost) limitless.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2012
Series
Procedia Engineering, ISSN 1877-7058
Keywords
phosphorus; recycle; reuse; sustainable use; phosphorus scarcity; demand management
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-96544 (URN)10.1016/j.proeng.2012.09.469 (DOI)000314470200029 ()
Conference
1st International Symposium on Innovation and Technology in the Phosphate Industry (SYMPHOS)
Available from: 2013-08-21 Created: 2013-08-20 Last updated: 2015-06-10
Drangert, J.-O. & Nawab, B. (2011). A Cultural - spatial analysis of excreting, recirculation of human excreta and health - The case of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan. Health and Place, 17(1), 57-66
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Cultural - spatial analysis of excreting, recirculation of human excreta and health - The case of North West Frontier Province, Pakistan
2011 (English)In: Health and Place, ISSN 1353-8292, E-ISSN 1873-2054, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 57-66Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The sanitation issue is entering the development discussion and the UN proclaimed 2008 the year of sanitation. The study aims to understand the cultural–spatial dimension among Muslim communities of excreting and recirculating human excreta in North West Frontier Province in Pakistan. Information on local perceptions and cultural understanding was collected through interviews, group discussions and observations in four selected villages. The study identifies a diversity of excreting practices among age groups and sexes, and varied adherence to expressed cultural norms. Interviewees express less resentment towards urine compared to faeces, however, their negative attitude subsides when faecal matter is mixed with water since this changes appearance, odour—and cultural meaning. Religious dictums about excreta and sewage accommodate contradicting routine behaviours to cater for needs of residents and farmers. For example, when mothers pray wearing soiled clothing, and in the use of wastewater as fertiliser for food production. The excreta-related practices are compatible with good hygienic behaviour as outlined by WHO Guidelines, except for children who are allowed to defecate anywhere.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2011
Keywords
Excreting, Recirculation of human waste, perceptions
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-65804 (URN)10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.08.012 (DOI)000288776500008 ()
Available from: 2011-02-24 Created: 2011-02-21 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Mariwah, S. & Drangert, J.-O. (2011). Community perceptions of human excreta as fertilizer in peri-urban agriculture in Ghana.. Waste Management & Research, 29(2), 815-822
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Community perceptions of human excreta as fertilizer in peri-urban agriculture in Ghana.
2011 (English)In: Waste Management & Research, ISSN 0734-242X, E-ISSN 1096-3669, Vol. 29, no 2, p. 815-822Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Although human excreta contain the necessary nutrients for plant growth, local authorities in Ghana spend huge sums of money to dispose them as waste. Reusing excreta for agricultural purposes saves expenditure for chemical fertilizers, improves soil fertility, reduces poverty and ensures food security. People’s attitudes and perceptions about excreta vary between cultures and even within specific cultures. This study aimed to explore attitudes and perceptions among a peri-urban agricultural community towards sanitized human excreta and its use. The study adopted an exploratory design and collected data from 154 randomly selected households using questionnaires and focus group discussions. It was found that there is a general negative attitude to fresh excreta and the handling of it. However, the residents accept that excreta can be used as fertilizer, but they are not willing to use it on their own crops or consume crops fertilized with excreta. The study recommends open discussions in the community for a successful implementation of ecological sanitation.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sage, 2011
Keywords
Sanitized excreta, perceptions, ecological sanitation
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-65806 (URN)10.1177/0734242X10390073 (DOI)000294436500006 ()
Available from: 2011-02-24 Created: 2011-02-21 Last updated: 2017-12-11Bibliographically approved
Schmid Neset, T.-S., Drangert, J.-O., Bader, H.-P. & Scheidegger, R. (2010). Recycling of Phosphorus in Urban Sweden: A historical overview to prepare a strategy for the future. Water Policy, 12(4), 611-624
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Recycling of Phosphorus in Urban Sweden: A historical overview to prepare a strategy for the future
2010 (English)In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 12, no 4, p. 611-624Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sustainable sanitation and food security have been issues in all human history although named differently. This study describes the evolution of sanitation arrangements in the Swedish town Linkoping for the period 1870-2000. The flow of phosphorus from food consumption is estimated for the period and its output is divided into gainful reuse in agriculture and energy production and (harmful) losses to the hydrosphere and landfills. The rate of gainful reuse varies dramatically, from very high, up until the 1920s, followed by a drop to almost zero around 1950. Reuse was picking up since the introduction of a phosphorus removal unit at wastewater treatment plants and application of sludge in agriculture from the 1970s, but was followed by a sharp decline at the end of the 20th century. The results from Linkoping are applied to scenarios for Sweden as a whole and extended to some anticipated implications for the world in the years to come.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
IWA Publishing, 2010
Keywords
Food security, Material flow analysis, Phosphorus, Recycling, Reuse, Strategy, Sustainability, Sustainable sanitation, Sweden
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-13352 (URN)10.2166/wp.2009.165 (DOI)000280882100010 ()
Available from: 2005-09-02 Created: 2005-09-02 Last updated: 2017-12-13
Cordell, D., Schmid-Neset, T., White, S. & Drangert, J.-O. (2009). Preferred future phosphorus scenarios: A framework for meeting long-term phosphorus needs for global food demand (1ed.). In: Don Mavinic, Ken Ashley and Fred Koch (Ed.), Don Mavinic, Ken Ashley and Fred Koch (Ed.), International Conference on Nutrient Recovery from Wastewater Streams, Vancouver, 2009 (pp. 23-44). London: IWA Publishing
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Preferred future phosphorus scenarios: A framework for meeting long-term phosphorus needs for global food demand
2009 (English)In: International Conference on Nutrient Recovery from Wastewater Streams, Vancouver, 2009 / [ed] Don Mavinic, Ken Ashley and Fred Koch, London: IWA Publishing , 2009, 1, p. 23-44Chapter in book (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Closing the loop for nutrients in wastewaters (municipal sewage, animal wastes, food industry, commercial and other liquid waste streams) is a necessary, sustainable development objective, to reduce resource consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Chemistry, engineering and process integration understanding are all developing quickly, as new processes are now coming online. A new "paradigm" is emerging, globally. Commercial marketing of recovered nutrients as "green fertilizers" or recycling of nutrients through biomass production to new outlets, such as bioenergy, is becoming more widespread.This exciting conference brings together various waste stream industries, regulators, researchers, process engineers and commercial managers, to develop a broad-based, intersectional understanding and joint projects for phosphorus and nitrogen recovery from wastewater streams, as well as reuse. Over 90 papers from over 30 different countries presented in this volume.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
London: IWA Publishing, 2009 Edition: 1
National Category
Social Sciences Interdisciplinary
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-53763 (URN)978-1-8433-9232-3 (ISBN)
Available from: 2010-02-03 Created: 2010-02-03 Last updated: 2018-01-12Bibliographically approved
Cordell, D., Drangert, J.-O. & White, S. (2009). The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought. Global Environmental Change, 19(2), 292-305
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The story of phosphorus: Global food security and food for thought
2009 (English)In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 19, no 2, p. 292-305Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Food production requires application of fertilizers containing phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium on agricultural fields in order to sustain crop yields. However modern agriculture is dependent on phosphorus derived from phosphate rock, which is a non-renewable resource and current global reserves may be depleted in 50–100 years. While phosphorus demand is projected to increase, the expected global peak in phosphorus production is predicted to occur around 2030. The exact timing of peak phosphorus production might be disputed, however it is widely acknowledged within the fertilizer industry that the quality of remaining phosphate rock is decreasing and production costs are increasing.

Yet future access to phosphorus receives little or no international attention. This paper puts forward the case for including long-term phosphorus scarcity on the priority agenda for global food security. Opportunities for recovering phosphorus and reducing demand are also addressed together with institutional challenges.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2009
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-18446 (URN)10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2008.10.009 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-05-27 Created: 2009-05-27 Last updated: 2017-12-13Bibliographically approved
Mara, D., Drangert, J.-O., Nguyen, V., Tonderski, A., Gulyas, H. & Sundblad-Tonderski, K. (2007). Selection of sustainable sanitation arrangements. Water Policy, 9(3), 305-318
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selection of sustainable sanitation arrangements
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2007 (English)In: Water Policy, ISSN 1366-7017, E-ISSN 1996-9759, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 305-318Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To meet the Millennium Development Goal for sanitation around 440,000 people will have to be provided with adequate sanitation every day during 2001-2015, and the corresponding figure to meet the WHO/UNICEF target of "sanitation for all" by 2025 is around 480,000 people per day during 2001-2025. The provision of sanitation services to such huge numbers necessitates action on an unprecedented scale. This is made even more difficult by the general lack of knowledge on the part of professionals and the intended beneficiaries about which sanitation arrangement is the most appropriate under which circumstances. A sanitation selection algorithm, which considers all the available sanitation arrangements, including ecological sanitation and low-cost sewerage, and which is firmly based on the principles of sustainable sanitation, is developed as a guide to identify the most appropriate arrangement in any given situation, especially in poor and very poor rural and periurban areas in developing countries. © IWA Publishing 2007.

Keywords
Developing countries, Excreta, Health, Nutrients, Poverty, Reuse, Sanitation, Selection, Sustainability, Water
National Category
Engineering and Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:liu:diva-49410 (URN)10.2166/wp.2007.009 (DOI)
Available from: 2009-10-11 Created: 2009-10-11 Last updated: 2018-03-13Bibliographically approved
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